ASTM Standards for Polymer Tensile Testing

1.0Introduction
ASTM International or American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. ASTM, founded in 1898 as the American Section of the International Association for Testing and Materials, predates other standards organizations

1.1 ASTM Standards for Polymer Tensile Testing
     ASTM D638 – 10 ASTM D3039 / D3039M – 08 ASTM D5083 – 10 ASTM D882 – 12 ASTM D1822 – 06

1.1.1 ASTM D638 - 10: Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics This test method is designed to produce tensile property data for the control and specification of plastic materials. These data are also useful for qualitative characterization and for research and development. For many materials, there may be a specification that requires the use of this test method, but with some procedural modifications that take precedence when adhering to the specification. Tensile properties may vary with specimen preparation and with speed and environment of testing. Consequently, where precise comparative results are desired, these factors must be carefully controlled. It is realized that a material cannot be tested without also testing the method of preparation of that material. Hence, when comparative tests of materials per se are desired, the greatest care must be exercised to ensure that all samples are prepared in exactly the same way, unless the test is to include the effects of sample preparation. Similarly, for referee purposes or comparisons within any given series of specimens, care must be taken to secure the maximum degree of uniformity in details of preparation, treatment, and handling. Scope:  This test method covers the determination of the tensile properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics in the form of standard dumbbell-shaped test specimens when tested

  

under defined conditions of pretreatment, temperature, humidity, and testing machine speed. This test method can be used for testing materials of any thickness up to 14 mm (0.55 in.). However, for testing specimens in the form of thin sheeting, including film less than 1.0 mm (0.04 in.) in thickness. This test method includes the option of determining Poisson's ratio at room temperature. Test data obtained by this test method are relevant and appropriate for use in engineering design. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

1.1.2 ASTM D3039 / D3039M – 08 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials This test method is designed to produce tensile property data for material specifications, research and development, quality assurance, and structural design and analysis. Factors that influence the tensile response and should therefore be reported include the following: material, methods of material preparation and lay-up, specimen stacking sequence, specimen preparation, specimen conditioning, environment of testing, specimen alignment and gripping, speed of testing, time at temperature, void content, and volume percent reinforcement. Properties, in the test direction, which may be obtained from this test method include the following:      Scope:  This test method determines the in-plane tensile properties of polymer matrix composite materials reinforced by high-modulus fibers. The composite material forms are limited to continuous fiber or discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites in which the laminate is balanced and symmetric with respect to the test direction. The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the inch-pound units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate Ultimate tensile strength Ultimate tensile strain Tensile chord modulus of elasticity Poisson's ratio Transition strain

safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.1.3 ASTM D5083 – 10 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Reinforced Thermosetting Plastics Using Straight-Sided Specimens This test method is intended for tensile testing of fiber-reinforced thermosetting laminates. This test method is designed to produce tensile property data for quality control and research and development. Factors that influence the tensile properties, and should therefore be reported, are: material, methods of material and specimen preparation, specimen conditioning, test environment, speed of testing, void content, and volume percent reinforcement. It is realized that a material cannot be tested without also specifying the method of preparation of that material. Hence, when comparative tests of materials per se are desired, the greatest care must be exercised to ensure that all samples are prepared in exactly the same way, unless the test is to include the effects of sample preparation. Similarly, for referee purposes or comparisons within any given series of specimen, care must be taken to secure the maximum degree of uniformity in details of preparation, treatment, and handling. Scope:  This test method covers the determination of the tensile properties of thermosetting reinforced plastics using test specimens of uniform nominal width when tested under defined conditions of pretreatment, temperature, humidity, and testing-machine speed. This test method can be used for testing materials of any thickness up to 14 mm (0.55 in). Test data obtained by this test method is relevant and appropriate for use in engineering design. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only.

  

1.1.4 ASTM D882 – 12 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic Sheeting Tensile properties determined by this test method are of value for the identification and characterization of materials for control and specification purposes. Tensile properties can vary with specimen thickness, method of preparation, speed of testing, type of grips used, and manner of measuring extension. Consequently, where precise comparative results are desired, these factors must be carefully controlled. This test method shall be used for referee purposes, unless otherwise indicated in particular material specifications. For many materials, there can be a specification that requires the use of this test method, but with some procedural modifications

that take precedence when adhering to the specification. Therefore, it is advisable to refer to that material specification before using this test method. Tensile properties can be utilized to provide data for research and development and engineering design as well as quality control and specification. However, data from such tests cannot be considered significant for applications differing widely from the load-time scale of the test employed. The tensile modulus of elasticity is an index of the stiffness of thin plastic sheeting. The reproducibility of test results is good when precise control is maintained over all test conditions. When different materials are being compared for stiffness, specimens of identical dimensions must be employed. The tensile energy to break (TEB) is the total energy absorbed per unit volume of the specimen up to the point of rupture. In some texts this property has been referred to as toughness. It is used to evaluate materials that are subjected to heavy abuse or that can stall web transport equipment in the event of a machine malfunction in end-use applications. However, the rate of strain, specimen parameters, and especially flaws can cause large variations in the results. In that sense, caution is advised in utilizing TEB test results for end-use design applications. Scope:       This test method covers the determination of tensile properties of plastics in the form of thin sheeting and films (less than 1.0 mm (0.04 in.) in thickness). This test method can be used to test all plastics within the thickness range described and the capacity of the machine employed. Specimen extension can be measured by grip separation, extension indicators, or displacement of gage marks. The procedure for determining the tensile modulus of elasticity is included at one strain rate. Test data obtained by this test method is relevant and appropriate for use in engineering design. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are provided for information only.

1.1.5 ASTM D1822 – 06 Standard Test Method for Tensile-Impact Energy to Break Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials This test method covers the determination of the energy required to rupture standard tensionimpact specimens of plastic or electrical insulating materials. Materials that can be tested by this

test method are those too flexible or too thin to be tested in accordance with Test Methods D 256, as well as more rigid materials. Scope:   The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in brackets are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.