School of Engineering
Lab Manual
Prepared By,
Objective: To study the operation and functions of OrCAD Pspice by design and
simulate the simple electric circuits.
Q1. Calculate the current, voltage across the element and the power delivered by the
source theoretically and simulates the circuit, obtain the output using OrCAD Pspice for
the circuit shown in Figure 1.
Schematic diagram:
4 Ohm
24V DC
Figure 1
Procedure
1. Use Ohm's Law (I=E/R) to calculate current flowing through the circuit.
2. Calculate the value of voltage across the element and the power delivered by the
source.
3. Create a new project in OrCAD Pspice and connect the elements as shown in
Figure 1.
4. Change the value of elements and save the project.
5. Create a new simulation profile by entering Pspice and edit the simulation profile.
6. Apply the simulation profile and run simulation.
7. Add plot to window using Plot if necessary and click on trace to add the
parameter you need to view the output.
8. Obtain the output file by entering simulation and click on view output file
document.
9. Copy and Save the output files by copy to clip board from Window bar on the tool
bar.
10. Compare the simulation output with the calculated values and verify the result.
Result:
Thus the OrCAD Pspice has been studied by design and simulated simple
electric circuit.
1. Title
2. Objective
3. Equip. and Comp.
4. Schematic Diagram
5. Procedure
6. Circuit Diagram ( with values)
7. Calculation
8. Simulation Circuit
9. Output
a. Plot (Voltage, Current, Power)
b. Output File
10. Result
Q2. Calculate the voltage across the element and the power delivered by the source
theoretically and simulate the circuit; obtain the output using OrCAD Pspice for the
circuit shown in Figure 2.
3 Ohms
10 A dc
Objective:
To familiarize with the use Oscilloscope and Function generator for Measurement
and Testing purposes and interface the oscilloscope with PC to obtain the results
Oscilloscope
Function generator
Connecting probes
Theory:
Since an oscilloscope displays timevarying signal, you need a voltage source that
produces a timevarying signal. Some sources of timevarying voltages include the
following  which is very far from an exhaustive list.
Measuring a Signal
Now you need to set the oscilloscope so that it can display the signal. If you're lucky the
oscillscope will have an autoscale button. If not:
The trigger can be an external signal, the power line, or the signal you are
displaying. Usually, the dot starts across the screen when the trigger signal goes
through zero volts  but you can change the voltage level if you want. If you are
using the power line, then you are triggering with a signal that usually has no
relation to the signal being displayed. When that happens it is very frustrating
trying to figure out why you see chaos.
In multichannel scopes, you can trigger off Channel 2, when you're only putting
a signal into Channel 1. If there is no signal going to Channel 2, then you have no
trigger signal. You need a trigger signal, so don't do that! Set the scope to trigger
off Channel 1 if your signal is going into Channel 1.
It is possible to get the trigger level set incorrectly without knowing it. If your
signal never gets above 5 volts and the trigger level is at 20 volts, then you can
spend a lot of time wondering why you can't see your signal.
Assignment
1) Generate the sine wave for 50Hz, 4 volts peak to peak using function generator
and view the output in Oscilloscope.
2) Generate the square wave for 100Hz, 1.5 volts using function generator and view
the output in Oscilloscope.
3) Generate the triangular wave for 1kHz, 2.5 volts using function generator and
view the output in Oscilloscope.
Objective:
To measure voltage, current, and resistance using the Multimeter provided in the lab and
Verify theoretically calculated results using basic network laws.
Schematic diagrams:
The following diagrams show a multimeter can be used to measure current, voltage and
resistance:
2. To measure potential difference (voltage), the circuit is not changed: the voltmeter
is connected in parallel. voltmeters must have a HIGH resistance
3. An ohmmeter does not function with a circuit connected to a power supply. If you
want to measure the resistance of a particular component, you must take it out of
the circuit altogether and test it separately.
Assignment:
Measure the resistance using color coding and also measure voltage and
current of the circuit given theoretically, implement the hardware and simulate the
circuit using Pspice. Compare the results and verify them.
R1
R?
V1
5Vdc
Objective:
To design Voltage Divider circuit using the given resistor and verify Kirchhoff’s voltage
law theoretically, implement the hardware and simulate the circuit for the same using
Pspice and compare the results.
12volt battery
Resistors
Breadboard
Connecting Leads
Multimeter
Schematic diagram:
Procedure
1. Connect the three resistors in series, and to the 6volt battery, as shown in the
illustrations. Measure battery voltage with a voltmeter after the resistors has been
connected to it.
2. Use Ohm's Law (I=E/R) to calculate circuit current, and then verify this
calculated value by measuring current with an ammeter.
3. The measured value of current should agree closely with your Ohm's Law
calculation. Now, take that calculated value for current and multiply it by the
respective resistances of each resistor to predict their voltage drops (E=IR).
Switch multimeter to the "voltage" mode and measure the voltage dropped across
9 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory
each resistor, verifying the accuracy of your predictions. Again, there should be
close agreement between the calculated and measured voltage figures.
4. Verification of Kirchhoff's Voltage Law: Use the numbers 0 through 3 is shown
here in both illustrative and schematic form.
5. Using a digital voltmeter measure voltage drops around the loop formed by the
points 01230. Write on paper each of these voltages, along with its respective
sign as indicated by the meter.
6. These figures, algebraically added ("algebraically" = respecting the signs of the
numbers), should equal zero. This is the fundamental principle of Kirchhoff's
Voltage Law: that the algebraic sum of all voltage drops in a “loop” adds to zero.
Result:
Thus the current divider circuit is designed, the output are obtained and verified
by comparing the result with simulation output.
1. Title
2. Objective
3. Equip. and Comp.
4. Circuit Diagram ( with values)
5. Details
a. State Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law
b. Given Data
c. Formulae Used
d. Calculations
e. Answers
6. Hardware Results
a. Resistance
b. Voltage across resistors
c. Current
7. Simulation Results
Objective:
To design Current Divider circuit using the given resistor and verify Kirchhoff’s current
law theoretically, implement the hardware and simulate the circuit for the same using
Pspice and compare the results.
Voltage Source
Resistors
Multimeter
Breadboard
Connecting leads
Pspice Programming
Schematic diagram:
Procedure
11. Connect the three resistors in parallel to and each other, and with the 12volt
battery, as shown in the illustrations. Measure battery voltage with a voltmeter
after the resistors have been connected to it, noting this voltage figure on paper as
well.
12. Measure voltage across each of the three resistors.
13. Use Ohm's Law (I=E/R) to calculate current through each resistor, and then verify
this calculated value by measuring current with a digital ammeter.
14. Calculate the power delivered by the source.
Result:
Thus the current divider circuit is designed using the given resistor, the values are
calculated theoretically and, the results verified by comparing the them with hardware
and simulation output.
9. Title
10. Objective
11. Equip. and Comp.
12. Schematic Diagram
13. Details
a. State Kirchhoff’s Current Law
b. Given Data
c. Formulae Used
d. Circuit Diagram ( with values)
e. Calculations
f. Answers
14. Simulation Circuit
15. Output
a. Plot 1 ( I1, I2, I3)
b. Plot 2 (V, I, P)
c. Output File
16. Result
MESH ANALYSIS
1. Find the current i1 for the circuit shown in Figure by using mesh analysis. Use
PSpice to analyze the circuit and to generate output file and plot of the voltage i
versus t.
Objective:
(i) To analyze the given circuit and find current i1 using mesh analysis
theoretically.
(ii) To analyze the circuit and generate the output using Pspice.
(iii) To verify the result by a hardware.
Equipments:
1. Resistors
2. DC voltage source – 12V, 5V
3. Multimeter
4. Connecting Wires
5. Breadboard
6. Pspice programming.
Circuit Diagram:
Procedures:
22. Connect the three resistors with each other, and with the Voltage source and
Current source, as shown in the illustrations.
23. Set the voltage source as 6volts and current source as 5amps
24. Measure battery voltage with a voltmeter after the resistors have been connected
to it, noting this voltage figure on paper as well.
(a) If the current flowing direction is same as to the source, then the
magnitude of current is positive (+).
(b) If the current flowing direction is opposite to source, then the
magnitude of current is negative ().
11. Title
12. Objective
13. Equip. and Comp.
14. Circuit Diagram
15. Procedure
16. Circuit Diagram ( with values)
17. Calculation
a. Given Data
b. Formulae Used
c. Calculations
d. Answers
18. Output Plot
19. Hardware Output
20. Result
SOURCE TRANSFORMATION
Objective:
(iv) To analyze the given circuits theoretically using source transformation
technique
(v) To analyze the circuit and generate the output using Pspice.
(vi) To verify the result by comparing with simulation output and hardware
results
7. Resistors
8. Power Supply
9. Breadboard
10. Connecting Wires
11. Pspice programming
Circuit Diagram:
24Vdc
Figure 1
5Adc
Figure 2
Procedures:
28. Convert the circuits shown in Figure 1 and 2 using source transformation
technique.
29. Design and simulate the circuits using Pspice.
30. Compare and verify the calculated results with simulation output.
Result:
16 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory
Thus the source transformation technique has been studied by analyzing various
circuits. The simulation and hardware results are compared with theoretical calculation
and verified.
1. Title
2. Objectives
3. Equipments and Components
4. Procedure
5. Circuit Diagram
6. Calculation
7. Hardware results (if available)
8. Simulation results
9. Result
Assignment
R3 R4
2 3
R5 R6 V3
I2 12
4 8
3Adc
R3 R2
470 220
V1 V2
10Vdc R1 R4 8Vdc
1k 2k
I1 R1 15Vdc V1
3Adc 3
SUPERPOSITION THEOREM
Objective:
(vii) To analyze the given circuit theoretically and find voltage v using
superposition theorem.
(viii) To analyze the circuit and generate the output using Pspice.
(ix) To verify the result by a hardware.
Equipments:
12. Resistors
13. Power supply
14. Multimeter
15. Breadboard
16. Connecting wires
17. Pspice programming.
Circuit Diagram:
R1
8
+
6V R2
v I1
V1 4
 3A
0V
0
Procedures:
31. Calculate the voltage across the resistor for the given circuit using superposition
technique theoretically.
32. Connect the three resistors with each other, and with the Voltage sources as
shown in the illustrations.
33. Set the voltage source values as shown in figure.
34. Measure battery voltage with a voltmeter after the resistors have been connected
to it, noting this voltage figure on paper as well.
35. Measure the voltage across the resistor R1 using multimeter.
36. Switch OFF the supply and disconnect the circuit.
37. Simulate the circuit using Pspice
38. Verify this calculated value with simulation results and hardware outputs.
19 EECE210L Electric Circuits Laboratory
2. Find voltage across resistor R1 for the circuit shown in Figure by using the
superposition theorem. Use PSpice to analyze the circuit and to generate output
file and plot.
R3 R2
5
3
V1
R1 I1 20Vdc
2 8Adc
3. Find voltage across resistor R1 for the circuit shown in Figure by using the
superposition theorem. Use PSpice to analyze the circuit and to generate output
file and plot. Implement the hardware and obtain the output.
R2 R3
220
470
V2
12Vdc R1 V3
8Vdc
1k
4. Find the voltage vc(t) for t<0 and t>0 in the circuit shown in Figure1. Use PSpice
to analyze the circuit and to generate output file.
Objective:
To study the transient response of the given RC circuits.
18. Capacitor.
19. Resistance.
20. Timer switch.
21. DC voltage source.
22. Pspice programming.
Procedures:
5. Assembling of the electric circuit using Pspice software.
6. Changing the value of the part according to the electric circuit shown in the figure
below.
7. Setting up the transient parameters.
8. Simulate the circuit.
Circuit Diagram:
R1 t=0 R3
1 2
U1
3
1
V1
24Vdc R2 C1
9 20m
Figure 1
R1 t=0
1 2
U1
6
V1
R2 R3
24Vdc C1
12 4
1/6
Figure2
1) Title
2) Objective
3) Equipments and Components
4) Circuit diagram
5) Calculation
6) Simulation Results
6. Determine the inductor current i(t) for both t0 and t0 for each of the circuits
in Figure1 and Figure2.
Objective:
Equipments:
1. Indictor.
2. Resistance.
3. Timer switch.
4. DC voltage source.
5. Pspice programming.
Procedure:
Circuit Diagram:
R8 0 R9
1 2
U3
2 4
1
V4
40Vdc L2
R10 R11
2H
12 16
2 2
1
V4 1
24Vdc L2
U4 R11
2H
0 4
2
2
Figure 2
7) Title
8) Objective
9) Equipments and Components
10) Circuit diagram
11) Calculation
12) Simulation Results
Objective:
(i) To analyze the given circuits theoretically and calculate the power.
(ii) To analyze the circuit and generate the output file using Pspice.
Equipments:
Circuit Diagram:
R1 L1
1 2
12 10j
R2
V1
150Vac 8
0Vdc
C1
6j
Procedures:
Result:
Thus the power calculation for the given circuit is studied and simulated.
Objective:
(i) To analyze the given circuits theoretically and find the powerfactor.
(ii) To analyze the circuit and generate the output file using Pspice.
Equipments:
24. Resistors
25. Capacitor
26. Inductor
27. AC voltage source – 220V, 50Hz
28. Pspice programming.
Circuit Diagram:
R1
1 Ohm
V1
VAMPL = 220V
FREQ = 50Hz
0
Figure A. R Circuit
VAMPL = 220V V1
FREQ = 50Hz
0
Figure B. RL Circuit
R1 C1
1 1uF
V1
VAMPL = 220V
FREQ = 50Hz
0
Figure C. RC Circuit
Procedures:
45. Connect the resistor with the Voltage source as shown in Figure A.
46. Calculate the powerfactor for the circuit theoretically.
47. Assemble the given electric circuits individually using Pspice software.
48. Change the value of the parts according to the electric circuit shown in the figure.
49. Setting up the parameters.
50. Simulate the circuit.
51. Compare the output of the simulation with the calculated values and verify the
result.
52. Repeat the above procedure to find the powerfactor for RL and RC circuits.
Powerfactor:
It is defined as the cosine of the phase difference between voltage and current.
The value of powerfactor ranges between zero and unity.
For a purely resistive load, the voltage and current are in phase, so
that v i 0 . Therefore, the powerfactor is cos 0 1
RL Circuit:
For an inductive load, the current lags voltage by 900, so that v i 90 .
Therefore, the powerfactor is cos1 0
RC Circuit:
Result:
Thus the power factor R, RL, RC circuits are studied and simulated.
8. Find voltage v(t) and current i(t) for the circuit shown in Figure applying
kirchhoff’s law. Use PSpice to analyze the circuit and to generate output file .
Objective:
(i) To analyze the given circuit theoretically and find voltage v(t) and current
i(t) using kirchhoff’s law.
(ii) To analyze the circuit and generate the output file using Pspice.
Equipments:
29. Resistor  5Ω
30. Capacitor – 0.1F
31. AC voltage source – 10V
32. Pspice programming.
Circuit Diagram:
i 5 ohm
R
Vs +
10cos4t
0.1F v
C

Procedures:
53. Connect the resistor and capacitor with the Voltage source as shown in the
illustration.
54. Calculate the voltage v(t) and current i(t).
55. Assemble the given electric circuit using Pspice software.
56. Change the value of the parts according to the electric circuit shown in the figure
below.
57. Setting up the parameters.
58. Simulate the circuit.
Calculations:
Given:
Vs = 10sin4t , therefore 4
Vs= 100 0
4
2f , therefore f 0.636 Hz
2
The impedance is
1 1
Z R = 5 = 5j2.5Ω
j C j 4 * 0.1
Hence the current
Vs 100 0 10(5 j 2.5)
I = = 2
Z 5  j2.5 5 2. 5 2
= 1.6+j0.8 = 1.789 26.57 0 A
Simulation Circuit:
0
Output File:
** Profile: "SCHEMATIC1ac test" [ C:\orcad\ac testschematic1ac test.sim ]
******************************************************************************
FREQ IM(V_PRINT1)IP(V_PRINT1)
**** 10/03/08 13:13:59 ********* PSpice 9.2 (Mar 2000) ******** ID# 1 ********
******************************************************************************
JOB CONCLUDED
Result :
1. Find voltage v(t) and current i(t) for the circuit shown in Figure applying
kirchhoff’s law. Use PSpice to analyze the circuit and to generate output file.
4
1
1. Find voltage v(t)) for the circuit shown in Figure applying kirchhoff’s law.
Use PSpice to analyze the circuit and to generate output file.
60
1
10mF
5H
20 cos (4t15)
2
Key: