Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
82Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Alcohols and Phenols

Alcohols and Phenols

Ratings:

5.0

(2)
|Views: 13,135|Likes:
Published by Momer
An important portion of this course is the recognition of organic chemistry functional groups. These are parts of a molecule, with a specific structure that functions in a certain way. Not only are you to learn to recognize the functional groups (a listing can be found in your textbook or on the back cover of this laboratory manual), but you are also to learn the physical and chemical properties of each of the functional groups studied in the course. This laboratory exercise will introduce you to two of these functional groups, alcohols and phenols, as well as some of their physical and chemical properties....
www.ionsclub.com
An important portion of this course is the recognition of organic chemistry functional groups. These are parts of a molecule, with a specific structure that functions in a certain way. Not only are you to learn to recognize the functional groups (a listing can be found in your textbook or on the back cover of this laboratory manual), but you are also to learn the physical and chemical properties of each of the functional groups studied in the course. This laboratory exercise will introduce you to two of these functional groups, alcohols and phenols, as well as some of their physical and chemical properties....
www.ionsclub.com

More info:

Published by: Momer on Dec 27, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/14/2014

text

 
OHRHOH. . .
Hydrogen bonding
CH
2
 OHCH
3
 CH OHCH
3
C OHCH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
ethanol(primary)2-propanol(secondary)2-methyl-2-propanol(tertiary)
ALCOHOLS & PHENOLS
An important portion of this corse is the reco!nition of or!anic chemistry fnctional !rops" #hese are parts of a molecle$ %ith a specific strctre that fnctions in a certain %ay" Not only are yo to learn to reco!nie the fnctional !rops (a listin! can 'e fond in yor tet'oo or on the 'ac co*er of this la'oratory manal)$ 't yo are also to learn the physical and chemical  properties of each of the fnctional !rops stdied in the corse" #his la'oratory eercise %ill introdce yo to t%o of these fnctional !rops$ alcohols and phenols$ as %ell as some of their  physical and chemical properties"
Alcohols
Altho!h yo may 'e familiar %ith +alcohol, as a 'e*era!e$ the %ord actally represents an entire classification of or!anic molecles and not st one s'stance" Alcohols contain the
OH (hydroyl) fnctional !rop attached to a satrated car'on" Notice that %e did
not 
 call this the hydroide ion$ 'ecase this !rop does
not 
 act as an ionic s'stance"Alcohols are classified into three cate!ories. primary (/0)$ secondary (20) and tertiary (10)" #his classification is 'ased on the nm'er of car'on-containin! !rops ( 
 for an alyl or an aromatic !rop) attached to the car'on 'earin! the hydroyl !rop" 3f the car'on 'earin! the
OH has one  
 !rop$ the molecle is a primary alcohol" 3f t%o  
 !rops are attached$ it is a secondary alcohol" 3f three  
 !rops are attached$ the alcohol is tertiary" 3"Physical Properties of Alcohols#he hydroyl !rop present in all alcohols is a polar fnctional !rop" #he polarity of this !rop allo%s alcohols to form hydro!en 'onds" Small chain alcohols are a'le to mi %ith %ater 'ecase of the hydro!en  'ondin! interactions that %ill occr 'et%een the hydroyl fnctional !rop and the %ater" 3f the -!rop of the alcohol 'ecomes too lar!e ho%e*er$ the sol'ility of the alcohol %ill decrease"
 
4nCl
2
Procedure:
/"Place /5 drops of each alcohol (ethanol$ /-'tanol$ 2-'tanol$ 2-methyl-2-propanol and /-octanol) into its o%n test t'e" Add /-2 ml of %ater to each t'e" ecord yor o'ser*ations on the data sheet"2"Place another /5 drops of each of the a'o*e alcohols into its o%n test t'e" Add /-2 ml of dichloromethane" ecord yor o'ser*ations on the data sheet" 66CA7#3ON6683CHLOO9E#HANE 3S :LA99A;LE" <EEP ALL :LA9ES A=A>" A?O38 ;EA#H3N@ :79ES" =O< 3N #HE HOO8 AS 97CH AS POSS3;LE" =EA SA:E#> @LASSES 3N #HE LA;OA#O> A# ALL #39ES633"Chemical Properties of Alcohols#he classification of an alcohol as primary$ secondary or tertiary (see a'o*e) affects the chemical  properties of the alcohols" #his difference in chemical properties can 'e sed as a means of identification" #he Lcas test and the chromic acid test are t%o common methods sed to distin!ish amon! primary$ secondary and tertiary alcohols"A"Lcas #est.#he Lcas rea!ent contains inc chloride and hydrochloric acid" =hen the Lcas rea!ent is allo%ed to react %ith an alcohol$ an alyl halide is formed" #his alyl halide %ill not 'e sol'le in %ater$ ths clodiness or a second layer of droplets %ill form if the test is positi*e" =ith this rea!ent$ tertiary alcohols react immediately$ secondary alcohols in 1 to /5 mintes$ and primary alcohols may tae an hor or lon!er$ or may ne*er react"-OH  HCl
 
-Cl  H
2
O (insol'le)
Procedure:
1"Place 2 mL of the Lcas rea!ent in a test t'e" Add B drops of ethanol" Shae the t'e to mi the materials and note the time reired for the mitre to 'ecome clody or to separate into t%o layers" ecord yor o'ser*ations" epeat this procedre for /- 'tanol$ 2-'tanol$ and 2-methyl-2-propanol"
 
C OHO
C  OC   OH 
 66CA7#3ON66Hydrochloric acid is *ery corrosi*e" Any spill shold 'e immediately flshed %ith %ater" =ear safety !lasses in the la'oratory at all times";"Chromic Acid #est.Chromic acid (acidified dichromate$ an oidiin! a!ent) can also 'e sed to distin!ish  'et%een types of alcohols 'y oidiin! the alcohol" Primary alcohols are oidied to car'oylic acidsD secondary alcohols are oidied to etonesD and tertiary alcohols are not oidied" 8rin! the oidation$ the oran!e-red color of the chromic acid chan!es to a 'le-!reen soltion" H
2
CrO
B
 Cr 
2
(SO
B
)
1
 H
2
O (primary) (red-oran!e) (car'oylic acid) ('le-!reen)
 
H
2
CrO
B
 Cr 
2
(SO
B
)
1
 H
2
O (secondary) (red-oran!e)(etone) ('le-!reen) H
2
CrO
B
 No eaction(tertiary)
Procedure:
B"Place /5 drops of acetone in a test t'e" Add F drops of ethanol and 2 drops of chromic acid to the t'e" Note and record the color of the soltion on the data sheet" epeat this procedre for /-'tanol$ 2-'tanol$ and 2-methyl-2-propanol" 66CA7#3ON66Chromic acid is *ery corrosi*e" Any spill shold 'e immediately flshed %ith %ater" =ear safety !lasses in the la'oratory at all times"
CH
2
 OH 
CH   OH

Activity (82)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Enuga Applegate liked this
Bhawani Narain liked this
Eason Tee liked this
Kala Dixon liked this
Mandy Newsome liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->