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Dhofar University

School of Engineering

Department

Lab Manual
Prepared By,

Salalah, Sultanate of Oman

CONTENTS
1. Study of OrCAD Pspice Simulation
2. Using Oscilloscope and Function Generator
3. Using Multi meter
4. Current Divider Design and verification of Kirchhoff’s Law
5. Voltage Divider Design and verification of Kirchhoff’s Law
6. Mesh Analysis
7. Verification of Thevenin’s theorem
8. Source transformation Technique
9. Verification of Superposition theorem
10.Transient Analysis of RL Circuits
11.Transient Analysis of RC Circuits
12.Measurement of Power in AC Circuits
13.Measurement of Powerfactor in R, RL and RC Circuits
14.Verification of Kirchhoff’s Law in Frequency Domain

2 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

Experiment No.01

Objective: To study the operation and functions of OrCAD Pspice by design and
simulate the simple electric circuits.

Q1. Calculate the current, voltage across the element and the power delivered by the
source theoretically and simulates the circuit, obtain the output using OrCAD Pspice for
the circuit shown in Figure 1.

Schematic diagram:

4 Ohm

24V DC

Figure 1

Procedure

1. Use Ohm's Law (I=E/R) to calculate current flowing through the circuit.
2. Calculate the value of voltage across the element and the power delivered by the
source.
3. Create a new project in OrCAD Pspice and connect the elements as shown in
Figure 1.
4. Change the value of elements and save the project.
5. Create a new simulation profile by entering Pspice and edit the simulation profile.
6. Apply the simulation profile and run simulation.
7. Add plot to window using Plot if necessary and click on trace to add the
parameter you need to view the output.
8. Obtain the output file by entering simulation and click on view output file
document.
9. Copy and Save the output files by copy to clip board from Window bar on the tool
bar.
10. Compare the simulation output with the calculated values and verify the result.

Calculations:

(a) Define Ohm’s Law

(b) Given Data
(c) Formulae Used
(d) Calculation

Result:

Thus the OrCAD Pspice has been studied by design and simulated simple
electric circuit.

Lab Sheet Format:

1. Title
2. Objective
3. Equip. and Comp.
4. Schematic Diagram
5. Procedure
6. Circuit Diagram ( with values)
7. Calculation
8. Simulation Circuit
9. Output
a. Plot (Voltage, Current, Power)
b. Output File
10. Result

Q2. Calculate the voltage across the element and the power delivered by the source
theoretically and simulate the circuit; obtain the output using OrCAD Pspice for the
circuit shown in Figure 2.

3 Ohms

10 A dc

Experiment No.02

Using Oscilloscope and Function generator for Measurement and

Testing purposes

Objective:
To familiarize with the use Oscilloscope and Function generator for Measurement
and Testing purposes and interface the oscilloscope with PC to obtain the results

Equipments and Components

 Oscilloscope
 Function generator
 Connecting probes

Theory:

 An oscilloscope is a voltage measurement device.

 Unlike a voltmeter, an oscilloscope does not display a single number.
 An oscilloscope displays signals - voltages that are functions of time.
 Oscilloscopes can measure signal parameters - like frequency, peak-to-peak
voltages, RMS values of signals, etc.

Since an oscilloscope displays time-varying signal, you need a voltage source that
produces a time-varying signal. Some sources of time-varying voltages include the
following - which is very far from an exhaustive list.

 A function generator (also often referred to as a signal generator) produces

standard kinds of signals for test purposes. Those signals include sinusoidal
signals, triangles, square wave signals and even random signals.

Measuring a Signal

 Set the frequency of the signal generator output to 2 kHz.

 Set the amplitude of the signal generator output to 2 volts.
 Connect the output of the signal generator to the oscilloscope. Be sure that the
two grounds are connected together. If you use a coax cable make sure you have
it connected correctly.

Now you need to set the oscilloscope so that it can display the signal. If you're lucky the
oscillscope will have an autoscale button. If not:

5 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

 Be sure that the timebase is set to something like 0.5 milliseconds/cm. A 1kHz
signal has a period of one millisecond. This setting will let you see a few cycles
of a 1 kHz signal.
 Be sure that the vertical sensitivity is set to something like 0.5 volts/cm.
 Adjust the trigger: The oscilloscope needs a signal to tell it when to start the
display process - moving the dot across the screen.

Triggering the oscilloscope

 The trigger can be an external signal, the power line, or the signal you are
displaying. Usually, the dot starts across the screen when the trigger signal goes
through zero volts - but you can change the voltage level if you want. If you are
using the power line, then you are triggering with a signal that usually has no
relation to the signal being displayed. When that happens it is very frustrating
trying to figure out why you see chaos.
 In multi-channel scopes, you can trigger off Channel 2, when you're only putting
a signal into Channel 1. If there is no signal going to Channel 2, then you have no
trigger signal. You need a trigger signal, so don't do that! Set the scope to trigger
off Channel 1 if your signal is going into Channel 1.
 It is possible to get the trigger level set incorrectly without knowing it. If your
signal never gets above 5 volts and the trigger level is at 20 volts, then you can
spend a lot of time wondering why you can't see your signal.

Assignment

1) Generate the sine wave for 50Hz, 4 volts peak to peak using function generator
and view the output in Oscilloscope.
2) Generate the square wave for 100Hz, 1.5 volts using function generator and view
the output in Oscilloscope.
3) Generate the triangular wave for 1kHz, 2.5 volts using function generator and
view the output in Oscilloscope.

Experiment No.03

Using Multimeter to measure Voltage, Current and Resistance

Objective:

To measure voltage, current, and resistance using the Multimeter provided in the lab and
Verify theoretically calculated results using basic network laws.

Variable Power Supply

Multimeter
Resistors

Schematic diagrams:

An ammeter measures current, a voltmeter measures the potential difference (voltage)

between two points, and an ohmmeter measures resistance. A multimeter combines these
functions and possibly some additional ones as well, into a single instrument.

The following diagrams show a multimeter can be used to measure current, voltage and
resistance:

Procedure:

1. To measure current, the circuit must be broken to allow the ammeter to be

connected in series. Ammeters must have a LOW resistance

2. To measure potential difference (voltage), the circuit is not changed: the voltmeter
is connected in parallel. voltmeters must have a HIGH resistance

3. An ohmmeter does not function with a circuit connected to a power supply. If you
want to measure the resistance of a particular component, you must take it out of
the circuit altogether and test it separately.

Assignment:

Measure the resistance using color coding and also measure voltage and
current of the circuit given theoretically, implement the hardware and simulate the
circuit using Pspice. Compare the results and verify them.

R1

R?

V1
5Vdc

Experiment No.04

Voltage Divider design and Verification of Ohm’s law and

Kirchhoff’s voltage law

Objective:

To design Voltage Divider circuit using the given resistor and verify Kirchhoff’s voltage
law theoretically, implement the hardware and simulate the circuit for the same using
Pspice and compare the results.

Equipments and Components

 12-volt battery
 Resistors
 Multimeter

Schematic diagram:

Procedure

1. Connect the three resistors in series, and to the 6-volt battery, as shown in the
illustrations. Measure battery voltage with a voltmeter after the resistors has been
connected to it.
2. Use Ohm's Law (I=E/R) to calculate circuit current, and then verify this
calculated value by measuring current with an ammeter.
3. The measured value of current should agree closely with your Ohm's Law
calculation. Now, take that calculated value for current and multiply it by the
respective resistances of each resistor to predict their voltage drops (E=IR).
Switch multimeter to the "voltage" mode and measure the voltage dropped across
9 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory
each resistor, verifying the accuracy of your predictions. Again, there should be
close agreement between the calculated and measured voltage figures.
4. Verification of Kirchhoff's Voltage Law: Use the numbers 0 through 3 is shown
here in both illustrative and schematic form.

5. Using a digital voltmeter measure voltage drops around the loop formed by the
points 0-1-2-3-0. Write on paper each of these voltages, along with its respective
sign as indicated by the meter.
6. These figures, algebraically added ("algebraically" = respecting the signs of the
numbers), should equal zero. This is the fundamental principle of Kirchhoff's
Voltage Law: that the algebraic sum of all voltage drops in a “loop” adds to zero.

Result:

Thus the current divider circuit is designed, the output are obtained and verified
by comparing the result with simulation output.

Lab Sheet Format:

1. Title
2. Objective
3. Equip. and Comp.
4. Circuit Diagram ( with values)
5. Details
a. State Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law
b. Given Data
c. Formulae Used
d. Calculations
6. Hardware Results
a. Resistance
b. Voltage across resistors
c. Current
7. Simulation Results

10 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

a. Plot 1 (V1,V2,V3)
b. Plot 2 (V, I, P)
c. Output File
8. Result

Experiment No.05

Current Divider design and Verification of Ohm’s law and

Kirchhoff’s current law

Objective:

To design Current Divider circuit using the given resistor and verify Kirchhoff’s current
law theoretically, implement the hardware and simulate the circuit for the same using
Pspice and compare the results.

Equipments and Components

 Voltage Source
 Resistors
 Multimeter
 Pspice Programming

Schematic diagram:

Procedure

11. Connect the three resistors in parallel to and each other, and with the 12-volt
battery, as shown in the illustrations. Measure battery voltage with a voltmeter
after the resistors have been connected to it, noting this voltage figure on paper as
well.
12. Measure voltage across each of the three resistors.
13. Use Ohm's Law (I=E/R) to calculate current through each resistor, and then verify
this calculated value by measuring current with a digital ammeter.
14. Calculate the power delivered by the source.

12 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

15. Measure current for each of the three resistors, comparing with the current figures
calculated previously.
16. Measure total circuit current.
17. Note both the magnitude and the sign of the current as indicated by the ammeter.
Add this figure (algebraically) to the three resistor currents.
18. Disconnect the battery from the rest of the circuit, and measure resistance across
the parallel resistors.
19. Divide the battery voltage (previously measured) by this total resistance figure,
you should obtain a figure for total current (I=E/R) closely matching the measured
figure.
20. The ratio of resistor current to total current is the same as the ratio of total
resistance to individual resistance.
21. Design and simulate the circuit in OrCAD Pspice and generate the output for
voltage, current flowing through each elements, and the power delivered by the
source.

Result:

Thus the current divider circuit is designed using the given resistor, the values are
calculated theoretically and, the results verified by comparing the them with hardware
and simulation output.

Lab Sheet Format:

9. Title
10. Objective
11. Equip. and Comp.
12. Schematic Diagram
13. Details
a. State Kirchhoff’s Current Law
b. Given Data
c. Formulae Used
d. Circuit Diagram ( with values)
e. Calculations
14. Simulation Circuit
15. Output
a. Plot 1 ( I1, I2, I3)
b. Plot 2 (V, I, P)
c. Output File
16. Result

13 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

Experiment No.06

MESH ANALYSIS

1. Find the current i1 for the circuit shown in Figure by using mesh analysis. Use
PSpice to analyze the circuit and to generate output file and plot of the voltage i
versus t.

Objective:
(i) To analyze the given circuit and find current i1 using mesh analysis
theoretically.
(ii) To analyze the circuit and generate the output using Pspice.
(iii) To verify the result by a hardware.

Equipments:

1. Resistors
2. DC voltage source – 12V, 5V
3. Multimeter
4. Connecting Wires
6. Pspice programming.

Circuit Diagram:

Procedures:

22. Connect the three resistors with each other, and with the Voltage source and
Current source, as shown in the illustrations.
23. Set the voltage source as 6volts and current source as 5amps
24. Measure battery voltage with a voltmeter after the resistors have been connected
to it, noting this voltage figure on paper as well.

14 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

25. Measure the current flowing through each of the three resistors and the current i1
using nodal analysis.
26. Verify this calculated value by measuring current with a digital ammeter.
27. Switch OFF the supply and disconnect the circuit.

1. Assembling of the electric circuit using Pspice software.

2. Changing the value of the part according to the electric circuit shown in the
figure.
3. Setting up the parameters.
4. Simulate the circuit.

Direction and Magnitude of current

(a) If the current flowing direction is same as to the source, then the
magnitude of current is positive (+).
(b) If the current flowing direction is opposite to source, then the
magnitude of current is negative (-).

Lab Sheet Format:

11. Title
12. Objective
13. Equip. and Comp.
14. Circuit Diagram
15. Procedure
16. Circuit Diagram ( with values)
17. Calculation
a. Given Data
b. Formulae Used
c. Calculations
18. Output Plot
19. Hardware Output
20. Result

15 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

Experiment No.07

SOURCE TRANSFORMATION

Objective:
(iv) To analyze the given circuits theoretically using source transformation
technique
(v) To analyze the circuit and generate the output using Pspice.
(vi) To verify the result by comparing with simulation output and hardware
results

Equipments and Components:

7. Resistors
8. Power Supply
10. Connecting Wires
11. Pspice programming

Circuit Diagram:

24Vdc

Figure 1

Figure 2

Procedures:

28. Convert the circuits shown in Figure 1 and 2 using source transformation
technique.
29. Design and simulate the circuits using Pspice.
30. Compare and verify the calculated results with simulation output.

Result:
16 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory
Thus the source transformation technique has been studied by analyzing various
circuits. The simulation and hardware results are compared with theoretical calculation
and verified.

Lab Report Format:

1. Title
2. Objectives
3. Equipments and Components
4. Procedure
5. Circuit Diagram
6. Calculation
7. Hardware results (if available)
8. Simulation results
9. Result

Assignment

R3 R4

2 3
R5 R6 V3
I2 12
4 8

17 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

2. Apply source transformation technique to determine the voltage across resistor R1
and current flowing through it for the given circuit. Implement the hardware and
verify the results.

R3 R2

470 220

V1 V2
10Vdc R1 R4 8Vdc
1k 2k

3. Apply source transformation technique to determine voltage across resistor R1

and current flowing through the circuit.
R3

I1 R1 15Vdc V1

18 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

Experiment No.08

SUPERPOSITION THEOREM

Objective:
(vii) To analyze the given circuit theoretically and find voltage v using
superposition theorem.
(viii) To analyze the circuit and generate the output using Pspice.
(ix) To verify the result by a hardware.

Equipments:

12. Resistors
13. Power supply
14. Multimeter
16. Connecting wires
17. Pspice programming.

Circuit Diagram:

R1

8
+
6V R2
v I1
V1 4
- 3A

0V

0
Procedures:

31. Calculate the voltage across the resistor for the given circuit using superposition
technique theoretically.
32. Connect the three resistors with each other, and with the Voltage sources as
shown in the illustrations.
33. Set the voltage source values as shown in figure.
34. Measure battery voltage with a voltmeter after the resistors have been connected
to it, noting this voltage figure on paper as well.
35. Measure the voltage across the resistor R1 using multimeter.
36. Switch OFF the supply and disconnect the circuit.
37. Simulate the circuit using Pspice
38. Verify this calculated value with simulation results and hardware outputs.
19 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory
2. Find voltage across resistor R1 for the circuit shown in Figure by using the
superposition theorem. Use PSpice to analyze the circuit and to generate output
file and plot.

R3 R2

5
3
V1
R1 I1 20Vdc

3. Find voltage across resistor R1 for the circuit shown in Figure by using the
superposition theorem. Use PSpice to analyze the circuit and to generate output
file and plot. Implement the hardware and obtain the output.

R2 R3

220
470

V2
12Vdc R1 V3
8Vdc
1k

Experiment No.09

Transient Analysis of RC Circuits

4. Find the voltage vc(t) for t<0 and t>0 in the circuit shown in Figure1. Use PSpice
to analyze the circuit and to generate output file.

Objective:
To study the transient response of the given RC circuits.

Equipments and Components:

18. Capacitor.
19. Resistance.
20. Timer switch.
21. DC voltage source.
22. Pspice programming.

Procedures:
5. Assembling of the electric circuit using Pspice software.
6. Changing the value of the part according to the electric circuit shown in the figure
below.
7. Setting up the transient parameters.
8. Simulate the circuit.

Circuit Diagram:

R1 t=0 R3
1 2
U1
3
1
V1

24Vdc R2 C1
9 20m

Figure 1

21 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

5. Find the voltage vc(t) for t<0 and t>0 in the circuit shown in Figure2. Use PSpice
to analyze the circuit and to generate output file.

R1 t=0
1 2
U1
6

V1
R2 R3
24Vdc C1
12 4
1/6

Figure2

Lab Report Format:

1) Title
2) Objective
3) Equipments and Components
4) Circuit diagram
5) Calculation
6) Simulation Results

Experiment No.10

Transient Analysis of RL Circuits

6. Determine the inductor current i(t) for both t0 and t0 for each of the circuits
in Figure1 and Figure2.

Objective:

To study the response of the given RL circuit.

Equipments:

1. Indictor.
2. Resistance.
3. Timer switch.
4. DC voltage source.
5. Pspice programming.

Procedure:

1. Assembling of the electric circuit using Pspice software.

2. Changing the value of the part according to the electric circuit shown in the figure
below.
3. Setting up the transient parameters.
4. Simulate the circuit.

Circuit Diagram:

R8 0 R9
1 2
U3
2 4

1
V4
40Vdc L2
R10 R11
2H
12 16

23 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

Figure1
R8 R9

2 2

1
V4 1
24Vdc L2
U4 R11
2H
0 4
2
2

Figure 2

7) Title
8) Objective
9) Equipments and Components
10) Circuit diagram
11) Calculation
12) Simulation Results

Experiment No.11

MEASUREMENT OF POWER IN AC CIRCUITS

Objective:
(i) To analyze the given circuits theoretically and calculate the power.
(ii) To analyze the circuit and generate the output file using Pspice.

Equipments:

Circuit Diagram:

R1 L1
1 2
12 10j

R2
V1
150Vac 8
0Vdc

C1
6j

Procedures:

39. Calculate the power for the circuit theoretically.

40. Assemble the given electric circuit using Pspice software.
41. Change the value of the parts according to the electric circuit shown in the figure.
42. Setting up the parameters.
43. Simulate the circuit.
44. Compare the output of the simulation with the calculated values and verify the
result.

Result:
Thus the power calculation for the given circuit is studied and simulated.

Experiment No.12

7. Find the powerfactor R, RL and RC circuits shown in Figure A, B and C

respectively. Use PSpice to analyze the circuit and generate plots of the voltage v
versus time and current i versus t.

Objective:
(i) To analyze the given circuits theoretically and find the powerfactor.
(ii) To analyze the circuit and generate the output file using Pspice.

Equipments:

24. Resistors
25. Capacitor
26. Inductor
27. AC voltage source – 220V, 50Hz
28. Pspice programming.

Circuit Diagram:

R1

1 Ohm
V1
VAMPL = 220V

FREQ = 50Hz

0
Figure A. R Circuit

26 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

R1 L1
1 2
1k 1mH

VAMPL = 220V V1
FREQ = 50Hz

0
Figure B. RL Circuit

R1 C1

1 1uF
V1
VAMPL = 220V
FREQ = 50Hz

0
Figure C. RC Circuit

Procedures:

45. Connect the resistor with the Voltage source as shown in Figure A.
46. Calculate the powerfactor for the circuit theoretically.
47. Assemble the given electric circuits individually using Pspice software.
48. Change the value of the parts according to the electric circuit shown in the figure.
49. Setting up the parameters.
50. Simulate the circuit.
51. Compare the output of the simulation with the calculated values and verify the
result.
52. Repeat the above procedure to find the powerfactor for RL and RC circuits.

Powerfactor:

It is defined as the cosine of the phase difference between voltage and current.
The value of powerfactor ranges between zero and unity.

27 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

R Circuit:

For a purely resistive load, the voltage and current are in phase, so
that  v   i  0 . Therefore, the powerfactor is cos 0  1

The power factor of purely resistive load is unity.

RL Circuit:

For an inductive load, the current lags voltage by 900, so that  v   i  90 .
Therefore, the powerfactor is cos1  0

RC Circuit:

For a capacitive load, the current leads voltage by 900, so that  v   i  90 .

Therefore, the powerfactor is cos1  0

Result:
Thus the power factor R, RL, RC circuits are studied and simulated.

Experiment No.13

KIRCHHOFF’S LAW IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN

8. Find voltage v(t) and current i(t) for the circuit shown in Figure applying
kirchhoff’s law. Use PSpice to analyze the circuit and to generate output file .

Objective:
(i) To analyze the given circuit theoretically and find voltage v(t) and current
i(t) using kirchhoff’s law.
(ii) To analyze the circuit and generate the output file using Pspice.

Equipments:

29. Resistor - 5Ω
30. Capacitor – 0.1F
31. AC voltage source – 10V
32. Pspice programming.

Circuit Diagram:

i 5 ohm

R
Vs +
10cos4t
0.1F v
C
-

Procedures:

53. Connect the resistor and capacitor with the Voltage source as shown in the
illustration.
54. Calculate the voltage v(t) and current i(t).
55. Assemble the given electric circuit using Pspice software.
56. Change the value of the parts according to the electric circuit shown in the figure
below.
57. Setting up the parameters.
58. Simulate the circuit.

29 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

Setting the parameters

(a) Select Pspice and click new simulation profile.

(b) Create new simulation and select AC sweep as analysis type to obtain
output file.
(c) Calculate the frequency for the given circuit, and enter the same as start
frequency, and end frequency in sweep type, enter total points as 1.

Calculations:

Given:-
Vs = 10sin4t , therefore   4
Vs= 100 0
4
  2f , therefore f   0.636 Hz
2
The impedance is
1 1
Z  R = 5 = 5-j2.5Ω
j C j 4 * 0.1
Hence the current
Vs 100 0 10(5  j 2.5)
I = = 2
Z 5 - j2.5 5  2. 5 2
= 1.6+j0.8 = 1.789  26.57 0 A

The voltage across the capacitor is

I 1.789  26.57 0
V  IZc  
jC j 4 * 0.1
0
1.789  26.57
=  4.47  63.43V
0.490 0

Simulation Circuit:

30 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

PHASE = y es
MAG = y es IPRINT
AC = y es
R1
AC = y es
MAG = y es
5
PHASE = y es
V1
10Vac
0Vdc C1
0.1

0
Output File:
** Profile: "SCHEMATIC1-ac test" [ C:\orcad\ac test-schematic1-ac test.sim ]

**** AC ANALYSIS TEMPERATURE = 27.000 DEG C

******************************************************************************

FREQ IM(V_PRINT1)IP(V_PRINT1)

6.360E-01 1.789E+00 2.659E+01

**** 10/03/08 13:13:59 ********* PSpice 9.2 (Mar 2000) ******** ID# 1 ********

**** AC ANALYSIS TEMPERATURE = 27.000 DEG C

******************************************************************************

JOB CONCLUDED

Result :

31 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory

Assignment:

1. Find voltage v(t) and current i(t) for the circuit shown in Figure applying
kirchhoff’s law. Use PSpice to analyze the circuit and to generate output file.

4
1

5 sin 10t 0.2H

1. Find voltage v(t)) for the circuit shown in Figure applying kirchhoff’s law.
Use PSpice to analyze the circuit and to generate output file.

60
1

10mF
5H
20 cos (4t-15)
2

Key:

Source