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# ALGORITHMS AND FLOWCHARTS

ALGORITHMS AND FLOWCHARTS A typical programming task can be divided into two phases: Problem solving phase produce an ordered sequence of steps that describe solution of problem this sequence of steps is called an algorithm Implementation phase implement the program in some programming language .

Algorithm Algorithm is a procedure for performing some calculation. An effective way for solving a problem in finite number of steps. . Algorithm gives the logic of a program that is a step by step description of how to arrive at a solution.

. It should have the capability to handle some unexpected situations which may arise during the solution of a problem(for eg: Division with zero). It should involve finite number of steps. It should be clear with no ambiguity. It should lead unique solution of the problem.Key Features of Algorithm It should be simple.

Algorithm Example 1: Write an algorithm to determine a student’s final grade and indicate whether it is passing or failing. The final grade is calculated as the average of four marks. .

Algorithm Algorithm: Input a set of 4 marks Calculate their average by summing and dividing by 4 if average is below 50 Print “FAIL” else Print “PASS” .

Example 2 Write an algorithm to convert the length in feet to centimeter. Input the length in feet (Lft) Calculate the length in cm (Lcm) by multiplying LFT with 30 Print length in cm (LCM) .

Example 3 Write an algorithm that will read the two sides of a rectangle and calculate its area. Input the width (W) and Length (L) of a rectangle Calculate the area (A) by multiplying L with W Print A .

Example 4 Write an algorithm and draw a flowchart that will calculate the roots of a quadratic equation ax 2 bx c 0 b2 4ac ). and the roots are: Hint: d = sqrt ( x1 = (–b + d)/2a and x2 = (–b – d)/2a .

Example 4 Algorithm: Input the coefficients (a. c) of the quadratic equation Calculate d Calculate x1 Calculate x2 Print x1 and x2 . b.

49. 87. 98. 62.Example 5. Design an algorithm and the corresponding flowchart for adding the test scores as given below: 26. 75 .

Output the sum 7. Get a value 4. sum = sum + value 5. Stop . Start 2. Sum = 0 3. Go to step 3 to get next Value 6. 1.