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Table Of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
1.1 Introduction
Figure 1 - Comparison Diagram of the PTC and Stirling Cryocooler
1.2 Background
1.2.1 History of Pulse Tube Cryocoolers
Figure 3 - Bypass Pulse Tube Cryocooler
1.2.2 Survey of Efforts to Improve the Regenerator
1.2.3 Development of the Volume Averaging Technique
1.2.4 Overview
2. THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT
2.1 Governing Equations and Constitutive Relations
2.1.1 Conservation of Mass Equation
2.1.2 Balance of Momentum Equations
2.1.3 α-Phase Conservation of Energy Equation
2.1.4 β-Phase Conservation of Energy Equation
2.1.5 Equations of State
2.1.6 α-Phase Entropy Generation Equation
2.1.7 β-Phase Entropy Generation Equation
2.1.8 Summary of Equations
2.2 Volume-Averaged Equations
2.2.1 Volume-Averaged Conservation of Mass Equation
2.2.2 Volume-Averaged Balance of Momentum Equation
2.2.3 Volume-Averaged α-Phase Conservation of Energy Equation
2.2.4 Volume-Averaged β-Phase Conservation of Energy Equation
2.2.5 Volume-Averaged α-Phase Entropy Generation Equation
2.2.6 Volume-Averaged β-Phase Entropy Generation Equation
2.3 Simplifying Assumptions
2.3.1 Density Spatial Deviation
2.3.2 Negligible Mechanical Dispersion
2.3.3 Thermal Dispersion
2.3.4 Entropy Generation Due to Thermal Dispersion
2.3.5 Negligible Brinkman Effect
2.3.6 One Dimensional Model on the Macroscopic Length Scale
2.4 Simplified Equations
2.4.1 Simplified Conservation of Mass Equation
2.4.2 Simplified Balance of Momentum Equation
2.4.3 Simplified α-Phase Conservation of Energy Equation
2.4.4 Simplified β-Phase Conservation of Energy Equation
2.4.5 Simplified α-Phase Entropy Generation Equation
2.4.6 Simplified β-Phase Entropy Generation Equation
2.4.7 Summary of Equations
2.5 Exact Solutions
2.6 Scale Analysis
2.6.1 Conservation of Mass Equation Scale Analysis
2.6.2 Balance of Momentum Equation Scale Analysis
2.6.3 α-Phase Conservation of Energy Equation Scale Analysis
2.6.4 β-Phase Conservation of Energy Equation Scale Analysis
2.6.5 Scaled Equation Summary
Table 1-Summary of scale analysis
2.6.6 Limiting Cases
3. COMPUTATIONAL MODELS
3.1 Problem Definition
Figure 6 – Regenerator computational domain diagram
3.2 Numerical Method
3.2.1 Time Integration
3.2.2 Spatial Discretization
3.3 Quasi-Steady Convergence via Cyclic Time Relaxation
3.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions
3.5 The Constant Temperature Model (CTM)
3.6 The Local Thermal Equilibrium Model (LTEM)
3.7 Dual Energy Equation Model (DEEM)
3.8 Model Verification
Figure 11 – Maximum energy error 2 kJ/m3
Figure 14 – Maximum pressure error 1.2 Pa
4. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND MEASUREMENTS
4.1 Overview and Experimental Apparatus
Figure 17 – Experimental apparatus with complete instrumentation
Figure 18 – Close-up view of the compressor
Table 2 - Descriptive Summary of the Regenerators under Study
Figure 24 - Data acquisition and control program. Main panel view
Figure 26 - Data acquisition and control program. Pressure panel view
4.2 Experimental Results
Table 3 – Porous Media Parameter Summary (64)
Figure 28 - Load Curves
Figure 29 - Oscillatory Pressure Drop
Figure 31 - Pressure Ratio Attenuation
5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
5.1 Sage System Level Modeling
Table 4 – 400 mesh baseline operating conditions
5.2 Model Comparison
5.2.1 Net Enthalpy Flowrate - The Perfect Regenerator
5.2.2 The Mean Temperature Profile
5.2.3 Baseline Regenerator Solutions
Figure 41 – Mean Reynolds Number
5.2.4 First Law Results
Figure 42 – Cycle-averaged mass flow rate
5.2.5 Second Law Results
5.2.6 Sage and REGEN Comparisons
Figure 47 – Comparison of Sage-predicted regenerator loss versus GT model
Table 5 – Sage Comparison Summary
5.2.7 Permeability and Forchheimer Coefficient Predictions
Table 6 – Permeability and Forchheimer Coefficient (compressible model)
Table 7 – Permeability and Forchheimer Coefficient (incompressible model)
Figure 48 – Friction factor comparison for 400 mesh screens
6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 Conclusions
6.2 Contributions
6.3 Future Work
APPENDIX 1 – DERIVATION OF THE VOLUME-AVERAGED GOVERNING EQUATIONS
A1.1 Volume Averaging Theory
A1.1.1 Definitions
A1.1.2 Transport Theorem
A1.1.3 Spatial Averaging Theorem
A1.1.4 Modified Averaging Theorem
A1.2 Application to the Governing Equations
A1.2.1 Volume-Averaged Conservation of Mass Equation
A1.2.2 Volume-Averaged Balance of Momentum Equation
A1.2.3 Volume-Averaged α-Phase Conservation of Energy Equation
A1.2.4 Volume-Averaged β-Phase Conservation of Energy Equation
A1.2.6 Volume-Averaged β-Phase Entropy Generation Equation
APPENDIX 2 – DERIVATION OF DIFFERENTIATION OPERATORS USING MATLAB
APPENDIX 3 – COMPRESSOR ELECTRO-MECHANICAL MODELING
A3.1 The electromechanical system
Figure 51 – Voice coil compressor schematic
A3.2 The Mechanical System
Figure 52 – Compressor piston free-body diagram (FBD)
A3.3 The Electrical System
Figure 53 – Leach’s lossy inductor voice coil model
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Cryocooler

Cryocooler

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Published by: alirezata on Feb 29, 2012
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