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Robot Modelling

Robot Modelling

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Published by: gogi_ts on Oct 31, 2011
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11/15/2012

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Chapter 1Robot Modelling
1.1 Introduction
The aim of this chapter is to present a concise and short review of concepts andprinciples involved in modelling and motion analysis of robotic manipulators. Thechapter is not a comprehensive study on the subject but has been written focusingon the application of such principles to the design of robot control systems basedupon visual feedback.The first section starts with basic concepts regarding pose determination of anrigid object respect to the world coordinate frame. The concept of homogeneoustransformation matrices is presented and extended to characterize the kinematicbehavior of serial links conforming a robotic arm. From here, it is possible todescribe the link positions respect to the time, introducing concepts such as linkvelocity, kinematic derivatives, Jacobian matrix, etc.Further such concepts lead naturally to define other relevant concepts suchrobot motion and trajectory generation. This chapter conforms a complete setof robotic tools which are also provided in a real-time library which enables thedesign of relevant robot control routines. The first step in the chapter is to definethe notation used in robotic analysis throughout this book.
1.2 Notation and introductory remarks
The aim of this section is to draw a clear and concise notation to avoid any sort of misunderstanding in the discussions ahead. This chapter is an important start-ing point because several disciplines such as image processing, computer vision,robot control and real-time control systems converge in the study of visual ser-voing schemes. Each discipline might be explained using its own symbology andnotation which represent a considerable risk of losing clarity and uniformity. Thissection is thus devoted to define the notation and to draw clear rules regardingthe meaning and coverage of each symbol.1
 
In this book italicized lowercase letters (
x,y,z
) are used to denote scalarsand bold-faced such as (
x
,
y
,
z
) denote vectors of any dimension. Also bold-faced uppercase letters (
A
,
B
,
C
) represent matrices. Estimated values of a givenvariable are denoted with a “hat” on top of the variable (ˆ
x
) and (
x
) stands fordesired values.Due to the fact that robotic concepts will be extensively used, some specialnotation is used to refer to the robot’s links
q
n
, being
n
the link number and theLink Cartesian position (
χ
) is represented by a three component position vector.Let’s develop further this concept.In a 3-D context, the location of a point is defined in a cartesian space
3
respect to a given coordinate system . Such axis set is composed by orthogonalunit vectors
i
,
 j
,
k
which obey the so-classic right-hand rule to define its orienta-tion.
1
If we consider a plane formed by unit vectors
i
and
j
then the unit vector
k
points in direction normal to this plane according to the right hand convention[1]. The starting point to describe the position and orientation of a rigid bodyis the definition of a general coordinate axis attached to a fixed point labelled asthe origin.
1.3 Rigid body position and pose determination
In general, for computer vision applications and in the scope of this book, thevisual servoing task space is a subset of the tri-dimensional affine Euclidean spaceΓ
SE 
3
=
3
×
SO
3
. (Special Euclidean Group) [2].A pose of a rigid body respect to a given coordinate system implies three trans-lational and three rotational degrees of freedom and therefore a six-dimensionaldifferential manifold. The translational component is expressed in a Cartesianspace and the position of point
p
is then expressed in vectorial terms as:
=
p
x
i
+
p
y
 j
+
p
z
k
(1.1)Very often this position vector is expressed in matrix form as
=
p
C
= [
 p
x
p
y
p
z
]
i jk
(1.2)A 3-component rotation vector is used to describe position respect to eachcomponent of a given coordinate system. This may be expressed in terms of arotational matrix
R
which is conformed as follows:
1
This is a classic rule that has been used in many subjects. Well known examples are in thedetermination of the magnetic flow direction or in the vector analysis of static forces.
2
 
R
=
n
x
o
x
a
x
n
y
o
y
a
y
n
z
o
z
a
z
= [
n o a
] (1.3)The column vectors
n
,
o
, and
a
of matrix
R
are mutually orthogonal sincethey represent unit vectors of an orthonormal frame. It then follows:
n
o
= 0
o
a
= 0
a
n
= 0 (1.4)From the same property of orthogonality, they have unit norm:
n
n
= 1
o
o
= 1
a
a
= 1 (1.5)Taking further the fact that
R
is orthogonal and multiplying
T
T
results in twohandy properties. The first one regarding to the unitarian matrix
R
R
=
I
(1.6)from where just post-multiplying both sides of 1.6 by the inverse matrix
R
1
wecan get the inverse of a rotation matrix as
R
=
R
1
(1.7)This property will come at hand because the computational burden requiredto compute the inverse of the robot matrix is significantly reduced by usingsimply the transpose of such matrix. Moreover, the rotational matrix may also becomputed on-line in real-time control schemes as discussed later in this chapter.By now, let’s continue presenting the use of the rotational matrix to describerotational movement between rigid bodies.Let’s discussing further about the components
n o a
of the rotational matrix,extending the discussion until its application to robot modelling.
1.3.1 Basic rotations
The use of rotation matrices allows a compact representation for the rotationalmovement of a rigid body. A coordinate frame is attached to the object of interestand its rotation
R
respect to a pre-defined Reference frame
n
can be defined as
n
R
. Sometimes this reference frame is chosen to be named as world coordinateframe
w
R
..In this book, rotations will be represented using an super-script characterrepresenting the frame which acts as reference frame and the sub-script characterrepresenting the new frame. To say,
w
R
r
represents the rotation from frame
r
respect to the world reference frame
w
.3

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