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Memresistive Transfer Matrices

Memresistive Transfer Matrices

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Published by Blaise_Mouttet
Discusses applications of memresistive crossbars for signal processing, control systems, and pattern comparison.
Discusses applications of memresistive crossbars for signal processing, control systems, and pattern comparison.

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Published by: Blaise_Mouttet on Feb 23, 2012
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Memristive Transfer Matrices
Blaise MouttetGeorge Mason University, bmouttet@gmu.edu
ABSTRACT
An electrical analysis is performed for a memristorcrossbar array integrated with operational amplifiersincluding the effects of parasitic or contact resistances. It isshown that the memristor crossbar array can act as atransfer matrix for a multiple input-multiple output signalprocessing system. Special cases of the transfer matrix aredescribed related to reconfigurable analog filters,waveform generators, analog computing, and patterncomparison.
 Keywords
: transfer matrix, memristor, analog electronics,crossbar, operational amplifier, reconfigurable electronics
1
 
INTRODUCTION
The memristor (i.e. memory resistor) is a fundamentalnew type of circuit element offering dynamic capabilitiesbeyond the static characteristics of ordinary resistors.Reference to the theoretical and practical development of memristive materials is given by [1-5]. It is notable that,while the memristance effect of TiO
2
has attracted muchrecent attention based on the publications from HPLabs,original research on the memory resistance effects of TiO
2
 
was performed in the 1960’s [6]. In addition, numerous
other materials have long been known to exhibit memoryresistance effects [7], although the connection to the laterdeveloped memristor theory was not realized untilrecently. It is also worth noting that a similarly named
“memistor” was developed by Bernard Widrow
and TedHoff 
in the 1960’s as a component of one of the first
implementations of a neural network named ADALINE[8]. However, the Widrow-Hoff memistor was a 3-terminal device as opposed to the 2-terminal memristorand was implemented using an electroplating cell ratherthan solid state circuitry compatible with integrated circuitfabrication.The most common applications suggested formemristors have so far been in the areas of non-volatilememory and neuromorphics. However, the market of non-volatile memory is well-developed with existing solutionsthat continue scaling despite the continual prediction of the
end to Moore’s L
aw. In addition, many other more fullydeveloped technologies such as phase change memory,FeRAM, and MRAM are also competing for non-volatilememory market share which will make it very difficult fora memristor solution to compete.Memristive neuromorphics offers more promise as anemerging technology but, lacking an association with anyexisting market need, it has an unclear present value. Moreconventional analog electronics applications may offer aneasier entry point for memristors into commercialproducts. There has been some analysis given towardgeneral analog applications of individual memristors[9,10] as well as discussion of analog applications of memristor arrays arranged in a crossbar configuration[11,12]. However, there has been little analysis of memristor crossbar arrays integrated with analogelectronics. Section 2 describes a design approach toanalog circuitry based on memristor arrays in a crossbarconfiguration integrated with operational amplifiers.Section 3 includes an electrical analysis of the memristivetransfer matrix. Section 4 describes special cases of thememristor transfer matrix for specific applications.
2
 
MEMRISTOR TRANSFER MATRIX
In modern control systems, transfer matrices are usedto define a functional relationship between a set of inputsignals u
i
(t) (
0 ≤ i ≤ n
) and a set of output signals y
 j
(t) (
0 ≤ j ≤ m
). For linear systems (or linear approximations of non-linear systems) this relationship may be written in theLaplace domain in terms of a matrix transformation:
Y
j
s
=
T
ij
s
U
i
(s)
i
 
1
 
where T
ij
(s) represents transfer matrix elements. Forsystems having a memory dependence the elements T
ij
 need to reflect this memory dependence. When buildingcircuits using circuit elements such as resistors, capacitors,and amplifiers such memory effects are not readilyachievable. Software controlled processors are moreconventionally used to implement such a transfer matrixand can provide both adaptability and memory to theelements T
ij
. However, for large matrices high operationalspeeds are required to simultaneously update the matrixelements and calculate new output signals resulting in alimit to real time response rates. This is in sharp contrastwith the observed rate of firing of neurons in the humanbrain (<100Hz) which perform pattern recognition andreal-time response in a fashion far superior to any knowncomputer. The implementation of (1) using memristive junctions could provide memory to the elements T
ij
thusintegrating the adaptability of software solutions with thereal time response of hardware.
 
For the purposes of this discussion a memristive junction is used to refer to a voltage-controlled memristivesystem junction
defined by a generalized version of Ohm’s
law relating a voltage signal v(t) and a current signal i(t)such that:
i
= v(t)/R(w(t))
 
2

 where R(w(t)) is a memristance function dependent upon astate parameter w(t) defined in accordance with adifferential equation having the form:
dw(t)dt 
=f(w
,v
)
 
3
 In terms of thin film materials the function f(w(t),v(t)) mayeither represent the voltage dependence of ionic or oxygenvacancy drift or the growth rate of metallic filaments in athin film junction. Such functional dependence has beenshown to obey an exponential dependence by [4] and,while high electric fields produce fast switching, smallsignals applied for short durations produce negligiblealteration the state parameter (i.e. dw/dt=0). Thus for smallsignals the memristive junction may be approximated as alinear resistor having a value dependent on the durationand amplitude of a previously applied large voltage signal.Fig.1 illustrates a memory cell designed for applyingboth programming voltages and small signal voltages to amemristive junction. A memristive junction is indicated byan impedance value Z
ij
(w) accounting for capacitance aswell as the programmable resistance of the junction. Assuggested by [10] a p-type MOSFET is included tocontrollably decrease the resistance of the memristive junction while an n-type MOSFET is included tocontrollably increase the resistance. When both transistorsare in the OFF state a small signal current may be appliedvia diode D. The diode is included in the memory cell toprevent sneak current paths when incorporated into acrossbar architecture.Fig. 2 illustrates a 2x2 signal processing matrix formedusing the memristive memory cells arranged in a crossbarconfiguration and including operational amplifiersconnected to the outputs. Parasitic impedances at the inputto the crossbar are denoted by Zp,in(1) and Zp,in(2) andparasitic impedances at the output of the crossbar aredenoted by Zp,out(1) and Zp,out(2). The effects of suchparasitics may be more substantial at the nanoscale inwhich defects and non-negligible contact resistancesbecome significant. Row selection transistors are providedto control the connection of memristive junctions toground during the programming of the memristive state.The operational amplifiers include feedback impedancesindicated by Zf,out(1) and Zf,out(2).
3
 
ELECTRICAL ANALYSIS
Fig. 3 illustrates the electrical diagram of Fig. 2 inwhich the operational amplifiers are represented in termsof their input impedances Z
op,in
, output impedances Z
op,out
,and voltage gains A
v
. An approximate linear systemanalysis may be performed assuming that the DC level of the input voltages V
in
are greater than the diode thresholdsV
th
and that V
in
-V
th
has a sufficiently small magnitude andis applied for a sufficiently short time so as to avoidmemristance drift. In this case the superposition theoremmay be applied and the total output signal voltages may becalculated as the sum of the partial output voltagesproduced from the individual input voltage signals with theother input signal grounded. The relationship betweencolumn wire voltage V
c
and input voltage V
in1
may becalculated based on Kirch
hoff’s current law applied to the
column wire (assuming zero current from the reversebiased diodes D
21
and D
22
) producing:
V
in1
V
c
Z
p,in1
=V
c
V
th11
Z
11
(w)+Z
p,out1
+Z
op,in1
||(Z
F1
+Z
op,out1
)+V
c
V
th12
Z
12
(w)+Z
p,out2
+Z
op,in2
||(Z
F2
+Z
op,out2
)(4)
 from which it is straightforward to calculate V
c
in terms of V
in1
.For the more general case of a crossbar including Ncolumns and M rows the relationship between the inputvoltages and the column wire voltages may be expressedas:
V
in,i
V
c,i
=
α
ij
s
(V
c,i
V
th,ij
)
j
(5)
 where
ij is given by:
α
ij
=Z
p,ini
Z
ij
(w)+Z
p,outj
+Z
op,inj
||(Z
Fj
+Z
op,outj
)(6)
 and
i and j are indices ranging from 1≤ i ≤ N and 1≤ j ≤ M.
 Back to the 2x2 case of Fig. 3 an application of 
Kirchhoff’s voltage law
from V
c1
on row 1 produces twocoupled equations:
V
c1
V
th11
i
1
Z
11
w
+Z
p,out1
 
i
1
i
2
Z
op,in1
=0
 
(7)
 
i
1
i
2
Z
op,in1
i
2
Z
f1
+Z
op,out1
A
v
(vp
vn)=0
 
(8)
 where i
1
is the current flowing through the memristive junction, i
2
is the current flowing through the feedback impedance of the operational amplifier connected to row 1,
 
and vp-vn is the differential voltage between the non-inverting and inverting input terminals of the operationalamplifier which is amplified by A
v
at the output. Thedifferential voltage may also be expressed in terms of thecurrent as:
vp
vn=
i
1
i
2
Z
op,in1
.
 
9

 and the output voltage Vout1 may be calculated based onthe amplified differential voltage.The result of this analysis produces an amplifieddifferential voltage equal to:
V
out 
=Z
f,1
+Z
op,out1
1
A
v
A
v
+Z
f1
+Z
op,out1
A
v
Z
op,in1
 x (10)
 
V
c,1
V
th11
Z
11
w
+Z
p,out1
+Z
op,in1
Z
op,in12
(1
A
v
)Z
op,in1
1
A
v
+Z
f1
+Z
op,out1
 
For an ideal operational amplifier in which Zop,in1=∞, A
v
 
=∞, and Zop,out1=0
this simplifies to:
V
out1
=
Z
f,1
Z
11
w
+Z
p,out1
V
c,1
V
th,11
. (11)
 
Applying the superposition theorem for a MxN crossbar(11) may be generalized to find the total output voltagesignals based on all of the input signals appliedsimultaneously:
V
out,j
=
Z
f,j
Z
ij
w
+Z
p,outj
V
c,i
V
th,ij
i
. (12)
 where Voutj is the operational amplifier output from the jth row. In cases where the coefficients
ij from (6) arenegligible (which may be designed by increasing the sumof the crossbar output impedances and op-amp feedback impedances relative to the crossbar input impedances) thecolumn voltages reduce to the input voltages and (12) isrepresentative of a signal transfer matrix as in (1) wherethe memristive resistance states Zij(w) effectivelydetermine the magnitude of the elements of the transfermatrix.
4
 
APPLICATIONS
Several possible applications of memristive transfermatrices were discussed at the 1
st
Memristor andMemristive Systems Symposium [13]. Depending on theresistive and/or capacitive values of the fixed impedancesdifferent functionalities can be achieved as explainedbelow.
4.1
 
Programmable Analog Filters
In the case where the impedances are chosen such that
ij are negligibly small (e.g. |Zp,ini|<<|Zp,outj+Z,
F
 j|), theoutput impedance of the crossbar are purely resistive(Zp,outj=Rp,outj), and the feedback impedances Z
F,j
of theoperational amplifiers are implemented by resistors R
F,j
inparallel with capacitors C
F,j
Eq.(12) expressed in theLaplace domain reduces to:
V
out,j
(s)=
R
F,j
1+sR
F,j
C
F,j
(Z
ij
w
+R
p,outj
)V
in,i
(s)
i
(13)
 where Vin,i(s) represents the LaPlace Transform of thesmall signal inputs and Vout,j(s) represents the LaplaceTransform of the small signal outputs. The transfer matrixelements of (13) are representative of a low pass filterhaving a tunable gain dependent upon the memristivestates Zij(w).In a similar case to that above but in which the outputimpedance of the crossbar are implemented by capacitors(Zp,outj=Cp,outj) and the feedback impedances Z
f,j
of theoperational amplifiers are implemented by resistors R
F,j
 Eq.(12) may be expressed in the Laplace domain as:
V
out,j
(s)=
sR
F,j
C
p,outj
sZ
ij
w
C
p,outj
+1V
in,i
s
i
(14)
 The transfer matrix elements of (14) are representative of ahigh pass filter having a tunable half-power frequencydependent upon the memristive states Zij(w). By cascadingmultiple memristive transfer matrices which perform theoperations of (13) and (14) bandpass filters may beconstructed in which both amplitude and frequency tuningcan be performed.
4.2
 
Waveform Generators
If the signal voltage inputs to the columns wires of thememristive transfer matrix include a relative delay periodT between adjacent rows and resistors (Rf,j, Rp,outj) areused for the feedback impedance and crossbar outputimpedance (12) reduces to:
v
out,j
=
R
f,j
Z
ij
w
+R
p,outj
v
in
iT
i
. (15)
 

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