Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Phantom energy with variable G and lambda

Phantom energy with variable G and lambda

Ratings: (0)|Views: 13 |Likes:
Published by arbab64

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: arbab64 on Dec 26, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/17/2009

pdf

text

original

 
CHIN.PHYS.LETT.Vol.25,No.12(2008)4497
Phantom Energy with Variable
G
and Λ
Arbab I. Arbab
1
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, Khartoum 11115, SudanDepartment of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Sciences and Computer, Omdurman Ahlia University, P.O. Box 786, Omdurman, Sudan
(Received 27 March 2008)
We investigate a cosmological model of a phantom energy with a variable cosmological constant ( 
Λ
) depending onthe energy density ( 
ρ
) as
Λ
ρ
α
,
α
=
const and a variable gravitational constant
G
. The model requires
α <
0
and a negative gravitational constant. The cosmological constant evolves with time as
Λ
t
2
. For 
ω >
1
and
α <
1
the cosmological constant
Λ
<
0
,
G >
0
and
ρ
decrease with cosmic expansion. For ordinary energy (or dark energy), i.e.
ω >
1
, we have 
1
< α <
0
and
β >
0
so that
G >
0
increases with time and
ρ
decreaseswith time. Cosmic acceleration with dust particles is granted, provided
2
/
3
< α <
0
and
Λ
>
0
.
PACS: 98.80.Cq, 95.36.+x, 98.80.Es 
Cosmologists have wondered whether our presentuniverse will eventually re-collapse and end with aBig Crunch, or expand indefinitely and eventually be-comes cold and empty. However, recent evidence fromsupernovae type I ushers into a flat universe, possi-bly with a cosmological constant or some other sortof negative-pressure dark energy, has suggested thatour fate is accelerating.
,
However, the data mayactually be pointing toward an astonishingly differentcosmic end game. Caldwell
et al.
explored the con-sequences that follow if the dark energy is a phantomenergy, i.e. the sum of the pressure and energy den-sity is negative. The positive phantom-energy densitybecomes infinite in a finite time, overcoming all otherforms of matter, which will rapidly brings the epoch of cosmic structure to a halt.
[4]
The phantom energy ripsapart every bound matter before the Universe endsinto a
Big-Rip
.However, the phantom energy scenario does violatethe the strong energy condition (SEC)
ρ
+ 3
 p >
0, aprinciple that keeps energies positive and imposes en-ergy conservation on a global scale. It is the strongenergy condition that is helpful to rule out wormholes,warp drives, and time machines. Dark energy requiresan equation of state
p
+ 3
ρ <
0. The violation of thenull energy condition (NEC)
p
+
ρ >
0 results in energyflows faster than the speed of light. A phantom be-haviour is predicted by several scenarios, e.g., kineti-cally driven models
and some versions of braneworldcosmologies.
Another possibility for dark energy is an energy of a scalar field known as quintessence having an equa-tion of state such that
1
< ω <
1
/
3.
Assum-ing that the quintessence field coupled minimally togravity, one can write the Lagrangian as
L
=12˙
φ
2
+
(
φ
)
,
(1)with energy density and pressure given by
ρ
=12˙
φ
2
+
(
φ
)
, p
=12˙
φ
2
(
φ
)
.
(2)where a dot presents a derivative with respect to time.In the so-called tracker models the scalar field density(and its equation of state) remains close to that of thedominant background matter during most of the cos-mological evolution. The equation of state is given by
 pρ
=˙
φ
2
/
2
(
φ
)˙
φ
2
/
2 +
(
φ
)
.
(3)A comprehensive study of quintessence is investigatedby Ratra and Peebles.
However, A tracker poten-tial of the form
(
φ
)
φ
n
,
n
= const is consideredrecently by Sahni.
Moreover, one may include the possibility of anequation of state
p
=
ρ
. This is attributed to exis-tence of vacuum energy or the cosmological constant.At the present time it is difficult to tell which form of energy our universe consists of.In this Letter, we investigate the evolution of darkenergy and phantom energy arising from the intro-duction of a cosmological constant that evolves asΛ = 3
β/ρ
α
, where
α, β 
= const. With this assump-tion, a phantom energy arises whenever
p
+
ρ <
0and
α >
0. However, the gravitational constant be-comes negative. In the present model, the dark en-ergy models do no necessarily require the condition
 p >
1
/
3
ρ
. Cosmic acceleration is generated for
α >
0,
1
< α <
0 and
α <
1. Phantom en-ergy with variable
G
has been recently considered byStefancic.
We have shown that during the evolutionof the domain-walls the cosmological constant flips itssign. We have seen that the whole evolution of theuniverse is characterized by the two constants
α
and
β 
.
∗∗
Email: aiarbab@uofk.educ
 
4498 Arbab I. Arbab Vol.25
The Friedmann–Lematre–Robertson–Walker met-ric
ds
2
=
dt
2
a
2
(
t
)
dr
2
+
r
2
(
2
+ sin
2
θ
2
)
,
for a flat universe yields3(˙
a/a
)
2
= 8
π
+ Λ
,
(4)3(¨
a/a
) =
4
π G
(
ρ
+ 3
 p
) + Λ
,
(5)and the energy conservation equation reads˙
ρ
+ 3(˙
a/a
)(
ρ
+
 p
) = 0
.
(6)The pressure
p
and energy density
ρ
of an ideal fluidare related by the equation of state
 p
=
ω ρ, ω
= const
.
(7)We now allow Λ and
G
to vary with time, i.e. Λ =Λ(
t
) and
G
=
G
(
t
), so that the energy conservation,Eq.(6), entitles that
8
π
˙
+˙Λ = 0
.
(8)We consider here the ansatzΛ = 3
β/ρ
α
, β, α
= const
.
(9)Integrating Eq.(6), using Eq.(7), we obtain
ρ
=
Aa
3(1+
ω
)
, A
= const
.
(10)Substituting this in Eq.(8) using Eq.(9), one obtains
G
=
3
αβ 
8
π
(1 +
α
)
A
1+
α
a
3(1+
ω
)(1+
α
)
, α
=
1
,
0
.
(11)When
α
= 0, Eq.(8) implies that Λ = const and
G
= const. Substituting Eqs.(10) and (11) into Eq.(4) we obtain
2
=
β 
1 +
α
A
α
a
3(1+
ω
)
α
, α
=
1
,
0
,
(12)where
= ˙
a/a
, or
2
=
β 
1 +
α
ρ
α
, α
=
1
,
0
.
(13)Using Eq.(13), Eq.(11) can be written as 8
πG
=
3
αβ 
1 +
α
ρ
(
α
+1)
, α
=
1
,
0
.
(14)Integrating Eq.(13), using Eq.(10), one obtains
a
(
t
) =
A
1
/
3(1+
ω
)
2
/
3
α
(1+
ω
)
t
2
/
3
α
(1+
ω
)
,α
= 0
,
1
,
(15)where
=
32
α
(1 +
ω
)
β 
(1 +
α
)
1
/
2
. UsingEq.(15), Eq.(11) becomes
G
=
3
αβ 
8
π
(1 +
α
)
2(1+
α
)
t
2(1+
α
)
, α
=
1
,
0
.
(16)Using Eq.(15), Eq.(10) reads
ρ
=
2
t
2
, α
= 0
,
1
,
(17)which shows that the energy density of the phantomincreases with expansion, if 
α >
0. Using Eq.(17),Eq.(9) yieldsΛ =3
β 
2
t
2
.
(18)This form is found to emerge from many of the vacuumdecaying models.
[16
,
17
,
19
21]
Since we believe that thevacuum decays with time then
β >
0.For an expanding universe, we require that
α
(1+
ω
)
>
0 as is evident from Eq.(15). If 
α >
0, one musthave the relation 1+
ω <
0. This is the familiar condi-tion for the existence of phantom energy. This relationimplies that
p <
ρ
. In this case, the energy densitygrows with time, as it is evident from Eq.(17). This isthe condition for phantom energy. It is very interest-ing to see that such a cosmological constant variationleads to phantom energy solution. We, however, no-tice that an increasing energy density requires
α >
0.We see from Eq.(13) that since
2
0 the signs of 
β 
and 1 +
α
are the same. However, Eq.(13) impliesthat when
α >
0 then
β >
0 and hence Eq.(16) im-plies that
G <
0. Since we have considered
α >
0then
β >
0. Thus, phantom energy existence requires
G <
0 and Λ
>
0 so that˙
G >
0 and˙Λ
<
0 (as can beseen from Eqs.(8) and (9)). We, therefore, see that the phantom energy has negative gravity. One mayattribute this to the anti-gravitating nature of phan-tom energy. Such a bizarre behaviour could be thereason why phantom energy has a negative pressure,unlike the ordinary matter.In the scalar field theory, the phantom energy ismodelled by a field with a negative kinetic energy, butnegative pressure and positive energy. In our presentscenario,
G <
0 and
p <
0, but
ρ >
0. Hence, thetwo pictures of phantom energy evolution could beequivalent. However, in our present scenario while thegravitational increases, the cosmological constants de-creases with time. Unlike the standard phantom en-ergy model, we see that as
t
0
a
0,
ρ
0; andas
t
→ ∞
,
a
→ ∞
,
ρ
→ ∞
. Consider now the case
ω
=
3
/
2 and
α
= 2
/
3. In this case,
a
t
2
, andhence,
ρ
t
3
and
G
t
5
. An equivalent case corre-sponds to
α
= 1 and
ω
=
4
/
3. However, in the lattercase
ρ
t
2
and
G
t
4
. The present observationaldata favour negative values for
ω
rather than positiveones. In particular, models with
1
.
62
< ω <
0
.
74are favoured observationally.
 
No.12 Arbab I. Arbab 4499
The present observational data usher toward anaccelerated expansion of the universe.
[1
,
The decel-eration parameter is given by
q
=
a/a
)
/H 
2
. UsingEq.(15), this yields
q
=
12[2 + 3
α
(1 +
ω
)]
.
(19)For an accelerating universe, one must have
q <
0,i.e.,
α >
23(1 +
ω
). For non-phantom energy one has1 +
ω >
0 so that
α <
0. We treat the case
α
=
1separately.For
ω >
1 and
α <
1, the scale factor growswith time. For a positive gravitational constant,
G >
0, Eq.(14) implies
β <
0, so that the cosmo-logical constant becomes negative, Λ
<
0. Equation(16) and (17) imply that
G
and
ρ
decrease with cos-mic expansion. For
α
=
2 and
ω
=
1
/
2 one has
a
t
2
/
3
. The evolution of dust particles in Fried-mann cosmology mimics a dark energy. Similarly for
α
=
2 and
ω
=
1
/
3, the scale factor evolves as,
a
t
1
/
2
. Hence, cosmic strings in this case evolvelike radiation in the standard Friedmann cosmology.For the two cases above the energy density evolves as,
ρ
t
1
and
G
t
1
.Now consider the case
1
< α <
0,
β >
0 and
ω >
1. This is the case for ordinary matter (or darkenergy). In this case,
G >
0
,
Λ
>
0. Equations (16)and (17) imply that
G
increases with time and
ρ
de-creases with time. For
α
=
1
/
2 and
ω
= 1, the scalefactor varies as
a
t
2
/
3
. Thus, stiff matter mimicsordinary matter. In this case,
G
t
2
and
ρ
t
4
.We notice that in the present scenario one has the re-lation
2
. Such a relation is known to satisfythe Machian cosmology.
In this model, it is possible to have a cosmic ac-celeration in the present epoch with ordinary matter(dust or radiation). To my knowledge this solutionhas not been considered before. This arises due to thepresence of the cosmological constant of the form sug-gested in Eq.(9). We consider here
ω >
0 and
β >
0.In this case we havedust :
ω
= 0
α >
2
/
3
.
radiation :
ω
= 1
/
3
α >
1
/
2
.
For the two cases, both
G >
0 and Λ
>
0. Moreover,
G
increases while Λ decreases with cosmic time.In this case, we consider
1
< ω <
0. Cosmic ac-celeration for strings-like and domain-walls like fluidrespectively implycosmic
strings :
ω
=
1
/
3
α >
1
,
domain
walls :
ω
=
2
/
3
α >
2
.
We observe that domain-walls proceed in two differ-ent ways: (i) when
α <
1,
β <
0 for
G >
0 so thatΛ
<
0, (ii) when
α >
1,
β >
0 for
G >
0 so thatΛ
>
0. Hence, during the domain-walls evolution thecosmological constant changes its sign.We study in this section the case
α
=
1, i.e.,Λ = 3
βρ
. Equations (8) and (9) imply that
G
=3
β 
8
π
(1 +
ω
)ln(
Ca
)
,
= const
.
(20)This equation implies that when
a
0,
G
−∞
unless
β 
or 1+
ω
becomes negative. Notice that when
a
then
G
. Hence, these solutions showthat the Universe can’t start from a singularity or endat infinity as far as
|
G
|
cannot be infinite. Hence, onemay say that in the case Λ = 3
βρ
, the initial singu-larity is avoided provided the gravitational constant isallowed to vary with time. For an expanding universethe gravitational constant must increase with cosmictime. We notice that
G
increases with time for
β >
0
>
0) and
ω >
1 (ordinary/dark energy), or
β <
0
<
0) and
ω <
1 (phantom energy). Upon usingthis Eq.(20), Eq.(4) becomes ˙
a
2
=
β 
[1 + (1 +
ω
)ln(
Ca
)]
Aa
(1+3
ω
)
.
(21)The solution of the above equation gives the timedependence of the gravitational constant and energydensity. However, for
ω
=
1, Eq.(21) yields theexponential expansion of the form
=
βA
. Thisrequires that both
β >
0 and
A >
0.We consider here the case
ω
=
1. In this case,Eq.(10) yields
ρ
= const and then Eq.(9) impliesΛ = const. Now Eq.(8)implies that
G
= const
= 0, asfar as
α
=
1, and hence Eq.(4) gives
a
exp(
0
t
),
0
= const. This is the standard de-Sitter expansion.We notice from Eq.(20)that during inflation the grav- itational constant vanishes when
α
=
1. This mayhave assisted the universe to inflate with a constantexpansion rate,
=
 
Λ
/
3. This solution is the sameas the one obtained where Λ
/
3 =
βA
.We have considered in this paper a cosmologicalmodel with a cosmological constant varies as Λ =3
β/ρ
α
. We have found that cosmic acceleration isguaranteed in radiation (
1
/
2
< α <
0) and mat-ter (
2
/
3
< α <
0) dominated epochs with Λ
>
0and
G >
0. For dark energies (cosmic-strings/domain-walls) cosmic acceleration occurs when
α <
1. Phan-tom energy with
ω <
1 is allowed provided
α >
0and
G <
0. The phantom energy density varies as
ρ
t
2
. For instance, for
α
= 1 and
ω
=
4
/
3 thescale factor increases as
a
t
2
. The negative grav-itational constant is tantamount to negative kineticenergy for phantom field. We could have obtained apositive gravitational constant if we have not set theintegration constant to zero. The case
ω
=
1 givesthe familiar de-Sitter inflationary solution.I would like to thank M. Jamil for useful commu-nication.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->