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Borce T Gjorgjievski - History of Western Magic

Borce T Gjorgjievski - History of Western Magic



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Published by: JP on Dec 09, 2007
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Borce Gjorgjievski: History of Western Magic, © 1996-2000
History of Western Magic
By Borce T. Gjorgjievski
“Magic is the first and the last religion of the world”
, Clive Barker
1. Prologue
This short account (since a longer one would take many volumes) of the westerntraditions of Magic and Spirituality is intended to show a continuous development line of anuninterrupted magical thought in the Western World. We start five thousand years in the pastwhen our ancestors just started to build the first cities (and built them well), and we end in thetwentieth century with the techno-shamanism of the new cults. This story is about whathappened in between …
2. Asyro-Babylonian Magic
The religion and pantheon on the ground of today's Iran and Iraq 4000 years agoresembled the ancient Indian (Arian) one. It consisted of two groups of Gods: Ahuras andDaivas. In the beginning these two types of Gods had the same status, but then theysegregated. While in India Daivas became gods and Ahuras became demons, in the Asyro-Babylonian civilization Ahuras became gods and Daivas devolved to demons. Asyro-Babylonian religion relied heavily on Astrology and, in fact, the oldest concepts of astrologycome from the areas around the rivers of Eufrat and Tiger, from ancient Mesopotamia. Fromhere astrology was distributed to India, China, Greece and the rest of the world. The Asyrianswere the ones who invented the Zodiac, the twelve signs, the 360 degrees circle, the idea of a“creative rest” day, the week of 7 days, the 12 months, 60 minutes in an hour, and they hadvery developed mathematics, mostly for the needs of Astrology.From the Asyro-Babylonian tradition originate the words Magic, Mage, and Magus.Magi (Magoi) were the highest priests, or “learned men,” in the Asyro-Babylonian kingdom,
© 1996 – 2001 by Borce T. Gjorgjievski. All Rights Reserved. No part is to be reproduced electronically, printed or in any otherform without a written permission of the author. The author can be contacted by email atborce@altavista.net.
Borce T. Gjorgjievski
History of Western Magic
and their art or science was called magic (or Magia). In the Bible they are occasionallymentioned as a “tribe” which may point that the position was hereditary. Originally the Magiwere just one of the many tribes in Mesopotamia, but later most of the priests were chosenexactly from this tribe and its name became symbol for magic and magicians. The Magi wereknown for their worship of fire, and had reputation of being able to control and direct fire andlightening. Eliphas Levi says that the Magi have discovered the secret of electricity and“were able to generate and direct it in ways that are now unknown” (History, 55). In favor of this may speak the artifacts that were found around today’s Baghdad, 4000 years old, andwhich looked like modern batteries. When scientist filled them with alkaline solution the“Baghdad Batteries” were perfectly able to produce electricity.In the oldest theogonies of the Asyro-Babylonian originally the highest god was Enlil,the Lord Wind, but in other theogonies An (Anum) was the ruling god, together with his sonEnki (Ea). Anum was the Sky God, and the king of all the other gods, while Ea was the Godof Wisdom, and also the Lord of the Earth. Although Anum was the king of the gods, Enlilhad the executive power, which he often usurped. The most important god in the Babyloniantradition was Marduk, who originally was just an aspect of the Sun God. Under Babylonianshe achieved supreme status and was equated with Asallunhi, the God of Magic. The lattercult of Mithraism, that was spread through the Roman Empire in the first centuries of our eraand was the main competitor to Christianity, has its origins on Mesopotamian soil. Thetheogonies of the Mesopotamian cultures also contained entities which were usually notcounted as gods but were sometimes considered more powerful than gods. Such entities wereTiamat, the mother of gods, which was identified with salt water, and Abzu, her counterpart,who fertilized her with his seed which is identified with fresh water. Tiamat was killed byEnlil when she tried to avenge the murder of Abzu. From the dead body of Tiamat, man wascreated.The greatest magical figure of these times was Zarathustra (or Zoroaster in Greek pronunciation). Different authors date his life differently, and some speculate that there wereseveral Zarathustras. The accepted time period of his life is usually put in the VI-VII centuryBCE, while some authors date it more precisely “258 years before Alexander [of Macedon].”Zarathustra proclaimed one God from the kind of Ahuras, called Ahura Mazda, or onlyMazda, which means “Sage God” or “Sage.” Zarathustra was his prophet on Earth. But on theopposite side of this God who represented all good and right, Zarathustra put Ahriman, thepersonification of all evil. These two forces were in a constant combat with each other which
Borce T. Gjorgjievski
History of Western Magic
kept the equilibrium of the universe. Zarathustrian religion was basically dualistic, because hegave both Gods almost the same power. Zarathustrian teaching is written in the holy book “Awesta,” and the oldest part of it consists of 20,000 verses called gathas, written personallyby Zarathustra. These verses brought him the reputation of magician, and father of magic, butthey are also beautiful as poetry. Herzfeld says about them: “The gathas are poetry. Be thereever so much darkness in them, the train of thought clears up with the progress of study”(238).
3. Egyptian Magic
The religion of the Ancient Egyptians was inseparably intermingled with magic. TheEgyptian religion, alike the early Mesopotamian religion, was streaming directly fromShamanism, and therefore had more close contact with its spiritual forces. One of thestrongest characteristics of the Egyptian magic and religion was the use of the “words of power.” The old Egyptians believed that every object, human or god, had its “true name,” andif a magician knew that name he could control the entity that bears it. Most of the spells werecast calling the “true names” of the deities who were supposed to obey every wish of theoperator when called by those names. These names were usually in a foreign jargon,meaningless to the operator, and hard to pronounce. The failure of such operations wasusually ascribed to the mispronunciation of those names. We have modern variations of thistradition especially reflected in the Enochian language and the ‘Barbarous Names’ in ChaosMagic.An example of the use of these “words of power” can be found in the legend of Isisand Osiris. The goddess Isis, later the wife of Osiris, the legend says, was a mortal womanwho was very skilled in magic. She knew that Osiris was taking walks through his park everyday, and one day she concealed a poisonous snake on his path. Osiris got bitten by the snakeand he yelled for help, but no one could help him since only Isis had the antidote. She cameand asked from him his true name in exchange for the cure. At first he didn’t agree, but asdeath approached him, he whispered his real name to Isis. With this name she became agoddess and married Osiris.The famous Egyptologist E.W. Budge, says the following about the power of thenames in ancient Egypt: “It was believed that if a man knew the name of a god or a devil, andaddresses him by it, he was bound to answer him and do whatever he [the man] wished; and

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