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Chapter 15 Hormones & Endocrine Glands - Lecture Notes

Chapter 15 Hormones & Endocrine Glands - Lecture Notes

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Chapter 15: Hormones & Endocrine Glands
Students should be able to:
1.
Define hormones.
2.

State the principal roles of hormone adrenaline in boosting blood glucose levels and give examples of situations in which this may occur.

3.

Describe the signs (increased blood glucose level, glucose in urine)
and treatment (administration of insulin) for those with diabetes
mellitus.

15.1 Coordination by Hormonal & Nervous Control
Types of Coordination
\u2022
Just like nervous control, hormones are also produced in response to a
stimulus
\u2022
***Definition of hormones:
o
A chemical substance produced in minute (small) amounts
\ue000By endocrine glands and secreted directly into the blood
\ue000To be transported to one or more target organs
\ue000Where it carries out its effect by controlling metabolism,
growth, sexual reproduction and other body processes
\ue000After which it is destroyed in the liver
o
Looking at the definition of hormones, are there any differences
between it and enzymes?
\u2022
Types of Hormones:
o
Growth hormones
1
Nervous
Hormonal
Im
p
ulses
(
Electrical
)
Hormones
(
chemical substances
)

Coordinating
Messages are
transmitted using

Neurones
(
nerve cells
)
Blood

Coordinating
Messages are
transmitted through

The response is usually
\u2022
Rapid
\u2022
Usually localized

(affect only a small
area / small group of
muscles)

The response is usually
\u2022
Slow
\u2022
May affect more than one
target organ
o
Sex hormones (testosterone in males/oestrogen in females)
o
***\u201cFight or Flight\u201d hormone (adrenaline)
o
***Regulate blood glucose concentration (insulin)
15.2 Action of Adrenaline
\u2022
Generally, responses triggered by hormones are not as fast as nervous
responses, except Adrenaline (The \u201cfight or flight\u201d hormone)
15.2.1
Adrenaline
\u2022
Where it is produced\ue001 adrenal glands, situated above the kidneys
\u2022
When it is produced\ue001 Stimulus such as
o
Anger
o
Anxious
o
Excitement
o
Frustration / Stress
\u2022
Adrenaline is produced to prepare the body for fast / rapid action
o
Hence it is called \u201cfight\u201d or \u201cflight\u201d hormones
15.2.2
Summary of Effects of Adrenaline
Target Organ Effects of adrenaline
Purpose & results
Liver

1) Increases rate of
conversion of: Glycogen\ue001
Glucose
2) Arterioles dilate (become
wider)

1) To increase blood sugar
level so that more glucose is
available for energy
production (esp in muscles)
2) Person feels active

Heart

1) Rate & Force of heartbeat
increases
2) Arterioles dilate

1) Send more blood
containing oxygen and
glucose to skeletal & heart
muscles

2) Heart thumps rapidly
Breathing
center of
brain and
gaseous
exchange
organs

1) Breathing rate increases
2) Arterioles in lungs dilate

1) To breathe in more air and
increase blood flow to lungs
so that more oxygen is
absorbed into blood & more
carbon dioxide is got rid of
from it
2) Person breathes rapidly
(panting)

Muscles
(skeletal)
1) Become tense
2) Arterioles dilate

1) To prepare them for
immediate action and
increase blood flow to them
2) Person trembles and feels
tense

2
Blood vessels
of skin & gut
Constrict (diameter becomes
smaller)

1) Send less blood to these
regions so more blood can
flow to the muscles, liver and
lungs
2) Person looks pale, mouth
becomes dry

Eye: radial muscles or iris

Contract\ue001 Pupils (opening)
become bigger

1) To allow more light to
enter eye to form brighter
images\ue001 helps to detect
visual dangers in
surroundings
2) Pupils dilate

3

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