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Probability and Stochastic Processes - Quiz SolRatings:

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11/21/2012

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Probability and Stochastic Processes

A Friendly Introduction for Electrical and Computer Engineers

Second Edition

Quiz Solutions

Roy D. Yates and David J. GoodmanMay 22, 2004

•

The M

ATLAB

section quizzes at the end of each chapter use programs available fordownload as the archive

matcode.zip

. This archive has programs of general pur-pose programs for solving probability problems as well as speciﬁc

.m

ﬁles associatedwith examples or quizzes in the text. Also available is a manual

probmatlab.pdf

describing the general purpose

.m

ﬁles in

matcode.zip

.

•

We have made a substantial effort to check the solution to every quiz. Nevertheless,there is a nonzero probability (in fact, a probability close to unity) that errors will befound. If you ﬁnd errors or have suggestions or comments, please send email to

ryates@winlab.rutgers.edu

.When errors are found, corrected solutions will be posted at the website.1

Quiz Solutions – Chapter 1

Quiz 1.1

In the Venn diagrams for parts (a)-(g) below, the shaded area represents the indicatedset.

M OT M OT M OT

(1)

R

=

T

c

(2)

M

∪

O

(3)

M

∩

O

M OT M OT M OT

(4)

R

∪

M

(4)

R

∩

M

(6)

T

c

−

M

Quiz 1.2

(1)

A

1

= {

vvv,vv

d

,v

d

v,v

dd

}

(2)

B

1

= {

d

vv,

d

v

d

,

dd

v,

ddd

}

(3)

A

2

= {

vvv,vv

d

,

d

vv,

d

v

d

}

(4)

B

2

= {

v

d

v,v

dd

,

dd

v,

ddd

}

(5)

A

3

= {

vvv,

ddd

}

(6)

B

3

= {

v

d

v,

d

v

d

}

(7)

A

4

= {

vvv,vv

d

,v

d

v,

d

vv,v

dd

,

d

v

d

,

dd

v

}

(8)

B

4

= {

ddd

,

dd

v,

d

v

d

,v

dd

}

Recall that

A

i

and

B

i

are collectively exhaustive if

A

i

∪

B

i

=

S

. Also,

A

i

and

B

i

aremutually exclusive if

A

i

∩

B

i

=

φ

. Since we have written down each pair

A

i

and

B

i

above,we can simply check for these properties.The pair

A

1

and

B

1

are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. The pair

A

2

and

B

2

are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. The pair

A

3

and

B

3

are mutuallyexclusive but

not

collectively exhaustive. The pair

A

4

and

B

4

are not mutually exclusivesince

d

v

d

belongs to

A

4

and

B

4

. However,

A

4

and

B

4

are collectively exhaustive.2

Quiz 1.3

There are exactly 50 equally likely outcomes:

s

51

through

s

100

. Each of these outcomeshas probability 0

.

02.(1)

P

[{

s

79

}] =

0

.

02(2)

P

[{

s

100

}] =

0

.

02(3)

P

[

A

] =

P

[{

s

90

,...,

s

100

}] =

11

×

0

.

02

=

0

.

22(4)

P

[

F

] =

P

[{

s

51

,...,

s

59

}] =

9

×

0

.

02

=

0

.

18(5)

P

[

T

≥

80

] =

P

[{

s

80

,...,

s

100

}] =

21

×

0

.

02

=

0

.

42(6)

P

[

T

<

90

] =

P

[{

s

51

,

s

52

,...,

s

89

}] =

39

×

0

.

02

=

0

.

78(7)

P

[

a

C

grade or better

] =

P

[{

s

70

,...,

s

100

}] =

31

×

0

.

02

=

0

.

62(8)

P

[

student passes

] =

P

[{

s

60

,...,

s

100

}] =

41

×

0

.

02

=

0

.

82

Quiz 1.4

We can describe this experiment by the event space consisting of the four possibleevents

V B

,

V L

,

DB

, and

DL

. We represent these events in the table:

V D L

0

.

35 ?

B

? ?In a roundabout way, the problem statement tells us how to ﬁll in the table. In particular,

P

[

V

]

=

0

.

7

=

P

[

V L

]

+

P

[

V B

](1)

P

[

L

]

=

0

.

6

=

P

[

V L

]

+

P

[

DL

](2)Since

P

[

V L

] =

0

.

35, we can conclude that

P

[

V B

] =

0

.

35 and that

P

[

DL

] =

0

.

6

−

0

.

35

=

0

.

25. This allows us to ﬁll in two more table entries:

V D L

0

.

35 0

.

25

B

0

.

35 ?The remaining table entry is ﬁlled in by observing that the probabilities must sum to 1.This implies

P

[

DB

] =

0

.

05 and the complete table is

V D L

0

.

35 0

.

25

B

0

.

35 0

.

05Finding the various probabilities is now straightforward:3

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