Phantom Energy with Variable
G
and Λ
Arbab I. Arbab
1
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, Khartoum 11115, SudanDepartment of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Computer, Omdurman Ahlia University, P.O. Box 786, Omdurman, Sudan
(Received 27 March 2008)
We investigate a cosmological model of a phantom energy with a variable cosmological constant (
Λ
) depending onthe energy density (
ρ
) as
Λ
∝
ρ
−
α
,
α
=
const and a variable gravitational constant
G
. The model requires
α <
0
and a negative gravitational constant. The cosmological constant evolves with time as
Λ
∝
t
−
2
. For
ω >
−
1
and
α <
−
1
the cosmological constant
Λ
<
0
,
G >
0
and
ρ
decrease with cosmic expansion. For ordinary energy (or dark energy), i.e.
ω >
−
1
, we have
−
1
< α <
0
and
β >
0
so that
G >
0
increases with time and
ρ
decreaseswith time. Cosmic acceleration with dust particles is granted, provided
−
2
/
3
< α <
0
and
Λ
>
0
.
PACS: 98.80.Cq, 95.36.+x, 98.80.Es
Cosmologists have wondered whether our presentuniverse will eventually re-collapse and end with aBig Crunch, or expand indeﬁnitely and eventually be-comes cold and empty. However, recent evidence fromsupernovae type I ushers into a ﬂat universe, possi-bly with a cosmological constant or some other sortof negative-pressure dark energy, has suggested thatour fate is accelerating.
However, the data mayactually be pointing toward an astonishingly diﬀerentcosmic end game. Caldwell
et al.
explored the con-sequences that follow if the dark energy is a phantomenergy, i.e. the sum of the pressure and energy den-sity is negative. The positive phantom-energy densitybecomes inﬁnite in a ﬁnite time, overcoming all otherforms of matter, which will rapidly brings the epoch of cosmic structure to a halt.
The phantom energy ripsapart every bound matter before the Universe endsinto a
Big-Rip
.However, the phantom energy scenario does violatethe the strong energy condition (SEC)
ρ
+ 3
p >
0, aprinciple that keeps energies positive and imposes en-ergy conservation on a global scale. It is the strongenergy condition that is helpful to rule out wormholes,warp drives, and time machines. Dark energy requiresan equation of state
p
+ 3
ρ <
0. The violation of thenull energy condition (NEC)
p
+
ρ >
0 results in energyﬂows faster than the speed of light. A phantom be-haviour is predicted by several scenarios, e.g., kineti-cally driven models
and some versions of braneworldcosmologies.
Another possibility for dark energy is an energy of a scalar ﬁeld known as quintessence having an equa-tion of state such that
−
1
< ω <
−
1
/
3.
−
Assum-ing that the quintessence ﬁeld coupled minimally togravity, one can write the Lagrangian as
L
=12˙
φ
2
+
V
(
φ
)
,
(1)with energy density and pressure given by
ρ
=12˙
φ
2
+
V
(
φ
)
, p
=12˙
φ
2
−
V
(
φ
)
.
(2)where a dot presents a derivative with respect to time.In the so-called tracker models the scalar ﬁeld density(and its equation of state) remains close to that of thedominant background matter during most of the cos-mological evolution. The equation of state is given by
pρ
=˙
φ
2
/
2
−
V
(
φ
)˙
φ
2
/
2 +
V
(
φ
)
.
(3)A comprehensive study of quintessence is investigatedby Ratra and Peebles.
However, A tracker poten-tial of the form
V
(
φ
)
∝
φ
−
n
,
n
= const is consideredrecently by Sahni.
Moreover, one may include the possibility of anequation of state
p
=
−
ρ
. This is attributed to exis-tence of vacuum energy or the cosmological constant.At the present time it is diﬃcult to tell which form of energy our universe consists of.In this Letter, we investigate the evolution of darkenergy and phantom energy arising from the intro-duction of a cosmological constant that evolves asΛ = 3
β/ρ
α
, where
α, β
= const. With this assump-tion, a phantom energy arises whenever
p
+
ρ <
0and
α >
0. However, the gravitational constant be-comes negative. In the present model, the dark en-ergy models do no necessarily require the condition
p >
−
1
/
3
ρ
. Cosmic acceleration is generated for
α >
0,
−
1
< α <
0 and
α <
−
1. Phantom en-ergy with variable
G
has been recently considered byStefancic.
We have shown that during the evolutionof the domain-walls the cosmological constant ﬂips itssign. We have seen that the whole evolution of theuniverse is characterized by the two constants
α
and
β
.
∗∗
Email: aiarbab@uofk.educ