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Ambraseys&Melville1982pp89-91

Ambraseys&Melville1982pp89-91

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Published by Noora Al-Meer

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Published by: Noora Al-Meer on Jun 12, 2012
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3.3.Earthquakesin the Islamicperiodverynear thesurface.BetweenMuhammadabad andTighdarand south ofQal'ehKuhneh,thegroundslumped and mudwas ejected fromcracks.Muhammadabadwas rebuilt about 500metresothenorth of its old site and many of the settlements thatwere ruined were abandoned. The shock wasstronglyfelt inBirjandandQayinand it wasperceptibleinTurbat-i Haidariyyeh.1945November27ltlakranIntheearly hours of 28L\qq(November(localtime)theMakrancoast of Pakistan was-i\rshakenbyone of thelargestearthquakesof this century(/a=8.1).Fortunatelytheregion affected, betweenKarachi andthePersianborders,is singularly sparselypopulatedwithonly three small coastaltowns, i.e.Ormara, Pasni andGwadur,whichare devoid of anyengineeredstructure, mostbuildings consistingofmathutsand one-storey adobe houses.3mPasnis an open roadsteadandportof about 2000inhabitants,built on a sandbankconnecting the head-landof Zarin wilhthemainland.The earthouakedestroyedeightypercent of thehouses, killing aboutforty-fivepeople.The telegraph buildingand thefewbetter built official buildingswere renderedunusable.Apartof thetown was involvedin a submarine slidewhichsubmergedazonealong the shoreso that the coasttodayisabout100 metres nland.3zOrmara(seeigure3.47) is a smallerporton sandwhere sixtypercent ofitshouses,mainlyof adobe construction,collapsedkill-ing abouttwentypeople.Theshockcausedmany land-slidesand rockfalls along the steepbluffs southofthetown.Inplacesthegroundslumpedand itwas floodedby a suddenrise of the undergroundwater table.Between Ormara and Pasni, a distance ofabout 120 kilo-metres, thereareveryfew settlements ofgrassmathuts,which sufferedlittleornodamage.Furthertothe westSur(Sor)wasdamaged and in theportofGwadursomehouses were ruinedwithoutcasualties.However, to thenorth ofGwadur.over thehills in the Akara-Jawarregion, thegroundwas brokenupandhuge cracks ranalongthe north-facing slopes of the ranges ofhills for a
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Ambraseys & Melville, 1982
 
Cosehistoriesconsiderableistance. he shockcaused o damagetJiwaniorfurther westalong he coastat Chahbahar,where he ruins of the oldfort locatedabouttwokilo-metresrom Tiz, to the north, and constructed ratleastenewed n theearly 1870s,werenot affectedbytheshock;norwas tsstonemasonry en-metreightoweraffected.As amatteroffact,alonghe MakrancoastwestofJiwaniandeastofSonmiani,heearth-'quakewasnot feltverystronglyand twasnotper-ceptiblebeyondKarachiandDadu.The earthquakewasalso elt asa slight shockat Muscat. n contrast,o thenortheast ofPasnitwas eltasaras MontgomeryandDerasmailKhann thePunjab,morehan1000 kilo-metresaway.Damagewas eported rom Panjgur,BelaandfromtheBarkhan Tehsil of the Loralai Agency,wherecasualties erealso eported.3zThere s noevidence hat the shockcausedndueconcernnPenianterritory.3BThetotalnumberofpeoplekilled n thisearth-quakedoesnot seem ohaveexceeded00.Thisfigureincludes hosedrownedby the seismic ea-wave(tsunami)hat accompaniedheeventand which addedsignificantly to the overall damageausedby the mainshock.Atleasthree waves ollowedheearthquake,fwhichthefirst(noticedshortly after the shock)did notcomeveryfarinland.Theothertwofollowed 90to12Ominutes ater,around 5.00a.m.,and sweptover he one-storeyhousestPasniand Ormara,ausingreatdamageand reachingeightsof five totenmetreson shore.AtJiwani he waves ankadhowandatGwadurdrownedthreepeople.ElsewherentheMakrancoast heydestroyed ailingessels,itteredthe land with debrisand siltedupstreams. t Karachi,360 kilometresaway,thewaves adaheighton landof about 1.5 metres,buttheypersistedorsuch a longtime that they causeddamageotheharbourworksand ossoflifearoundKeti Bandaron the coastof the Indus delta.There,during therecessionf thewavesand the rapid draw-down ofthewaterhat followedduringhe strongebb-ingof the sea, ow-lyinghillscollapsed nd spreadout,totally destroyingnumberof fishingvillagesetweenDubboandJadiwari, ausingmany casualties.n theregionof Bombay,morethan I 100kilometresawayfrom Pasni,waveseached eightsof upto two metres,causingome ossoflife.AtKarwar,about 1500kilo-metresaway,waves loodedcreeksand nlets. AtMuscatthe shockwasollowedby averyhiehtide and at Mahein the Seychelles,400 kilometresaway,waveheightsreachedboutthirty centimetres.here s no infor-mation aboutthe effectsof the wavesn thePersianGulf,3?but inthe ArabianSeaat leastonedhowon itsway fromMuscatoKarachiwassunkwith casualties.3TsFollowinghe earthquake,our largemudvolcanoesose nearthe shoreeightto thirty metresabovewater,seven othirteen metresdeepandemittinggas,buttheyweresoon erodedby the sea.36Alsoinland, hemudvolcanoesearHinglajweree-activated90and aargevolumeofgasgnited,causing neruptiontheglowofwhich could be seenromagreatdistance.MudvolcanoeslongheMakran,both inland and off-shore,do occurundernorrnalconditionsand theyshouldnotbe consideredsevidence f theseverityoftheshock.3uTheearthquake damaged he trans-oceanic ablebetweenndia and Great Britain,whichbrokein eightplacesff theMakrancoast,presumablyue o sub-marine andslidesriggered y theshock.3BThe andlines betweenPasniandKarachialso brokedown.Therewere substantialgroundfailures atPasniandOrmara.About five kilometres o the north of theatter,thegroundslumped,ormingtensilefracturessixtycentimetreswiderunning n aneast-westdirectionwiththesouthside downthrownby more than 1.5 metres.Though therearepreviouseports(Sondhi1947) otuplift atPasni,ectonicchangesnelevation were estab-lishedonly in theOrmaraarea,wheretheland roseabout twometres.Olderaisedbeaches nd marineterraceswereobservedalong thewhole Makran coast,fromKarachito Jask,and radiocarbon anduranium-thoriumdateson shellsromthesebeachesndicatethebeachesereelevateduring heastl0 000years,attesting onumerouspastearthquakesomparableothe 1945event.Aftenhocks continued orsomeime. On2January1946Pasniwasagaindamaged, ndon 5August1947 another shock n theeveninguinedmany housesatPasni. ntheKulanchhegroundslumped,ejectingwater from cracks.Rockfallswere noticed fromthemountainsand andslides ccurredalong he coast o thewestofPasni.Theshockwaswidely felt.1947 September 3Dustabsd.n the morninga destructive aLZSearthquake nthe sparselypopulatedregion ofDaulata-(ebad,southeast fFirdausTun),demolished numberofvillages illingabout400people.Dustabadwastotallydestroyednd 170peoplewerekilled. HalfofMuhammadabad,ebuilt afterthe earthquakef1941,collapsed nd heavydamagewithcasualties xtendedothedihistansof Sarayan,Charmehand Badamuk.Tothewestand southwestofDaulatabadnd for tensof kilo-metres, he areawas n1947otallyuninhabited,whileto thesouth heres nothing morethan the clay flatsofDaqq-iMuhammadabadnd the Shikasteh-yiMuhammadabad. heonly man-madetructureshere(afew rubble-stoneousesandab-anbars)ere evelledwiththegroundfigure3.48).The earthquakewasassociateditha complexsystemof faulting. Groundractureseportedby localpeople,heirtracestillvisiblena numberoflocalities,can be followed orabouttwentykilometresn aN-350o-Eirection,romwestof Kuh-iQirmiz,cuttingacross he westslopeof Kuh-iChargraqshnd extendingto thenorthas ar ashe east lankof Chang-iKulagh.Beyondhispointthetrace s no longervisibleontheground,butaccordingo localnformationt extended

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