billion ($1,250 per person) and $6 billion ($1,600 per person), respectively.
Multiplestudies have demonstrated that the monetary benefits of achieving health-based airpollution standards are far greater than the cost of attaining those standards.As for the health risk posed by PM 2.5 to California residents, a recent analysisconducted by CARB using the federal EPA’s methodology estimated that, on average,9,200 annual cases of premature cardiopulmonary deaths can be attributed to PM 2.5exposure.
Each of the 35 air districts throughout California have had successes and face futurechallenges in meeting these ambient air quality standards. For specific informationregarding the air quality successes and challenges for your local air district please referto the following sections:
Antelope Valley AQMD
Prior to the Antelope Valley AQMD’s 1997 formation, it was not uncommon for localstationary source owner and operators to have never hosted an air district inspector ontheir site. Less than 15 years later, the AVAQMD boasts a 100% inspection andenforcement rate on the more than 1,000 permit units located within its 1,300 squaremile jurisdiction. In addition to being a mecca for the aerospace industry, the AntelopeValley is now attracting the renewable energy sector as well. In 2011, the AVAQMDissued Authority to Construct permits for the 570 MW Palmdale Hybrid Power plant,which will integrate solar thermal technology into the project’s natural gas-fired system.The hybrid plant will create an important source of electricity in the Antelope Valley andstrengthen the electric grid throughout the region.While aerospace and energy generation bring economic opportunities for the AntelopeValley, regulatory challenges are not far behind. Permitting the Palmdale Power Plantand similar projects requires herculean and often prohibitive efforts for operators andinvestors seeking to acquire scarce emission reduction credits and offsets. Meanwhile,implementation of the aerospace NESHAP is proving to be an economic andtechnological challenge for affected Antelope Valley sources, as is staying abreast ofnew MACT requirements. AB32’s added regulatory burden continues to pose a threatto the local economy, as do ever-increasing state and federal regulations, includingimplementation of the 2008 75 ppb federal 8-hour ozone standard.
Bay Area AQMD
The Bay Area experienced the most challenging winter Spare the Air season since theadoption of the Wood Burning Rule in 2008. A high pressure system over the regionmade air quality unhealthy for much of December 2011 and January 2012. Pollution
Hall, J., V. Brajer and F. Lurmann. (2008) The Benefits of Meeting Federal Clean Air Standards in theSouth Coast and San Joaquin Valley Air Basins. California State
Institute forEconomic and Environmental Studies. Seehttp://business.fullerton.edu/centers/iees/
California Air Resources Board. (2010) Estimate of Premature Deaths Associated with Fine ParticlePollution (PM2.5) in California Using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Methodology. Sacramento,CA, August