the use of other senses such as olfactory (smelling) and tactile(touching). Nonverbal communication, commonly called body language, seems so powerful that researchers and practitioners in the field agree that manymore feelings and intentions are communicated nonverbally than verbally.Depending on the author, from 7-to-37 percent is communicated throughwords, while as high as 82-to-93 percent is sent nonverbally (for example,see Nitsche, 2006; O’Connor and Seymour, 2002). This reinforces thenotion that, whether we are speaking or not, we are constantlycommunicating and sending messages. In school, approximately 75 percent of the classroom management is considered nonverbal (e.g.,teacher frowning or eye gaze) (Balzer, 1969). In the classroom or at home,how we express something seems to carry more message value and weightthan the words we say. This being true, to influence students toward positive behavior, it is not as important
we say, but rather
Types of Nonverbal Communication
Before we can improve any behavior, we need to understand fully the behavior. Depending on the sensory channel used (visual, auditory, or tactile), there are different types of nonverbal communication:
Universal facial expressions
for happiness, sadness, anger, or fear.The face is the primary source of information for inferring feelings.We probably communicate more and unintentionally by our facialexpression than by any other mean.
such as blushing, shaking, sweating, blinking, flaring of nostrils, swallowing, trembling chin, or breathing heavily.
are deliberate movements and signals that we send.Common universal gestures include waving, pointing, and ahandshake. Cognitively, gestures operate to clarify, contradict, or replace verbal messages. Ekman and Friesen (1969) identified fivetypes of universal gestures: