Marxism-Leninism (official), Maoism
(official), Deng Xiaoping Theory with
Socialism with Chinese characteristics
(official), Three Represents (official),
Scientific Development Concept (official)
position guaranteed by the country's constitution. The Communist Party of China was founded
in 1921, and fought the National Government of China (Republic of China) led by the
Kuomintang (KMT) during the Chinese Civil War, which ended with the Communist Party of
China's victory in the Chinese Revolution. With more than 70 million members, the CPC is
The relationship between party and state is somewhat different from that of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union under Stalin's successors, in which the party controlled the state. In the current PRC structure, power derives from the state position, but key state positions are invariably held by members of the party and the party through its organization department makes crucial decisions on who occupies what position. However, in contrast to the Soviet situation where the party had extra-legal authority, it has been established since the early 1990s that the party is subject to rule of law and is therefore subject to the authority of the state and the Constitution of the People's Republic of China.
Within the central government, the Party and state structures are fused with the leader of a ministry or commission also
being the leader of the party body associated with that ministry. At the provincial or lower levels, the party and state heads are invariably separate,
although the party head has a high state position and the state head has a high party position. The general practice at the provincial level has been for the
governor of the province government to have been promoted through the local bureaucracy and for the party general secretary to be an outsider.
Although the PRC exercises sovereignty over Hong Kong and Macao, the Communist Party of China cannot interfere with the local politics of these two special administrative regions. Instead it uses PRC United Front strategy like tactics to purposely weaken democracy camps in the region. Pro- Beijing groups have been installed since the 1990s to try and gain lower and middle class citizen support in local elections.
The Central Discipline Inspection Commission, which is directly under the National Congress and on
the same level with the Central Committee, charged with rooting out corruption and malfeasance
among party cadres.
Every five years, the Communist Party of China holds a National Congress. The latest is currently on-going, and opened on October 15, 2007.
Formally, the Congress serves two functions: to approve changes to the Party constitution and to elect a Central Committee, about 300 strong. The
Central Committee in turn elects the Politburo. In practice, positions within the Central Committee and Politburo are determined before a Party
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