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Sjogren’s Syndrome, A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions

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Length: 102 pages1 hour

Summary

Sjogren’s syndrome is a medical disorder that most frequently produces dry eyes and mouth.

It is a form of autoimmune disease.

It can be Primary and Secondary if it occurs with other autoimmune diseases:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis
2. Systemic lupus erythematosus.
3. Scleroderma

There is lymphocytic invasion of exocrine glands, inducing the main symptoms of:
1. Xerophthalmia (dry eyes),
2. Xerostomia (dry mouth) and
3. Enlargement of the parotid glands

The causes are

1. Genetic:
There is a genetic predisposition for the disorder but the HLA link changes among ethnic groups.
2. Development of complications such as neuropathy and lymphoma may tend to be common in patients with vitamin D deficiency.

Nine out of ten people who have the disorder are women.
People normally first begin noticing symptoms when they are in their 30s or 40s.

Symptoms are:
1. Dry mouth
2. Dry Eyes
3. Dry mouth

Other symptoms may be:

1. Fatigue
2. Fever
3. Change in the color of hands or feet
4. Joint pain or joint swelling
5. Swollen glands

Autoimmune screening tests may then show a positive rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies

Dryness of the mucosa of the trachea and bronchi may manifest as a dry cough

The dryness of the pharynx and esophagus may cause difficulty in swallowing, and lack of saliva and secretions may predispose to gastro-esophageal reflux

There can be dry skin and vaginal dryness causing dyspareunia

Disease of the pancreas can lead to malabsorption and even acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis but a frequent cause of raised serum amylase is parotitis.

Fatigue is a common feature

About 20% have Raynaud's phenomenon.

The treatment is to relieve the symptoms as there is no cure.

1. Dry eyes may be treated with artificial tears, eye-lubricating ointments, or cyclosporine eye drop

2. Other medicines may be:

a. Steroids: these are tablets taken by mouth that assist to decrease inflammation.
They may be given if the symptoms are particularly bad.

b. Immunosuppressive agents: these are medicines that suppress the abnormal antibody production in Sjogren’s syndrome
Medicines are methotrexate, penicillamine and hydroxychloroquine.

Sjogren’s syndrome is not normally life-threatening.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Introduction
Chapter 1 Sjogren’s Syndrome
Chapter 2 Causes
Chapter 3 Symptoms
Chapter 4 Diagnosis
Chapter 5 Treatment
Chapter 6 Prognosis
Chapter 7 Rheumatoid Arthritis
Chapter 8 Dry Eyes
Epilogue

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