Research Methodology | Thesis | Abstract (Summary)

Research Methodology for Science and Technology

Rushdi Shams Department of Computer Science and Engineering Khulna University of Engineering & Technology

What is Research
 The systematic process of collecting and analyzing

information in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon with which we are concerned or interested. (Practical Research: Planning and Design by Paul Leedy)  It involves interpretation of data to draw conclusions  Research is not restating previous facts  It is not searching new knowledge for information

What is Research
 Are you representing other peoples’ work in a stylish

well-understood manner?  Then it is not a research  Are you seeking knowledge on the architecture of cars by buying a car?  Then it is not research

What is Research
 Originates with a question or problem.

 Requires a clear articulation of a goal.
 Follows a specific plan of procedure.  Usually divides the principal problem into more  

manageable sub-problems. Guided by the specific research problem, question, or hypothesis. Accepts certain critical assumptions. Requires the collection and interpretation of data in attempting to resolve the problem that initiated the research. Builds on previous research.

Wallace’s Model .

 Conduct a research. The ideas you generated from the knowledge gathered in literature review should be carried out. In order to do that.Research Methodology  Propose a research. results will be produced  Document your work. analysis will be done. This documentation will be the stem to produce  Conference papers for sharing knowledge with scholars  Journal papers for archiving . you will have to review literatures.

Research Proposal Conducting Research Publication Documentation Research Proposal Conducting Research Publication Documentation .

Propose a Research A Formal way to propose a research is writing up a research proposal that will have precise indications on your research and related work found from literature review .

show the relationships between different work. and show how it relates to your project.  You should evaluate what has already been done.Why will you review Literature  The literature review is a critical look at the existing research that is significant to your project. .  It is not supposed to be just a summary of other people's work.

What should Literature Review answer  What do we already know in the area concerned?  What are the existing theories?  Are there any inconsistencies or other shortcomings?  What views need to be (further) tested?  What evidence is lacking. contradictory or too limited?  Why study (further) the research problem? . inconclusive.

kluweronline.Literature Review Resources  The ACM Portal  http://portal.crossref.org .org  CrossRef  http://www.com  Kluwer Online  http://www.ieee.acm.com  IEEExplore  http://ieeexplore.

 It will serve as a plan for yourself and the committee. you should begin thinking about your proposal  Your proposal will communicate your intentions to your committee.Research Proposal  After reviewing the relevant literature. . and  Connects yourself with the committee  It should indicate that You have identified a problem  You read enough literature to discuss the subject intelligently.  You developed a strategy for completing the research.

Research Proposal  A Research Proposal will generally contain following sections Problem Statement  Which area the problem belongs to  What has been done so far  What problems are still not solved  Why are those problems need to be solved  Motivation  What problem are you particularly interested of  What is your motive to solve that  Narrower description of your research .

Research Proposal  Approach  Brief description of your research  How will you solve the problems  What are the steps to accomplish your goal?  Are you aware of the upcoming problems?  Challenges  Difference with other work  How your research will contribute  Applications  Where your findings can be applied .

Documentation After completing the research you promised in your research proposal. you have to document them. .

. it should serve as the basis for the beginning chapters for your thesis.Thesis  Documentation is vital as A good researcher should know the way to let other researchers know about his work  If you wrote a good proposal.

4. Distinct contribution to knowledge. Originality as shown by the topic researched or the methodology employed. 5. 2. An understanding of appropriate techniques.Thesis  Your thesis should meet the following criteria1. Evidence of an original investigation or the testing of ideas. Ability to make critical use of published work and source material. 7. . 6. Competence in independent work or experimentation. Appreciation of the relationship of the special theme to the wider field of knowledge. 3.

Scientific Writing: IMRAD  Every scientific writing generally will have four sections having an acronym of IMRAD Introduction  Methods  Results and  Discussion Now. let’s take a look at the very basic parts of a technical documentation .

not sentence  Fewest possible words that adequately describe the contents of the thesis  Indexing and abstracting services depend heavily on the accuracy of the title  Avoid abbreviations .Title  Title is a label.

Authors  Alphabetical order or order of importance  Persons who actively contributed to the overall design and execution of the experiments  First name. middle name. last name  Address of institution where the research is done  Address in same serial to the authors .

Abstract  Precise summary of the content  Brief summary of each of the sections  Should not exceed 250 words though there is no hard and fast rule  States the principal objectives and scope of the investigation  Describes the methodologies employed  Summarize the results  State the principal conclusions .

Introduction  Enough background information so that reader can understand results  Reader should not need to refer to previous publications on the topic  Introduction should describe  Nature and scope of the problem investigated  Review of related literature  Method of the investigation  Principal results  Principal conclusions .

Methods  Describe the experimental design  Provide enough detail so that others can repeat the experiment  Use past tense .

Results  Overall description of experiment  Present the data  Results are presented in past tense  Avoid redundancy .

relationships. and generalizations shown by the results  Point out any exceptions or any lack of correlation and define unsettled points  Show how your results and interpretations agree with previously published work  Don't be shy. discuss theoretical implication of your work as well as practical applications  State your conclusions as clearly as possible  Summarize your evidence for each conclusion .Discussions  Try to present principles.

Acknowledgement  Acknowledge any significant technical help.  Acknowledge any outside financial assistance  Grants. contracts. etc. or fellowships .

acm. htm . List only significant.computer. 3.org/pubs/submissions/submission. published references Check all parts of every reference against the original copy the publications You can find Reference styles http://www.org/author/style/refer.apastyle.References    1.org/ http://www.htm http://www. 2.

Publication Nihil simul inventum est et perfectum means Nothing is invented and perfected at the same time .

the invention will not be useful for human race  To make your research useful. your research will be archived and will be plentiful to conduct other researches  You can submit them to conferences  You can share ideas with scholars that can broaden your view and instil newer ideas .Why Publication  If you gather knowledge. apply it. you can submit them to journals  In journals. invent something new and do not share with scholars.

then you need to know the nuts and bolts Information on conferences  Call for Papers  Review Process  Submitting your Research Work  Feedback from Reviewers  Preparing Final Version .Things to consider during Publication  If you intend to publish your research work.

acm.papersinvited.org/calendar/  SIGs http://www.fi/~pv/conferences.do http://campus.tml.org/Events/events_page .html  Public databases http://www.Information on Conferences  Personal web pages http://www.sigmm.ieee.com/  Organizations http://webapps1.hut.org/conferenceSearch/search.

take a look at Title of the conference  Where will it be held  Date of conference  Deadline of paper submission  Topics of Interest  Instructions for Authors .Call for Papers  When you find a suitable conference. Carefully. just don’t blindly submit your paper.

your paper will be reviewed generally based on Originality of your research work  Contribution to the knowledge-based society  Organization of the writing  Quality of Language  References you used .Review Process  In order to place your paper in journal or a conference proceedings.

prepare it according to the Instructions for Authors  Layout  Format  Number of pages  Word count  Figures .Submitting your Research  Before submission ask comments from your colleagues and supervisor  When the paper is ready.

Submitting your Research  Most conferences have electronic submission  web page  Email  Otherwise you have to submit the paper either using normal or courier mail  Make sure that you get an acknowledgement from the submission .

Feedback from Reviewers  Usually. conferences announce beforehand when the review results should be ready  The results are usually emailed to all authors  Read the results carefully  Remember that good conferences accept less than half of the papers  Acceptance ratio can be even below 20% .

it pays of to cool down for couple of days or even weeks . consider improving it according to the comments and submitting it to another conference  Usually.Feedback from Reviewers  If the paper is not accepted.

Preparing Final Version  Make the corrections suggested by the reviewers  Follow the instructions given the to the authors  Often. the final layout is different than the review version  Send the final version to the conference well before the deadline .

Research Presentation In conferences. you will have to present your research work which is as important as your research and documentation .

each with its own objectives and style. Each part should be dearly delineated. .What to say and How to say  Communicate the Key Ideas Make sure that your talk emphasizes the key ideas and skips over what is standard.  Structure Your Talk A good speaker always lets the audience know exactly where they are and where they are headed.  Don’t get Bogged Down in Details Details are out of place in an oral presentation. This rule cannot be over-emphasized. Your presentation should be broken into several distinct parts. obvious. or merely complicated.

What to say and How to say  Use an Organized Approach A sample time-frame for presentation of a paper can be Introduction (5%)  Proposal (15%)  Theoretical basis. results and evaluations (45%)  Conclusion (15%)  Discussion (20%) .

Confidence  Use Humour but don’t over-run  Maintain eye contact  Control your voice  Control your motion  Take care with your appearance  Don’t start talking with apologies .Getting through Audience  Practise your talk  Use Repetition  Convey Enthusiasm. Excitement.

Visual and Aural Aids  Overhead projectors  Don’t overload transparencies  Avoid slide covering  Use colors effectively  Use pictures and tables  Beware of the microphone  Familiarize yourself with stage .

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