Entropy
2012
,
14
, 614-629; doi:10.3390/e14040614
OPEN ACCESS
entropy
ISSN 1099-4300
www.mdpi.com/journal/entropy
Article
Modeling Time’s Arrow
Vishnu Jejjala
1
, Michael Kavic
2
,
*, Djordje Minic
3
and Chia-Hsiung Tze
3
1
National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics,University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa;E-Mail: vishnu@neo.phys.wits.ac.za
2
Department of Physics, Long Island University, 1 University Plaza, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA
3
Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA; E-Mails: dminic@vt.edu (D.M.);kahong@vt.edu (C.-H.T.)
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: michael.kavic@liu.edu;Tel.: +1-718-488-3304; Fax: +1-718-488-1405.
Received: 2 February 2012; in revised form: 13 March 2012 / Accepted: 19 March 2012 / Published: 23 March 2012
Abstract:
Quantum gravity, the initial low entropy state of the Universe, and the problemof time are interlocking puzzles. In this article, we address the origin of the arrow of timefrom a cosmological perspective motivated by a novel approach to quantum gravitation. Ourproposalis basedonaquantumcounterpartoftheequivalenceprinciple, ageneralcovarianceof the dynamical phase space. We discuss how the nonlinear dynamics of such a systemprovides a natural description for cosmological evolution in the early Universe. We alsounderscore connections between the proposed non-perturbative quantum gravity model andfundamental questions in non-equilibrium statistical physics.
Keywords:
quantum gravity; arrow of time; non-equilibrium physics
1. Introduction
The second law of thermodynamics, perhaps the deepest truth in all of science, tells us that the entropyis a non-decreasing function of time. The arrow of time implies that the Universe initially inhabited alow entropy state and the subsequent cosmological evolution took the Universe away from this state.A theory of quantum gravity must explain the singular nature of the initial conditions for the Universe.