Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
InTech-Properties of Nanofillers in Polymer

InTech-Properties of Nanofillers in Polymer

Ratings: (0)|Views: 13 |Likes:
Published by ssm_majeed

More info:

Categories:Types, Reviews, Book
Published by: ssm_majeed on Jul 12, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/02/2013

pdf

text

original

 
0
Properties of Nano
llers in Polymer 
Damien M. Marquis, Éric Guillaume
*
and Carine Chivas-Joly
Laboratoire national de métrologie et d’essais (LNE)France
1.Introduction
Polymer nanocomposites have existed for decades, as carbon black, pyrogenic silica anddiatomite were used as additives in polymers. Nevertheless, their characterizations and theeffect of properties induced by the nanometric scale of fillers was not fully understood atthese times. The real starting point, corresponding to an understanding of the action of thesefillers, is generally considered as corresponding to the first papers on a polyamide-6 filledwith nanoclays published by Usuki et al. (1993) and Okada A. (1995), from Toyota R&D. Boththese papers called it "
 Hybrid
" material. Rapidly, research increased, and the first use of theterm "
nanocomposites
" appeared in 1994 [Lan & Pinnavaia (1994), Lan et al. (1995), Giannelis(1996)]. After these pioneers, a lot of researches started on various fillers. The demandfor continual improvement in the performances of thermoplastic and thermoset polymermaterials has led to the emergence of these new technologies. Nanofillers lists increasedwithin years (nanoclays, nano-oxides, carbon nanotubes, POSS , etc.), as well as the matrix inwhich they are used and interactions with traditional fillers. Nowadays, the development of polymernanocomposites is one of the most active area of development of nanomaterials. Theproperties imparted by the nanoparticles are various and focus particularly on strengtheningthe electrical conduction and barrier properties to temperature, gases and liquids as wellas the possible improvement of fire behaviour. As a method which consists of reinforcingpolymer chains at the molecular scale in the same way than the fibres at the macroscopicscale,nanocomposites[Biron(2004),Gloaguen & Lefevre(2007)]representthenewgenerationof two-phased materials, associating a basic matrix to nanofillers inserted between polymerchains. Nanofillerscansignificantlyimproveoradjust the differentpropertiesofthe materialsinto which they areincorporated, suchas optical, electrical,mechanical, thermal propertiesorfire-retardant properties, sometimes in synergy with conventional fillers. The properties of composite materials can be significantly impacted by the mixture ratio between the organicmatrix and the nanofillers.
2.Classi
cation of nanocomposites
2.1Terminology
Terminology issues were solved recently with standardization. A standardization committee,ISO TC229 "
Nanotechnologies
", started in 2005, and a joint working group with IEC113 "Nanotechnology Standardization for Electrical and Electronic Products and Systems"considered terminology and nomenclature issues. This group produced a set of documents
*
Corresponding author
 
11
 
2 Will-be-set-by-IN-TECH
limiting confusion in definition of nano-objects [ISO/TS27687 (2008), ISO/TS11360 (2010),ISO/TS88004 (2011)].Nanocomposites are considered as one family of nanomaterials, where a nano-object is

   
Fig. 1. Nano-objects used for nanocomposites, as defined in ISO/TS27687 (2008)dispersed into a matrix or a phase. The other families are mainly nanostructured materialsin surface, multi-layer or volume. A nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material whereone of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nm [Ajayan et al. (2003)].The nanocomposites can be distributed according to the nanofillers, as classified in reference[ISO/TS27687 (2008)] and highlighted in Fig. 1:One-dimensional nanofiller: in the form of plates, laminas and/or shells;Two-dimensional nanofiller: nanotubes and nanofibres which diameter is lower than 0.1
μ
m
;Three-dimensional nanofiller: isodimensional nanoparticles such as nanometric silica beads.Nanofillers are introduced in polymer at rates from 1% to 10% (in mass). They areincorporated in addition to traditional fillers and additives, and eventually traditionalreinforcement fibres such as glass, carbon or aramide fibres. The diverse nanofillers usedare described in the following paragraphs.
2.2Nanoclays
Nanoplate fillers can be natural or synthetic clays, as well as phosphates of transitionmetals. The most widely used reinforcement is clay due to its natural abundance and itsvery high form factor. Clay-based nanocomposites generate an overall improvement inphysical performances. The most widely used ones are the phyllosilicates (smectites). Theyhave a shell-shaped crystalline structure with nanometric thickness. Clays are classifiedaccording to their crystalline structures and also to the quantity and position of the ionswithin the elementary mesh. The elementary or primitive mesh is the simplest atomicgeometric pattern, which is enough for duplicating the crystalline network, by repeatingitself indefinitely in the three directions. Table 1 presents the various natural and syntheticnanoclays available and used as fillers in polymers. The most common usage concernsorganomodified Montmorillonite (MMT), a natural phyllosilicate extracted from Bentonite.Raw formula of Montmorillonite is
(
Na
,
Ca
)
0,3
(
 Al
,
 Mg
)
2
Si
4
O
10
(
O
)
2
,
nH 
2
O
.
2.3Nano-oxides
Titanium dioxide
: Rutile is commonly used in polymers as a white pigment, as particles from200 to 300
nm
. The nanoparticle of titanium dioxide is not Rutile, but Anastase, and both are
 
262
Nanocomposites and Polymers with Analytical Methods
 
Properties of Nano
llers in Polymer 3
FamilyGroupe Formula
PhyllosilicatesTO(1:1)KaoliniteThe reference plate is formed from atetrahedral plate T and a octahedral plate O.The thickness of the layer is about 0,7
nm
.Kaolinite
Al
4
Si
4
O
10
.
(
O
)
8
TOT(2:1)Smectite,(Talc,Mica,Mommorillonite),SepioliteTwo tetrahedral plates T in both sides of anoctahedral plate O form the reference plate.The thickness of the layer is about 1 nm.The group includes many minerals that aremajor constituents of clays.TOT:O(2:1:1)Chlorite,Bentonite,SaponiteThe reference plate is formed of three platesTOT and another isolated O plate. Thethickness of the layer is about 1,4
nm
.Chlorite di-tri
Al
2
 Mg
3
Si
4
O
10
(
O
)
8
PolysilicateNaturalKenyaite,Magadiite,Kanemite,Ilerite,Silhydrite,Zeolite.Magadiite (
Na
2
Si
14
O
29
 H 
2
O
)SyntheticFluoroHectorite,ZeoliteDoublelamellarhydroxideSyntheticHydrotalciteHydrotalcites: (
 Mg
6
 A
l
2
(
O
)
16
)(
CO
2
3
)
4
 H 
2
O
Table 1. Nanoclays identification.tetragonalcrystalformsoftitaniumdioxide. Anastaseiscommonlyusedassphericalparticleswith diameter around 20
nm
. This nanoparticle has photocatalytic properties. Anatase can be converted by hydrothermal synthesis into titanium nanotubes [Mogilevskyet al. (2008)].These nanotubes have an outer diameter of 10 to 20
nm
, an inner diameter of 5 to 8
nm
and a length of 1
μ
m
.
Nanoalumina
: Alumina particles are used as fillers in a wide rangeof size, from 20
nm
to micrometric sizes. They are made of spherical crystal particles of 
 Al
2
O
3
. Nanoparticles ofalumina arefrequentlyusedasinert fillersinpolymers,but highlightcatalytic properties in some conditions.
Nano-antimony-Tin oxide
(ATO): The raw formula of this nanoparticle is
Sb
2
O
5
/
SnO
2
. This is a tetragonal crystal particle of a diameter of around15
nm
, commonly used as flame retardant.
Nanosilica
: Nanosilica correspondto a largefamilyof nanoparticles from various origins. The most commonly used is a natural one, calleddiatomite. This filler comes from the skeleton of a unicellular alguea (the diatomea) formingsedimentarylayers. It isconstituted fromultrafine particlesof750
nm
. Two familiesof widelyused synthetic nanosilicas are pyrogenic silica, forming particles from 5 to 100
nm
, and silicafume, forming particles of about 100
nm
. Precipited silica historically used in polymers is nota nanoparticle, as its diameter is between 1 and 10
μ
m
when micronized.
2.4Carbon nanotubes
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) were discovered by [Oberlin et al. (1976), Endo et al. (1976)],without application, and then rediscovered by [Iijima (1991)]. The fibre could present ananometricdiameterandlengthofsomeordersofmagnitudeincomparisonwithitsdiameter.In general, three kinds of carbon nanotubes are considered (Fig. 2):Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). They present a diameter between 1 and 2
nm
;
 
263
Properties of Nanofillers in Polymer

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->