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Table Of Contents

PRINCIPLES IN PUBLIC LAW
1.1 Ask yourself this
1.2 How we organise ourselves
1.3 The scope of public law
1.4 What are principles?
1.4.1 Principles and reason
1.5 Principles and legal rules
1.6 The characteristics of liberal democracy
1.6.2 Popular participation
1.6.3 Securing safety and welfare
1.6.4 The future of liberal democracy: consensus or crisis?
1.7 Constitutions in liberal democracies
1.7.1 Autonomy and constitutions
1.7.2 Democracy and the constitution
1.7.3 Safety and security from the constitution
1.7.4Mediating tensions between constitutional goals
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 1
THE NEW CONSTITUTIONALSETTLEMENT
2.2 Allocating decision making powers
2.4 Allocation of competences within the UK
2.4.1Difficulties in mapping out competences within the UK
2.4.2 The UK Parliament
2.4.3 Government of the UK
2.5 Scotland
2.5.1 The competence of the Scottish Parliament
2.5.2 The Scottish Administration
2.6 Northern Ireland
2.6.1 The Northern Ireland Assembly
2.6.2 Northern Ireland executive bodies
2.6.3 The North-South Ministerial Council
2.7 Wales
2.8 ‘Intergovernmental relations’within the UK
2.8.1 Self-scrutiny of Bills before introduction
2.8.3 Concordats
2.8.4 Adjudication by the Privy Council and other courts
2.9 Local governance
2.9.1 Local authorities
2.9.2 The police
2.10 The judiciary
2.11Constitutional monarchy
2.12 Globalisation: the world outside the UK
2.12.1Treaties and international organisations
3.6.1 Conflicts in Parliament and the courts
3.6.2 The outbreak of the Civil War
3.6.3 The Commonwealth under Cromwell
3.6.4 The Restoration of the monarchy
3.6.5 APapist king for a Protestant State?
3.6.6 The Glorious Revolution
3.7 The 18th century and the Enlightenment
3.7.1 Rationality and radicalism
3.7.2 Revolution in America and France
3.8 The 19th century
3.8.1 The creation of the UK
3.8.2 The Industrial Revolution
3.8.3 Extending the franchise
3.8.4 The administrative revolution
3.9 The 20th century
3.9.1 The Welfare State and democracy
4.4.2 Conservatives and democracy
4.4.3 ‘Established usage’as an alternative to democracy
4.4.4 Markets as an alternative to democracy
4.4.5 Conservatives and security and welfare
4.4.6 Accountability and efficiency: the ‘great codification’
4.5 Labour and the constitution
4.5.1 Labour and autonomy
4.5.2 Labour and democracy
4.5.3 Labour on security and welfare
4.5.4 Conservative response to Labour reforms
4.6 Conclusion
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 4
TEXTBOOK WRITERS AND THEIR PRINCIPLES
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Abiographical sketch
5.1.2 How to read Dicey
5.1.3 Dicey’s critics
5.2.1 Dicey’s conception of democracy
5.2.5 The Human Rights Act 1998
5.3 Dicey’s view of the rule of law
5.3.1 Jennings’criticisms of Dicey’s rule of law
5.3.2 The rule of law and Parliament
5.3.3 The rule of law and governmental discretion
5.4 Dicey on constitutional conventions
5.4.1 Jennings on conventions
5.6 Conclusion
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 5
THE UK PARLIAMENT
6.1 Parliament: from sovereignty to power-sharing
6.2 What is the point of Parliament?
(a)that MPs are representative;
6.3 That MPs are representative
6.4 That MPs are fairly elected
6.4.1 First past the post elections
6.4.2 The unelected upper chamber
6.4.3 The composition of MPs and peers
6.5 That Parliament enacts legislation
6.5.1 Primary legislation
6.5.2 Subordinate legislation
6.7That MPs are not corrupt or dishonest
6.9 Parliament’s diminishing importance
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 6
THE EUROPEAN UNION
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The legal base of the European Union
7.2.1 The first pillar: the European Community
7.2.2 The second pillar: common foreign and security policy
7.2.3 The third pillar: criminal matters
7.2.4 Sole and shared competences
7.3 Is there a European constitution?
7.4.1 Personal autonomy and the European Union
7.4.2 Popular participation in the European Union
7.4.3 Security and welfare through the European Union
7.5 The institutions
7.5.1 The Commission
7.5.2 The European Parliament
7.5.3 The Council
7.5.4 The European Council
7.6 How the Community legislates
7.6.1 Regulations
7.7.2 Third pillar
7.8.1 Loyalty to the project
7.8.2 Negotiating opt-outs at the treaty revisions
7.8.3 The principle of subsidiarity
7.8.4 Closer co-operation
7.9 Community law in national legal systems
7.9.1 Primacy of Community law
7.9.2 Direct effect of Community law
7.9.3 Principle of consistent interpretation
7.9.4 Compensation for breach of Community law
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 7
GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
8.1.1 The constitutional status of public officials
8.1.2 Political neutrality
8.2 Types of administrative bodies
8.2.1 Executive agencies
8.2.2 Regulatory bodies
8.2.3 Self-regulatory organisations
8.2.4 Advisory bodies
8.2.5 Local authorities
8.2.6 Administration in the European Community
8.3 Types of decision making
8.3.1 Rules
8.3.2 The ‘rules’versus ‘discretion’debate
8.3.3 Policies
8.3.4 Soft law in the European Community
8.4 Accountability and control
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 8
INTRODUCTION TO DISPUTE RESOLUTION
9.1 Why dispute resolution is important
9.2 Types of dispute
9.2.1 Disputes about the existence of legal power
9.2.2 Disputes about the manner in which decisions are made
9.2.3 Disputes about the motives of public officials
9.2.4 Disputes about wrong conclusions
9.3 Types of dispute resolution
9.3.1 Internal complaints procedures
9.3.2 Ombudsmen
9.3.3 Tribunals
9.3.4 Courts
9.4 Conclusions
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 9
10.1 Who are the ombudsmen?
10.3 The statistics
10.4 Limits on the ombudsmen’s powers
10.5 The ombudsman process
10.5.1 The PCA
10.5.2 Access to other ombudsmen
10.5.3 The ombudsman filter
10.5.4 The investigation
10.5.5 The report
10.5.6 The response to the report
10.5.7 The ombudsman reacts
10.6 The Barlow Clowes affair
10.6.1 The background
10.6.2 The report of the PCA
10.6.3 The government’s response
10.6.4 General lessons
10.7 The future for ombudsmen
10.7.1 Fire fighting and fire watching
10.7.2 Ombudsmen and internal complaints procedures
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 10
INTRODUCTION TO JUDICIALREVIEW
11.1 Judicial review in the UK
11.2 The grounds of review
11.2.1 Illegality
11.2.2 Procedural impropriety
11.2.3 Irrationality
11.2.4 Other heads of judicial review
11.3.1 The traditional analysis: ultra vires
11.3.2 System of review versus system of appeals
11.3.3 The concept of jurisdiction
11.3.4 Summary of the ultra vires doctrine
11.4 Problems with the traditional analysis
11.4.1 Ultra viresis artificial in some situations
11.4.2 Existence of ‘error of law on the face of the record’
11.4.4 The court’s discretion to refuse a remedy
11.5 Anew theory of judicial review?
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 11
GROUNDS OF JUDICIALREVIEW I: ILLEGALITY
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Acting ‘outside the four corners’
12.3 ‘Incidental’powers
12.4 Relevant and irrelevant considerations
12.5 Improper purpose
12.6 Fettering of discretion
12.7 Delegation of discretion
12.8 Errors of law and fact
12.8.1Errors of law versus errors of fact
12.8.2 Reviewable and non-reviewable errors of fact
12.9 Are all errors of law reviewable?
12.10 Apractical approach to errors of law
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 12
13.1 Introduction
13.2Terminology: a brief history
13.4 When is a fair hearing required?
13.4.1 ‘Judicial/administrative’and ‘rights/privileges’
13.4.2 Rigid distinctions swept away
13.4.3Fair hearings and licensing decisions
13.4.4Summary of entitlement
13.5 Restrictions on entitlement to a hearing
13.5.1Express statutory exclusion
13.5.2Implied statutory exclusion
13.6.6The right to reasons for the decision
13.7The rule against bias – introduction
13.8 Bias and the appearance of bias
13.9The test for the appearance of bias
13.10Direct pecuniary interest
13.11Different manifestations of bias
13.12Ministerial bias
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 13
14.1 Introduction
14.2 The doctrine
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 14
15.1Introduction
15.2Judicial review of the ‘merits’?
15.3Wednesbury unreasonableness
15.4Irrationality
15.5Substantive principles of review?
15.5.1Decisions affecting fundamental human rights
15.5.2Decisions subject to reduced scrutiny?
15.5.3Other substantive principles of review
15.6The doctrine of proportionality
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 15
RESTRICTIONS ON REVIEW: OUSTER CLAUSES
16.1Introduction
16.2 Two types of ouster clause
16.4 Six week ouster clauses
16.5 Total ouster clauses
16.6 ‘Super-ouster clauses’?
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 16
17.1 Access to justice
17.2 Exhausting alternative remedies
17.3 Using the Ord 53 procedure
17.3.1 Obtaining the permission of the court
17.3.2 The interlocutory period
17.3.3 The full hearing
17.4 Remedies
17.5.1 Strict approaches
17.5.2 Whittling away the threshold
17.6.1 Source of power test
17.6.2 Functions test
17.7 Do litigants have to use Ord 53?
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 17
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY LITIGATION
18.1 Introduction
18.2.1 Preliminary references under Art 234
18.2.2 Challenging Community law in national courts
18.3 Direct proceedings before the Court of Justice
18.3.1 Annulment actions
18.3.2 Enforcement proceedings by the Commission
18.3.3 Tortious claims against the Community
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 18
CIVILLIBERTIES AND HUMAN RIGHTS
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Civil liberties
19.3 Human rights
19.5 The European Convention on Human Rights
19.5.1 Derogations and reservations
19.6 The European Court of Human Rights
19.8 Who may be an applicant in Strasbourg?
19.9 Who is subject to challenge in Strasbourg?
19.10The Human Rights Act 1998
19.10.1The duty of interpretation
19.10.2Declarations of incompatibility
19.10.3Remedial orders in Parliament
19.10.4Using the ECHR as a ground of judicial review or appeal
19.10.5Standing to apply for judicial review on ECHR grounds
19.10.6Damages for violation of the ECHR
19.11Human rights and European Community law
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 19
RIGHT TO LIFE
20.1 Introduction
20.2State killing
20.3Duty to prevent death
20.4Asylum, deportation and extradition
20.5 The right to medical treatment
20.6 The right to refuse medical treatment
20.7Pre-birth medical intervention
20.8Assessment
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 20
LIBERTY OF THE PERSON
21.1 Introduction
21.2Police powers during criminal investigations
21.2.1Arrests
21.2.2Police interrogation
21.4.2The detention of the mentally ill
21.4.3 Proposals for preventive detention
21.5 Habeas corpus
21.6 Assessment
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 21
RETROSPECTIVITY
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Retrospective civil measures
22.3 Retrospective criminal measures
22.4 Assessment
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 22
PRIVACY
23.1Introduction
23.2Rights to privacy against the State
23.2.1Secret surveillance by the police and security services
23.2.2The police and entry and search powers
23.2.3The European Commission
23.2.4 Search orders
23.2.5 Private information held by public authorities
23.2.6Data Protection Act 1998
23.2.7Immigration decisions
23.2.8Family relationships
23.2.9Sexual activity
23.2.10Children
23.4Assessment
23.4.1Rights of privacy against the State
23.4.2Rights of privacy against private parties
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 23
FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
24.1Introduction
24.2 Protection of freedom of expression
24.3.1Confidentiality and national security
24.3.2Contempt of court
24.3.3Protection of sources
24.3.4Whistleblowers
24.3.5Official Secrets Acts
24.3.6Broadcasting controls
24.4The reputation of others
24.5The rights of others
24.6Protection of health or morals
24.8Access to information
24.8.1Access to information under the ECHR
24.8.2Access to information in the European Community
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 24
FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY AND ASSOCIATION
25.1Introduction
25.2Breach of the peace
25.3Binding over orders
25.4Obstruction of the highway
25.5Nuisance actions
25.6Trespass and private property
25.7 The Public Order Act 1986
25.7.1Processions
25.7.2Assemblies
25.7.3Trespassory assemblies
25.7.4Disorderly behaviour
25.7.5Harassment
25.8Restrictions on the freedom of association
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 25
26.2The scope of anti-discrimination laws
26.2.2Anti-discrimination legislation
26.2.3Justified discrimination
26.3Equality in European Community law
26.3.1Sex discrimination in European Community law
26.3.3Positive discrimination in European Community law
SUMMARYOF CHAPTER 26
27.1.1The scope of freedom of movement
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Published by: j1385 on Dec 25, 2011
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