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Probability and Stochastic Processes - Quiz Sol

# Probability and Stochastic Processes - Quiz Sol

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Probability and Stochastic Processes
A Friendly Introduction for Electrical and Computer Engineers
Second Edition
Quiz Solutions
Roy D. Yates and David J. GoodmanMay 22, 2004
The M
ATLAB
section quizzes at the end of each chapter use programs available fordownload as the archive
matcode.zip
. This archive has programs of general pur-pose programs for solving probability problems as well as speciﬁc
.m
ﬁles associatedwith examples or quizzes in the text. Also available is a manual
probmatlab.pdf
describing the general purpose
.m
ﬁles in
matcode.zip
.
We have made a substantial effort to check the solution to every quiz. Nevertheless,there is a nonzero probability (in fact, a probability close to unity) that errors will befound. If you ﬁnd errors or have suggestions or comments, please send email to
ryates@winlab.rutgers.edu
.When errors are found, corrected solutions will be posted at the website.1

Quiz Solutions – Chapter 1
Quiz 1.1
In the Venn diagrams for parts (a)-(g) below, the shaded area represents the indicatedset.
M O M O M O
(1)
R
=
c
(2)
O
(3)
O
M O M O M O
(4)
R
(4)
R
(6)
c
Quiz 1.2
(1)
A
1
= {
vvv,vv
,v
v,v
d
}
(2)
B
1
= {
vv,
v
,
d
v,
dd
}
(3)
A
2
= {
vvv,vv
,
vv,
v
}
(4)
B
2
= {
v
v,v
d
,
d
v,
dd
}
(5)
A
3
= {
vvv,
dd
}
(6)
B
3
= {
v
v,
v
}
(7)
A
4
= {
vvv,vv
,v
v,
vv,v
d
,
v
,
d
v
}
(8)
B
4
= {
dd
,
d
v,
v
,v
d
}
Recall that
A
i
and
B
i
are collectively exhaustive if
A
i
B
i
=
S
. Also,
A
i
and
B
i
aremutually exclusive if
A
i
B
i
=
φ
. Since we have written down each pair
A
i
and
B
i
above,we can simply check for these properties.The pair
A
1
and
B
1
are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. The pair
A
2
and
B
2
are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. The pair
A
3
and
B
3
are mutuallyexclusive but
not
collectively exhaustive. The pair
A
4
and
B
4
are not mutually exclusivesince
v
belongs to
A
4
and
B
4
. However,
A
4
and
B
4
are collectively exhaustive.2

Quiz 1.3
There are exactly 50 equally likely outcomes:
s
51
through
s
100
. Each of these outcomeshas probability 0
.
02.(1)
P
[{
s
79
}] =
0
.
02(2)
P
[{
s
100
}] =
0
.
02(3)
P
[
A
] =
P
[{
s
90
,...,
s
100
}] =
11
×
0
.
02
=
0
.
22(4)
P
[
] =
P
[{
s
51
,...,
s
59
}] =
9
×
0
.
02
=
0
.
18(5)
P
[
80
] =
P
[{
s
80
,...,
s
100
}] =
21
×
0
.
02
=
0
.
42(6)
P
[
<
90
] =
P
[{
s
51
,
s
52
,...,
s
89
}] =
39
×
0
.
02
=
0
.
78(7)
P
[
a
] =
P
[{
s
70
,...,
s
100
}] =
31
×
0
.
02
=
0
.
62(8)
P
[
student passes
] =
P
[{
s
60
,...,
s
100
}] =
41
×
0
.
02
=
0
.
82
Quiz 1.4
We can describe this experiment by the event space consisting of the four possibleevents
V B
,
V L
,
DB
, and
DL
. We represent these events in the table:
V D L
0
.
35 ?
B
? ?In a roundabout way, the problem statement tells us how to ﬁll in the table. In particular,
P
[
]
=
0
.
7
=
P
[
V L
]
+
P
[
V B
](1)
P
[
L
]
=
0
.
6
=
P
[
V L
]
+
P
[
DL
](2)Since
P
[
V L
] =
0
.
35, we can conclude that
P
[
V B
] =
0
.
35 and that
P
[
DL
] =
0
.
6
0
.
35
=
0
.
25. This allows us to ﬁll in two more table entries:
V D L
0
.
35 0
.
25
B
0
.
35 ?The remaining table entry is ﬁlled in by observing that the probabilities must sum to 1.This implies
P
[
DB
] =
0
.
05 and the complete table is
V D L
0
.
35 0
.
25
B
0
.
35 0
.
05Finding the various probabilities is now straightforward:3