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Quality Course 2

Quality Course 2

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Published by Haery Sihombing
The idea of quality control began in the United States in the Post World War II era with the innovations of engineers such as Dr. W. E. Deming, Dr. J. M. Juran, and Dr. W. E. Shewhart. They developed the basic ideas of quality control and developed statistical methods for evaluating quality. Many of the quality control principles taught in American institutions of higher learning today revolve around the basic principles developed by these individuals. These predecessors based their ideas mainly around improving the production processes in firms and did not expand these ideas to other functional departments in companies.
The idea of quality control began in the United States in the Post World War II era with the innovations of engineers such as Dr. W. E. Deming, Dr. J. M. Juran, and Dr. W. E. Shewhart. They developed the basic ideas of quality control and developed statistical methods for evaluating quality. Many of the quality control principles taught in American institutions of higher learning today revolve around the basic principles developed by these individuals. These predecessors based their ideas mainly around improving the production processes in firms and did not expand these ideas to other functional departments in companies.

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Published by: Haery Sihombing on Dec 19, 2007
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Haery Sihombing @ IP
Quality Paradigm-HHIP 1
QUALITY PARADIGM:
Values, Goals, Controls, Information, and Consciousness
We all have needs, requirements, wants, expectations and desires. Needs are essential for life,to maintain certain standards or essential for products and services to fulfill the purpose forwhich they have been acquired. Requirements are what we request of others and mayencompass our needs but often we don't fully realize what we need until after we have madeour request. For example, now that we own a mobile phone we later discover we need handsfree operation while driving and didn't think to ask at the time of purchase. Hence ourrequirements at the moment of sale may or may not express all our needs. Our requirementsmay include wants - what we would like to have but its not practical. For example, we want acheap computer but we need a top of the range model for what we need it for. Expectationsare
implied needs
or
requirements
. They have not been requested because we take them forgranted - we regard them to be understood within our particular society as the accepted norm.They may be things to which we are accustomed based on fashion, style, trends or previousexperience. Hence one expects sales staff to be polite and courteous, electronic products to besafe and reliable, food to be fresh and uncontaminated, tap water to be potable, policemen to be honest and people or organizations to do what they promise to do. In particular we expectgoods and services to comply with the relevant laws of the country of sale and expect thesupplier to know which laws apply. Desires are our innermost feelings about ourselves andour surroundings, what we would like most.Everyone nowadays is laying claim to quality. At Ford, quality is job one. GM is puttingquality on the road. Chrysler makes the best built American car, and Lee Iacocca can't figureout why two cars come off the same American assembly line, and people prefer the one withthe foreign label. Quality has given vanquished economies mighty post war powers. TheAmerican posture is uneasy, looking back on neighboring progress for a fix on quality.In Japan, Japanese Quality Control is a thought revolution in management. It represents anew way of thinking about management. Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, Japan’s foremost authority inthis field defines quality control as, “To practice quality control is to develop, design, produce, and service a quality product which is most economical, most useful, and alwayssatisfactory to the customer”. Quality Control is an integral, yet often underrated concept keyto successful day-to-day operation of any large or small manufacturing or factory-basedcompany.The narrow interpretation of quality control is producing a quality product. The Japaneseexpand this definition in a broader sense to include: quality of work, quality of service,quality of information, quality of process, quality of division, quality of people, includingworkers, engineers, managers, and executives, quality of system, quality of company, andquality of objectives.
1. THE QUALITY REVOLUTION
The idea of quality control began in the United States in the Post World War II era with theinnovations of engineers such as Dr. W. E. Deming, Dr. J. M. Juran, and Dr. W. E. Shewhart.They developed the basic ideas of quality control and developed statistical methods forevaluating quality. Many of the quality control principles taught in American institutions of 
 
Haery Sihombing @ IP
Quality Paradigm-HHIP 2
higher learning today revolve around the basic principles developed by these individuals.These predecessors based their ideas mainly around improving the production processes infirms and did not expand these ideas to other functional departments in companies.The Japanese, specifically, Dr. Ishikawa, decided to expand on the American ideas and relatethem to the operation of every department. He expanded on these ideas with the same goal ashis American colleagues, to provide a quality product to maintain a high service level andgood working relationship with customers. Dr. Ishikawa expanded the idea to develop new principles for quality control: always use quality control as the basis for decisions, integratethe control of cost, price, and profit, and control quantity of stock, production, and sales, anddate of delivery.
2. QUALITY PERSPECTIVES
In supplying products or services there are three fundamental parameters which determinetheir saleability or usability. They are price, quality and delivery. Customers require productsand services of a given quality to be delivered by or be available by a given time and to be of a price which reflects value for money. These are the requirements of customers. Anorganization will survive only if it creates and retains satisfied customers and this will only beachieved if it offers for sale products or services which respond to customer needs,expectations, requirements and desires. Whilst price is a function of cost, profit margin andmarket forces and delivery is a function of the organization’s efficiency and effectiveness,quality is determined by the extent to which a product or service successfully meets theexpectations, needs and requirements of the user during usage (not just at the point of sale).
2.1 Quality Goals
To control, assure and improve quality you need to focus on certain goals. Let's call them thequality goals. There follows some key actions form which specific goals may be derived:
Establish your customer needs and expectations - not doing this will certainly lead tounsatisfied customers.
Design products and services with features that reflect customer needs and expectations
Build products and services so as to faithfully reproduce the design which meets thecustomer's needs and expectations
Verify before delivery that your products and services possess the features required tomeet the customer's needs and expectations
Prevent supplying products and services that possess features that dissatisfy customers.
Discover and eliminate undesirable features in products and services even if they possessthe requisite features
Find less expensive solutions to customer needs because products and services whichsatisfy these needs may be too expensive.
Make your operations more efficient and effective so as to reduce costs because productsand services that satisfy customer needs may cost more to produce than the customer is prepared to pay.
Discover what will delight your customer and provide it. (Regardless of satisfyingcustomer needs your competitor may have provided products with features that givegreater satisfaction!)
Establish and maintain a management system that enables you to achieve these goalsreliably, repeatedly and economically.
 
Haery Sihombing @ IP
Quality Paradigm-HHIP 3
ISO 9001 addresses quality goals through the use of the term ‘quality objectives’ but goes nofurther. The purpose of a
quality system
is to enable you to achieve, sustain and improvequality economically. It is unlikely that you will be able to produce and sustain the requiredquality unless you organize yourselves to do so. Quality does not happen by chance - it has to be managed. No human endeavour has ever been successful without having been planned,organized and controlled in some way.The quality system is a tool and like any tool can be a valuable asset. (or be abused,neglected, misused!) Depending on your strategy quality systems enable you to achieve allthe quality goals. Quality systems have a similar purpose to the financial control systems,information technology systems, inventory control systems, personnel management systems.They organize resources so as to achieve certain objectives by laying down rules and aninfrastructure which, if followed and maintained, will yield the desired results. Whether it isthe management of costs, inventory, personnel or quality, systems are needed to focus thethought and effort of people towards prescribed objectives. Quality systems focus on thequality of what the organization produces, the factors which will cause the organization toachieve its goals, the factors which might prevent it satisfying customers and the factorswhich might prevent it from being productive, innovative and profitable. Quality systemsshould therefore cause conforming product and prevent nonconforming product.Quality systems can address one of the quality goals or all of them, they can be as small or aslarge as you want them to be. They can be project specific, or they can be limited to qualitycontrol that is, maintaining standards rather than improving them. They can include QualityImprovement Programmes (QIPs) or encompass what is called Total Quality Management(TQM). This book, however, only addresses one type of quality system - that which isintended to meet ISO 9000 which currently focuses on the quality of the outgoing productalone
2.2 Achieving Quality
There are two schools of thought on quality management. One views quality management asthe management of success and the other the elimination of failure. They are both valid.Each approaches the subject from a different angle. In an ideal world if we could design products, services and processes that could not fail we would have achieved the ultimate goal.Failure means not only that products, services and processes would fail to fulfill theirfunction but that their function was not what our customers desired. A gold plated mousetrapthat does not fail is not a success if no one needs a gold plated mousetrap!We have only to look at the introductory clauses of ISO 9001 to find that the aim of therequirements is to achieve customer satisfaction by prevention of nonconformities. Hencequality management is a means for planning, organizing and controlling the prevention of failure. All the tools and techniques that are used in quality management serve to improve ourability to succeed in our pursuit of excellence.Quality does not appear by chance or if it does it may not be repeated. One has to designquality into the products and services. It has often been said that one cannot inspect qualityinto a product. A product remains the same after inspection as it did before so no amount of inspection will change the quality of the product. However, what inspection does is measurequality in a way that allows us to make decisions on whether to release a piece of work. Workthat passes inspection should be quality work but inspection unfortunately is not 100%reliable. Most inspection relies on the human judgment of the inspector and human judgment

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