Foreword

This book, "Electrical Installation Guide according to IEC International Standards", which is compiled and printed in English by Schneider Electric, facilitates utilization of the IEC 60364 series of international standards concerned with safety, guarding, control, performance and protection of circuits, together with fundamentals and rules of electrical installation design. Moreover, the book contains topics of extreme importance that cover wide fields of electric power systems and their installations in different facilities. This renders the book a useful reference to each engineer and specialist in the field and an easy guide to such international standards and their application. SASO, in recognition of the guide's important and comprehensive electric installation content, has translated it into Arabic to enable researchers and specialists to benefit from it in Arabic, if they desire. In its capacity as the body entrusted with issuing and approving Saudi standards, SASO attaches particular importance to verification of safety in electrical installation in buildings. SASO is also acting assiduously to complete work on the national regulations of electrical installation based upon IEC 60364 series of international standards which are adopted as Saudi standards. In view of the divergence of the items of such standards and the many technical options offered, issuing an application guide to these standards is extremely useful. To this effect, the Saudi national regulations of electrical installation in buildings will be used. The guide being introduced here, will be an important reference for "the electrical installation guide according to Saudi standards" as part of the Saudi national regulations of electrical installation in buildings.

Dr. Khaled Y. Al-Khalaf Vice Chairman, Board of Directors and Director General, SASO

contents

A
A. contents B. general - installed power
1. methodology 2. rules and statutory regulations
2.1 definition of voltage ranges
table B1 standard voltages between 100 V and 1000 V (IEC 38-1983) table B2 standard voltages above 1 kV and not exceeding 35 kV (IEC 38-1983) B1 B3 B3 B3 B3 B4 B4 B5 B6 B6 B6 B7 B8 B8 B9 B10 B10 B10 A1

2.2 regulations 2.3 standards 2.4 quality and safety of an electrical installation 2.5 initial testing of an installation 2.6 periodic check-testing of an installation
table B3 frequency of check-tests commonly recommended for an electrical installation

2.7 conformity (with standards and specifications) of equipment used in the installation

3. motor, heating and lighting loads
3.1 induction motors
table B4 power and current values for typical induction motors

3.2 direct-current motors
table B6 progressive starters with voltage ramp table B7 progressive starters with current limitation

3.3 resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps (conventional or halogen)

B11 table B8 current demands of resistive heating and incandescent lighting (conventional or halogen) appliances B11 B11 B12 B12 B13 B13 B14 B14 B15 B15 B16 B16 B17 B17 B17 B17 table B10 current demands and power consumption of commonly-dimensioned fluorescent lighting tubes (at 220 V/240 V - 50 Hz) table B11 current demands and power consumption of compact fluorescent lamps (at 220 V/240 V - 50 Hz)

3.4 fluorescent lamps and related equipment

3.5 discharge lamps
table B12 current demands of discharge lamps

4. power loading of an installation
4.1 installed power (kW) 4.2 installed apparent power (kVA)
table B13 estimation of installed apparent power

4.3 estimation of actual maximum kVA demand
table B14 simultaneity factors in an apartment block table B16 factor of simultaneity for distribution boards (IEC 439) table B17 factor of simultaneity according to circuit function

4.4 example of application of factors ku and ks
table B18 an example in estimating the maximum predicted loading of an installation (the factor values used are for demonstration purposes only)

contents - A1

contents (continued)

A
B. general - installed power (continued)
4. power loading of an installation (continued)
4.5 diversity factor 4.6 choice of transformer rating
table B19 IEC-standardized kVA ratings of HV/LV 3-phase distribution transformers and corresponding nominal full-load current values B18 B18 B18 B19

4.7 choice of power-supply sources

C. HV/LV distribution substations
1. supply of power at high voltage
1.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks
table C1 relating nominal system voltages with corresponding rated system voltages (r.m.s. values) table C2 switchgear rated insulation levels table C3A transformers rated insulation levels in series I (based on current practice other than in the United States of America and some other countries) table C3B transformers rated insulation levels in series II (based on current practice in the United States of America and some other countries) table C4 standard short-circuit current-breaking ratings extracted from table X IEC 56 C1 C1 C2 C3 C3 C4 C4 C11 C13 C15 C15 C17 C17 C22 C25 C26 C27 C31 C31 C34 C34 C36 C37 C38 C38 C41 C42 C44 C44 C46 C48 C49 C49 C49 C52

1.2 different HV service connections 1.3 some operational aspects of HV distribution networks

2. consumers HV substations
2.1 procedures for the establishment of a new substation

3. substation protection schemes
3.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages 3.2 electrical protection
table C18 power limits of transformers with a maximum primary current not exceeding 45 A table C19 rated current (A) of HV fuses for transformer protection according to IEC 282-1 table C20 3-phase short-circuit currents of typical distribution transformers

3.3 protection against thermal effects 3.4 interlocks and conditioned manœuvres

4. the consumer substation with LV metering
4.1 general 4.2 choice of panels
table C27 standard short-circuit MVA and current ratings at different levels of nominal voltage

4.3 choice of HV switchgear panel for a transformer circuit 4.4 choice of HV/LV transformer
table C31 categories of dielectric fluids table C32 safety measures recommended in electrical installations using dielectric liquids of classes 01, K1, K2 or K3

5. a consumer substation with HV metering
5.1 general 5.2 choice of panels 5.3 parallel operation of transformers

6. constitution of HV/LV distribution substations
6.1 different types of substation 6.2 indoor substations equipped with metal-enclosed switchgear 6.3 outdoor substations
A2 - contents

A
7. appendix 1 : example in coordination of the characteristics of an HV switch-fuse combination protecting an HV/LV transformer
7.1 transfert current and take-over current 7.2 types of faults involved in the transfer region
App C1-1 App C1-2 App C1-3

8. appendix 2 : ground-surface potential gradients due to earth-fault currents 9. appendix 3 : vector diagram of ferro-resonance at 50Hz (or 60 Hz)

App C2-1

App C3-1

D. low-voltage service connections
1. low-voltage public distribution networks
1.1 low-voltage consumers
table D1 survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world. table D2 D1 D1 D1 D6 D7 D10 D13 D14

1.2 LV distribution networks 1.3 the consumer-service connection 1.4 quality of supply voltage

2. tariffs and metering

E. power factor improvement and harmonic filtering
1. power factor improvement
1.1 the nature of reactive energy 1.2 plant and appliances requiring reactive current 1.3 the power factor 1.4 tan ϕ 1.5 practical measurement of power factor 1.6 practical values of power factor
table E5 example in the calculation of active and reactive power table E7 values of cos ϕ and tan ϕ for commonly-used plant and equipment E1 E1 E2 E2 E3 E4 E4 E4 E4 E5 E5 E5 E5 E6 E6 E7 E8 E9 E9 E9 E10

2. why improve the power factor?
2.1 reduction in the cost of electricity 2.2 technical/economic optimization
table E8 multiplying factor for cable size as a function of cos ϕ

3. how to improve the power factor
3.1 theoretical principles 3.2 by using what equipment? 3.3 the choice between a fixed or automatically-regulated bank of capacitors

4. where to install correction capacitors
4.1 global compensation 4.2 compensation by sector 4.3 individual compensation

contents - A3

contents (continued)

A
E. power factor improvement and harmonic filtering (continued)
5. how to decide the optimum level of compensation
5.1 general method 5.2 simplified method
table E17 kvar to be installed per kW of load, to improve the power factor of an installation E11 E11 E11 E12 E13 E13 E14 E14 E14 E15 E16

5.3 method based on the avoidance of tariff penalties 5.4 method based on reduction of declared maximum apparent power (kVA)

6. compensation at the terminals of a transformer
6.1 compensation to increase the available active power output
table E20 active-power capability of fully-loaded transformers, when supplying loads at different values of power factor

6.2 compensation of reactive energy absorbed by the transformer
table E24 reactive power consumption of distribution transformers with 20 kV primary windings

7. compensation at the terminals of an induction motor E17
7.1 connection of a capacitor bank and protection settings
table E26 reduction factor for overcurrent protection after compensation E17 E17 E18 E19

7.2 how self-excitation of an induction motor can be avoided
table E28 maximum kvar of P.F. correction applicable to motor terminals without risk of self-excitation

8. example of an installation before and after power-factor correction 9. the effect of harmonics on the rating of a capacitor bank
9.1 problems arising from power-system harmonics 9.2 possible solutions 9.3 choosing the optimum solution
table E30 choice of solutions for limiting harmonics associated with a LV capacitor bank

E20

E21 E21 E21 E22 E22 E23 E24 E24 E25

9.4 possible effects of power-factor-correction capacitors on the power-supply system

10. implementation of capacitor banks
10.1 capacitor elements 10.2 choice of protection, control devices, and connecting cables

11. appendix 1 : elementary harmonic filters 12. appendix 2 : harmonic suppression reactor for a single (power factor correction) capacitor bank

App E3-1

App E4-1

F. distribution within a low-voltage installation
1. general
1.1 the principal schemes of LV distribution 1.2 the main LV distribution board 1.3 transition from IT to TN
F1 F1 F4 F4

A4 - contents

A
2. essential services standby supplies
2.1 continuity of electric-power supply 2.2 quality of electric-power supply
table F10 assumed levels of transient overvoltage possible at different points of a typical installation table F12 typical levels of impulse withstand voltage of industrial circuit breakers labelled Uimp = 8 kV table F18 compatibility levels for installation materials F5 F5 F6 F8 F8 F13

3. safety and emergency-services installations, and standby power supplies
3.1 safety installations 3.2 standby reserve-power supplies 3.3 choice and characteristics of reserve-power supplies
table F21 table showing the choice of reserve-power supply types according to application requirements and acceptable supply-interruption times

F15 F15 F15 F16 F16 F17 F17 F18 F19 F19 F20 F21 F23 F29 F30 F31 F32 F33 F33 F36 F36 F37 F38 F38 F39 F39 F41 F41 F41 F43 F44 F45 F46

3.4 choice and characteristics of different sources
table F22 table of characteristics of different sources

3.5 local generating sets

4. earthing schemes
4.1 earthing connections
table F25 list of exposed-conductive-parts and extraneous-conductive-parts

4.2 definition of standardized earthing schemes 4.3 earthing schemes characteristics 4.4.1 choice criteria 4.4.2 comparison for each criterion 4.5 choice of earthing method - implementation 4.6 installation and measurements of earth electrodes
table F47 resistivity (Ω-m) for different kinds of terrain table F48 mean values of resistivity (Ω-m) for an approximate estimation of an earth-electrode resistance with respect to zero-potential earth

5. distribution boards
5.1 types of distribution board 5.2 the technologies of functional distribution boards 5.3 standards 5.4 centralized control

6. distributors
6.1 description and choice 6.2 conduits, conductors and cables
table F60 selection of wiring systems table F61 erection of wiring systems table F62 some examples of installation methods table F63 designation code for conduits according to the most recent IEC publications table F64 designation of conductors and cables according to CENELEC code for harmonized cables table F66 commonly used conductors and cables

contents - A5

contents (continued)

A
F. distribution within a low-voltage installation (continued)
7. external influences
7.1 classification
table F67 concise list of important external influences (taken from Appendix A of IEC 364-3) F47 F47 F48 F49

7.2 protection by enclosures: IP code

G. protection against electric shocks
1. general
1.1 electric shock 1.2 direct and indirect contact
G1 G1 G1 G2 G2 G3 G4 G4 G4 G4 G5 G6 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 G13 G13

2. protection against direct contact
2.1 measures of protection against direct contact 2.2 additional measure of protection against direct contact

3. protection against indirect contact
3.1 measure of protection by automatic disconnection of the supply
table G8 maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where UL = 50 V table G9 maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where UL = 25 V

3.2 automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation
table G11 maximum operating times of RCCBs (IEC 1008)

3.3 automatic disconnection for a TN-earthed installation
table G13 maximum disconnection times specified for TN earthing schemes (IEC 364-4-41)

3.4 automatic disconnection on a second earth fault in an IT-earthed system
table G18 maximum disconnection times specified for an IT-earthed installation (IEC 364-4-41)

3.5 measures of protection against direct or indirect contact without circuit disconnection

4. implementation of the TT system
4.1 protective measures
table G26 the upper limit of resistance for an installation earthing electrode which must not be exceeded, for given sensitivity levels of RCDs at UL voltage limits of 50 V and 25 V

G13 G14 G15 G18 G18 G18 G20 G20 G20 G21 G21 G22 G22 G23

4.2 types of RCD 4.3 coordination of differential protective devices

5. implementation of the TN system
5.1 preliminary conditions 5.2 protection against indirect contact
table G42 correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables G43 to G46 for TN systems table G43 maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and instantaneous-tripping-current settings for general-purpose circuit breakers table G44 maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and rated currents for type B circuit breakers table G45 maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit breakers of type C table G46 maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit breakers of type D or MA Merlin Gerin

5.3 high-sensitivity RCDs 5.4 protection in high fire-risk locations 5.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high
A6 - contents

4 location of protective devices table H1-7 general rules and exceptions concerning the location of protective devices 1. implementation of the IT system 6.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high 7. to apply to the circuit lengths given in tables G43 to G46 6.5 cables in parallel 1. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors 2.3 practical values for a protection scheme 1. residual current differential devices (RCDs) 7.6 worked example of cable calculations table H1-9 calculations carried out with ECODIAL software (Merlin Gerin) table H1-10 example of short-circuit current evaluation 2.a.1 general table H1-11 logigram for the determination of minimum conductor size for a circuit H1-10 H1-10 H1-10 H1-10 H1-10 H1-11 H1-11 H1-12 H1-13 2.1 preliminary conditions table G53 essential functions in IT schemes G24 G24 G24 G25 G28 G29 G29 G30 G31 G31 G31 G32 G33 G34 G34 6.4 in areas of high fire-risk 6. the protection of circuits and the switchgear H1.IEC 1008) table G74 typical manufacturers coordination table for RCCBs.).3 high-sensitivity RCDs 6.2 protection against indirect contact table G59 correction factors.) 7. general 1. depending on type of conductor and method of installation table H1-13 factor K1 according to method of circuit installation (for further examples refer to IEC 364-5-52 table 52H) table H1-14 correction factor K2 for a group of conductors in a single layer table H1-15 correction factor K3 for ambient temperature other than 30 °C table H1-17 case of an unburied circuit: determination of the minimum cable size (c. conductor material.A 6.A7 .2 overcurrent protection principles 1. for IT-earthed systems.2 application of RCDs table G70 electromagnetic compatibility withstand-level tests for RCDs table G72 means of reducing the ratio I∆n/lph (max.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits table H1-12 code-letter reference.s. and fuses H. insulation material and the fictitious current I'z contents .3 choice of characteristics of a residual-current circuit breaker (RCCB .1 methodology and definitions table H1-1 logigram for the selection of cable size and protective-device rating for a given circuit H1-1 H1-1 H1-1 H1-3 H1-4 H1-5 H1-5 H1-5 H1-6 H1-8 H1-9 1. derived from the code letter. circuit breakers. the protection of circuits 1.1 description 7.

the protection of circuits (continued) 2.s. in volts per ampere per km 4.a. short-circuit current calculations 4.000 kVA HV/LV transformer 4. and value of fictitious current I'z (I'z = Iz) K H1-14 H1-14 H1-14 H1-15 H1-15 H1-15 3. the protection of circuits and the switchgear (continued) H1.a. type of insulation. in a 230/400 V 3-phase system H1-24 H1-25 H1-26 H1-26 4.2 calculation of voltage drops in steady load conditions table H1-28 voltage-drop formulae table H1-29 phase-to-phase voltage drop ∆U for a circuit. or 250 MVA 4.1 short-circuit current at the secondary terminals of a HV/LV distribution transformer table H1-32 typical values of Usc for different kVA ratings of transformers with HV windings i 20 kV table H1-33 Isc at the LV terminals of 3-phase HV/LV transformers supplied from a HV system with a 3-phase fault level of 500 MVA. reactance and impedance values for typical distribution transformers with HV windings i 20 kV table H1-38 recapitulation table of impedances for different parts of a power-supply system table H1-39 example of short-circuit current calculations for a LV installation supplied at 400 V (nominal) from a 1. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued) 2.1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current table H1-49 maximum circuit lengths in metres for copper conductors (for aluminium.3 determination of conductor size for buried circuits table H1-19 correction factor K4 related to the method of installation table H1-20 correction factor K5 for the grouping of several circuits in one layer table H1-21 correction factor K6 for the nature of the soil table H1-22 correction factor K7 for soil temperatures different than 20 °C table H1-24 case of a buried circuit: minimum c.2 3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within a LV installation table H1-36 the impedance of the HV network referred to the LV side of the HV/LV transformer table H1-37 resistance. in terms of a known upstream fault-current value and the length and c.contents (continued) A H.s. of the intervening conductors. determination of voltage drop 3. particular cases of short-circuit current 5.contents H1-28 H1-29 H1-29 H1-29 H1-30 .4 short-circuit current supplied by an alternator or an inverter 5.3 Isc at the receiving end of a feeder in terms of the Isc at its sending end table H1-40 Isc at a point downstream.62) table H1-50 maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by B-type circuit breakers table H1-51 maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by C-type circuit breakers table H1-52 maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by D-type circuit breakers table H1-53 correction factors to apply to lengths obtained from tables H1-49 to H1-52 A8 . in terms of type of conductor.1 maximum voltage-drop limit table H1-26 maximum voltage-drop limits H1-17 H1-17 H1-17 H1-18 H1-18 H1-18 H1-20 H1-20 H1-20 H1-20 H1-21 H1-21 H1-22 H1-23 H1-23 H1-23 3. the lengths must be multiplied by 0.

choice of switchgear 3.2 protection of the neutral conductor table H1-65 table of protection schemes for neutral conductors in different earthing systems H1-35 H1-36 H1-36 H1-36 H1-37 H2.3 protective conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the main general distribution board (MGDB) 6. switches according to IEC 947-3 table H2-8 factor "n" used for peak-to-rms value (IEC 947-part 1) table H2-13 zones of fusing and non-fusing for LV types gG and gM class fuses (IEC 269-1 and 269-2-1) 2.s.2 combined switchgear elements 3.A9 .a.1 tabulated functional capabilities table H2-19 functions fulfilled by different items of switchgear 3. the switchgear and fusegear 2.1 elementary switching devices table H2-7 utilization categories of LV a. the neutral conductor 7.2 conductor dimensioning table H1-60 minimum c.1 dimensioning the neutral conductor 7.'s for PE conductors and earthing conductors (to the installation earth electrode) table H1-61 k factor values for LV PE conductors. the basic functions of LV switchgear table H2-1 basic functions of LV switchgear H2-1 H2-1 H2-1 H2-1 H2-2 H2-2 H2-4 H2-4 H2-5 H2-5 H2-7 H2-9 H2-11 H2-11 H2-11 H2-11 1.4 equipotential conductor 7.2 switchgear selection contents .c.A 5.s. commonly used in national standards and complying with IEC 724 H1-34 H1-34 H1-35 table H1-63 c.2 verification of the withstand capabilities of cables under short-circuit conditions table H1-54 value of the constant k2 table H1-55 maximum allowable thermal stress for cables (expressed in amperes2 x seconds x 106) H1-31 H1-31 H1-31 H1-32 H1-32 H1-33 H1-33 6. protective earthing conductors (PE) 6. of PE conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the MGDB.a. the switchgear 1.1 electrical protection 1.3 switchgear control 2.2 isolation table H2-2 peak value of impulse voltage according to normal service voltage of test specimen 1. in terms of transformer ratings and fault-clearance times used in France H1-35 6.1 connection and choice table H1-59 choice of protective conductors (PE) 6.

1 standards and descriptions 4.4 choice of a UPS system 2.5 UPS systems and their environment 2.2 fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker table H2-28 tripping-current ranges of overload and short-circuit protective devices for LV circuit breakers table H2-31 Icu related to power factor (cos ϕ) of fault-current circuit (IEC 947-2) 4. for several transformers in parallel H2-20 H2-21 H2-23 H2-25 H2-27 H2-28 H2-29 H2-32 4.3 standards 2. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) 2.contents . protection of circuits supplied by an alternator 1.2 types of UPS system J10 J10 J10 table J2-4 examples of different possibilities and applications of inverters.5 coordination between circuit breakers table H2-45 example of cascading possibilities on a 230/400 V or 240/415 V 3-phase installation table H2-49 summary of methods and components used in order to achieve discriminative tripping 4.2 protection of essential services circuits supplied in emergencies from an alternator 1.5 the protection of standby and mobile a. particular supply sources and loads 1. instantaneous or short-time delayed table H2-43 maximum values of short-circuit current to be interrupted by main and principal circuit breakers (CBM and CBP respectively).3 other characteristics of a circuit breaker H2-18 table H2-34 relation between rated breaking capacity Icu and rated making capacity Icm at different power-factor values of short-circuit current. circuit breakers table H2-20 functions performed by a circuit breaker/disconnector H2-12 H2-12 H2-12 H2-15 H2-16 H2-17 4.4 selection of a circuit breaker table H2-38 examples of tables for the determination of derating/uprating factors to apply to CBs with uncompensated thermal tripping units.1 an alternator on short-circuit 1. generating sets 2.6 putting into service and technology of UPS systems 2.contents (continued) A H2. according to temperature table H2-40 different tripping units.1 what is an inverter? 2.7 earthing schemes A10 . as standardized in IEC 947-2 H2-19 4. in decontamination of supplies and in UPS schemes J11 J11 J12 J14 J15 J17 2.6 discrimination HV/LV in a consumer's substation J. the switchgear (continued) 4.c.3 choice of tripping units 1.4 methods of approximate calculation table J1-7 procedure for the calculation of 3-phase short-circuit current table J1-8 procedure for the calculation of 1-phase to neutral short-circuit current J1 J1 J4 J5 J6 J6 J7 J9 1.

protection of LV/LV transformers 3.1 service continuity 4.c. and supplying the load for UPS system Maxipac (cable lengths < 100 m) table J2-23 currents and c. output and battery currents for UPS system EPS 5000 (Merlin Gerin) J20 J21 J21 J21 J22 J23 J24 J25 J25 J25 J26 J26 J26 J26 J27 J27 J28 J29 J29 J30 J30 J31 J31 2.4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker table J4-2 protective circuit breaker ratings for incandescent lamps and resistive-type heating circuits table J4-3 maximum limit of rated current per outgoing lighting circuit.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer 3.s.3 typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers table J3-5 typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers 3.A 2.3 basic protection schemes: circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay table J5-4 utilization categories for contactors (IEC 947-4) 5. of copper-cored cables feeding the rectifier.2 standards 5.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above.4 preventive or limitative protection contents .1 protective and control functions required table J5-2 commonly-used types of LV motor-supply circuits 5.7 supply sources for emergency lighting 5.A11 .9 choice of protection schemes 2.6 protection of ELV lighting circuits 4. and cables for the battery connection table J2-21 voltage drop in % of 324 V d. for high-pressure discharge lamps table J4-4 current ratings of circuit breakers related to the number of fluorescent luminaires to be protected J31 J32 J32 J33 J33 J34 J35 J36 J36 J37 J38 J38 J39 J41 4.10 complementary equipments 3. using Merlin Gerin circuit breakers table J3-6 protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings table J3-7 protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings table J3-8 protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings table J3-9 protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings 4.3 the circuit and its protection 4.a. asynchronous motors 5. Battery cable data are also included table J2-24 input.2 lamps and accessories (luminaires) table J4-1 analysis of disturbances in fluorescent-lighting circuits 4.s.a. of copper-cored cables feeding the rectifier. for a copper-cored cable table J2-22 currents and c.1 transformer-energizing in-rush current 3.5 choice of control-switching devices table J4-5 types of remote control 4.8 choice of main-supply and circuit cables. and supplying the load for UPS system EPS 2000 (cable lengths < 100 m). lighting circuits 4.

asynchronous motors (continued) 5.5 maximum rating of motors installed for consumers supplied at LV table J5-12 maximum permitted values of starting current for direct-on-line LV motors (230/400 V) table J5-13 maximum permitted power ratings for LV direct-on-line-starting motors J43 J43 J43 J43 J44 J44 J45 J45 J45 J46 J46 J47 5.a.4 circuits table L1-9 recommended minimum number of lighting and power points in domestic premises table L1-11 c. and of protective switchgear table J6-4 characteristics of protective switchgear according to type of d. domestic and similar premises and special locations 1.3 protection of persons 1.s. circuit breakers manufactured by Merlin Gerin 6. Appendix : Short-circuit characteristics of an alternator App J1-1 L.3 choice of protective device table J6-5 choice of d.a. domestic and similar premises 1.1 classification of zones 2.5 protection of persons 7. bathrooms and showers 2.3 requirements prescribed for each zone 3.2 distribution-board components 1. protection of direct-current installations 6.s.c.c.contents (continued) A J.6 reactive-energy compensation (power-factor correction) 6. system earthing 6.contents .2 equipotential bonding 2. of conductors and current rating of the protective devices in domestic installations (the c. of aluminium conductors are shown in brackets) L1 L1 L2 L4 L6 L6 L7 L8 L8 L10 L10 2. particular supply sources and loads (continued) 5.2 characteristics of faults due to insulation failure.4 examples 6.1 general 1. recommendations applicable to special installations and locations L11 A12 .1 short-circuit currents 6.

low-voltage service connections reactive energy The compensation of reactive energy within electrical installations normally concerns only power factor improvement. together with distribution boards and cableways.g.1. and to the nature of the installation loads. Local information regarding tariff structures is also required to permit the best choice of connection arrangement to the power-supply network.power factor improvement LV distribution The whole of the installation distribution network is studied as a complete system. A knowledge of the operating modes of power-consuming appliances. are readily obtained. in order to achieve protection of persons against the hazards of direct and indirect contact. can affect their level of resistance to external influences. listing of power demands The study of a proposed electrical installation necessitates an adequate understanding of all governing rules and regulations. non-simultaneous operation. constraints related to the power-supply. The number and characteristics of standby emergency-supply sources are defined. globally or as a combination of both methods. "loads" (steady-state demand. E . Metering at high-voltage or low-voltage is possible in this case c Low Voltage: the installation will be connected to the local power network and will (necessarily) be metered according to LV tariffs. C . From these data the power required from the supply source and (where appropriate) the number of sources necessary for an adequate supply to the installation.) together with the location and magnitude of each load shown on a building plan.HV/LV distribution substations D . methodology B the study of an electrical installation by means of this guide requires the reading of the entire text in the order in which the chapters are presented. G . allow a listing of power demands to be compiled. at high voltage or low voltage. as deduced from the operating modes.distribution within a low-voltage installation protection against electric shock The system of earthing (TT. i.installed power .B1 . built and equipped. This substation may be an outdoor or indoor installation conforming to relevant standards and regulations (the low-voltage section may be studied separately if necessary). Earth-bonding connections and neutralearthing arrangements are chosen according to local regulations. The hardware components of distribution. and activities practised in them. etc.e.protection against electric shock general . The kinds of location. starting conditions. corresponding chapter B . IT or TN) having been previously determined. and is carried out locally. F . it remains. The list will include the total power of the loads installed as well as an estimation of the actual loads to be supplied.installed power service connection This connection can be made at: c High Voltage: a consumer-type substation will then have to be studied. to choose an appropriate scheme of protection.general . e. are determined from building plans and from the location and grouping of loads.

c discrimination of protective devices. The short-circuit current Isc is then determined. The following features are included: c construction of one-line diagrams. c verification of the protection of persons. taking into account the nature of the cableways and their influence on the current rating of conductors.2 software* provides a complete conception and design package for LV installations. c specific loads with special characteristics.1.2 is a Merlin Gerin product and is available in French and English versions. * Ecodial 2. the following requirements must be satisfied: c the voltage drop complies with the relevant standard. Before adopting the conductor size indicated above.installed power . lighting circuits or LV/LV transformers. H1 . and the type of protective device. c optimization of cable sizes.the switchgear particular supply sources and loads Particular items of plant and equipment are studied: c specific sources such as alternators or inverters. the cross-sectional area of circuit conductors can be determined. methodology (continued) B circuits and switchgear Each circuit is then studied in detail.domestic and similar premises and special locations Ecodial 2. These calculations may indicate that a different conductor size than that originally chosen is necessary. The performance required by the switchgear will determine its type and characteristics. J . c required ratings of switchgear and fusegear. c calculation of short-circuit currents.particular supply sources and loads domestic and similar premises and special locations Certain premises and locations are subject to particularly strict regulations: the most common example being domestic dwellings.the protection of circuits H2 . in accordance with IEC standards and recommendations. such as direct-current networks. c recommendations for cascading schemes. c comprehensive print-out of the foregoing calculated design data.2 software Ecodial 2. B2 . c protection against electric shock is assured. the level of short-circuit current. c motor starting is satisfactory. and the Isc thermal and electrodynamic withstand capability of the circuit is checked. or c specific systems.general . From the rated currents of the loads. such as induction motors. c calculation of voltage drops. The use of cascading techniques and the discriminative operation of fuses and tripping of circuit breakers are examined. L .

3(1) 3((1) 7. general . During this period.2(2) 12. job specifications. which may be classified as follows: c statutory regulations (decrees.16(1) 13. The values indicated are voltages between phases.4(2) 24. the electricity supply authorities of countries having 220/380 V systems should bring the voltage within the range 230/400 V +6% -10% and those of countries having 240/415 V systems should bring the voltage within the range 230/400 V +10% -6%.8(1) 26.installed power . 50 Hz and 60 Hz systems series I highest voltage nominal system for equipment (kV) voltage (kV) 3.B3 .5(2) - table B2: standard voltages above 1 kV and not exceeding 35 kV (IEC 38-1983). as a first step.40(1) 4.2(2) 14.). c national and international standards for installations.6(1) 3.2(1) 6. c codes of practice. etc. 3) The unification of these values is under consideration. 2) These systems are generally four-wire systems.2. * These systems are generally three-wire systems unless otherwise indicated. three wire systems nominal voltage (V) 120/240 - table B1: standard voltages between 100 V and 1000 V (IEC 38-1983). The transition period should be as short as possible. 1) These values should not be used for public distribution systems. factory acts.52(1) 13.5(2) 34.94(2) 36. after this the reduction of this range will be considered.5(3) 35(3) 60 Hz systems series II (North American practice) highest voltage nominal system for equipment (kV) voltage (kV) 4. All the above considerations apply also to the present 380/660 V value with respect to the recommended value 400/690 V. 1) The nominal voltage of existing 220/380 V and 240/415 V systems shall evolve towards the recommended value of 230/400 V. At the end of this transition period the tolerance of 230/400 V ±10% should have been achieved. c national and international standards for products.1 definition of voltage ranges IEC voltage standards and recommendations three phase. rules and statutory regulations B Low-voltage installations are governed by a number of regulatory and advisory texts. four wire or three wire systems nominal voltage (V) 230/400(1) 277/480(2) 400/690(1) 1000 single phase.5) (15) 24 22 20 36(3) 33(3) 40. It is recommended that these values should not be used for new systems to be constructed in future. regulations issued by professional institutions.6(1) 6(1) 12 11 10 (17. 2.47(2) 13.97(2) 13. The values indicated in parentheses should be considered as non-preferred values. and should not exceed 20 years after the issue of this IEC publication. 2) Not to be utilized together with 230/400 V or 400/690 V.

Part 3: Insulation levels and dielectric tests Alternating current disconnectors and earthing switches General requirements and line commutated converters General requirements and line commutated converters .Section 706: Restrictive conductive locations IEC .364-4-47 Electrical installations of buildings .Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment .Part 4: Protection of safety .3 standards This Guide is based on relevant IEC standards.56 IEC .282-1 High-voltage fuses .Section 52: Wiring systems IEC .Part 1: General aspects IEC .Part 2: Special aspects IEC .364-5-52 Electrical installations of buildings . 2.general .364-4-42 Electrical installations of buildings . issued by National Authorities or by recognised private bodies. Currently.Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations .installed power .Section 51: Common rules IEC .Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations .146 IEC . in particular IEC 364.529 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP code) IEC .Section 43: Protection against overcurrent IEC .Part 4: Application of protective measures for safety .364-3 Electrical installations of buildings .439-1 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .269-3 Low-voltage fuses .Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment . IEC .Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment .Part 2: Particular requirements for busbar trunking systems (busways) IEC . stands and funfairs IEC .129 IEC .364-7-706 Electrical installations of buildings .Section 701: Electrical installations in bathrooms IEC .Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations .364-7-701 Electrical installations of buildings .364-4-41 Electrical installations of buildings . It is essential to take into account these local constraints before starting the design.Part 3: Assessment of general characteristics IEC . electrical installations shall comply with more than one set of regulations.364 Electrical installations of buildings IEC .Section 41: Protection against electrical shock IEC .364-5-51 Electrical installations of buildings .Part 1: High-voltage switches for rated voltages above 1 kV and less than 52 kV IEC . the safety principles of IEC 364 and 479-1 are the fundamentals of most electrical standards in the world.479-2 Effects of current on human beings and livestock .Part 2: Temperature rise Power transformer .Part 1: General requirements IEC .76-2 IEC .Part 4: Method of specifying the performance and test requirements of uninterruptible power systems IEC .269-1 Low-voltage fuses .479-1 Effects of current on human beings and livestock .Section 47: Measures of protection against electrical shock IEC .146-4 Standard voltages High-voltage alternating-current circuit breakers Power transformer .420 High-voltage alternating current switch-fuse combinations IEC .644 Specification for high-voltage fuse-links for motor circuit applications B4 .38 IEC .Part 4: Protection of safety .76-3 IEC .364-7-710 Electrical installations of buildings .Section 53: Switchgear and controlgear IEC .Section 710: Installation in exhibitions.Part 1: Types-tested and partially type-tested assemblies IEC .364-6 Electrical installations of buildings .2 regulations In most countries.439-3 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Section 42: Protection against thermal effects IEC .Part 6: Verification IEC . IEC 364 has been established by medical and engineering experts of all countries in the world comparing their experience at an international level.364-5-53 Electrical installations of buildings .Part 1: Current limiting fuses IEC . shows.446 Identification of conductors by colours or numerals IEC .Part 3: Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by unskilled persons (fuses mainly for household and similar applications) IEC .287 Calculation of the continuous current rating of cables (100% load factor) IEC .Part 4: Protection of safety .Part 3: Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use Distribution boards IEC . rules and statutory regulations (continued) B 2.2.265-1 High-voltage switches .298 AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1kV and up to and including 52 kV IEC .439-2 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .364-4-43 Electrical installations of buildings .

.Part 1: General .4 quality and safety of an electrical installation Only by c the initial checking of the conformity of the electrical installation. testing and rating .664 IEC .installed power . systems having a rated voltage up to and including 660 V. general .742 IEC . c and periodic checking can the permanent safety of persons and security of supply to equipment be achieved.Safety requirements .B IEC .755 IEC .787 IEC .0 kV Isolation transformer and safety isolation transformer.724 IEC .B5 .694 IEC .Guide for installation and operation 2.c.6/1. c the verification of the conformity of electrical equipment.831-1 Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems Common clauses for high-voltage switchgear and controlgear standards Guide to the short-circuit temperature limits of electrical cables with a rated voltage not exceeding 0.Performance. Requirements General requirements for residual current operated protective devices Application guide for selection for fuse-links of high-voltage fuses for transformer circuit application Shunt power capacitors of the self-healing type for a.

taking account of the associated protective devices. materials and installation conditions (in air. which will ensure safe and trouble-free performance. B6 . between phases and between phases and earth. Such additional requirements are beyond the scope of this guide.2. typically. intended to cover all the safety measures and approved installation practices normally required for domestic. The principles of all such regulations however. etc. c check of clearance distances in bathrooms. commercial and (the majority of) industrial buildings. Table B3 shows the frequency of testing commonly prescribed according to the kind of installation concerned. IEC 364 and related standards included in this guide are based on an international consensus for such tests. together with installations in buildings used for public gatherings. and are based on the observance of rigorous safety rules in the design and realization of the installation.general .). c cross-sectional-area check of all conductors for adequacy at the short-circuit levels prevailing. c verification that all exposed. c continuity and conductivity tests of protective. Many industries however have additional regulations related to a particular product (petroleum. coal. etc. must be re-tested periodically by authorized agents. rules and statutory regulations (continued) B 2. natural gas. while numerous other tests and rules are included in the regulations to cover particular cases. annually fire or explosion exists c temporary installations at worksites c locations at which HV installations exist c restrictive conducting locations where mobile equipment is used other cases every 3 years according to the type of establishment and its capacity for receiving the public. installations which require the protection of employees c locations at which a risk of degradation. modified if necessary to comply with any possible variation imposed by a local supply authority. are intended to satisfy all precommissioning test and inspection requirements. The aim of this guide is to draw attention to the particular features of different types of installation. These tests are made according to local (governmental and/or institutional) regulations. conduit. are common.and extraneous metallic parts are properly earthed (where appropriate). installations based on class 2 insulation. must be satisfied. The pre-commissioning electrical tests and visual-inspection checks for installations in buildings include. These tests and checks are basic (but not exhaustive) to the majority of installations. the re-testing period will vary from one to three years according to local regulations installations in buildings used for public gatherings. and special locations.or IT-earthed installations. where protection against the risks of fire and panic are required residential table B3: frequency of check-tests commonly recommended for an electrical installation. which may differ slightly from one country to another.5 initial testing of an installation Before a power-supply authority will connect an installation to its supply network. c resistance tests of earthing electrodes with respect to remote earth. TT. strict pre-commissioning electrical tests and visual inspections by the authority. all of the following: c insulation tests of all cable and wiring conductors of the fixed installation. and to indicate the essential rules to be observed in order to achieve a satisfactory level of quality.).6 periodic check-testing of an installation In many countries.installed power . SELV circuits. 2. equipotential and earth-bonding conductors. or by its appointed agent. c allowable number of socket-outlets per circuit check. for example: TN-. all industrial and commercial-building installations. etc. The methods recommended in this guide. etc.

to the manufacture of fuses where performance characteristics cannot be checked without destroying the fuse. in fact. the samples are destroyed (tests on fuses. the declaration of conformity provided by the manufacturer (included in the technical documentation) together with a conformity mark on the equipment concerned. for example). or c by a declaration of conformity from the manufacturer. a certificate of conformity can be obtained from an independent accredited laboratory.installed power . Where the competence of the manufacturer is in doubt. for example. mark of conformity Conformity marks are inscribed on appliances and equipment which are generally used by technically inexperienced persons (for example. the standards define several methods of quality assurance which correspond to different situations rather than to different levels of quality. of a mark of conformity (commonly referred to as a conformity mark). where it is not intended to fabricate and test a prototype (case of a custom-built product made to specification). attestation of conformity The conformity of equipment with the relevant standards can be attested: c by an official conformity mark granted by the standards organization concerned. verification of the manufacturing process.B 2. In some tests for conformity to standards. by the standardization authority. the equivalent European standard being EN 29000. This method applies.B7 . domestic appliances) and for whom the standards have been established which permit the attribution.7 conformity (with standards and specifications) of equipment used in the installation conformity of equipment with the relevant standards can be attested in several ways. the manufacturer obtains certification of the quality control system which monitors the fabrication of the product concerned. the characteristics stated. or c by a certificate of conformity issued by a laboratory. and are based on the international standard ISO 9000. are generally recognized as a valid attestation. but with the additional requirement that the quality of the design process must be rigorously scrutinized. for example. certification of Quality Assurance A laboratory for testing samples cannot certify the conformity of an entire production run: these tests are called type tests. declaration of conformity In cases where the equipment in question is to be used by qualified or experienced persons. general . As proof that all the necessary measures have been taken for assuring the quality of production. These certificates are issued by organizations specializing in quality control. Quality assurance certification is intended to complete the initial declaration or certification of conformity. These standards define three model systems of quality assurance control corresponding to different situations rather than to different levels of quality: c model 3 defines assurance of quality by inspection and checking of final products. c model 2 includes. c model 1 corresponds to model 2. in addition to checking of the final product. Only the manufacturer can certify that the fabricated products have.

device plus) by 10%. B8 . the apparentpower (kVA) supplied to an induction motor can be significantly reduced by the use of shunt-connected capacitors. as a function of the rated nominal power of motors. heating and lighting loads B an examination of the actual apparent-power demands of different loads: a necessary preliminary step in the design of a LV installation. improve) the value of cos ϕ. Reduction of input kVA means a corresponding reduction of input current (since the voltage remains constant). motor. and for D. Compensation of reactive-power is particularly advised for motors that operate for long periods at reduced power.93 (tan ϕ = 0.3. These values are averages and will differ to some extent according to the type of motor and the manufacturer concerned. As noted above cos ϕ = kW input so that a kVA input reduction in kVA input will increase (i. motors: Id depends on the value of starting resistances in the rotor circuits: Id = 1.e. c for induction motors controlled by speedchanging variable-frequency devices (for example: Altivar Telemecanique). after power-factor correction. i.general .4). kW input kVA input motor-starting current Starting current (Id) for 3-phase induction motors. and the same motors under the same conditions. 3.e.5 to 3 In (mean value = 2. Pa = Pn η cos ϕ current demand The full-load current Ia supplied to the motor is given by the following formulae: Pn x 1. the motor efficiency and the power factor. The current supplied to the motor.installed power Note: the rated voltages of certain loads listed in table B4 are still based on 220/380 V. To convert the current values indicated for a given motor rating in the 220 V and 380 V columns to the currents taken by 230 V and 400 V motors of the same rating. A single-phase motor may be connected phase-to-neutral or phase-to-phase. table of typical values Table B4 shows. but compensated to operate at a power factor of 0. The apparent power in kVA (Pa) supplied to the motor is a function of the output. . where In = nominal full-load current of the motor. is given by: Ia x cos ϕ cos ϕ' where cos ϕ is the power factor before compensation and cos ϕ' is the power factor after compensation. c the rating of the HV/LV transformer. it is generally advantageous for technical and financial reasons to reduce the current supplied to induction motors.2 to 7 In for motors with more than 2 poles (mean value = 6 In). c for wound-rotor motors (with slip-rings). i.e. c levels of load current at each distribution board. according to motor type. will be: c for direct-on-line starting of squirrel-cage motors: v Id = 4. η: per-unit efficiency. The examination of actual values of apparent-power required by each load enables the establishment of: c a declared power demand which determines the contract for the supply of energy.000 3-phase motor: Ia = ex U x η x cos ϕ 1-phase motor: Ia = Pn x 1. the current supplied to them at different voltage levels under normal uncompensated conditions. Ia being the original current.e. This can be achieved by using capacitors without affecting the power output of the motors. output kW input kW cos ϕ: power factor.1 induction motors the nominal power in kW (Pn) of a motor indicates its rated equivalent mechanical power output.5 In). multiply by a factor of 0. As discussed in chapter E.C. assume that the control device has the effect of increasing the power (kW) supplied to the circuit motor (i.95. compensation of reactive-power (kvar) supplied to induction motors The application of this principle to the operation of induction motors is generally referred to as "power-factor improvement" or "power-factor correction". The international standard is now (since 1983) 230/400 V.2 to 9 In for 2-pole motors v Id = 4. where applicable (allowing for expected increases in load).000 U x η x cos ϕ where Ia: current demand (in amps) Pn: nominal power (in kW of active power) U: voltage between phases for 3-phase motors and voltage between the terminals for single-phase motors (in volts).

3 5.93 33.77 0.66 74 0.86 70 182 105 90 0.7 2.3 3.93 0.9 5.3 6.88 478 1250 710 611 0.93 6.88 849 1260 1075 0.4 0.8 2.93 72.86 28.6 6.8 10.2 1.86 33 85 52 45.93 8.12 634 0.3 0.83 10.4 36 20 19 48 28 25 59 34 30 69 41 36 79 48 42 95 55 48 104 63 54 117 67 59 124 73 62 139 79 70 157 91 77 168 97 83 182 105 91 190 109 102 225 129 117 243 138 123 276 159 137 304 176 152 333 192 167 393 226 196 398 229 201 421 243 212 442 255 221 452 262 230 486 281 239 541 312 270 557 320 276 592 350 304 662 386 334 757 435 379 782 449 390 852 483 426 897 517 448 927 535 455 937 553 478 1041 587 490 1088 602 519 1117 634 544 1183 672 578 1258 719 615 1325 748 643 1334 757 653 1410 804 691 1486 852 738 1571 899 781 1665 946 823 1779 1031 871 1874 1041 913 1987 1135 965 1192 1017 1277 1098 1372 1183 1523 1315 1874 1609 % 64 68 72 75 78 79 81 82 82 84 85 86 86 87 88 89 89 89 89 90 90 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 93 93 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 500 V A 0.12 22.5 7.93 80.88 353 948 546 473 0.24 127 0.40 538 0.93 51 379 0.69 117 0. general .93 4.80 105 0.88 598 1570 900 780 0.B 3.6 0.4 11.45 294 0.68 905 0.3 9.5 10 9 12 10 13.3 1.75 0.93 0.6 39 42 44 49 57 61 66 69 82 86 98 107 118 135 140 145 152 159 170 190 200 215 235 274 280 305 320 325 337 365 370 395 410 445 455 460 485 515 545 575 630 645 690 725 770 830 925 1140 500 V A 0.93 27.33 679 0.78 229 0.93 2.1 4.55 160 0.5 14 17.93 167.87 100 260 147 131 0.55 0.66 339 0.95 804 0.5 16 8.3 32 18.80 3.93 39.93 47.6 6.8 52 30 26.86 39 103 60 51.4 0.5 7.93 33.8 3.8 0.81 713 0.3 3.5 0.9 0.93 7.93 11.93 10.5 5.93 1.79 1.8 31 17.6 11.8 1.63 317 0.26 172 0.77 3.85 13.93 45.93 42.93 25.88 508 1330 760 650 0.8 4.73 0.5 7.37 0.37 0.93 20.1 5.7 75 44 39 0.87 94 240 138 125 0.5 25 22 30 25 35 30 40 33 45 37 50 40 54 45 60 51 70 55 75 59 80 63 85 75 100 80 110 90 125 100 136 110 150 129 175 132 180 140 190 147 200 150 205 160 220 180 245 185 250 200 270 220 300 250 340 257 350 280 380 295 400 300 410 315 430 335 450 355 480 375 500 400 545 425 580 445 600 450 610 475 645 500 680 530 720 560 760 600 810 630 855 670 910 710 965 750 1020 800 1090 900 1220 1100 1500 η without compensation cos ϕ Pa current at different voltages at Pn 1-PH 3-PH 220 V 220 V 380 V 440 V kVA A A A A 0.93 11.89 26.1 22 12.88 538 1410 800 690 0.93 11.93 95.93 2.5 11 15 15 20 18.4 30.93 0.93 38.37 18.4 3.1 0.93 24 151 0.99 0.36 0.98 356 0.installed power .8 5 5.88 425 1150 636 549 0.5 13.1 26 14.87 196 520 300 256 0.6 1.93 0.88 1076 1610 1390 0.75 168 0.87 112 295 170 146 0.7 5 4 5.93 2.8 4.93 16.93 107.86 48 126 72 64 0.6 25 13.2 3.87 220 578 333 289 0.7 5 4.76 206 0.93 3.93 32.9 7.67 2.72 47 0.68 36 0.93 26.9 1.93 91.88 670 1760 1000 870 0.88 266 700 408 353 0.86 1019 0.7 10.5 9 12 13.87 74 195 112 97 0.7 12.6 8.87 171 450 260 227 0.7 2.47 0.7 17 21 26 31 36 42 46 51 55 60 69 74 80 83 98 105 121 134 146 172 175 187 194 196 206 238 246 266 293 341 345 378 394 397 421 447 473 499 511 543 563 575 610 643 681 719 785 804 861 908 965 1041 1154 1419 660 V A 0.8 1.93 60.93 1.21 1.87 79 203 117 109 0.93 54 402 0.3 42 24 13.12 44 0.88 401 1100 620 518 0.8 1.44 9.93 68.79 212 0.4 0.9 0.88 634 1660 950 825 0.31 4 0.95.80 334 0.5 2 1.3 34.93 44.5 10.86 43 113 68 58 0.31 0.93 101.5 0.6 2.8 12.74 5.88 311 826 475 412 0.1 0.88 897 1350 1160 0.5 33 39.71 53 0.57 30 0.1 induction motors (continued) nominal power Pn kW HP 0.7 0.93 0.93 136.93 57.6 47 27 15.59 4.5 7.89 64 0.93 67.9 6.75 1.93 9.64 600 0.93 1.1 0.9 0.62 0.1 0.5 4.93 23.88 1.88 1316 1980 1700 with compensation cos ϕ capa.7 2.88 449 1180 670 575 0.5 0.2 2 10.1 3.9 15 18.86 65 170 98 83 0.88 532 1400 790 680 0.B9 .50 509 0.93 8.60 481 0.44 286 0.5 0.3 21.3 1.3 7.Pa at Pn citor rating kvar kVA 0.3 25.5 4.6 8 10.06 0.15 183 0.8 18 9.5 3.5 2 2.6 0.3 0.93 0.75 1.9 6.2 29 16.2 64 37 32.83 7.48 1.92 93 0.5 0.4 4.88 754 1980 1100 965 0.93 30.85 12.5 13 16 20 23 28 32 36 39 41 45 53 56 62 65 77 80 92 100 110 126 131 136 142 149 159 178 187 203 222 259 265 289 303 306 319 336 350 374 388 420 431 435 459 487 516 544 596 610 653 686 729 785 875 1079 table B4: power and current values for typical induction motors.88 359 980 565 481 0.50 13.75 1.42 0.3 5.6 12.72 0.81 252 0.80 5.88 377 990 584 505 0.6 0.8 2.87 0.88 335 900 510 450 0.7 2. The conversion factor for current values for 230 V and 400 V motors is 0.26 566 0.91 1.6 1.4 6 3.4 23 28.93 4.25 39 0.87 183 483 280 246 0.7 39 22 20.93 1.7 13.86 14.53 1.5 7.79 3.63 504 0.88 242 626 370 321 0.88 568 1490 850 730 0.80 4.6 3.93 121.80 6.93 5.39 0.35 1245 current at different voltages 1-PH 3-PH 220 V 220 V 380 V 440 V A A A A 2.93 70.86 51 134 79 67 0.98 69 0.8 0.5 6.1 1.5 16.93 29. The international (IEC 38) standard of 230/400 V has been in force since 1983.93 2.89 88 0.86 57 150 85 76 0.93 114 849 0.6 1.6 0.9 8.5 8.5 2 2. as noted on the previous page.6 13.3 0.9 10.88 801 2100 1200 1020 0.87 159 420 242 209 0.86 24.93 64.03 0.88 957 1450 1250 0.93 85.9 15.80 2.1 424 0.4 2.86 19.99 3 0.2 0. Reminder: some columns refer to 220 and 380 V motors.3 4.71 1 1.4 45 50 55 60 65 75 80 85 89 105 112 129 143 156 184 187 200 207 210 220 254 263 281 310 360 365 400 416 420 445 472 500 527 540 574 595 608 645 680 720 760 830 850 910 960 1020 1100 1220 1500 660 V A 0.87 180 472 273 236 0.88 302 800 460 401 0.1 1.2 3 2.68 0.6 5.5 1.2 1.6 21 11.5 2 2.93 18.84 149 0.2 3 3 4 3.93 14.4 12 6.87 136 356 205 178 0.7 7.87 161 425 245 215 0.88 758 0.2 3.88 718 1880 1090 920 0.93 13.87 125 325 188 162 0.80 7 0.87 226 595 342 295 0.7 5 22 11.8 0.2 5.1 4.7 7.75 1 1.4 32 18 16.10 60 0.84 453 0.9 9.7 35 20 17.9 35 20 11.

30 5.00 45.00 table B7: progressive starters with current limitation. motor maximum power 220 V 380 V 415 V kW kW kW 4 5.C.90 5.00 45. fed from 230/400 V 3-phase a.5 30 33 22 37 40 55 60 440 V (60 Hz) kW 3.00 45. direct-current motors D.5 21.00 10.50 5.90 4.10 3. this solution is progressively replaced with a speedchanging variable-frequency device and an asynchronous motor.5 7.installed power .5 35 42 63 motor In A 7 7 12 12 16 16 37 37 60 60 72 72 105 105 GRADIVAR Ith A 10 10 20 20 30 30 60 60 100 100 130 130 200 200 catalogue number weight kg VR2-SA2121 VR2-SA2123 VR2-SA2171 VR2-SA2173 VR2-SA2211 VR2-SA2213 VR2-SA2281 VR2-SA2283 VR2-SA2361 VR2-SA2363 VR2-SA2401 VR2-SA2403 VR2-SA2441 VR2-SA2443 1.30 5.10 5.95 1.30 3.30 5.60 5.2.40 5.c.00 table B6: progressive starters with voltage ramp. For powers i 40 kW.95 3.5 20 18. for example.5 8.5 35 42 63 90 147 motor In A 12 12 16 16 37 37 60 60 72 72 105 105 140 140 245 245 GRADIVAR Ith A 20 20 30 30 60 60 100 100 130 130 200 200 350 350 530 530 catalogue number weight kg VR2-SA3171 VR2-SA3173 VR2-SA3211 VR2-SA3213 VR2-SA3281 VR2-SA3283 VR2-SA3361 VR2-SA3363 VR2-SA3401 VR2-SA3403 VR2-SA3441 VR2-SA3443 VR2-SA3481 VR2-SA3483 VR2-SA3521 VR2-SA3523 3.3. etc. The speed controller.5 6 5. Im M V power-supply network In fig.g. motors are mainly used for specific applications which require very high torques and/or variable speed control (for example machine tools and crushers.30 5.30 5.50 5. frequent starting-current peaks) rather than on the steady-state full-load current. It is still used for gradual starters and/or retarders. Rectivar 4 (Telemecanique). motor maximum power 220 V 380 V 415 V kW kW kW 1.10 5.5 21.60 11. B10 .00 11.5 8 11 18.3 4 5.5 30 33 22 37 40 55 60 75 80 132 140 440 V (60 Hz) kW 6.).general .10 4.40 10.5 6 5.5 8 11 18. heating and lighting loads (continued) B 3. The operating principle of the converter does not allow heavy overloading. the supply line and the protection are therefore based on the duty cycle of the motor (e. sources. B5: diagram of a low-power speed controller.00 45.5 3 3.5 7. Power to these motors is provided via speedcontrol converters.5 20 18.50 5.5 8.5 6.50 5. motor.

1 79 43.17 7.33 5. * Ia in amps.70 19.77 6.72 1.4 table B8: current demands of resistive heating and incandescent lighting (conventional or halogen) appliances.000.1 3-phase 400 V 0. If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast.1 11.2 0.5 13 14.5 2 2.1 0.17 2.50 1. the currents are given by: c 3-phase case: Ia = Pn* ex U c 1-phase case: Ia = Pn* U where U is the voltage between the terminals of the equipment. a figure of 25% of Pn may be used.3 12. cos ø = 1). The currents are given by: c 3-phase case: Ia = Pn* ex U c 1-phase case: Ia = Pn* U where U is the voltage between the terminals of the equipment.66 10.4 21. complete with its related equipment.2 26. The light output is superior and the life of the lamp is doubled.8 6.7 47. cos ø = 1).22 8.43 1.4 63 34.8 71 39.14 0. the cold filament gives rise to a very brief but intense peak of current.51 3.44 2. c cos ø = 0. Note: at the instant of switching on. with (unless otherwise indicated): c cos ø = 0.02 6. * "Power-factor correction" is often referred to as "compensation" in discharge-lighting-tube terminology.4.6 15.28 7.e.3. current demand 1-phase 1-phase 127 V 230 V 0.e.1 55.79 0.2 31.5 17.5 3-phase 230 V 0. The current taken by the complete circuit is given by: Ia = Pballast + Pn U x cos ø where U = the voltage applied to the lamp. the use of halogen gas allows a more concentrated light source. c cos ø = 0. Pn is in watts. The power consumed by a heating appliance or an incandescent lamp is equal to the nominal power Pn quoted by the manufacturer (i.B11 .26 2.35 11. U in volts.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 For an incandescent lamp.1 30. standard tubular fluorescent lamps The power Pn (watts) indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast.89 3.6 15.61 4.86 with PF correction* (single or twin tubes).1 17.5 3 3.6 20.96 for electronic ballast. If Pn is in kW.52 15.94 2. general .6 with no power factor (PF) correction* capacitor. 3.53 8.5 7.7 10. the current is given by: Pballast + Pn Ia = U x cos ø If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast.29 0. fluorescent lamps and related equipment the power in watts indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast.05 5.installed power .25 0.5 4 4.4 35.4 19. nominal power kW 0.B 3. a figure of 25% of Pn may be used. resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps (conventional or halogen) the power consumed by a heating appliance or an incandescent lamp is equal to the nominal power Pn quoted by the manufacturer (i.58 0.72 10 11. Table B8 gives these values for different arrangements of ballast.9 23.6 13 27.5 1 1.6 25.1 22.9 4.6 39.8 8.77 5. then multiply the equation by 1.87 3.

) and can be mounted in situations otherwise illuminated by incandescent lamps.16 0.37 0.45 (1) Cos ø is approximately 0.24 0.070 0.general . table B11: current demands and power consumption of compact fluorescent lamps (at 220 V/240 V . etc.33 0.50 tube length (cm) 60 120 150 60 120 150 60 120 150 120 120 150 120 150 (1) Power in watts marked on tube.090 0. table B10: current demands and power consumption of commonly-dimensioned fluorescent lighting tubes (at 220 V/240 V .19 0.49 0.3.72 0.185 0.96 twin tubes with high2 x 32 frequency ballast 2 x 50 cos ø = 0. hallways.135 0.155 0.090 0.41 0.115 0.45 0.67 0. starters and ballasts single tube with starter tube power (W) (1) 18 36 58 single tube without 20 starter (2) with 40 external starting strip 65 twin tubes with starter 2 x 18 2 x 36 2 x 58 twin tubes without starter 2 x 40 single tube with 32 high frequency ballast 50 cos ø = 0.315 globe lamps with integral ballast cos ø = 0.160 0.95 (1) lamps with starter only incorporated (no ballast) type single "U" form cos ø ≈ 0. They are commonly used in public places which are permanently illuminated (for example: corridors.5 due to the impulsive form of the current.50 Hz).50 Hz).190 0.205 0.175 0.21 0. fluorescent lamps and related equipment (continued) arrangement of lamps.95 (the zero values of V and I are almost in phase) but the power factor is 0. compact fluorescent tubes Compact fluorescent tubes have the same characteristics of economy and long life as classical tubes.80 0.41 0.27 0. type of lamp lamp power 9 13 18 25 9 11 15 20 5 7 9 11 10 13 18 26 power consumed (W) 9 13 18 25 9 11 15 20 10 11 13 15 15 18 23 31 current at 220/240 V (A) 0.installed power .4.43 0. bars.96 power consumed (W) 27 45 69 33 54 81 55 90 138 108 36 56 72 112 current (A) at 220V/240 V PF not PF electronic corrected corrected ballast 0. the peak of which occurs "late" in each half cycle.165 0. (2) Used exclusively during maintenance operations.35 type double "U" form cos ø ≈ 0. B12 .25 0.155 0.170 0.220 0. heating and lighting loads (continued) B 3.5 (1) electronic lamps cos ø = 0. motor.46 0.26 0.37 0.

Note: these lamps are sensitive to voltage dips.security lighting.73 180 216 0.workshops 12000 with very high ceilings (halls.3 1.5 0.5 1 0. 100 to 200 8000 to . station platform.35 400 421 3.6 70 80 1 0.15 700 731 5. and will not re-ignite before cooling for approximately 4 minutes. However. table B12: current demands of discharge lamps.4 400 431 4.45 4.installed power .50 135 159 0.22 66 80.24 55 72 0.4 2.low light output (1) (1) replaced by sodium vapour lamps.34 90 112 0.45 0.4 3. hangars) .25 5.85 250 274 3 1.5 0. These lamps depend on the luminous electrical discharge through a gas or vapour of a metallic compound.35 400 425 3.50 8.65 150 168 1.17 1. The power in watts indicated on the tube of a discharge lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast.5.39 91 105.70 250 268 2.outdoor spaces . discharge lamps the power in watts indicated on the tube of a discharge lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast.8 0.8 0.4 4 to 6 to 1.2 0.public lighting table B12 gives the current taken by a complete unit.25 2.49 131 154 0.88 250 276 2.9 low-pressure sodium vapour lamps standard lamp 18 26.85 1000 1046 8.5 0.40 2.98 economy lamps 26 34. during which the current Ia is greater than the nominal current In.69 mercury vapour + metal halide (also called metaliodide) 70 80.15 0.lighting of 12000 autoroutes .3 35 43. Note: Sodium vapour low-pressure lamps have a light-output efficiency which is superior to that of all other sources.30 2000 2140 2080 15 11 6.30 2000 2092 2052 16.25 5.6 0. etc) 40 to 60 8000 to .62 0.1 luminous efficiency lumens (per watt) 80 to 120 average utilization life of lamp (h) 9000 .outdoor lighting .new types 12000 more efficient same utilization 70 to 90 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 2000 .50 6 mercury vapour + fluorescent substance (fluorescent bulb) 50 57 0. stockage areas 100 to 200 8000 to .5 0. which is contained in a hermetically-sealed transparent envelope at a pre-determined pressure. use of these lamps is restricted by the fact that the yellow-orange colour emitted makes colour recognition practically impossible.5 0. These lamps have a long start-up time.1 7 to 15 to 1.7 3 to 6 80 90 0.3 36 46.80 0.10 1.2 1000 1055 10. general .5 0.60 10. including all associated ancillary equipment.1 7 to 15 to 1.40 1. Power and current demands are given for different types of lamp in table B12 (typical average values which may differ slightly from one manufacturer to another).15 1. type of power current In(A) starting lamp demand PF not PF Ia/In period (W) at corrected corrected (W) 230V 400V 230V 400V 230V 400V (mins) high-pressure sodium vapour lamps 50 60 0.B 3.84 0.30 1.14 1.45 100 115 1.lighting of large halls . They extinguish if the voltage falls to less than 50% of their nominal voltage.76 0.B13 .lighting of very large areas by projectors (for example:sports stadiums.15 1000 1046 8.7 3 to 5 150 172 1.45 to 2 125 141 1.

). are other cases in which the nominal power indicated on the lamp is less than the power consumed by the lamp and its ballast (See 3. c apparent power. the significant quantity is the apparent power in kVA.4.installed power .4). In addition to providing basic installation-design data on individual circuits. power The ratio = power factor apparent power 4.general . The values given are based on experience and on records taken from actual installations. Fluorescent and discharge lamps associated with stabilizing ballasts. or through a HV/LV transformer. HV/LV transformer. This is the case for electric motors. Most electrical appliances and equipments are marked to indicate their nominal power rating (Pn). or generating set) can be specified. This is not the power to be actually supplied in practice. The aim of this chapter is to show how all existing and projected loads can be assigned various factors to account for diversity (nonsimultaneous operation of all appliances of a given group) and utilization (e. This is not the power to be actually supplied in practice. where the power rating refers to the output power at its driving shaft. and where the requirements of a prime mover have to be considered. *power: the word "power" in the title has been used in a general sense. viz: c power. an electric motor is not generally operated at its full-load capability. B14 .1). power* loading of an installation B In order to design an installation. the actual maximum load demand likely to be imposed on the power-supply system must be assessed.g. covering active power (kW) apparent power (kVA) and reactive power (kvar). The magnitude of the load is adequately specified by two quantities. it means active power (kW). from which the requirements of a supply system (distribution network. The installed power is the sum of the nominal powers of all power-consuming devices in the installation. To base the design simply on the arithmetic sum of all the loads existing in the installation would be extravagantly uneconomical. Where the word power is used without further qualification in the rest of the text. the results will provide a global value for the installation.1 installed power (kW) the installed power is the sum of the nominal powers of all powerconsuming devices in the installation. and bad engineering practice. For a power supply from a LV public-supply network. The power demand (kW) is necessary to choose the rated power of a generating set or battery. Methods of assessing the actual power consumption of motors and lighting appliances are given in Section 3 of this Chapter. The input power consumption will evidently be greater (See 3. etc.

The installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum of the kVA of individual loads. table B13: estimation of installed apparent power.B15 .100 lumens (lm).2 installed apparent power (kVA) the installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum of the kVA of individual loads. It is common practice however. etc. The maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however is not equal to the total installed kVA. intermittent work heavy-duty works: fabrication and 14 assembly of very large work pieces day-to-day work: 24 office work fine work: 41 drawing offices high-precision assembly workshops power circuits type of application estimated (VA/m2) pumping station compressed air 3 to 6 ventilation of premises 23 electrical convection heaters: private houses 115 to 146 flats and apartments 90 offices 25 dispatching workshop 50 assembly workshop 70 machine shop 300 painting workshop 350 heat-treatment plant 700 average lighting level (lux = Im/m2) 150 300 500 800 (1) example: 65 W tube (ballast not included). The estimates for lighting loads are based on floor areas of 500 sq-metres. When some or all of the load characteristics are not known. general . fluorescent lighting (corrected to cos ø = 0. the total kVA of apparent power is not the arithmetical sum of the calculated kVA ratings of individual loads (unless all loads are at the same power factor). the values shown in table B13 may be used to give a very approximate estimate of VA demands (individual loads are generally too small to be expressed in kVA or kW).) and the application of the following coefficients: output kW η = the per-unit efficiency = input kW kW cos ø = the power factor = kVA The apparent-power kVA demand of the load Pn Pa = η x cos ø From this value. the result of which will give a kVA value that exceeds the true value by an acceptable "design margin". * For greater precision. as noted above for motors. strictly speaking.86) type of application estimated (VA/m2) fluorescent tube with industrial reflector (1) roads and highways 7 stockage areas. The apparent-power demand of a load (which might be a single appliance) is obtained from its nominal power rating (corrected if necessary.5 lm/W. The maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however is not equal to the total installed kVA. the full-load current Ia (amps)* taken by the load will be: Pa 103 for single phase-to-neutral c Ia = V connected load Pa 103 c Ia = for three-phase balanced load ex U where: V = phase-to-neutral voltage (volts) U = phase-to-phase voltage (volts) It may be noted that. to make a simple arithmetical summation. account must be taken of the factor of maximum utilization as explained below in 4-3.installed power .B 4. luminous efficiency of the tube = 78. flux 5.

it is not possible to give precise values for general application.40 table B14: simultaneity factors in an apartment block. For incandescent-lighting loads. All individual loads are not necessarily operating at full rated nominal power nor necessarily at the same time.53 1st floor 6 consumers 36 kVA 0.63 x 103 = 55 A 400 x e number of downstream consumers 2 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 49 50 and more factor of simultaneity (ks) 1 0. For this reason. being supplied from a distribution or sub-distribution board). power* loading of an installation (continued) B 4.53 0. the factor always equals 1.46 x 103 = 100 A 400 x e The current entering the third floor is: (36+24) x 0.46 fig. For socket-outlet circuits.49 0.46 0.78 0. it is possible to determine the magnitude of currents in different sections of the common main feeder supplying all floors.63 2nd floor 5 consumers 30 kVA 0. there is always some degree of diversity and this fact is taken into account for estimating purposes by the use of a simultaneity factor (ks). In the case of consumers using electrical heat-storage units for space heating. the current entering the rising main at ground level is 150 x 0. The determination of these factors is the responsibility of the designer. the factors depend entirely on the type of appliances being supplied from the sockets concerned. In an industrial installation this factor may be estimated on an average at 0. which are very rarely operated at full load. a factor of 0.41 0.42 0. Factors ku and ks allow the determination of the maximum power and apparent-power demands actually required to dimension the installation. B16 . since it requires a detailed knowledge of the installation and the conditions in which the individual circuits are to be exploited. i. regardless of the number of consumers.46 = 69 kVA From table B 14.49 ground floor 4 consumers 24 kVA 0. This factor must be applied to each individual load. These changes of conductor size are conventionally spaced by at least 3-floor intervals.g. Factors ku and ks allow the determination of the maximum power and apparent-power demands actually required to dimension the installation.general . a fairly common occurrence that justifies the application of an utilization factor (ku) in the estimation of realistic values. For vertical rising mains fed at ground level.3 estimation of actual maximum kVA demand all individual loads are not necessarily operating at full rated nominal power nor necessarily at the same time.e. The total installed load for the building = 36 + 24 + 30 + 36 + 24 = 150 kVA The apparent-power supply required for the building = 150 x 0. Factor of simultaneity for an apartment block Some typical values for this case are given in table B14. the cross-sectional area of the conductors can evidently be progressively reduced from the lower floors towards the upper floors.8 is recommended. each having 6 kVA of installed load. factor of maximum utilization (ku) In normal operating conditions the power consumption of a load is sometimes less than that indicated as its nominal power rating. B15: application of the factor of simultaneity (ks) to an apartment block of 5 storeys. factor of simultaneity (ks) It is a matter of common experience that the simultaneous operation of all installed loads of a given installation never occurs in practice.75 for motors. and are applicable to domestic consumers supplied at 230/400 V (3-phase 4-wires). The factor ks is applied to each group of loads (e.4. 4th floor 6 consumers 36 kVA 0. with particular attention to electric motors.63 0. Example: 5 storeys apartment building with 25 consumers.78 3rd floor 4 consumers 24 kVA 0.44 0. In the example.installed power .

5 15 15 18 2 distribution box power circuit 0. table B17: factor of simultaneity according to circuit function.9 0.8 1 1 0.6 kVA.5 2.6 lighting 3 circuit power circuit socketoutlets 0. number of circuits assemblies entirely tested 2 and 3 4 and 5 6 to 9 10 and more assemblies partially tested in every case choose factor of simultaneity (ks) 0.1 to 0.4 pedestaldrill n°1 workshop A distribution board n°2 5 socket10/16 A outlets 30 fluorescent lamps workshop B 0. circuit function lighting heating and air conditioning socket-outlets lifts and catering hoists (2) .B Factor of simultaneity for distribution boards Table B16 shows hypothetical values of ks for a distribution board supplying a number of circuits for which there is no indication of the manner in which the total load divides between them.3 lighting circuit workshop B distribution board LV/HV 15.4 1 distribution box 3.8 0. from each load position to the point of supply.8 0. 4. (2) The current to take into consideration is equal to the nominal current of the motor. notably in industrial installations.5 2.installed power .9 0. this factor can be higher.7 0.B17 .6 1.8 5 socket10/16 A 18 outlets 20 fluorescent 2 lamps table B18: an example in estimating the maximum predicted loading of an installation (the factor values used are for demonstration purposes only).60 table B16: factor of simultaneity for distribution boards (IEC 439).6 0. and U is the phaseto-phase voltage (in volts).2 1 1 0. If the circuits are mainly for lighting loads.4 example of application of factors ku and ks an example in the estimation of actual maximum kVA demands at all levels of an installation.6 18 3 12 10.for the second most powerful motor .28 1 5 2 socketoutlets lighting circuit 37. I= level 2 apparentsimultaneity power demand factor kVA level 3 apparentpower demand kVA workshop A lathe n°1 n°2 n°3 n°4 5 5 5 5 2 2 18 3 0.8 0.9 workshop C 1 35 power circuit workshop C distribution board 0.8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 1. kVA apparentsimultaneity power demand factor kVA kVA x 103 Ue where kVA is the actual maximum 3-phase apparent-power value shown on the diagram for the circuit concerned. Note: in order to select cable sizes for the distribution circuits of an installation.2 (1) 1 0. general . (1) In certain cases.9 main general distribution board MGDB compressor 15 3 socket.8 0.9 65 1 0. apparentsimultaneity power demand factor max. increased by a third of its starting current.6 outlets 1 10 fluorescent lamps ventilation n°1 fan n°2 oven n°1 n°2 2. are shown in table B17. In this example.9 18. it is prudent to adopt ks values close to unity.8 0.5 15 15 12 socketoutlets 4.75 14.8 0. the current I (in amps) through a circuit is determined from the equation level 1 utilization apparentpower (Pa) kVA utilization factor max.6 1 2.for all other motors factor of simultaneity (ks) 1 1 0. the total installed apparent power is 126.6 1.0 Factor of simultaneity according to circuit function ks factors which may be used for circuits supplying commonly-occurring loads.10/16 A 10. which corresponds to an actual (estimated) maximum value at the LV terminals of the HV/LV transformer of 65 kVA only.for the most powerful motor .75 0.

as defined in IEC standards. * as given on the transformer-rating nameplate. B18 . In some English-speaking countries however (at the time of writing) DIVERSITY FACTOR is the inverse of ks i. a suitable rating for the transformer can be decided.) standard transformer ratings. it is always u 1. For a single-phase transformer: 3 In = Pa 10 where V V = voltage between LV terminals at no-load* (in volts). The nominal full-load current In on the LV side of a 3-phase transformer is given by: Pa 103 In = where Ue Pa = kVA rating of the transformer U = phase-to-phase voltage at no-load* (in volts) In is in amperes. Simplified equation for 400 V (3-phase load) In = kVA x 1. taking due account of the following considerations: voltage (at no load) rated power (kVA) 50 100 160 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 In (A) 400 V 72 144 231 361 455 577 722 909 1155 1443 1804 2309 2887 3608 c the possibility of improving the power factor of the installation (see chapter E).5 diversity factor The term DIVERSITY FACTOR.6 choice of transformer rating When an installation is to be supplied directly from a HV/LV transformer and the maximum apparent-power loading of the installation has been determined.. 420 V 69 137 220 344 433 550 687 866 1100 1375 1718 2199 2749 3437 433 V 67 133 213 333 420 533 667 840 1067 1333 1667 2133 2667 3333 480 V 60 120 192 301 379 481 601 758 962 1203 1504 1925 2406 3007 table B19: IEC-standardized kVA ratings of HV/LV 3-phase distribution transformers and corresponding nominal full-load current values.installed power ..e.4. as described in 4.4 The IEC standard for power transformers is IEC 76. c anticipated extensions to the installation. 4. power loading of an installation (continued) B 4. For table B19 the no-load voltage used is 420 V for the nominal 400 V winding. is identical to the factor of simultaneity (ks) used in this guide.general . c installation constraints (temperature.3.

connection to a HV source may be necessary where the load exceeds (or is planned eventually to exceed) a certain level . that: c the consumer is the proprietor of the HV/LV substation and. c the type and location of the substation are agreed between the consumer and the supply authority. For the main source of supply the choice is generally between a connection to the HV or the LV network of the public power-supply authority. It should be noted. In practice. in certain circumstances. participate in the investment. a HV consumer: c is not disturbed by other consumers. or if the quality of service required is greater than that normally available from a LV network. The choice and characteristics of these alternative sources are described in F3-3. etc. c can accept very large increases in load. general . c is free to choose any type of LV earthing system. which could be the case at LV.B 4. he must build and equip it at his own expense. However. for instance. Supplies at HV can have certain advantages: in fact. The power authority can.7 choice of power-supply sources The study developed in F2 on the importance of maintaining a continuous supply raises the question of the use of standby-power plant.B19 .installed power . in certain countries. in some countries. Moreover. the supply authorities may propose a HV service.generally of the order of 250 kVA. access to the HV part being reserved to the supply-authority personnel (meter reading. when connected to a LV network. often be recovered if a second consumer is connected to the HV line within a certain time following the original consumer's own connection. at the level of the HV line for example.). operational manœuvres. c has a wider choice of economic tariffs. c the consumer has access only to the LV part of the installation. if the installation is likely to cause disturbance to neighbouring consumers. the HV protective circuit breaker (or fused load-break switch) can be operated by the consumer. however. c a part of the connection costs can.

the word “nominal” voltage is used for the network and the word “rated” voltage is used for the equipment. unless otherwise stated.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks the main features which characterize a power-supply system include: c the nominal voltage and related insulation levels. HV/LV distribution substations . IEC 694 concerns switchgear for nominal voltages exceeding 1. For economic and technical reasons the upper nominal voltage limit of high-voltage distribution systems..000 V. seldom exceeds 36. having regard to voltage sensitive characteristics such as losses of capacitors. c the rated normal current of items of plant and equipment. In such cases. and temporary voltage variations”. In this chapter.5 kV. values. such as those due to system switching. particularly for certain nominal system voltages.000 V or less are referred to as Low-Voltage systems. nominal voltage and related insulation levels The nominal voltage of a system or of an equipment is defined in IEC 38 as “the voltage by which a system or equipment is designated and to which certain operating characteristics are referred”. normal operation of equipment cannot be ensured up to this highest voltage for equipment.The definition for “highest voltage for equipment” given in IEC 38 is identical to that given in IEC 694 for “rated voltage”. supply of power at high voltage C At present there is no international agreement on precise limits to define “High” voltage. that occurs under normal operating conditions at any time and at any point on the system. The “highest voltage for equipment” is defined in IEC 38 as: “the maximum value of voltage for which the equipment may be used. etc.1.m.It is understood that the equipment to be used in systems having nominal voltage not exceeding 1. It excludes voltage transients. and to which other characteristics may be referred in relevant equipment recommendations.000 V only. It is understood that. Notes: 1.. will be referred to as HighVoltage systems. while systems of power distribution which require one stage of stepdown voltage transformation.. Voltage levels which are designated as “high” in some countries are referred to as “medium” in others.000 V should be specified with reference to the nominal system voltage only. magnetizing current of transformers.C1 . in order to feed into lowvoltage networks.The highest voltage for equipment is indicated for nominal system voltages higher than 1. 2. both for operation and for insulation. Note: All voltages and currents are r. in this document.s. distribution networks which operate at voltages of 1. 1. c the short-circuit current. Closely related to the nominal voltage is the “highest voltage for equipment” which concerns the level of insulation at normal working frequency. c the method of earthing. as defined above. 3. the relevant recommendations must specify the limit to which the normal operation of this equipment can be ensured.

m.8 (1) 24. * This means basically that List 1 generally applies to switchgear to be used on underground-cable systems while List 2 is chosen for switchgear to be used on overhead-line systems.40 (1) 13. It is recommended that these values should not be used for new systems to be constructed in future. Two series of highest voltages for equipment are given below. taken from IEC 38. switching.4 (2) 36. (for further guidance reference should be made to IEC 71).2 (1) 12 (17. The values indicated in parentheses should be considered as non-preferred values. 2) These systems are generally four-wire systems. the type of neutral earthing. the other for 60 Hz systems (Series II . etc. The choice between List 1 and List 2 values of table C2 depends on the degree of exposure to lightning and switching overvoltages*. It is also recommended that only one of the two series of nominal voltages given for Series I should be used in any one country. series I highest voltage for equipement (kV) 3. lists the most-commonly used standard levels of high-voltage distribution.10% from the nominal voltage of the system. the highest voltage and the lowest voltage do not differ by more than approximately ± 10% from the nominal voltage of the system. The values shown are voltages between phases.3 (1) 3 (1) 6. series II highest voltage for equipment (kV) 4. table C1: relating nominal system voltages with corresponding rated system voltages (r. 2 . It is recommended that only one of these series should be used in any one country.HV/LV distribution substations .16 (1) 12. C2 .5) 24 36 (3) 40. all HV equipment must be specified to have appropriate Rated Insulation Levels.5 (2) - nominal system voltage (kV) 4.47 (2) 13.5 (3) nominal system voltage (kV) 3.It is recommended that in any one country the ratio between two adjacent nominal voltages should be not less than two. and relates the nominal voltages to corresponding standard values of “Highest Voltage for Equipment”. and system fault conditions.94 (2) 34. and transient overvoltages caused by lightning.2 (2) 13.6 (1) 6 (1) 11 10 (15) 22 20 33 (3) 35 (3) Notes: 1 .s. These systems are generally three-wire systems unless otherwise indicated. etc.North American practice). values).1.In a normal system of Series I. and the type of overvoltage protection devices. Switchgear Table C2 shown below. In order to ensure adequate protection of equipment against abnormally-high shortterm power-frequency overvoltages.6 (1) 7. is extracted from IEC 694 and lists standard values of “withstand” voltage requirements. In a normal system of Series II. the highest voltage does not differ by more than + 5% and the lowest voltage by more than .5 (2) - 1) These values should not be used for public distribution systems.2 (2) 13. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1.97 (2) 14.52 (1) 26. one for 50 Hz and 60 Hz systems (Series I).1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) The following Table C1. 3) The unification of these values is under consideration.

across the isolating between poles isolating distance and across distance open switching device (kV) (kV) (kV) 46 10 12 70 20 23 85 28 32 110 38 45 145 50 60 195 70 80 290 95 110 375 140 160 (kV) 3. no switching overvoltage ratings are mentioned.1 3.C Based on current practice in most European and several other countries rated voltage U (r. Transformers The two tables C3A and C3B shown below have been extracted from IEC 76-3. between poles isolating between poles and across distance and across open open switching switching device device (kV) (kV) (kV) 20 23 40 40 46 60 60 70 75 75 85 95 95 110 125 145 165 170 250 325 rated I min powerfrequency withstand voltage (r. value) rated lightning impulse withstand voltage (peak value) list 1 list 2 to earth. HV/LV distribution substations .2 12 17.m. table C2: switchgear rated insulation levels. across the to earth. etc. value) across the to earth. This is because overvoltages due to switching transients are less severe at these voltage levels than those due to lightning.s.e.m.s. It should be noted that.5 Note: The withstand voltage values “across the isolating distance” are valid only for the switching devices where the clearance between open contacts is designed to meet safety requirements specified for disconnectors (isolators).5 rated short duration power frequency withstand voltage (r.2 12 17.m.6 7. highest voltage for equipment Um (r.m.6 7.C3 . The significance of list 1 and list 2 in Series I is the same as that for the switchgear table.5 24 36 52 72.s.) (kV) i 1. the choice depends on the degree of exposure to lightning.) (kV) 3 10 20 28 38 50 70 95 140 rated lightning impulse withstand voltage (peak) list 1 list 2 (kV) (kV) 20 40 40 60 60 75 75 95 95 125 145 170 250 325 table C3A: transformers rated insulation levels in series I (based on current practice other than in the United States of America and some other countries). i.5 24 36 52 72. at the voltage levels in question.s. and refer to the current practices in countries other than those of North America (Series I) and to those of North America and some other countries (Series II).

5 16 25 40 52 8 12.s.5 } 34 50 70 140 table C3B: transformers rated insulation levels in series II (based on current practice in the United States of America and some other countries). porcelain or glass insulators.5 72.97 14. must be compatible with that of the switchgear and transformers noted above. current. short-circuit current A circuit breaker (or fuse switch.s.40 13.5 8 12. etc.) rated short duration power frequency withstand voltage (r. IEC 56 gives standard short-circuit currentbreaking ratings as follows.s. These reflect the diverse practices adopted in countries of different meteorologic. The national standards of any particular country are normally rationalized to include one or two levels only of voltage. instrument transformers.4 36. a circuit breaker (or fuse switch. kV kA (r. etc.) (kV) 19 rated lightning impulse withstand voltage (peak) distribution other transformers transformers (kV) (kV) 60 75 95 110 150 200 350 (kV) 4.HV/LV distribution substations . Standard values of circuit breaker shortcircuit current-breaking capability are normally given in kilo-amps.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) highest voltage for equipment Um (r. e. Test schedules for these items are given in appropriate IEC publications. Other components It is evident that the insulation performance of other HV components associated with these major items.5 16 25 40 24 8 12.m.c. These values refer to a 3-phase short-circuit condition. component of current in each of the three phases.g. and fault-levels.m. HV cables. values of the a. and fault-levels.5 20 table C4: standard short-circuit current-breaking ratings extracted from table X IEC 56.1.s.52 26. current. and are expressed as the average of the r.6 10 16 25 40 7.m.5 16 25 40 50 17. Short-circuit current-breaking ratings For circuit breakers in the rated voltage ranges being considered in this chapter. etc. General note The IEC standards are intended for worldwide application and consequently embrace an extensive range of voltage and current levels. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1.5 16 25 40 36 8 12.20 13.m. C4 . the national standards of any particular country are normally rationalized to include one or two levels only of voltage. over a limited voltage range) is the only form of switchgear capable of safely breaking the very high levels of current associated with short-circuit faults occurring on a power system.) 3.5 16 25 40 12 8 12. over a limited voltage range) is the only form of switchgear capable of safely breaking the very high levels of current associated with short-circuit faults occurring on a power system.2 8 12. geographic and economic constraints.

07.c. and feed current (typically 50 % .m.m. Note: When a short-circuit (s. component by reducing the doubling factor (2) to a value of 1.c.m. In the great majority of cases.) occurs on a power system. it is not necessary to take account of its effect on the s. In IEC 56 this reduction is based on an inductive d. measured from CC’ EE’ = instant of contact separation (initiation of the arc) IMC = making current = (A-C) 1.c.c. Where circuit breakers are to be installed close to generating plant. the a.c. current-making rating.c.s.c. the d.c.5 is derived as follows: shortcircuit current is normally highly inductive so that at least two of the phases will contain a transient d.e. transient diminishes rapidly from the instant of fault.07 and that the minimum operating time of protective relaying is not less than a half cycle of the power-supply frequency (i. component of current at instant EE’ IDC x 100 = percentage value of the d. For such a possibility. HV/LV distribution substations . these conditions will be satisfied in a conventional HV distribution network. C5: determination of short-circuit making and breaking currents. It cannot be neglected however. IAC component fig. The form of the fully-offset short-circuit current is shown in figure C5. value of the a. the a. component. 10 ms at 50 Hz).c. If there are large concentrations of motors near the point of installation of a CB.C Where the installation of a circuit breaker is electrically remote from a power source. However. C IMC IAC A’ D’ B IDC C’ X t B’ E’ AA' = envelope of current-wave BB’ BX = normal zero line CC’ = displacement of current-wave zeroline at any instant DD’ = r. while the peak current occurs a half cycle after that instant. Maximum peak of current Another aspect of short-circuit current stresses that may be imposed on the component parts of a power system. apart from very exceptional cases.5 times the s. In such circumstances. Explanation The value 2. since the result could lead to an absence of current zeros for several initial cycles*. value of the a.5 Irms.c. time constant value which is representative of average HV distribution systems. component of short-circuit current will diminish rapidly from its initial value (i. For the latter reason.80 % of the motorstarting current) into the fault. currentbreaking rating of a circuit breaker (CB). concerns the maximum possible peak of current which can occur if a circuit breaker is closed on to a dead circuit which is shortcircuited.c. The numerical value of this rating is 2. reproduced from IEC 56.8 = 2. producing the so-called “doubling effect”.c.5 times the short-circuit current-breaking rating of the circuit breaker.c.c. current-breaking capacity is necessary in such circumstances.s. unless especially designed for the purpose. component in one of the phases will be equal I A E D to the peak value of the a. value of 3-phase short-circuit current at the point of installation. The peak current value is therefore rIrms x 1.c. therefore. component. This is due to the collapsing magnetic flux in each motor and is generally significant only for the first power-frequency cycle from the moment of s. component r of current at instant EE’ IDC = d.8.54 Irms which is rounded off for standardization purposes to 2. decrement) and the power factor of the fault circuit may be less than 0. Such a case would need further investigation along the lines indicated in IEC 56. expressed in kA of peak current.8 where A and C are measured at t = 0 IAC = peak value of a. component.s. current-making level will be greater than 2. all electric motors act for a very brief period (1-2 cycles) as generators.c.c. In order to ensure an adequate s. the value of the d. * A "natural" current zero is essential for the correct functioning of a CB.C5 . current-breaking level at the same location.c. a CB having an oversized s.c. circuit breakers have a short-circuit current-making rating. it is only necessary to check that the power factor of the faulty circuit is not less than 0.c.c. it is then only necessary to ensure that the IEC-rated shortcircuit current-breaking capability of the circuit breaker exceeds the r. and of percentage d. in the case of s.e. In the worst possible case. the s. Allowance is made for the diminution in the d.c. component of current at any instant. currentmaking capacity. component of current at instant EE’ IAC = r.

or in particular cases (depending on equipment specifications) for 3 seconds. 31. In such a scheme. The short-circuit current level of a HV distribution system is frequently limited by design techniques to a pre-determined maximum value typically in the range of 12.000 A circuit breakers are listed in IEC 56 as standard ratings for incoming-transformer circuits. such as: c normal current at HV. In this way. current-making performance must be installed. the most common normal current rating for general-purpose HV distribution switchgear is 400 A.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) the short-circuit current level of a HV distribution system is frequently limited by design techniques to a predetermined maximum value typically in the range of 12. 20. 800 A. as a more economic alternative to a CB. The actual rating will be given by the switch-fuse manufacturer. Rated normal current The rated normal current is defined as “the r.m. currentbreaking rating sufficiently high to ensure an adequate s. 1. that cannot be correctly broken by the fuses. and details of the transformer. a CB having a s. the load-break switch must be suitably rated to trip automatically. assigned to the combination by the manufacturer.500 A and 4. as applied to HV switch-fuse combination units.600 A. The rated normal current requirements for switchgear are decided at the substation design stage. will be cleared by the relay-operated load-break switch. e. circuits rated at 630 A are sometimes required. etc. 16. All HV equipments connected to the system must be capable of withstanding.5. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1.1.5. while low fault-current values. The IEC recommends that the normal-current rating value. There are no IEC-recommended normalcurrent rating tables for the combination in these cases. according to the fuse characteristics. peak and duration of the transformer energization inrush magnetizing current.s. and summarized in Appendix C1 of this guide. At HV/LV substations which include one (or more) transformer(s) with a normal primary current of less than 45 A.g. a HV switch associated with a set of 3 fuses (or a combination switch-fuse) is generally used to control and protect the transformer. C6 . c off-circuit tapping-switch position. without damage. by relays. value of the current which can be carried continuously at rated frequency with a temperature rise not exceeding that specified by the relevant product standard”. In industrial areas and high-load-density urban districts.HV/LV distribution substations . viz: 10. or in particular cases (depending on equipment specifications) for 3 seconds. The most common normal current rating for general-purpose HV distribution switchgear is 400 A. 2. without damage. Appendix C1 gives further information on this arrangement. 12. etc.250 A. c permissible overcurrent and its duration. while at bulk-supply substations which feed into HV networks. 63. as shown in the example given in Appendix A of IEC 420.5 kA to 25 kA. the thermal and mechanical stresses of the maximum short-circuit current for 1 second.5 kA to 25 kA. the thermal and mechanical stresses of the maximum short-circuit current for 1 second.c. at low fault-current levels which must cover (by an appropriate margin) the rated minimum breaking current of the HV fuses. be one of the “R10” series of (ISO) preferred numbers. 50. 40. In such a case.c. 25. c max. 1. bus-section and bus-coupler CBs. high values of fault current which are beyond the breaking capability of the load-break switch will be cleared by the fuses. 80 with multiples (or sub-multiples) of 10 as required. All HV equipments connected to the system must be capable of withstanding.

transformers. Providing that all exposed metal in the substation is “bonded” (connected together) and then connected to the earth electrode. It will be seen in figure C6 that the neutral point of the LV winding of the HV/LV transformer is also connected to the common substation earth electrode. where physically possible. The equipotential earthing installation at a consumer's premises represents a remote earth. where appropriate. etc. (where I = r. Earth electrodes In general. particularly regarding safety of the LV consumer during the occurrence of a shortcircuit to earth on the HV system.e. and the size of the aircirculating fans. However. simply because a cooling fan fixed to the shaft of the motor removes the heat at the same rate as it is produced. Transferred potential A danger exists however from the problem known as Transferred Potential. there is no possibility of separating a HV electrode sufficiently from a LV electrode to avoid the transference of (possibly dangerous) voltages to the LV system. earth faults on high-voltage systems can produce dangerous voltage levels on LV installations. Solutions A first step in minimizing the obvious dangers of transferred potentials is to reduce the magnitude of HV earth-fault currents. the limited space available in urban substations precludes this practice. to separate the electrode provided for earthing exposed conductive parts of HV equipment from the electrode intended for earthing the LV neutral conductor. HV/LV distribution substations . It may be noted that there will be no LV insulation failure between phases or from phase to neutral since they are all at the same potential.e. and increase the oil-cooling radiator surfaces. i.m. since this arrangement forms an equipotential “cage” in which all conductive material. to maintain the original IEC rating. “remote earth” is at zero potential). and upper limits are decided by the acceptable temperature rise caused by the I2R (watts) dissipated in the conductors. In such cases. Low-voltage distribution cables leaving the substation will transfer this potential to consumers installations. and dielectric losses in cables and capacitors. is discussed at the end of Sub-clause 3. the equipment has to be derated. This is commonly practised in rural systems where the LV neutral-conductor earth electrode is installed at one or two spans of LV distribution line away from the substation.5 ohms will raise its voltage to 5. that the insulation between phase and earth of a cable or some part of an installation would fail.s. For example. Oil. i. current in amperes and R = the resistance of the conductor in ohms). however. by means of a Petersen coil. A relatively high transferred potential cannot be entirely avoided by this means. and so the temperature reaches a stable value below that which could damage the insulation and result in a burnt-out motor. then the equipotential conditions existing in the substation would also exist at the consumer's installation. if this earthing installation were to be connected by a low-impedance conductor to the earthelectrode at the substation. Such currents passing through an earth electrode will raise its voltage to a high value with respect to “remote earth” (the earth surrounding the electrode will be raised to a high potential.and/or air-cooled transformers are among the most widely known examples of such “forced-cooling” techniques. located at bulk-supply substations. large currents can be passed through electric motor windings without causing them to overheat. including personnel. be assigned a lower value of normalcurrent rating according to IEC 76-2. It is probable.000 metres. For example. however. the LV phase windings and all phase conductors are also raised to the electrode potential. namely.e. c creating equipotential conditions at the substation and at the consumer's installation. Earthing and equipment-bonding earth connections require careful consideration. the amount of cooling oil. Earth-fault current Earth-fault current levels at high voltage are generally (unless deliberately restricted) comparable to those of a 3-phase shortcircuit. 10. * the others being unearthed. together with the heat produced by magnetic-hysteresis and eddy-current losses in motors. This is commonly achieved by earthing the HV system through resistors or reactors at the star points of selected transformers*. A particular case of earth-fault current limitation.C Influence of the ambient temperature and altitude on the rated current Normal-current ratings are assigned to all current-carrying electrical appliances.000 A of earth-fault current passing through an electrode with an (unusually low) resistance of 0. then there is no danger to personnel. and so the following strategy has been adopted in some countries. LV consumers (and substation operating personnel) can be safeguarded against this danger by: c restricting the magnitude of HV earth-fault currents.2. the power of the circulating-oil pumps. so that the neutral conductor. at zero potential.000 V. c creating equipotential conditions at the substation and at the consumer's installation. c reducing the substation earthing resistance to the lowest possible value. c reducing the substation earthing resistance to the lowest possible value. In most cases. The temperature rise above the ambient temperature will depend mainly on the rate at which the heat is removed. is raised to the same potential. i. LV consumers (and substation operating personnel) can be safeguarded against this danger by: c restricting the magnitude of HV earth-fault currents.C7 . earthing connections Earth faults on high-voltage systems can produce dangerous voltage levels on LV installations. it is preferable. and the electrode is in the form of (or is connected to) a grid of conductors under the floor of the substation. In the case of force-cooled transformers it is generally sufficient to provide sun shields.000 metres. The normal-current values recommended by IEC are based on ambient-air temperatures common to temperate climates at altitudes not exceeding 1. so that items which depend on natural cooling by radiation and air-convection will overheat if operated at rated normal current in a tropical climate and/ or at altitudes exceeding 1.

C8 . Limitation of the HV earth-fault current and earth resistance of the substation Another widely-used system of earthing is shown in diagram C of figure C7. is to: c restrict the value of HV earth-fault currents. a very effective low-resistance earth electrode.1. and the result is recognized as the TN system of earthing (IEC 364-3) as shown in diagram A of figure C7. in which the neutral conductor is earthed at intervals along its length (every 3rd or 4th pole on a LV overhead-line distributor) and at each consumer's service position. constitutes. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. This means that. c reduce the resistance of the substation earth electrode. the consumer's earthing installation (being isolated from that of the substation) constitutes a remote earth. although the transferred potential will not stress the phase-to-phase insulation of the consumer's equipment. C6: transferred potential. as previously discussed. such that the standard value of 5-second withstand-voltage-to-earth for LV equipment and appliances will not be exceeded. It can be seen that the network of neutral conductors radiating from a substation. Low-impedance interconnection This low-impedance interconnection is achieved simply by connecting the neutral conductor to the consumer's equipotential installation. the phase-to-earth insulation of all three phases will be subjected to overvoltage.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) HV LV 1 2 3 N fault If consumer If Rs V=IfRs fig. together with the substation earthing. It will be seen that in the TT system. The TN system is generally associated with a Protective Multiple Earthing (PME) scheme. equipotential installations and lowresistance substation earthing. each of which is earthed at regular intervals.HV/LV distribution substations . The strategy in this case. results in greatly reduced levels of overvoltage and limited stressing of phase-to-earth insulation during the type of HV earth-fault situation described above. The combination of restricted earth-fault currents.

and it is therefore the substation LV equipment (only) that could be subjected to overvoltage.C9 .U Im TT(S) RS RN RS RN IT(S) Where Uws = the normal-frequency withstand voltage for low-voltage equipments in the substation (since the exposed conductive parts of these equipments are earthed via Rs) U = phase to neutral voltage at the substation for the TT(s) system. are all earthed via the substation electrode system. Uw and Uws are commonly given the (IEC 644) value 1. HV/LV distribution substations . C7: maximum earthing resistance Rs at a HV/LV substation to ensure safety during a short-circuit to earth fault on the high-voltage equipment for different systems of earthing. fig. together with the LV neutral point of the transformer are earthed via the substation electrode system.Uo Im Where Uw = the rated normal-frequency withstand voltage for low-voltage equipment at consumer installations Uo = phase to neutral voltage at consumer's installations Im = maximum value of HV earth-fault current TT(N) RS IT(N) RS C HV LV 1 2 3 N HV LV D cases E and F 1 2 3 N Rs i Uws .C HV LV 1 2 3 N HV LV 1 2 3 N cases A and B No particular resistance value for Rs is imposed in these cases. (N) signifies that the HV and LV exposed conductive parts at the substation. TN(R) IT(R) A HV LV 1 2 3 N RS B cases C and D 1 2 3 N HV LV Rs i Uw . but the phase-tophase voltage for the IT(s) system Im = maximum value of HV earth-fault current E F In cases E and F the LV protective conductors (bonding exposed conductive parts) in the substation are earthed via the substation earth electrode. where Uo is the nominal phase-to-neutral voltage of the LV system concerned. Notes: (R) signifies that the HV and LV exposed conductive parts at the substation and those at the consumer's installations. together with the LV neutral point of the transformer. (S) signifies that the LV neutral point of the transformer is separately earthed outside of the area of influence of the substation earth electrode.5 Uo + 750 V.

in each case. A third form of system earthing referred to as the “IT” system in IEC 364 is commonly used where continuity of supply is essential.000 ohms) are included in the neutralearthing lead.1. Diagrams D and F.Uo Rs = in ohms Im (see cases C and D in figure C7). to which they are “connected” via the (normally very high) insulation resistances and (very small) capacitances between the live conductors and earthed metal (conduits. all conductors will be raised to the potential of the substation earth. C10 . LV cable and installation wiring capacitances to earth are much larger. or earthed through a high impedance (u 1.1. Diagram B. D and F of figure C7 show IT systems in which resistors (of approximately 1. system capacitances exist between the conductors and earth at zero potential (capacitances between cores are irrelevant . whether the neutral point is isolated or earthed through a high impedance. where each “capacitor” is shunted by (leakage path) resistances.e. to ensure that the LV withstand voltage will not be exceeded.all cores being raised to the same potential).1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) Practical values adopted by one national electrical power-supply authority. so that most of the voltage stresses appear at the substation between the transformer tank and the LV winding. and the insulation resistances to earth are much smaller than those of the corresponding parameters at the S/S.g. it is more likely.). because of the numerous earth-leakage paths of all live conductors in a number of installations acting in parallel. c through capacitance between the equipotential conductors in the S/S and the cores of LV distribution cables leaving the S/S. in hospitals. If however. c maximum earth-fault current on underground systems is 1. Diagrams B. an insulation failure to earth in the low-voltage circuits supplied from the secondary windings will result in zero or negligible fault-current flow. so that the system is unearthed. In these cases. etc. on its 20 kV distribution systems.000 ohms).000 A. The formula required to determine the maximum value of earthing resistance Rs at the substation. all LV phase and neutral conductors will be raised by electrostatic induction to a potential approaching that of the equipotential conductors. Where Uw = the lowest standard value (in volts) of short-term (5 s) withstand voltage for the consumer's installation and appliances = 1. the following notes apply. In these cases. c through current leakage paths in the insulation. In general. The rise in potential at consumers’ installations is not likely therefore to be a problem where the HV earth-fault current level is restricted as previously mentioned. which can be allowed to persist until it is convenient to shut-down the affected circuit to carry out repair work. All IT-earthed transformers.5 Uo + 750 V (IEC 644 (1991)) Uo = phase to neutral voltage (in volts) at the consumer's LV service position Im = maximum earth-fault current on the HV system (in amps). the secondary winding of which is unearthed. these resistors were removed. the high potential of the substation (S/S) earthing system acts on the isolated LV phase and neutral conductors: c through the capacitance between the LV windings of the transformer and the transformer tank. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. continuous-process manufacturing. The result is essentially a capacitive voltage divider. are as follows: c maximum earth-fault current on overheadline distribution systems. In practice. The principle depends on taking a supply from an unearthed source. are routinely provided with an overvoltage limiting device which will automatically connect the neutral point directly to earth if an overvoltage condition approaches the insulation-withstand level of the LV system. In these cases. i. e.HV/LV distribution substations . several other ways in which these overvoltages can occur are described in Clause 3. the overvoltage stresses on the LV insulation are small or non-existent. In addition to the possibilities mentioned above. is 300 A. All phase wires and the neutral conductor are “floating” with respect to earth. is: Uw . that the system will behave similarly to the case where a neutral earthing resistor is present. or mixed (O/H line and U/G cable) systems. usually a transformer. Assuming perfect insulation. etc. At positions outside the area of influence of the S/S earthing.

The equipotential criterion to be respected is that which is mentioned in Chapter G dealing with protection against electric shock by indirect contact. * Copper is cathodic to most other metals and therefore resists corrosion.1 and in Appendix C2. HV/LV distribution substations . Up to transformer ratings of 160 kVA this type of HV service is very common in rural areas. Protection and switching devices are remote from the transformer. and when it does occur is quickly detected and cleared by the automatic tripping of a circuit breaker in a properly designed and constructed installation. from which a number of these elementary service lines are tapped. 1. C8: single-line service. as shown in figure C8.C This kind of earth-fault is very rare. and generally control a main overhead-line. the following supply arrangements are commonly adopted. In some countries a pole-mounted transformer with no HV switchgear or fuses (at the pole) constitutes the “substation”. the HV service is connected into a panel containing a load-break/isolating switch with series protective fuses and earthing switches. namely: that the potential between any two exposed metal parts which can be touched simultaneously by any parts of the body must never. This question is closely related to the safe earthing of boundary fences and is further discussed in Sub-clause 3. or 25 V in wet conditions.2 different HV service connections According to the type of high-voltage network. single-line service The substation is supplied by a single circuit tee-off from a HV distributor (cable or line). the basis of which is generally in the form of a widemeshed grid of interconnected bare copper conductors connected to vertically-driven copper-clad* steel rods. In general. overhead line fig. Safety in situations of elevated potentials depends entirely on the provision of properly arranged equipotential areas.C11 . under any circumstances. Special care should be taken at the boundaries of equipotential areas to avoid steep potential gradients on the surface of the ground which give rise to dangerous “step potentials”. exceed 50 V in dry conditions.

An interconnector-distributor is an interconnector which supplies one or more distribution substations along its length. integrated to form a single assembly.e. This type of switchboard is used particularly in networks of high-load density and in rapidly-expanding urban areas supplied by HV underground cable systems. On the loss of power supply. * A ring main is a continuous distributor in the form of a closed loop. the closed incoming switch must be opened and the (formerly open) switch can then be closed. In order to improve operational flexibility the busbars are often divided into two sections by a normallyclosed bus-section circuit breaker. An interconnector is a continuous untapped feeder connecting the busbars of two substations. The sequence may be carried out manually or automatically. thereby reducing considerably any interruption of service due to system faults or operational manœuvres by the supply authority. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. The main operational difference between this arrangement and that of a RMU is that the two incoming panels are mutually interlocked. The main application for RMUs is in publicsupply HV underground-cable networks in urban areas. C10: duplicated supply service.HV/LV distribution substations . or a combined load-break/fuse switch. underground cable ring main fig. All load-break switches and earthing switches are fully rated for short-circuit current-making duty. viz: c 2 incoming compartments. or a circuit breaker and isolating switch. and each end of the ring is connected to a different section. Each end of the loop is controlled by its own circuit breaker. paralleled underground-cable distributors fig. a similar HV switchboard to that of a RMU is commonly used (figure C10). C9: ring-main service. Each end of the interconnector is usually controlled by a circuit beaker. etc. C12 . such that one incoming switch only can be closed at a time.2 different HV service connections (continued) ring-main principle Ring-main units (RMU) are normally connected to form a HV ring main* or interconnector-distributor*. its closure prevents the closure of the other. together with a circuit-earthing switch in each case. each containing a load-break/isolating switch and a circuit earthing switch. containing a load-break switch and HV fuses. which originates and terminates on one set of busbars. c 1 outgoing and general protection compartment. such that the RMU busbars carry the full ring-main or interconnector current (figure C9).1. parallel feeders Where a HV supply connection to two lines or cables originating from the same busbar of a substation is possible. i. The RMU consists of three compartments. This arrangement provides the user with a two-source supply.

Moreover. fuses have blown or a circuit breaker has tripped. where considered necessary. etc. or 2) the fault is on the section upstream of IACT and the circuit breaker will trip and lock out. For example. can result in a short-circuit to earth. c lighting that requires no cooling down before re-striking. with adjustable time delays between successive attempts (to allow de-ionization of the air at the fault) before a final lock-out of the circuit breaker occurs. i. the fault is assumed to be permanent. to a metal supporting structure) during a rainstorm. (See Chapter F section 2) * Interrupteur Aérien à ouverture dans le Creux de Tension (used by EDF. 1-cycle RR + 1SR If In Io fault 0.. therefore. In the meantime. Insulation failure due to broken ceramic or glass insulators. the intense heat of which dries the current path. and.e.4s O1 RR O2 SR1 O3 SR2 O4 15 to 30s 15 to 30s permanent fault 0. the circuit breaker trips. make their own arrangements to counter the effects of momentary interruptions to supply (between reclosures). before the third (and final) reclosure takes place. can cause the conductors of overhead lines to touch each other. O1 RR O2 SR O3 15 to 30s permanent fault 0.4s b-fault on section supplied through IACT If In Io fault 0. the IACT opens to isolate a section of the network.3s 0.4s 0. careless use of shot-guns. caused by air-borne debris. While these measures have greatly improved the reliability of supplies from HV overhead line systems.45s SR2 opening of IACT O = circuit breaker opening / RR = rapid reclosing / SR = slow reclosing / In = normal load current / If = fault current / I0 = zero current fig. broken insulators can very often remain in service undetected. but are likely to flashover to earth (e. The principle is as follows: If. where the isolating switch is referred to as IACT* (voltage-drop-operated outdoor switch).e. after all (generally three) attempts fail. the consumers must.4s 0.3s 0. after two reclosing attempts.4s 15 to 30s 15 to 30s O1 RR O2 SR1 O3 Other improvements in service continuity are achieved by the use of remotely-controlled section switches and by automatic isolating switches which operate in conjunction with an auto-reclosing circuit breaker.3s 2-cycle 2SR a-fault on main distributor If In Io fault 0. The IACT scheme.C13 . for example: c uninterruptible standby emergency power. protective devices have usually operated to clear the fault. These automatic schemes permit a number of reclosing operations if a first attempt fails. HV/LV distribution substations . re-establishes its insulating properties. Many of these faults are self-clearing. The passage of fault current almost invariably takes the form of an electric arc. There are then two possibilities: 1) the fault is on the section which is isolated by IACT. and supply is restored to those consumers connected to the remaining section. heavily polluted insulator surfaces. Experience has shown that in the large majority of cases. while the distributor is dead.C 1.. polluted surfaces generally cause a flashover to earth only in damp conditions. For this reason it has been possible to considerably improve the continuity of service on HV overhead-line distribution networks by the application of automatic circuit breaker reclosing schemes at the origin of the circuits concerned. in dry conditions. the French supply authority). and to some extent. restoration of supply by replacing fuses or by re-closing a circuit breaker will be successful. etc.g. or again. C11: automatic reclosing cycles of a circuit breaker controlling a radial HV distributor. thereby causing a momentary (i. ice formation.3 some operational aspects of HV distribution networks overhead lines High winds. This last scheme is exemplified by the final sequence shown in figure C11. not permanent) short-circuit fault. provides the possibility of restoration of supplies to some consumers in the event of a permanent fault.

etc. however. and so on. such as lightning arresters. are frequently installed at these locations.1. Standby power equipment is described in Chapter F section 2. centralized remote control. if supply continuity is essential on all. an installation. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. the delay in locating the fault and carrying out repair work can amount to several hours. Where a cable fault occurs on a ring main. a standby source must be provided. which require more time for localization and repair than those on O/H lines. from a central control room is possible. Faults occurring in cable networks are less frequent than those on overhead (O/H) line systems.HV/LV distribution substations .. and will affect all consumers downstream of the fault position. is becoming more and more common in countries in which the complexity of highlyinterconnected systems justifies the expenditure. and tapchangers. and electromagnetic-wave reflection effects at the joint box (where the natural impedance of the circuit changes abruptly) can result in overstressing of the cable-box insulation to the point of failure. while similar control facilities are also available from the console of a mobile control centre. the fault occurs on a radial distributor. remote control of HV networks Remote control of HV circuit breakers and switchgear. particularly at points in a HV system where an overhead line is connected to an underground cable. Insulation failures sometimes occur in cableterminating boxes due to overvoltage. but are almost invariably permanent faults. The overvoltage in such a case is generally of atmospheric origin. supplies can be quickly restored to all consumers when the faulty section of cable has been determined. If. Overvoltage protection devices. but are more commonly due to damage from tools such as pick-axes. pneumatic drills and trench excavating machines. In any case.1. or part of. used by other utilities. based on SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems and recent developments in IT (Information Technology) techniques. C14 .3 some operational aspects of HV distribution networks (continued) underground cable networks Faults on underground cable networks are sometimes the result of careless workmanship by cable jointers or by cablelaying contractors. etc.

. c metering details which define: v the cost of connection to the power network. c the nominal voltage and rated voltage (Highest voltage for equipment) Existing or future. project studies From the information provided by the consumer. but the HV/LV transformer(s) is (are) located in transformer chamber(s) inside the premises. the IEC recommends a “world” standard of 230/400 V for 3-phase 4-wire systems. and will generally be imposed by the power-supply authority for the district concerned. c layout plans and elevations showing location of proposed substation Plans should indicate clearly the means of access to the proposed substation. Both systems of LV distribution are common in many parts of the world. close to the load centre. the following basic elements must be established: c maximum anticipated power (kVA) demand Determination of this parameter is described in Chapter B. v the simultaneity factor (ks). with dimensions of possible restrictions. and so on. or close to these values. 2. As a matter of interest. depending on the development of the system. keeping in mind that: v the power-supply personnel must have free and unrestricted access to the HV equipment in the substation at all times. The transformer chamber(s) is (are) constructed by the consumer (to plans and regulations provided by the supplier) and include plinths. v power (kVA) limit and fault current level. the cable(s) to the transformer(s). to which the power supplier makes the HV connection. e. to which he has unrestricted access. the transformer(s) and the transformer chamber(s).1 procedures for the establishment of a new substation the consumer must provide certain data to the power-supply organization at the earliest stage of the project. The distance over which the load has to be transmitted is a further factor in considering an HV or LV service. Services to small but isolated rural consumers are obvious examples. (1) The power-supplier constructs a standard substation close to the consumer’s premises. entrances corridors and ceiling height. ventilation. consumers HV substations C Large consumers of electricity are invariably supplied at HV. the power-supplier must indicate: c the type of power supply proposed and define: v the kind of power-supply system: overheadline or underground-cable network. v service connection details: single-line service. Factors to evaluate at this stage are: v the utilization factor (ku). lighting. When a decision to supply power at HV has been made. preliminary information Before any negotiations or discussions can be initiated with the supply authorities. HV/LV distribution substations . (2) The consumer constructs and equips his own substation on his own premises. a load of 50 kVA might be considered to be “large”. v tariff details (consumption and standing charges). while on a 240/415 V 3-phase system a “large” consumer could have a load in excess of 100 kVA. and earthing systems. Whichever procedure is followed. the same principles apply in the conception and realization of the project. there are two widely-followed methods of proceeding. all to be approved by the supply authority. On LV systems operating at 120/208 V (3-phase 4-wires). The following notes refer to procedure (2). or parallel feeders. v loss of production. In method (1) the power supplier owns the substation.C15 . c degree of supply continuity required The consumer must estimate the consequences of a supply failure in terms of its duration. oil drains. to comply with the proposed standard simply by adjusting the off-circuit tapping switches of standard distribution transformers. The tariff structure will cover an agreed part of the expenditure required to provide the service.g. together with possible load (weight) bearing limits. and must take into account the possibility of future additional load requirements. v safety of personnel and equipment. This is a compromise level and will allow existing systems which operate at 220/380 V and at 240/415 V. The decision of a HV or LV supply will depend on local circumstances and considerations such as those mentioned above. ring-main installation.2. fire walls and ceilings. etc. v only qualified and authorized consumer’s personnel are allowed access to the substation. the power-supply organization must give specific information to the prospective consumer.

HV/LV distribution substations . On receipt of the certificate of conformity: c personnel of the power-supply authority will energize the HV equipment and check for correct operation of the metering. c checks on all interlocks (mechanical key and electrical) and on all automatic sequences. consumers HV substations (continued) C 2. at which the isolation has been carried out. largely based on the preliminary exchanges noted above: c location of the proposed substation. etc.2. c the installation contractor is responsible for testing and connection of the LV installation. together with keys of locked-off isolators. c inspection and testing of all HV components. When finally the substation is operational: c the substation and all equipment belongs to the consumer. c the consumer is responsible for the maintenance of all substation equipment. It is also imperative to check that all equipment is provided. such that any properly executed operational manœuvre can be carried out in complete safety. The request for approval must include the following information. c the consumer has independent control of the HV switch (or CB) of the transformer(s) only. c continuity of all equipotential earth-and safety bonding conductors. The verification tests include the following: c measurement of earth-electrode resistances. together with all associated HV earthing switches. after testing and checking of the installation by an independent test authority. c insulation checks of HV equipment. the official agreement of the power-supplier must be obtained. a certificate is granted which permits the substation to be put into service. the two incoming load-break switches and the transformer HV switch (or CB) in the case of a RMU. c arrangements provided for emergency standby power plant (HV or LV) if eventually required. implementation Before any installation work is started. c one-line diagram of power circuits and connections. The power supplier must issue a signed permit-to-work to the consumers maintenance personnel.g. c layout of equipment and provision for metering components. c dielectric strength test of transformer oil (and switchgear oil if appropriate). c arrangements for power-factor improvement if eventually required. e. c full details of electrical equipment to be installed. including performance characteristics.1 procedures for the establishment of a new substation (continued) the power-supply organization must give official approval of the equipment to be installed in the substation. c checks on correct protective-relay operation and settings. c the power-supply authority has operational control over all HV switchgear in the substation. commissioning Commissioning tests must be successfully completed before authority is given to energize the installation from the powersupply system. c inspection and testing of the LV installation in the substation. c the power-supply personnel has unrestricted access to the HV equipment. C16 . and of proposed methods of installation. and must request the power-supply authority to isolate and earth the switchgear to allow maintenance work to proceed. together with earthing-circuit proposals.

C17 .1 of this Chapter. It may be noted that a third type of shock hazard can exist in the proximity of HV or LV (or mixed) earth electrodes which are passing earth-fault currents. All classes of switchgear (including. Interlocking keys and analogous electrical control circuits are frequently used to ensure strict compliance with correct operating sequences. not part of an electrical apparatus or the installation . HV/LV distribution substations . reference is made to a related Appendix. for example. It is beyond the scope of a guide to describe in full technical detail the numerous schemes of protection available to power-systems engineers. explosions. 3. but which has become alive due to insulation failure in the apparatus.. but it is hoped that the following sections will prove to be useful through a discussion of general principles.for example structural steelwork. descriptions generally will be confined to those in common use on HV and LV systems only. These different aspects of protection can be broadly classified according to the following objectives: c protection of personnel and animals against the dangers of overvoltages and electric shock. A variation of this danger. While some of the protective devices mentioned are of universal application. This hazard is due to potential gradients on the surface of the ground and is referred to as a “step-voltage” hazard. where an earthed metal fence is situated in an area in which potential gradients exist. c contact with a conductive part of an apparatus which is normally dead.3.) have well-defined operating limits.) to the protective-earthing conductor. Potential-gradient problems of the kind mentioned above are not normally encountered in electrical installations of buildings. substation protection schemes C The subject of protection in the electricalpower industry is vast: it covers all aspects of safety for personnel. for instance. c protection of the plant. which is alive with respect to earth in normal circumstances. equipment and components of a power system against the stresses of short-circuit faults. i. This is referred to as an “indirect contact” hazard. known as a “touch voltage” hazard can occur. Touching the fence would cause shock current to pass through the hand and both feet (Appendix C2). by the use of electrical and mechanical interlocking. and protection against damage or destruction of property. providing that equipotential conductors properly bond all exposed metal parts of equipment and all extraneous metal (i. fire. and so on. Potential gradients on the surface of the ground can be reduced to safe values by measures such as those shown in Appendix C2.. atmospheric surges (lightning) and power-system instability (loss of synchronism) etc. and toxic gases. protection against electric shocks Protective measures against electric shock are based on two common dangers: c contact with an active conductor. This is referred to as a “direct contact” hazard.. This means that the order in which the different kinds of switching device can be safely closed or opened is vitally important.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages protection against electric shocks and overvoltages is closely related to the achievement of efficient (low resistance) earthing and effective application of the principles of equipotential environments. shock current enters one foot and leaves by the other foot. and equipment.e. etc. tap-position selector switches on transformers. as defined in Sub-clause 1.e. and is particular dangerous for four-legged animals.. c protection of personnel and plant from the dangers of incorrect power-system operation. etc. Where some technical explanation is necessary to simplify an understanding of the text. plant. Animals with a relatively long front-to-hind legs span are particularly sensitive to stepvoltage hazards and cattle have been killed by the potential gradients caused by a low voltage (240/415 V) neutral earth electrode of insufficiently low resistance.

Methods of eliminating danger to personnel in such a case are described in Sub-clause 1. which is connected (one for each phase) between a phase conductor and the substation earthing system. c indirect-contact hazard in the case of a HV fault. in the case of a HV fault to a metallic enclosure.1 "Earthing connections". etc. Other situations which can cause overvoltages to occur on HV and LV systems include: c surges of atmospheric origin. is said to be making an indirect contact. can (depending on the ratio of the resistance of the leakage path through the insulation. The most common protective device used at present is a non-linear resistor-type of lightning arrester. which are sometimes connected in series with a device for automatic tripping of a circuit breaker) (see Chapter L) and/or by c the reduction of the substation-earthing resistance to the lowest possible value to avoid (as far as possible) a breakdown of LV insulation due to the rise in potential of the earthing system when discharging the surge current. An indirect contact is characterized by the fact that a current path to earth exists (through the protective earthing (PE) conductor) in parallel with the shock current through the person concerned. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3.1 “Earthing connections”. transient. as described above. Where insulated live parts are housed in a metal envelope. it is not generally possible to limit the rise of voltage of the envelope to 50 V or less. simply by reducing the earthing resistance to a low value. this protection is achieved by: c lightning arresters (one per phase conductor.1. Overvoltages of atmospheric origin Protection against this kind of danger must be provided when a substation is supplied directly from an overhead-line system. Extensive tests have shown that. and so devices which are suitable for satisfactory lightning protection are adequate to protect against overvoltages due to switching surges.V. or to any conductive material within reaching distance. at the voltage levels being considered (i 35 kV). is one of a number of ways in which an abnormal overvoltage condition can occur. system. providing the potential of the metal envelope is not greater than 50 V* with respect to earth. c case of fault on L. it may not be possible to limit the touch voltage to the safe value of 50 V*. It may be noted that. lightning-discharge electrodes (Franklin type) and shield wires should be installed and connected to the substation earthing system. protection against overvoltages The situation mentioned immediately above. temporary.). as described in Sub-clause 1. the metal envelope is connected to the installation protective earthing system. high frequency. as close to the point of entry into the substation as possible. switching surges are generally less severe than lightning surges. electric motors and many domestic appliances.3. no danger exists. c ferro-resonance. c frequency: industrial frequency. for example transformers. by placing out of reach (behind insulated barriers or at the top of poles) or by means of obstacles.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages (continued) Direct-contact protection The main form of protection against direct contact hazards is to contain all live parts in housings of insulating material. If the insulation failure in an apparatus is between a HV conductor and the metal envelope. C18 . Indirect-contact protection A person touching the metal envelope of an apparatus of which the insulation is faulty. c energization of capacitor banks. For consumers' substations. describing an indirect-contact hazard resulting from faulty HV insulation. to the resistance from the metal envelope to earth) raise the voltage of the envelope to a dangerous level. Where it is advisable to protect a substation against direct strokes.HV/LV distribution substations . The solution in this case is to create an equipotential situation. Total or even partial failure of insulation to the metal. 25 V in wet locations (bathrooms. c circuit breaker opening or fuse melting to break short-circuit current. Overvoltages created by the causes listed above can be divided according to characteristies such as: c duration: permanent. harmonics of industrial frequency. c a short-circuit earth fault on an unearthed (or high-impedance earthed) 3-phase system. * in dry locations. unidirectional surges. The solution is to create an equipotent-situation as described in Sub-clause 1. For LV appliances this is achieved through the third pin of a 3-pin plug and socket.

are the reasons for adopting the IT system. where supply continuity must be maintained even in “firstfault” conditions. N 2 3 fault current normally restricted to several milli-amps depending on the size of the installation V1 3 I(C+R) √3 I(C+R)2 V1 I(C+R)1 I(C+R)2 <90° √3 I(C+R)1 VNE V3 I(C+R)3 V2 V3 = 0 V2 normal voltages and capacitive / resistive currents voltage conditions and current flowing in an earth fault on an IT system fig. c the faulty phase conductor will be at zero volts with respect to earth. A short-circuit to earth on one phase will change the values of phase conductor voltages with respect to earth. cabling and all appliances must be suitably insulated with respect to earth.e. the phase-tophase voltage values and their phase displacement relationships however. and the neutral point of the transformer isolated: c the neutral point will rise to phase volts above earth. With one phase short-circuited to earth. This latter feature. and the neutral point of the transformer secondary winding will be at approximately zero volts with respect to earth. As indicated above. unearthed secondary winding of power transformer 1 insulation resistance conductor capacitance together with the fact that current passing through the earth-fault path will be too small to constitute a hazard. permanent) condition. will remain unchanged. and transformers.C19 . when used on IT systems. C12: earth fault on IT-earthed systems. HV/LV distribution substations . c the other two phases will rise to etimes the phase voltage. The exact values depend on the capacitance and insulation resistance of each conductor to earth. with respect to earth. On an unfaulted system these parameters are sensibly equal in all three phases so that the vector relationship of phase voltages will be as shown below in figure C12.C Earth faults on IT-earthed systems In normal conditions the phase conductors of a 3-phase IT system are all approximately at phase volts with respect to earth. this is a 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) stable (i.

but average) inductance which is much lower than its normal value. C20 . etc. not corresponding exactly to the classical formulae for LC resonant circuits (which are based on assumed linearity of the LC components). there is no exchange of current between them. as shown in the vector diagram of figure C13. The two states. before the phenomenon was identified). in which the potential of the neutral point becomes displaced (from approx. a bird causing a brief short-circuit to earth. and falling clear of the line. i. and can be a parallel or series resonance.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages (continued) Ferro-resonance Ferro-resonance is a spontaneous condition which occurs due to a complex interaction between intrinsic power-system capacitances and the non-linear voltage-dependent inductances of transformers or reactors. viz: before saturation and during saturation are shown in figure C14 (a) and (b) respectively. or wind-blown debris. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. as shown in figure C14.e. The problem concerns IT-earthed systems. which then present a (nonlinear. resonance may occur on one or two phases only of a 3-phase system. permanent overvoltage conditions can be established. * for example. In C14 (a1) the three capacitances and the three inductances each form an independent balanced 3-phase star-connected group. C13: vector diagram of a displaced neutral due to ferro-resonance at 50 Hz. c incorporating damping resistors in the transformer secondary or tertiary circuits. including instrument voltage transformers. All types of transformer can be affected. under normal conditions. V1E V1N N V3N V3E E V2N V2E fig. Unless the precautions mentioned above are taken. Moreover. chokes. The resonant condition may be at any frequency. The condition is due to the saturation of two (of the three) single-phase cores of a voltage transformer. The overvoltage saturates the two singlephase VT cores.HV/LV distribution substations . the windings of which are connected between phase and earth. Apart from the obvious problems presented by false signals given by instrument transformers. the following situation may arise (and often did in the past. behaves overall as a capacitance K (because the capacitive reactance < inductive reactance) suddenly changes character to that of an inductance. The parallel combination of phase-to-earth capacitance and phase-to-earth inductance which.3. the capacitor-type VT (not normally used at the HV levels considered in this guide) is especially prone to sub-harmonic resonance (1/3 of the fundamental frequency). when their magnetic circuits are in a highly-saturated state (generally due to an abnormal system disturbance). earth potential) with the result that excessive values of phase voltage with respect to earth occur on two phases. Electro-magnetic VTs (which are very commonly used at HV levels covered by this guide) counter the possibility of resonance by: c designing the transformer cores to operate at low levels of flux density. etc. and may be provoked by a transitory* overvoltage condition such as that described above and shown in figure C12.

The circuit behaviour therefore. and justifies an approximate representation by vectors. 1 = = N 3 source 2 (a1) (a2) L L L C C C K K K (a) circuits in normal operation K<C at normal system frequency = (b1) source N (b2) H<L H H K XH > XK at a resonant frequency (b) circuits with phase 1 and phase 2 VT cores saturated fig. picture of the actual phenomenon. However. Field measurements have confirmed the validity of such a representation. HV/LV distribution substations . C14: equivalent circuits for ferro-resonant condition. constitute an unbalanced 3-phase group. 31 : "Ferroresonance" published by Merlin Gerin. Note: it should be appreciated that the vector representation shown in figure C13 gives an approximate. It is clear that an unbalanced 3-phase load on a 3-wire system will displace the “floating” neutral point of the source. since harmonic voltages and currents are also present. the star point of which is the earth. For interested readers. but qualitatively useful. further information on ferroresonance can be found in Cahier Technique No. the power-frequency values are predominant.C In C14 (b2) however.C21 . it will be seen that the two inductances. in the 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) resonant condition. A simple calculation in Appendix C3 shows how the vector diagram of figure C13 was determined. is mainly governed by these power-frequency quantities. together with one capacitance.

When the temperature exceeds the normal design limits of the equipment involved. and are discussed later. c direct-acting tripping coils which form part of a LV circuit breaker. c short-circuit faults to earth. C22 . v gas-detection relays (Buchholz. which opens an associated threephase load-break switch. and are operated by the fault (or overload) current passing through them.e. or together with a mechanical tripping attachment. Overcurrents due to overloading can normally be tolerated for longer periods than those of short-circuits and some protective devices are designed to operate with increasing speed as the degree of overloading increases (i. All equipments normally used in power-system installations have (standardized) short-time withstand ratings for overcurrent and overvoltage conditions. c detection and trip-initiating devices which are integral parts of the transformer. v temperature-operated relays (thermostats). as noted in Chapter H2.). and the working life of the equipment is correspondingly reduced. and so on. due to expansion of an enterprise. In general.HV/LV distribution substations . Overload protection devices are usually located downstream of the transformer in consumer-type substations. In addition to the protection against overvoltages mentioned in section 3. this means that fault conditions must be cleared as fast as possible within the limits set by considerations of the highest attainable reliability. excessive currents not due to faults). the deterioration rate (ageing) of the insulation materials is increased. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. The devices may be: c fuses which clear the faulty circuit directly.3.2 electrical protection overcurrents due to overloading or to short-circuit faults (between phases and/or to earth) are detected by protective devices up-stream and down-stream of the power transformer(s). general The circuits and equipment in a substation must be protected so that excessive currents and/or voltages are rapidly removed from the system before causing danger. c relays which act indirectly such as: v electrical relays supplied from current and/or voltage transformers. v oil-surge operated relays. c short-circuit faults between phases.-Load increases raise the temperature of the circuit conductors concerned. and the role of protective schemes is to ensure that these withstand limits can never be exceeded. c transformer faults. with consequent building extensions. but are commonly provided on the upstream side in public-supply substations. overload protection Overloading is frequently due to the coincidental demand of a number of small loads. or to an increase in the apparent power (kVA) demand of an installation. These devices cause the faulty circuit to be cut-off electrically from the power supply.6. The choice and sophistication of the protective schemes will depend on the characteristics of the substation. v pressure-operated relays (pressostats). Protective devices upstream of the transformer must be co-ordinated with downstream devices. damage or destruction. an inverse-time/current characteristic). together with that of the transformer. c a circuit breaker or fuses (with or without an associated load-break switch) upstream of the transformer. Sub-clause 4.1. electrical protection is routinely provided against the following abnormal conditions: c overloading (i.e. and is commonly realized by: c a circuit breaker downstream of the transformer. etc.

fig. “totally filled” types of transformer as large as 10 MVA are now currently available. Evidently the Buchholz devices mentioned above cannot be applied to this design. Internal faults The protection of transformers by transformer-mounted devices. but if the condition deteriorates further. fig. a modern counterpart has been developed however. c overpressure. This first level of detection generally gives an alarm. the first two conditions trip the upstream circuit breaker. C16: total-fill transformer. A full description of these transformers is given in Sub-clause 4. by the classical Buchholz mechanical relay. These relays can detect a slow accumulation of gases which results from the arcing of incipient faults in the winding insulation or from the ingress of air due to an oil leak. while c larger oil-immersed transformers frequently have thermostats with two settings. and the third condition trips the downstream circuit breaker of the transformer. The time delay inherent in this relay ensures that the transformer will not be unnecessarily tripped for overloads of short duration. is provided on transformers which are fitted with airbreathing conservator tanks (see figure C15).4 (see figure C16). HV/LV distribution substations . which measures: c the accumulation of gas.4. Other alternatives are: c for pole-mounted transformers “thermalimage” relays are frequently used. Expansion of the oil is accommodated without an excessive rise in pressure by the “bellows” effect of the radiator elements. By specially designing the cooling-oil radiator elements to perform a concertina action. under "Liquid-filled transformers". a second level of detection will trip the upstream circuit breaker. one for alarm purposes and the other for tripping. against the effects of internal faults. An oil-surge detection feature of the Buchholz relay will trip the upstream circuit breaker "instantaneously" if a surge of oil occurs in the pipe connecting the main tank with the conservator tank. All transformers are fitted with some kind over-pressure relief device. Pressure and Temperature) is mentioned further in 4. referred to as a "DGPT" unit (Detection of Gas.C transformer protection Overloads The protection against overloading of a transformer is provided by a time-delayed overload relay (either a thermal bi-metal strip device or an electronic device) which acts to trip the downstream-side circuit breaker. c overtemperature. The device. c dry-type transformers use heat sensors embedded in the hottest part of the windings insulation for alarm and/or tripping. which limits the maximum pressure to a value well below that at which the transformer tank will rupture.C23 . C15: transformer with conservator tank. Such a surge can only occur due to the displacement of oil caused by a rapidlyformed bubble of gas. Such relays artificially simulate the temperature of the transformer windings with an accuracy which is sufficient to safeguard the insulation. generated by an arc of short-circuit current under the oil.

g. AC1-2(c) of Appendix C1). In view of the effectiveness of REF protection against the hazards of transferred potentials.1: “Earthing connections”. C24 . but must be carefully co-ordinated with LV overcurrent protective devices. c the minimum value of HV 3-phase shortcircuit current at the installation. choice of protective devices on the upstream side of the transformer in a consumer-type substation In certain national standards*. For this reason. * There is no equivalent IEC standard. c virtual elimination of the dangers of Transferred Potential (because of its instantaneous operation). The (extremely unlikely) occurrence of a shortcircuit fault between the high-voltage windings and the low-voltage windings will constitute a short-circuit-to-earth fault on the HV winding if the secondary winding is earthed. C17: protection against earth fault on the HV winding. in public-supply systems in general. there is no CB on the LV side. between a phase conductor and earth. high-speed sensitive earthfault protection is standard on the HV side of power transformers in many public-supply distribution and consumer-type substations. the choice is made according to two current values: c the reference current Ib. as shown dotted in figure C17 (see note). Again. This arrangement is called a “Restricted Earth-Fault" (REF) protection because it will detect earth faults only on the HV windings or on the circuit downstream of the CTs (current transformers) to the winding terminals. Overcurrent protective relays (2 only) are connected in series with the REF current transformers. The scheme is shown below in figure C17 and can be applied to transformers having delta or unearthed-star primary windings. etc. v in the case of metering at high voltage: the sum of the nominal rated currents of transformers and other HV plant (e. or in any combination of these conditions on the three phases. HV 1 2 3 LV 1 2 3 N E/F relay fig. which is generally the case. thereby being undetected by the REF relay (see fig. and its uncomplicated application. LV earth faults appear as phase/phase faults on the HV side of the transformer. These overcurrent relays afford protection against overloading and short-circuit faults downstream of the CTs. c no problems of coordination with downstream protection. Unearthed star-connected LV secondary windings of IT-system transformers have an overvoltage device which will operate in these circumstances to connect the LV neutral point of the transformer directly to earth. the value of which will be: v in the case of metering at low voltage: the nominal rated current of the transformer. AC1-2(b) of Appendix C1). c high sensitivity. c instantaneous operation.).2 electrical protection (continued) protection against short-circuits Short-circuits may occur between phase conductors. Note: where short-circuit fault levels are low. simply a loadbreak switch. it is recommended to use 3 overcurrent relays (rather than 2) since on delta/star transformers a phase/phase short-circuit at LV gives a 2:1:1 fault-current distribution at HV (see fig. motors. it is strongly recommended to be included in any protection scheme which includes a HV circuit breaker. The advantages of the scheme include: c simplicity and low cost.HV/LV distribution substations . due to the Transferred Potential hazard mentioned in Sub-clause 1. Earth faults on the HV winding present a particular danger to personnel. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3.3.

as follows: v when the substation consists of a single HV/LV transformer. as defined above.16 5. the rated current In of the fuse. or when there is more than one transformer.5 500 800 1. the protection may be by fuses or by a circuit breaker. or when the installation is sensitive to unbalanced-voltage conditions (for example three-phase motor loads). When the reference current is equal to or greater than 45 A. HV/LV distribution substations .6 7. Ib = rated primary current of the transformer.8 15 20 22 33 36.2 maximum IEC standard ratings for transformers (kVA) 250 12 17.150 table C18: power limits of transformers with a maximum primary current not exceeding 45 A.600 2. The maximum IEC standard kVA ratings of transformers corresponding to a HV full-load current not exceeding 45 A are given in the table C18.C When the reference current is less than 45 A and there is only one transformer. the rated current In of the fuse must satisfy the following relationships: In > 1.C25 . by automatic tripping of the HV load-break switch (i.500 3.250 1. Ic = the minimum current at the primary side of the transformer when the secondarywinding terminals are short-circuited.3 4. Standard current ratings for fuses according to IEC 282-1 are listed in table C19.6 10 11 13. it is recommended that the failure of a fuse causes all three phases to be cut off. v when the substation is supplied from an overlead line. are determined according to the national standards previously referred to.5 nominal 3 3. a combined switch-fuse). c protection by fuses The relationships between the reference current Ib.5 24 36 40. primary voltage (kV) rated 3.5 6 6. and the short-circuit current Ic at the primary terminals of the transformer.e.4 Ib and In < Ic/6 Where: In = rated current of the fuse. the protection will be by a circuit breaker.

3 6. HV earth faults occurring in the substation can therefore be cleared instantaneously by a REF scheme.5 36. To ensure correct operation of the protective devices.5 nominal transformer ratings (kVA) 25 50 100 125 160 16 25 40 50 50 16 25 40 50 50 10 25 31.5 6 6. all three fuses be replaced. high-set and differential protection schemes are stabilized against false operation due to CT saturation (for example. due to the passage of excessive current during the disturbance. the high-set scheme may not be sufficiently sensitive. shown dotted in figure C17.5 31. because a short-circuit on the LV terminals or windings of the transformer will not produce sufficient current on the HV side to cause the relay to operate. and for distribution-type transformers are generally set to operate at 25 times the full-load current of the transformer.3 6. c protection by circuit breaker When the substation is supplied through a HV circuit breaker.5 25 1. c short-circuit fault of any 2 phases to earth. and will not affect co-ordination of downstream protection. As far as earth faults are concerned.5 31. the minimum value of 3-phase short-circuit current must also be stated by the supply authority. it will be a contractual condition that no disturbance occurring within the installation shall cause the operation of any protective relaying in the power-supply network.3 200 63 63 50 40 40 40 31. c short-circuit fault of one phase to earth.5 250 200 200 125 125 100 80 80 63 50 40 250 250 160 160 160 100 80 80 63 50 200 200 160 160 160 160 80 63 table C19: rated current (A) of HV fuses for transformer protection according to IEC 282-1. REF. Differential-protection schemes compare the currents entering the primary windings with those leaving the secondary windings (after correction for current-level and phase changes) and any significant difference will operate the relay.5 31.3 6. which trips the circuit breakers controlling the transformer. a constraint which generally is satisfied only by protective relays at the HV circuit breaker.5 25 1. The “high-set” principle depends on the fact that.5 16 16 800 200 200 160 125 100 100 80 63 63 50 50 40 31. In the present case.3 6.6 12 10 11 17. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. if the current is sufficiently high to operate the relay. and high-set relays are commonly contained in a single relay case. the current may not be high enough to operate the relay (there is no similar problem with earth faults.3 6. It may be noted that the high-speed relays used for the REF.3 10 16 25 25 6.500 250 200 160 160 100 100 80 80 63 50 40 31. the transformer can also be achieved very simply by devices which are sometimes referred to as “high-set” relays.5 16 16 630 160 160 125 100 80 80 63 63 50 50 40 31.5 25 25 16 16 400 100 100 80 63 63 63 50 40 31.3 10 16 25 25 6. The high-set relays (2 or 3 as noted in Subclause "protection against short-circuits") will each be connected in series with one of the inverse-time/overcurrent relays.5 25 16 16 500 125 125 100 80 80 80 50 50 40 40 31.3 10 10 16 6.3 6.16 5.HV/LV distribution substations .000 2. The maximum level of a 3-phase short-circuit at the installation was known at the outset of the project.2 4. following the operation of a fuse (or fuses) to clear a fault or overload condition.2 electrical protection (continued) supply voltages (kV) rated nominal 3.3 10 10 10 6. without affecting the coordination scheme for downstream protection. then the short-circuit must be on the HV side of the transformer.or unearthed-star connection.3 250 80 80 63 50 50 40 31.5 31.5 10 16 25 25 31. when energizing the transformer).3 6.e. c short-circuit fault between any 2 phases. this is the HV circuit breaker.5 31.3 6. At periods of the lowest levels of short-circuit fault current.3 6.3 6.3 6.8 15 24 20 22 36 33 40. When planning the protection scheme for the installation. exceed that given by the supply authority. i.5 13. where the difference between maximum and minimum fault levels is very large. in order to purchase adequatelyrated equipment. This longest tripping time must not. the general principle of coordination is that the circuit breaker closest to the power source will have the longest tripping time.6 3 3. provided that the transformer HV winding is a delta. To ensure that this condition can be complied with. Overcurrent. earth faults on the LV system will then appear as phase-to-phase faults on the HV system.000 250 250 200 160 125 125 80 80 63 63 50 50 31. since it is possible that the fuse (or fuses) that had not operated may have deteriorated. as already mentioned. there is no co-ordination problem.3 7. since. to supplement the transformer-mounted protective devices previously mentioned.5 25 25 25 25 16 16 315 80 80 80 63 50 50 40 31. however. no disturbance occurring within the installation shall cause the operation of any protective relaying in the power-supply network.250 1.3 10 16 16 6. In extreme cases. Such protection will provide adequate sensitivity with high-speed tripping. By these simple means therefore. the supply authority must specify the longest times permissible for clearing the following faults on the installation: c short-circuit fault between all 3 phases. Instantaneous tripping for phase-to-phase short-circuit faults occurring on the HV side of C26 .3 6.5 31. instantaneous clearance of shortcircuit faults on the HV side of a transformer can be achieved.600 2. it may be necessary to provide a differential-protection scheme for the transformer.3. the REF scheme being very sensitive).5 6.5 25 25 25 16 16 6.5 40 50 10 16 25 31.3 10 16 25 6.3 6. however. It is strongly recommended that.3 6.5 31.5 40 10 16 25 31.

C
choice of downstream protective devices
The protective device (circuit breaker or fuse-switch)* downstream of the transformer must include and comply with the following requirements (IEC 364). The device must: c include an isolating switch (for the protection of persons) of which the open switch contacts are clearly visible, c have a current rating adequate for the transformer concerned, c have a breaking-current rating where appropriate*, adequate for the secondary 3-phase short-circuit current, c have the correct number of poles according to the earthing scheme of the installation, transformer rated power (kVA) transformer current Ir (A) oil-immersed transformer Isc (kA) cast-resin transformer Isc (kA) 50 69 1.71 1.71 1.14 1.14 100 137 3.40 3.42 2.28 2.28 160 220 5.41 5.45 3.63 3.65 250 344 8.38 8.49 5.63 5.68 315 433 10.5 10.7 7.07 7.14 400 550 13.2 13.5 8.93 9.04 500 687 16.4 16.8 11.1 11.3 v 4 poles for IT scheme with neutral conductor, TT and TNS, v 3 poles for IT scheme without neutral conductor, and for TNC. By way of an example, table C20 lists the nominal currents and corresponding shortcircuit currents at the secondary terminals of IEC-standard 20 / 0.4 kV transformers. From these data it can be seen that the short-circuit impedances are in the range of 4% (for the 100 kVA transformer) to 6.9% (for the 2,000 kVA transformer).
* where no LV circuit breaker or fuse-switch is installed, a non-automatic LV load-break isolating switch must be provided, and overload protection must be effected at HV.

Psc = 250 MVA Psc = 500 MVA Psc = 250 MVA Psc = 500 MVA

630 866 20.4 21.0 13.9 14.1

800 1100 17.4 17.9 17.4 17.9

1000 1375 21.5 22.2 21.5 22.2

1250 1718 26.4 27.5 26.4 27.5

1600 2199 33.1 34.8 33.1 34.8

2000 2749 40.4 43.0 40.4 43.0

2500 3437 49.1 52.9 49.1 52.9

table C20: 3-phase short-circuit currents of typical distribution transformers.

discrimination (selectivity) between the protective devices on the upstream and downstream sides of the transformer
The consumer-type substation with LV metering requires discriminative operation between the HV fuses and the LV circuit breaker or fuses. The calibre of the HV fuses will have been chosen according to the characteristics of the transformer. The tripping characteristics of the LV circuit breaker must be such, that for an overload or short-circuit condition downstream of its location, the breaker will trip sufficiently quickly to ensure that the HV fuses will not be adversely affected by the passage of overcurrent through them. The tripping performance curves for HV fuses and LV circuit breakers are given by graphs of time-to-operate against current passing through them. Both curves have the general inverse-time/current form (with an abrupt discontinuity in the CB curve at the current value above which “instantaneous” tripping occurs). These curves are shown typically in figure C21. c in order to achieve discrimination: v all parts of the fuse curve must be above and to the right of the CB curve, c in order to leave the fuses unaffected (i.e. undamaged): v all parts of the minimum pre-arcing fuse curve must be located to the right of the CB curve by a factor of 1.35 or more (e.g. where, at time T, the CB curve passes through a point corresponding to 100 A, the fuse curve at the same time T must pass through a point corresponding to 135 A, or more, and so on...) and, v all parts of the fuse curve must be above the CB curve by a factor of 2 or more (e.g. where, at a current level I the CB curve passes through a point corresponding to 1.5 seconds, the fuse curve at the same current level I must pass through a point corresponding to 3 seconds, or more, etc.). The factors 1.35 and 2 are based on standard maximum manufacturing tolerances for HV fuses and LV circuit breakers.* In order to compare the two curves, the HV currents must be converted to the equivalent LV currents, or vice-versa. Figure C21 illustrates these requirements. Where an LV fuse-switch is used, similar separation of the characteristic curves of the HV and LV fuses must be respected. This question is considered in Appendix C1 (figure AC1-3).
time minimum pre-arcing time of HV fuse B/A u 1.35 at any moment in time D/C u 2 at any current value

D C circuit breaker tripping characteristic

A B

current

fig. C21: discrimination between HV fuse operation and LV circuit breaker tripping, for transformer protection. Note: In the simple and widely used case, where a HV circuit breaker incorporates REF, high-set and inverse-time/overcurrent relays as previously described, the only electrical protection of the LV windings and the LV connections from the transformer terminals to the upstream terminals of the LV circuit breaker is that provided by the HV inversetime/overcurrent relays.
* Merlin Gerin “catalogue distribution HT/MT 96” page G29.

HV/LV distribution substations - C27

3. substation protection schemes (continued)

C
3.2 electrical protection (continued)
There is no compelling need for discrimination between these HV relays and the LV circuit breaker protection, since a short-circuit on the upstream or downstream side of the LV breaker would result in a total loss of supply, in either case. In general, a 3-phase short-circuit at the LV terminals of a distribution transformer will cause a current of 14-25 times the transformer full-load current to flow in the LV and HV circuits (at times of maximum shortcircuit fault levels on the system). If the fault is a short-circuit of one phase to earth, immediately upstream of the LV circuit breaker however, then this value will be reduced to approximately 8-14 times full-load current on the HV side of the transformer and will flow in two lines only. The tripping time of the inverse-time/overcurrent relays may, in this case, be unacceptably long. The conventional solution to the problem is to make these LV connections “fault-free” by enclosing the (generously-insulated) conductors in vermin-proof metal bus-ducts, a method which, in view of the location (in an area prohibited to all except authorized personnel) is generally considered to be satisfactory. A 100 % solution would be to install overall protection from the HV circuit breaker to the LV circuit breaker, as provided by the differential protective scheme previously described.

HV earth-fault relay settings
Earth-fault relays have low current-setting ranges, i.e. they are sensitive instruments, and can, in consequence, act to clear a developing short-circuit fault in its early stages, thereby minimizing the damage to insulation at the fault position, and reducing the risk of fire. Care must be taken however, to avoid increasing the sensitivity (by reducing the operating-current setting) to a point where the relay can be caused to operate when an earth fault occurs on a nearby circuit, the circuit on which the relay is installed being (perfectly) healthy (unfaulted). This false operation is due to the inherent capacitance to earth of the power-system phase conductors and connected loads, and is especially likely to occur on impedanceearthed systems (which are common at the HV levels covered by this guide). In normal circumstances, the capacitive current from each phase to earth has practically the same magnitude (Ic) and the three currents summate in the earth to give the so-called “residual” current, which, because of the balanced conditions (in this case) is theoretically zero. A short-circuit of one phase to earth, as already mentioned in “Earth faults on ITearthed systems” (Sub-clause 3.1) will cause: c the voltage of the faulted conductor, and that of all conductors of the faulty phase over a wide area surrounding the fault location, to fall to practically zero volts, c the voltage of the two healthy phase conductors over the same area to increase by (up to) etimes their original value with respect to earth. As a result of this, the residual current in all circuits affected by the voltage changes will no longer approximate to zero. On healthy circuits close to the fault position, the residual current will, in fact, amount to almost 3 Ic, as illustrated in figure C22. If a healthy circuit has a significant capacitance to earth (a long overhead line or a section of underground cable) then 3 Ic will be detected by its earth-fault relay which, if given an oversensitive setting, will trip the circuit breaker of the unfaulted circuit. A conventional minimum value of earth-faultcurrent setting intended to avoid this problem, commonly adopted in the power-distribution industry, is 6 Ic (i.e. a safety factor of 2). This phenomenon is only of interest to a HV installation-design engineer in cases where the HV circuit breaker and protective relays
C28 - HV/LV distribution substations

are some distance from the transformer, especially if the supply is by underground cable, and the HV nominal voltage is high, e.g. u 20 kV. The foregoing discussion of the presence of residual capacitive components in the earthfault current of impedance-earthed systems, leads conveniently to an explanation of the principle of the Petersen coil. System earthing on overhead-line HV systems by means of a Petersen coil In the resistance-earthed system described above, it was shown that the current through the earth fault is the sum of the residual capacitive currents of the system and the current which flows through the resistor. This resistor current is in phase with the voltage of the faulted phase (the voltage vector being reversed during the fault period) as shown in the vector diagram of figure C22. The phase displacement between the resistor current and the residual capacitive current is practically 90 degrees. If now, the resistor is replaced by a reactor, the reactor current will lag the (reversed) faulted phase voltage by 90 degrees and will, therefore, be in phase opposition to the residual capacitive current. By a suitable choice of reactance value the residual capacitive current through the fault can, in principle, be exactly cancelled, i.e. there will be no fault current flowing to earth, as shown in figure C23. This is the principle of Petersen Coil operation. In practice, absolute cancellation of fault current is not possible, owing to conductorand fault- path resistances, and to the impracticality of precise coil tuning at all times. These effects prevent perfect mutual cancellation of the opposing currents, but providing the fault-path resistance is low, the fault current can be reduced to very small values. Petersen coils are provided with a number of tapping steps on the coil to cover a range of system capacitance values. These coils are associated mainly with isolated O/H line power networks in the HV voltage ranges covered by this guide.

C
Operational advantages Advantages of the system include: c continuity of supply in the (common) event of an earth fault. In principle, the system can operate indefinitely with an earth fault on one phase,
earth-fault protection relays of the healthy circuits A and C will detect an apparent earth fault A eIC2A eIC1A 1 2 3 0 V3 0

c damage at the fault position is limited, owing to the restricted current level, c disturbance to neighbouring systems at the instant of fault is practically non-existent.

3ICA B eIC2B eIC1B 1 2 3 IF IF IF 3ICB 0 V3 0

power supply source IF C I’F eIC1C eIC2C 1 2 3 0 V3 0

3ICC power supply eIc1

eIc2

IF IF I’F

I’F eIC1 + eIC2 = 3IC

simplified diagram showing current division

IF

I’F >> 3IC IF = I’F + 3IC

V1 IC2 IC1 V3 = 0

V1 3IC VNE V2 √3IC2

3IC V1 √3IC2

V1

I'F √3IC1 VNE V2

V3

IC3 V2

√3IC1 V3 = 0 V2

normal voltages and capacitive currents

voltages during short-circuit to earth on phase 3

residual current on healthy circuits during fault

fault current IF is the vector sum of the neutral resistor current I’F and the residual capacitive currents of the system 3IC

fig. C22: earth-fault diagram.
HV/LV distribution substations - C29

3. substation protection schemes (continued)

C
3.2 electrical protection (continued)
power supply eIc1

eIc2

Petersen coil

L

IF = 0 0 I’F 0

I’F = 3IC

I’F = eIC1 + eIC2 = 3IC simplified diagram showing current division when XC / XL = 3 (where XC = capacitive reactance of one phase to earth)

3IC eIC2

V1

VNE eIC1 E V2

I’F vector diagram for condition I’F = 3 IC

V1 IC2 IC1 V3 = 0

V1 3IC VNE V2 eIC2

V1

V3

IC3 V2

√3IC1 V3 = 0 V2

normal voltages and capacitive currents fig. C23: earth fault diagram (with Petersen coil).
C30 - HV/LV distribution substations

voltages during short-circuit to earth on phase 3

residual current on healthy circuits during fault

C
3.3 protection against thermal effects
The risk and consequences of a fire are particularly serious. The prefabricated equipments are conceived and manufactured in a way that avoids excessive temperature rise in normal use. Where an installation includes one or several liquid-insulated transformers, the regulations and arrangements relative to the protection and construction details must be fully respected, and are described in Subclause 4.3: “choice of HV/LV transformers”.

3.4 interlocks and conditioned manœuvres
Mechanical and electrical interlocks are included on mechanisms and in the control circuits of apparatus installed in substations, as a measure of protection against an incorrect sequence of manœuvres by operating personnel. Mechanical protection is afforded by: c compartments enclosing specific parts of equipment in pre-fabricated HV cells, c key-transfer interlocking.

an interlocking scheme is intended to prevent any operational manœuvre which would expose operating personnel to danger.

key interlocking
The most widely-used form of locking/ interlocking depends on the principle of keytransfer. The principle is based on the possibility of freeing or trapping one or several keys, according to whether or not the conditions of safety are satisfied. These conditions can be combined in unique and obligatory sequences, thereby guaranteeing the safety of personnel by the avoidance of an incorrect operational procedure. For example, access to a HV panel requires a certain number of operations which must be carried out in a pre-determined order. It is necessary to carry out manœuvres in the reverse order to restore the system to its former condition. Non-observance of the correct sequence of manœuvres in either case may have extremely serious consequences for the operating personnel, as well as for the equipment concerned. Note: It is important to provide for a scheme of interlocking in the basic design stage of planning a HV/LV substation. In this way, the apparatuses concerned will be equipped during manufacture in a coherent manner, with assured compatibility of keys and locking devices.

interlocks in substations equipped with metalclad switchgear
In a HV/LV distribution substation which includes: c a single incoming HV panel or two incoming panels (from parallel feeders) or two incoming/outgoing ring-main panels, c a transformer switchgear-and-protection panel, which can include a load-break/ isolating switch with HV fuses and an earthing switch, or a circuit breaker and lineisolating switch together with an earthing switch,

c a transformer compartment interlocks allow manœuvres and access to different panels in the following conditions: v operation of the load-break/isolating switch if the panel door is closed and the associated earthing switch is open, v operation of the line-isolating switch of the transformer switchgear - and protection panel - if the door of the panel is closed, and - if the circuit breaker is open, and the earthing switch(es) is (are) open. v closure of an earthing switch if the associated isolating switch(es) is (are) open*, v access to the interior of each panel if the isolating switch for the panel is open and the earthing switch(es) in the panel is (are) closed, v closure of the door of each panel or compartment if the earthing switch(es) in the panel is (are) closed, v access to the HV fuses of a substation supplied by two incomers from parallel feeders if the two isolating switches are open and the two earthing switches in the panel are closed, v access to the compartment(s) occupied by the VT(s) if the HV isolating switch is open, and if the LV isolating device is open, v operation of the isolating switches in the VT panel if the door of the panel is closed.
* if the earthing switch is on an incoming circuit, the associated isolating switches are those at both ends of the circuit, and these should be suitably interlocked.

HV/LV distribution substations - C31

3. substation protection schemes (continued)

C
3.4 interlocks and conditioned manœuvres (continued)
practical example
In a consumer-type substation with LV metering, the interlocking scheme most commonly used is HV/LV/TR (high voltage/ low voltage/transformer). The aim of the interlocking is: c to prevent access to the transformer compartment if the earthing switch has not been previously closed, c to prevent the closure of the earthing switch in a transformer switchgear-and-protection panel, if the LV circuit breaker of the transformer has not been previously locked “open” or “withdrawn”. Access to the HV or LV terminals of a transformer, protected upstream by a HV switchgear-and-protection panel, containing a HV load-break / isolating switch, HV fuses, and a HV earthing switch) must comply with the strict procedure described below, and is illustrated by the diagrams of figure C24. Note: The transformer in this example is provided with plug-on type HV terminal connectors which can only be removed by unlocking a retaining device common to all three phase connectors*. The HV load-break / isolating switch is mechanically linked with the HV earthing switch such that only one of the switches can be closed, i.e. closure of one switch automatically blocks the closure of the other.
* or may be provided with a common protective cover over the three terminals.

S

S

Procedure for the isolation and earthing of the power transformer, and removal of the HV plug-type shrouded terminal connections (or protective cover). c initial conditions: v HV load-break/isolating switch and LV circuit breaker are closed, v HV earthing switch locked in the open position by key “O”, v key “O” is trapped in the LV circuit breaker as long as that circuit breaker is closed, c step 1: v open LV CB and lock it open with key “O”, v key “O” is then released, c step 2: v open the HV switch, v check that the “voltage presence” neon indicators extinguish when the HV switch is opened, c step 3: v unlock the HV earthing switch with key “O” and close the earthing switch, v key “O” is now trapped, c step 4: v the access panel to the HV fuses can now be removed (i.e. is released by closure of the HV earthing switch). Key “S” is located in this panel, and is trapped when the HV switch is closed, v turn key “S” to lock the HV switch in the open position, v key “S” is now released, c step 5: v key “S” allows removal of the common locking device of the plug-type HV terminal connectors on the transformer or of the common protective cover over the terminals, as the case may be. In either case, exposure of one or more terminals will trap key “S” in the interlock.

HV switch and LV CB closed

O

S O

S

HV fuses accessible

S

O

S O transformer HV terminals accessible legend key absent key free key trapped panel or door

fig. C24: example of HV/LV/TR interlocking.

C32 - HV/LV distribution substations

C
The result of the foregoing procedure is that: a) the HV switch is locked in the open position by key “S”. Key “S” is trapped at the transformer terminals interlock as long as the terminals are exposed. b) the HV earthing switch is in the closed position but not locked, i.e. may be opened or closed. When carrying out maintenance work, a padlock is generally used to lock the earthing switch in the closed position, the key of the padlock being held by the engineer supervizing the work. c) the LV CB is locked open by key “O”, which is trapped by the closed HV earthing switch. The transformer is therefore safely isolated and earthed. It may be noted that the upstream terminal of the load-break switch may remain alive in the procedure described. There are three reasons for this: c the terminals in question are located in a separate inaccessible compartment in the particular switchgear under discussion, c the open contacts of the switch have an earthed screen interposed between them, c the envelope containing the switch is moulded from insulating material, filled with SF6 gas, and sealed for life. In the general case, the upstream terminals of such a switch (or circuit breaker) will be exposed within the compartment, and an earthing switch will be provided, interlocked mechanically with a line-isolating switch. Or again, it may be necessary (depending on the type of switchgear) to isolate and lock off the incoming supply cable at its remote end, before closing the local earthing switch. Any scheme of interlocking must evidently include appropriate procedures, along similar lines to those described above.

HV/LV distribution substations - C33

4. the consumer substation with LV metering

C
4.1 general
A consumer substation with LV metering is an electrical installation connected to a publicsupply system at a nominal voltage of 1 kV - 35 kV, and includes a single HV/LV transformer generally not exceeding 1,250 kVA.

functions
The substation All component parts of the substation are located in one chamber, either in an existing building, or in the form of a prefabricated housing exterior to the building. Connection to the HV network Connection at HV can be: c either by a single service cable or overhead line, or, c via two mechanically interlocked load-break switches with two service cables from duplicate supply feeders, or, c via two load-break switches of a ring-main unit. The transformer Since the use of PCB*-filled transformers is prohibited in most countries, the preferred available technologies are: c oil-immersed transformers for substations located outside premises, c dry-type, vacuum-cast-resin transformers for locations inside premises, e.g. multistoreyed buildings, buildings receiving the public, and so on...
* polychlorinated biphenyl.

Metering Metering at low voltage allows the use of small metering transformers at modest cost. Most tariff structures take account of transformer losses. LV installation circuits A low-voltage circuit breaker, suitable for isolation duty with visible contacts and locking off facilities, to: c supply a distribution board, c protect the transformer against overloading and the downstream circuits against shortcircuit faults.

one-line diagrams
The diagrams on the following page (figure C25) represent: c the different methods of HV service connection, which may be one of four types: v single-circuit service, v single-circuit (for later change to ring-main service), v duplicate service (interlocked mechanically), v ring-main service, c HV protective functions and HV/LV transformation, c LV metering and general isolation functions, c LV protective and distribution functions, c zones of access for interested parties.

C34 - HV/LV distribution substations

C
power supply system service connection HV protection and HV/LV transformation LV metering and isolation LV distribution and protection

supplier/consumer interface

transformer LV terminals

downstream terminals of LV isolator

protection

protection

single-line service

(permitted if IHV nominal i 45 A and one transformer )

single-line service (equipped for extension to form a ring main)

protection

duplicatesupply service

(permitted if IHV nominal i 45 A and one transformer )

protection + auto-changeover switch

ring-main service protection automatic LV standby source

(always permitted)

authorized access limits

consumer testing authority power-supply authority

consumer

fig. C25: consumer substation with LV metering.

HV/LV distribution substations - C35

4. the consumer substation with LV metering (continued)

C
4.2 choice of panels
standards and specifications
The SF6 switchgear and equipments described below are rated for 1 kV - 24 kV systems and conform to the following international and national standards: c international: IEC 56-1, 129, 265-1, 298, 694, c national: French: UTE, EDF, British: BS, German: VDE, American: ANSI.

type of material
All kinds of switchgear arrangements are possible when using modular compartmented panels, and provisions for later extensions are easily realized. Compact substations of modular panels are particularly applicable in the following cases: c ring-main substations (a 3-function monobloc assembly), c severe climatic or heavily-polluted conditions (integral insulation), c insufficient space for “classical” switchboards. This “all - SF6” equipment is distinguished by its reduced dimensions, its integrated functions and by its operational flexibility.

operational safety of compartmented metalclad panels
Description The following notes describe a “state-of-theart” load-break / isolating-switch panel (see figure C26) incorporating the most modern developments for ensuring: c operational safety, c minimum space requirements, c extendibility and flexibility, c minimum maintenance requirements. Each panel includes 4 compartments: c switchgear: the load-break switch is incorporated in an SF6-filled hermetically sealed (for life) molded epoxy-resin unit, c connections: by cable at terminals located on the molded load-break switch unit, c busbars: modular, such that any number of panels may be assembled side-by-side to form a continuous switchboard, c control and indication: a control and instrument compartment which can accommodate automatic control and relaying equipment. An additional compartment may be mounted above the existing one if required. Cable connections Cable connections are provided inside a cable-terminating compartment at the front of the unit, to which access is gained by removal of the front panel of the compartment. The units are connected electrically by means of prefabricated sections of busbars. Site erection is effected by following the assembly instructions. Operation of the switchgear is simplified by the grouping of all controls and indications on a control panel at the front of each unit. The technology of these switchgear units is essentially based on operational safety, ease of installation and low maintenance requirements.

fig. C26: compartmented SF6 HV load-break isolating switch.

C36 - HV/LV distribution substations

C
state of isolation clearly apparent
The load-break/isolating switch fully satisfies the requirement of “isolation clearly apparent" as defined in IEC 129, by means of: c a position indicator accurately reflecting the open state of the contacts, c an earthed metal barrier interposed between the open contacts. Interlocks c closure of the switch is not possible unless the earth switch is open and the access panel to the cable-terminations compartment* is closed, c closure of the earthing switch is only possible if the load-break/isolating switch is open, c opening of the access panel to the cableterminations compartment* is only possible if the earthing switch is closed, c the load-break/isolating switch is blocked in the open position when the above-mentioned access panel is open. Operation of the earthing switch is then possible.
* where HV fuses are used they are located in this compartment.

Apart from the functional interlocks noted above, each switchgear panel includes: c built-in padlocking facilities, c 5 predrilled sets of fixing holes for possible future interlocking locks. Manœuvres c operating handles, levers, etc. required for switching manœuvres are grouped together on a clearly illustrated panel, c all closing-operation levers are identical on all units (except those containing a circuit breaker), c operation of a closing lever requires very little effort, c opening or closing of a load-break/isolating switch can be by lever or by push-button for automatic switches, c conditions of switches (Open, Closed, Spring-charged), are clearly indicated. Choice of short-circuit withstand ratings short-circuit (MVA) (kV) 3 3.3 4.16 65 70 90 75 85 105 85 90 115 110 120 150 135 150 190 165 180 227 for nominal system voltages 5 110 125 140 180 230 275 5.5 120 135 150 200 250 300 6 130 150 165 220 275 330 6.6 145 165 185 240 300 360 10 215 250 280 365 455 11 240 275 305 400 500 13.8 300 345 385 500 ITH/1 sec.(1) Isc(2) 15 20 22 33 (kA) r.m.s. 325 435 475 715 12.5 375 500 550 825 14.4 415 555 610 915 16 545 20 25 31.5 ICL(3) (kA) peak 31.5 36.5 40 50 62.5 79

table C27: standard short-circuit MVA and current ratings at different levels of nominal voltage.
(1) I /1 sec: thermal withstand current for 1 second (2) Isc: short-circuit current (3) I : peak rated closing current
TH CL

HV/LV distribution substations - C37

4. the consumer substation with LV metering (continued)

C
4.3 choice of HV switchgear panel for a transformer circuit
Three types of HV switchgear panel are generally available: c load-break switch and separate HV fuses in the panel, c load-break switch/HV fuses combination, c circuit breaker. Seven parameters influence the optimum choice: c the primary current of the transformer, c the insulating medium of the transformer, c the position of the substation with respect to the load centre, c the kVA rating of the transformer, c the distance from switchgear to the transformer, c the use of separate protection relays (as opposed to direct-acting trip coils). Note: the fuses used in the load-break/fuseswitch combination have striker-pins which ensure tripping of the 3-pole switch on the operation of one (or more) fuse(s).

4.4 choice of HV/LV transformer
a transformer is characterized in part by its electrical parameters, but also by its technology and its conditions of use. the rated power of the transformer is chosen according to the maximum apparent power, as determined in B.4.6.

characteristic parameters of a transformer
A transformer is characterized in part by its electrical parameters, but also by its technology and its conditions of use. Electrical characteristics c rated power (Pn): the conventional apparent-power in kVA on which other design-parameter values and the construction of the transformer are based. Manufacturing tests and guarantees are referred to this rating, c frequency: for power distribution systems of the kind discussed in this guide, the frequency will be 50 Hz or 60 Hz, c rated primary and secondary voltages: for a primary winding capable of operating at more than one voltage level, a kVA rating corresponding to each level must be given. The secondary rated voltage is its opencircuit value, c rated insulation levels: are given by overvoltage-withstand test values at power frequency, and by high-voltage impulse tests which simulate lightning discharges. At the voltage levels discussed in this guide, overvoltages caused by HV switching operations are generally less severe than those due to lightning, so that no separate tests for switching-surge withstand capability are made. IEC standards define the rated (powerfrequency) voltage and the “highest voltage for equipment” in exactly the same terms, as noted in Sub-clause 1.1 of this Chapter, c off-circuit tap-selector switch: generally allows a choice of up to ± 2.5 % and ± 5 % level about the rated voltage of the highest voltage winding. The transformer must be de-energized before this switch is operated; however, on-load tap-changers are available (e.g. ± 12.5%) where circumstances require it, c winding configurations: are indicated in diagrammatic form by standard symbols for star, delta and inter-connected-star windings; (and combinations of these for special duty, e.g. six-or twelve-phase rectifier transformers, etc.) and in an IEC-recommended alphanumeric code. This code is read from left-toright, the first letter refers to the highest voltage winding, the second letter to the next highest, and so on, v capital letters refer to the highest voltage winding D = delta Y = star Z = interconnected-star (or zigzag) N = neutral connection brought out to a terminal v lower-case letters are used for tertiary and secondary windings d = delta y = star z = interconnected-star (or zigzag) n = neutral connection brought out to a terminal v a number from 0 to 11, corresponding to those, on a clock dial (“O” is used instead of “12”) follows any pair of letters to indicate the phase change (if any) which occurs during the transformation. If a neutral terminal is available then the number appears after the N (or n). A very common winding configuration used for distribution transformers is that of a Dyn 11 transformer, which has a delta HV winding with a star-connected secondary winding the neutral point of which is brought out to a terminal. The phase change through the transformer is +30 degrees, i.e. phase 1 secondary voltage is at “11 o’clock” when phase 1 of the primary voltage is at “12 o’clock”, as shown in figure C36. All combinations of delta, star and zigzag windings produce a phase change which (if not zero) is either 30 degrees or a multiple of 30 degrees. IEC 76-4 describes the “clock code” in detail. Characteristics related to the technology and utilization of the transformer This list is not exhaustive: c choice of technology. The insulating medium is: v liquid (mineral oil) or, v solid (epoxy resin and air), c for interior or exterior installation, c altitude (i 1,000 m is standard), c temperature (IEC 76-2), v maximum ambient air: 40 °C, v daily maximum average ambient air: 30 °C, v annual maximum average ambient air: 20 °C. For non-standard operating conditions, refer to C1.1 "Influence of the Ambient temperature and altitude on the rated current".

C38 - HV/LV distribution substations

C
description of insulation techniques
There are two basic classes of distribution transformer presently available: c dry type (cast in resin), c liquid filled (oil-immersed). Dry type transformers The windings of these transformers are insulated by resin cast under vacuum (which is patented by major manufacturers). It is recommended that the transformer be chosen according to the CENELEC standards documents HD 46451, as follows: c environment class E2 (frequent condensation and/or high level of pollution), c climatic conditions class C2 (utilization, transport and stockage down to -25 °C), c fire resistance (transformers exposed to fire risk with low flammability and selfextinguishing in a given time). The following description refers to the process developed by a leading European manufacturer in this field. The encapsulation of a winding uses three components: c epoxy-resin based on biphenol A with a viscosity that ensures complete impregnation of the windings, c anhydride hardener modified to introduce a degree of resilience in the moulding, essential to avoid the development of cracks during the temperature cycles occurring in normal operation, c pulverulent additive composed of trihydrated alumina Al (OH)3 and silica which enhances its mechanical and thermal properties, as well as giving exceptional intrinsic qualities to the insulation in the presence of heat. This three-component system of encapsulation gives Class F insulation (∆θ = 100 K) with excellent fire-resisting qualities and immediate self-extinction. These transformers are therefore classified as nonflammable. The mouldings of the windings contain no halogen compounds (chlorine, bromine, etc.) or other compounds capable of producing corrosive or toxic pollutants, thereby guaranteeing a high degree of safety to personnel in emergency situations, notably in the event of a fire. It also performs exceptionally well in hostile industrial atmospheres of dust, humidity, etc. See figure C28. Liquid-filled transformers The most common insulating/cooling liquid used in transformers is mineral oil. Mineral oils are specified in IEC 296. Being flammable, safety measures are obligatory in many countries, especially for indoor substations. The DGPT unit (Detection of Gas, Pressure and Temperature) ensures the protection of oil-filled transformers. In the event of an anomaly, the DGPT causes the HV supply to the transformer to be cut off very rapidly, before the situation becomes dangerous. Mineral oil is bio-degradable and does not contain PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), which was the reason for banning askerel, i.e. Pyralène, Pyrolio, Pyroline... On request, mineral oil can be replaced by an alternative insulating liquid, by adapting the transformer, as required, and taking appropriate additional precautions if necessary. The insulating fluid also acts as a cooling medium; it expands as the load and/or the ambient temperature increases, so that all liquid-filled transformers must be designed to accommodate the extra volume of liquid without the pressure in the tank becoming excessive.

fig. C28: dry-type transformer.

HV/LV distribution substations - C39

4. the consumer substation with LV metering (continued)

C
4.4 choice of HV/LV transformer (continued)
There are two ways in which this pressure limitation is commonly achieved: c hermetically-sealed totally-filled tank (up to 10 MVA at the present time) Developed by a leading French manufacturer in 1963, this method was adopted by the national power authority in 1972, and is now in world-wide service. Expansion of the liquid is compensated by the elastic deformation of the oil-cooling passages attached to the tank. The “total-fill” technique has many important advantages over other methods: v oxydation of the dielectric liquid (with atmospheric oxygen) is entirely precluded, v no need for an air-drying device, and so no consequent maintenance (inspection and changing of saturated dessicant), v no need for dielectric-strength test of the liquid for at least 10 years, v simplified protection against internal faults by means of a DGPT device is possible, v simplicity of installation: lighter and lower profile (than tanks with a conservator) and access to the HV and LV terminals is unobstructed, v immediate detection of (even small) oil leaks; water cannot enter the tank. c air-breathing conservator-type tank at atmospheric pressure Expansion of the insulating liquid is taken up by a change in the level of liquid in an expansion (conservator) tank, mounted above the transformer main tank, as shown is figure C30. The space above the liquid in the conservator may be filled with air which is drawn in when the level of liquid falls, and is partially expelled when the level rises. When the air is drawn in from the surrounding atmosphere it is admitted through an oil seal, before passing through a dessicating device (generally containing silica-gel crystals) before entering the conservator. In some designs of larger transformers the space above the oil is occupied by an impermeable air bag so that the insulation liquid is never in contact with the atmosphere. The air enters and exits from the deformable bag through an oil seal and dessicator, as previously described. A conservator expansion tank is obligatory for transformers rated above 10 MVA (which is presently the upper limit for “total-fill” type transformers).

fig. C29: hermetically-sealed totally-filled tank.

fig. C30: air-breathing conservator-type tank at atmosphere pressure.

C40 - HV/LV distribution substations

c some countries in which the use of liquid dielectrics is highly developed. totally-filled units are available as an alternative to conservator-type transformers. National standards exist which define the conditions for the installation of liquid-filled transformers. HV/LV distribution substations . Local regulations and official recommendations may have to be respected. This latter is assessed according to two criteria: the flash-point temperature. classify the several categories of liquid according to their fire performance. notably. including: c safety of persons in proximity to the transformer. code O1 K1 K2 K3 L3 dielectric fluid mineral oil high-density hydrocarbons esters silicones insulating halogen liquids flash-point (°C) < 300 > 300 > 300 > 300 minimum calorific power (MJ/kg) 48 34 . The principal categories are shown in Table C31 in which a classification code is used for convenience. v dry-type transformers impose no constraints in other situations. The national standard is aimed at ensuring the safety of persons and property and recommends. c for dielectrics of classes 01 and K1 the measures indicated are applicable only if there are more than 25 litres of dielectric liquid in the transformer. For ratings up to 10 MVA. and the minimum calorific power. or minimum protectagainst fire risk. vary according to the class of insulation used. A choice depends on a number of considerations. v for different kinds of insulation liquids. No equivalent IEC standard has yet been established. c transformers with liquid insulation: v this type of transformer is generally forbidden in high apartment blocks. the choice of transformer is between liquid-filled or drytype. c for liquid dielectrics of class L3 there are no special measures to be taken.C41 . c economic considerations. The main precautions to observe are indicated in Table C32. Regulations affecting the choice c dry-type transformer: v in some countries a dry-type transformer is obligatory in high apartment blocks.37 27 .C choice of technology As discussed above.28 12 table C31: categories of dielectric fluids. taking account of the relative advantages of each technique. c for dielectrics of classes K2 and K3 the measures indicated are applicable only if there are more than 50 litres of dielectric liquid in the transformer. installation restrictions. the minimum measures to be taken against the risk of fire.

etc. the consumer substation with LV metering (continued) C 4. the fire-proof characteristics of which are not rated for 2 hours. Measure 2: arrange that burning liquid will extinguish rapidly and naturally (by providing a pebble bed in the containment sump). Measure 4: automatic fire-detection devices in close proximity to the transformer. (b) . for cutting off primary power supply. arrange that. and separated from any other building by a distance D D>8m 4m<D<8m D < 4 m (a) in the direction of occupied areas no special measures interposition of a fire-proof screen (1 hour rating) fire-proof wall (2 hour rating) against adjoining building interposition of a fire-proof screen (1 hour rating) reserved to trained personnel and isolated from work areas by fire-proof walls (2 hours rating) no openings with opening(s) measures (1 + 2) or 3 or 4 no special measures other chambers or locations (b) O1 K1 measures (1 + 2 + 5) measures or 3 (1A + 2 + 4)(c) or (4 + 5) or 3 measures 1A or 3 or 4 measures 1 or 3 or 4 K2 K3 L3 50 no special measures no special measures Measure 1: arrangements such that if the dielectric escapes from the transformer. ducts and so on. if gas appears in the transformer tank.4 choice of HV/LV transformer (continued) class of dielectric fluid no. Measure 5: automatic closure by fire-proof panels (1/2 hour minimum rating) of all openings (ventilation louvres. and giving an alarm. during construction). (c) it is indispensable that the equipment be enclosed in a chamber. of litres above which measures must be taken 25 locations chamber or enclosed area reserved to qualified and authorized personnel. .areas situated in the middle of workshops the material being placed (or not) in a protective container. or at least 2 metres from it if a fire-proof screen [of 1 hour rating] is interposed). C42 . Measure 3: an automatic device (DGPT or Buchholz) for cutting off the primary power supply. and giving an alarm. in the event of liquid ignition there is no possibility of the fire spreading (any combustible material must be moved to a distance of at least 4 metres from the transformer.4. K1. K2 or K3. Measure 1A: in addition to measure 1. it will be completely contained (in a sump. the walls of which are solid.transformer chamber adjoining a workshop and separated from it by walls. Notes: (a) a fire-proof door (rated at 2 hours) is not considered to be an opening.) in the walls and ceiling of the substation chamber.HV/LV distribution substations . by sills around the transformer. the only orifices being those necessary for ventilation purposes. table C32: safety measures recommended in electrical installations using dielectric liquids of classes 01. and by blocking of cable trenches.

Forced ventilation Forced (i. ventilation orifices In the general case of cooling by natural air circulation (AN) the ventilation of the chamber is arranged to remove the heat (produced by losses in the transformer) by natural convection. if the rated temperature limit is not to be exceeded. v the installation.C43 . expressed in metres.000 m.1 S Where: P = the sum of the no-load losses and the full-load losses expressed in kW S = the sectional area of the incoming-air orifice (area of louvres or grill to be deducted) expressed in mm2 S’ = the sectional area of the outgoing-air orifice (area of louvres or grill to be deducted) expressed in mm2 H = height (centre to centre) of the outgoing air orifice above the incoming-air orifice. resulting in failure of insulation and loss of the transformer. Natural ventilation The formulae for calculating the sectional area of the ventilation orifices are as follows: S = 0. the following factors must be taken into account: c list the power of installed power-consuming equipment as described in Chapter B. taking into account all possible future extensions to the installation. as shown in figure C33.C the determination of optimal power Oversizing a transformer results in: c excessive investment and unecessarily high no-load losses. (the highest efficiency is attained in the range 50% . on maximum kVA demand. Undersizing a transformer.18 P/√H and S’ = 1. C33: natural ventilation. frequent overloading of the transformer. It is important to note that any restriction to the free flow of a sufficient volume of air will result in a reduction of power available from the transformer. owing to the premature ageing of the windings insulation. c dry-type Class F transformer: 0. in order to: v reduce cost penalties in tariffs based.e.70% full load) so that the optimum loading is not achieved. Definition of optimal power In order to select an optimal power (kVA) rating for a transformer. noting the duration of loads and overloads. c decide the utilization (or demand) factor for each individual item of load. The formulae are valid for a mean ambient temperature of 20 °C and up to an altitude of 1. c lower on-load losses. causes: c a reduced efficiency when fully loaded. and so on. HV/LV distribution substations . c arrange for power-factor correction.. or if the chamber is badly ventilated. if overheating of the transformer causes protective relays to trip the controlling circuit breaker.05 P where P = total losses in kW. S' H S fig. in cubic metres per second at 20 °C: c totally-filled transformer: 0. c select.. in part. if justified. v reduce the value of declared load (P(kVA) = P (kW)/cos ø). and in extreme cases. c determine the load cycle of the installation. serious consequences for: v the transformer. and to leave the chamber through an orifice of sectional area S' on the opposite wall to that of the air entry and at a height H above the incoming-air orifice. but. c on long-term overload. The fan can be controlled by thermostat. A good system of ventilation allows cool air to enter through an orifice of sectional area S at floor level. the chamber is ventilated by natural convection or forced ventilation. Recommended air-flow rate. among the range of standard transformer ratings available. It is important to ensure that cooling arrangements for the transformer are adequate. electric-fan assisted) ventilation of the chamber is necessary for ambient temperatures exceeding 20 °C.081 P.

which include local LV distribution boards.5. v duplicate service (interlocked mechanically). or several smaller transformers. having the necessary metering accuracy. transformers may be arranged for automatic changeover operation. A metering panel will be incorporated in the HV switchboard. These substations may be installed. v single-circuit (for later change to ring-main service). or by duplicate feeders to each room. Transformer rooms If the installation includes a number of transformer rooms. and HV metering functions. or for parallel operation. c protection of outgoing HV circuits. the substation: c might include one room containing the HV switchboard and metering panel(s). c general protection at HV. c or might supply one or more transformer rooms. In the two latter cases. The rated current of the HV switchgear does not normally exceed 400 A. or again. Transformers For additional supply-security reasons. Voltage transformers and current transformers.250 kVA. together with the transformer(s) and low-voltage main distribution board(s). the agreement of the power-supply authority regarding metering arrangements must be obtained. which may be one of four types: v single-circuit service. or c via two mechanically interlocked load-break switches with two service cables from duplicate supply feeders. HV supplies from the main substation may be by simple radial feeders connected directly to the transformers. either: c inside a building. functions The substation According to the complexity of the installation and the manner in which the load is divided. a consumer substation with HV metering C 5. C44 . similar to that described above. v ring-main service. in the event of failure of the power supply system. Local emergency generators Emergency standby generators are intended to maintain a power supply to essential loads. according to the degree of supply security desired. may be included in the main incoming circuit breaker panel or (in the case of the voltage transformer) may be installed separately in the metering panel. c protection of LV distribution circuits.HV/LV distribution substations . Capacitors Capacitors will be installed. 3-panel ring-main units will be required at each transformer room. or c via two load-break switches of a ring-main unit. Metering Before the installation project begins.1 general A consumer substation with HV metering is an electrical installation connected to a public supply system at a nominal voltage of 1 kV 35 kV and generally includes a single HV/LV transformer which exceeds 1. one-line diagrams The diagrams shown in figure C34 represent: c the different methods of HV service connection. or c at LV in transformer rooms. Connection to the HV network Connection at HV can be: c either by a single service cable or overhead line. by a ring-main. or c outdoors in prefabricated housings. according to requirements: c in stepped HV banks at the main substation. supplied at HV from switchgear in a main substation.

HV/LV distribution substations . C34: consumer substation with HV metering.C45 .C power supply system service connection HV protection and metering HV distribution and protection of outgoing circuits downstream terminals of HV isolator for the installation LV terminals of transformer LV distribution and protection supplier/consumer interface single-line service protection LV I nominal of transformer u 45 A single-line service (equipped for extension to form a ring main) a single transformer HV LV automatic LV/HV standby source duplicatesupply service protection + automatic changeover feature protection ring-main service automatic LV standby source authorized access limits consumer testing authority power-supply authority fig.

HV/LV distribution substations . from standby generator P i 20. containing the CTs for measurement and protection. or other anomaly. C46 . Setting of protection relays is carried out by the power-supply authority and made inaccessible to the consumer by sealing. The standard states that operation of the standby plant must not. apart from protective devices intended to protect the generator: c either a scheme of interlocking must preclude any possibility of parallel operation of the generator with the power system. C36: section of HV switchboard including standby supply panel. in any circumstances. or on the installation. C35: typical arrangement of switchgear panels for HV metering.000 kVA fig. This means that. panels specifically designed for metering and. the tripping command to the decoupling circuit breaker must operate reliably on undervoltage and reverse-power protection. Both schemes use protective relays which are sealed by the power-supply authority. power-supply changeover schemes Some national standards recommend a supplementary protection when an installation includes an emergency automatic changeover to a local generator. or c a suitable automatic de-coupling scheme agreed with the power-supply authority. or some equivalent means. in addition to the panels described in 4. HV distribution panels for which standby supply is required automatic changeover panel busbar transition panel to remainder of the HV switchboard In the second case.5. if required.2. c the main HV circuit breaker panel. The general protection is usually against overcurrent (overload and short-circuit) and earth faults. metering and general protection These two functions are achieved by the association of two panels: c one panel containing the VT. metering VT panel main HV CB panel with metering and protection CTs HV distribution panels power-supply network fig.2 choice of panels A substation with HV metering includes. The tripping supply and switchgear-control switch(es) must also be inaccessible to the consumer. which will trip the paralleling circuit breaker in the event of a short-circuit. result in perturbations on the power-supply network. for automatic or manual changeover from one source to another. a consumer substation with HV metering (continued) C 5. occurring on the power supply system.

an increase in the excitation current of one of them (for example. as before. An AVR set to maintain the voltage within ± 3% (for example) will immediately attempt to raise the voltage by increasing the excitation current of the alternator. such that the load power factor requirements are satisfied. This is a well-known problem and is usually overcome by the provision of a “constantpower-factor” control switch on the AVR unit. but it is recommended that facilities for both kinds of control be specified when purchasing the generator sets. carried out manually after switching its AVR to Manual control) will have practically no effect on the voltage level.e. Consider now the case of a standby generator at a consumer’s substation. the alternator will simply operate at a lower power factor than before.C small generators operating in parallel with public supply networks The following notes indicate some basic considerations to be taken into account when parallel operation of consumer’s generators with the public power-supply networks is planned. until it is eventually tripped out by its overcurrent protective relays. even a small generator at the end of a long line could probably operate satisfactorily on constant-voltage control. while at the same time maintaining the power factor of the alternator constant at the pre-set value (selected on the AVR control unit). then constant-power-factor operation is generally obligatory. the AVR will automatically adjust the excitation current to match whatever voltage exists on the power system. In highly-developed networks where the short-circuit fault levels are high. which is operating in parallel with all the generation of the public power supply system. HV/LV distribution substations . Instead of raising the voltage. if the system impedance viewed from the generator location is high (i. In fact. thereby increasing its current output. To be more specific. or even more. Note: The problem is essentially that of a “small” generator and a “large” system. the short-circuit fault level is low) then constant-voltage control may be satisfactory. so that. for example. Supposing the power system voltage is reduced for operational reasons (it is common to operate HV systems within a range of ± 5% of nominal voltage. When a number of alternators are operating in parallel under AVR control. the AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) is switched to “parallel operation” in which the AVR control circuit is slightly modified (compounded) to ensure satisfactory sharing of kvars with the other parallel machines. where load-flow patterns require it).C47 . and therefore more current) than before. A technical discussion with the power-supply authority will be necessary to resolve the question. the AVR must be automatically (rapidly) switched back to “constant-voltage” control. The terms “small” and “large” are relative. The power factor of all the other machines will automatically improve. In the event that the alternator becomes decoupled from the power-system. When it is intended that the alternator should operate in parallel with others. By making this selection. A voltage regulator controlling an alternator is generally arranged to respond to a reduction of voltage at its terminals by automatically increasing the excitation current of the alternator. the alternator in question will simply operate at a lower power factor (more kVA. until the voltage is restored to normal. and will continue to do so.

conditions necessary for parallel operation All paralleled units must be supplied from the same network. total power (kVA) The total power (kVA) available when two or more transformers of the same kVA rating are connected in parallel. v voltage differences between corresponding phases must not exceed 0. which exceeds the capactiy of an existing transformer.4%. should be given to the manufacturer with a view to optimizing load and no-load losses. should not be operated permanently in parallel.HV/LV distribution substations . fig. is equal to the sum of the individual ratings. and tertiary windings depend on: c type of windings (delta. or very nearly so. polarity) of the phase windings. c lack of space (height) for one large transformer. V12 N 3 2 3 1 1 2 N 2 windings correspondence 2 3 3 V12 on the primary winding produces V1N in the secondary winding and so on . zigzag star) of the several transformers have the same phase change between primary and secondary voltages. etc. The inevitable circulating currents exchanged between the secondary circuits of paralleled transformers will be negligibly small providing that: c secondary cabling from the transformers to the point of paralleling have approximately equal lengths and characteristics.. c the phase displacement of the secondary phase voltages with respect to the corresponding primary phase voltages. expected load cycles.3 parallel operation of transformers The need for operation of two or more transformers in parallel often arises due to: c load growth. C37: phase change through a Dyn 11 transformer. this displacement (if not zero) will always be a multiple of 30° and will depend on the two factors mentioned above. By far the most common type of distribution transformer winding configuration is the Dyn 11 connection. C48 . It is recommended that transformers. v the short-circuit per-centage impedances are equal. a total of more than 90% of the sum of the two ratings is normally available. Similar 180° changes occur in the two possible ways of connecting phaseto-phase coils to form delta windings. c connection of the phase windings.e. a star winding will produce voltages which are 180° displaced with respect to those produced if the opposite ends had been joined to form the star point. zigzag).5. providing that the percentage impedances are all equal and the voltage ratios are identical. c the adoption of a standard size of transformer throughout an installation. secondary.4 “Electrical characteristics winding configurations” the relationships between primary. c the transformer manufacturer is fully informed of the duty intended for the transformers. viz type of windings and connection (i. voltage vectors 1 1 common winding arrangements As described in 4. the kVA ratings of which differ by more than 2: 1. while four different combinations of zigzag connections are possible.. a consumer substation with HV metering (continued) C 5. c a measure of security (the probability of two transformers failing at the same time is very small). Depending on which ends of the windings form the star point (for example). star. Transformers of unequal kVA ratings will share a load practically (but not exactly) in proportion to their ratings. In these cases. so that: v the winding configurations (star. As previously noted. delta. or differ by less than 10%. providing that the voltage ratios are identical and the per-centage impedances (at their own kVA rating) are identical. v all possible information on the conditions of use.

2 indoor substations equipped with metal-enclosed switchgear conception Figure C38 shows a typical equipment layout recommended for a LV metering substation. such that one of its walls.C49 . or c an outdoor installation mounted on a pole. etc. HV connections to transformer (included in a panel or free-standing) LV connections from transformer LV switchgear 2 incoming HV panels HV switching and protection panel current transformers provided by power-supply authority connection to the power-supply network by single-core or three-core cables. with or without a cable trench transformer oil sump LV cable trench fig. such as parks. (“H” structure or 4-pole arrangement) or in a brick-built. rapid and competitive choice.. residential districts. HV/LV distribution substations . constitution of HV/LV distribution substations C HV/LV substations are constructed according to the magnitude of the load and the kind of power system in question.1 different types of substation Substations may be classified according to metering arrangements (HV or LV) and type of supply (O/H ou U/G). 6. etc. or incorporated in an apartment block. in which case the power supply authority must have unrestricted access. or poles. coincides with the boundary of the consumers premises and the public way. C38: typical arrangment of switchgear panels for LV metering. Remark: the use of a cast-resin dry-type transformer would obviate the need for a fireprotection oil sump. The substations may be installed: c either indoors in chambers specially built for the purpose. or on private premises. Substations may be built in public places. which includes an access door. Prefabricated housings mounted on a concrete base provide a particularly simple. concrete or prefabricated housing. This is normally assured by locating the substation. 6.6.

HV/LV distribution substations . constitution of HV/LV distribution substations (continued) C 6.6.65 m. Metering c metering current transformers are generally installed in the protective cover of the power transformer LV terminals. and c are accessible only to the power-supply authority. 100 common earth busbar for the substation 800 mini safety accessories meters fig. v single-core unarmoured cables to 250 A (or more) plug-in type terminals at the transformer. c alternatively. c connections between the HV switchgear and the transformers may be: v by short copper bars where the transformer is housed in a panel forming part of the HV switchboard. the current transformers are installed in a sealed compartment within the main LV distribution cabinet. c the meters are mounted on a panel which is completely free from vibrations. C50 . c placed as close to the current transformers as possible. v by single-core unarmoured cables with synthetic insulation. above floor level. not lower than 0. the cover being sealed by the supply authority. and not higher than 1. C39: plan view of typical substation with LV metering.2 indoor substations equipped with metal-enclosed switchgear (continued) service connections and equipment interconnections At high voltage c connections to the HV system are made by. v solid copper bars (circular or rectangular section) with heat-shrinkable insulation.7 m. The dials and graduations of the meters should be at a height of approximately 1. and are the responsibility of the power-supply authority.8 m. At low voltage c connections between the LV terminals of the transformer and the LV switchgear may be: v single-core unarmoured cables.

HV/LV distribution substations . pushbuttons. c warning signs. In either case. can be easily read. v a DANGER plaque (skull and cross-bones. v a voltage-detecting device for use on the HV equipment. Note: Metal doors and ventilation louvres are not connected to earth. a DANGER warning plaque and prohibition of entry notice. are normally located immediately adjacent to entrances. Operating switches. v the common point of all current-transformer secondary windings. c an earth electrode for the LV neutral point of the transformer*. together with instructions for first-aid care for victims of electrical accidents. v a pair of insulated gloves stored in an envelope provided for the purpose. materials for operation and safety The substation must be provided with: c materials for assuring safe exploitation of the equipment including: v a wooden stool and/or an insulating mat (rubber or synthetic). or a local equivalent sign) on each removable panel providing access to live parts. In such cases all electrodes are interconnected to form a common earthing system for HV and LV equipments. as discussed in “Earthing connections” in Sub-clause 1. notices and safety alarms: v on the external face of all access doors. c an earth electrode for the installation*. v inside the substation: a first-aid panel as noted above. c all metering dials and instruction plaques and so on.1 of this Chapter. v reinforcing rods in the concrete base of the substation. Lighting fittings are arranged such that: c switchgear operating handles and positionindication markings are adequately illuminated. c removable links at strategic points for measuring continuity and the resistances of individual electrodes. v earthing attachments (according to type of switchgear).C earthing circuits The substation must include: c an earth electrode for all exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment in the substation and exposed extraneous metal including: v protective metal screens. c fire-extinguishing devices of the powder or CO2 type.C51 . substation lighting Supply to the lighting circuits can be taken from a point upstream or downstream of the main incoming LV circuit breaker. appropriate overcurrent protection must be provided. * in small areas. A separate automatic circuit (or circuits) is (are) recommended for emergency lighting purposes. the resistance zones of earth electrodes overlap. etc.

c circuit breaker D2 is the main LV circuit breaker for the installation.1 of this Chapter. lightning arresters LV circuit breaker D1 earthing conductor 25 mm2 copper protective conductor cover safety earth mat fig. however. or may be tripped by a thermal-image relay monitoring the transformer-windings temperature. Constitution These substations are commonly supplied by a single 3-wire line.3 outdoor substations pole-top public distribution substations Field of application These substations are mainly used to supply isolated rural consumers from HV overhead line distribution systems: c at voltage levels between 1 . the settings to be made by the power-supply authority. C41: diagram showing the principles of a pole-mounted transformer substation.HV/LV distribution substations . C40: pole-mounted transformer substation. RB < 3 ohms to limit the voltage appearing at the consumer's installation in the event of a breakdown of HV/LV insulation due to back-flashover. constitution of HV/LV distribution substations (continued) C 6. General arrangement of equipment As previously noted the location of the substation must allow easy access. Lightning arresters are provided. C42: separated earth electrodes. for example) and the manœuvring of heavy vehicles. See figure C42. to protect the transformer and consumers as shown in figure C40. fig. c from a single transformer not exceeding 160 kVA and at a preferred LV voltage level of 230/400 V (3-phase 4-wires). This circuit breaker is mounted on the pole and has inverse-time/current-relay tripping characteristics. not only for personnel but for equipment handling (raising the transformer.24 kV. shown in figure C41: c circuit breaker D1 protects the transformer against overloading and the LV service connection against short-circuit faults. or other causes. Rp RB installation RA Rp must have a maximum value derived in the same way as that shown for Rs of case "E" in figure C7.6. LV circuit breaker at the transformer D1 remote pole-mounted load-break/ isolating switch lightning arresters metering pole-mounted transformer installation main circuit breaker D2 fig. Earthing electrodes are commonly separated as discussed in Sub-clause 1. Protection of the LV circuit is generally provided by two LV circuit breakers (D1) and (D2). c with low-voltage metering. C52 . Tripping discrimination between these two circuit breakers must be established. and sealed. with no local switchgear or fuses at the HV side of the transformer.

and in the cost of implementation. fig. C43: cut-away view of typical HV/LV substation using a prefabricated housing. are: c an optimization of materials and safety by: v an appropriate choice from a wide range of available housings. Among the advantages offered by these units. v obviating the need for a temporary “hookup” at the beginning of the site preparation work. c greatly simplified equipment installation and connection.C53 . independent of the main building construction. These prefabricated units require the minimum civil work.C prefabricated housings for outdoor substations For more elaborate substations requiring the use of ring-main units or a switchboard of several circuit breakers. v realization. by: v minimal co-ordination between the several disciplines of building construction and site works. which consists only of the provision of a reinforced-concrete plinth. compact weatherproof and vermin-proof housings are commonly used. v conformity with all existing and foreseeable international standards. being mounted on a simple concrete base. v simplification of civil work. HV/LV distribution substations . c a reduction in study and design time. and are used for both urban and rural substations.

constitution of HV/LV distribution substations (continued) C 6. based on weatherproof equipment exposed to the elements. C54 .6. c for one or more transformer(s). and by an adverse visual impact. This class of substation is not favoured in residential areas or in other locations where visual amenities are important. cable boxes. etc.3 outdoor substations (continued) Other kinds of outdoor substation are common in some countries.HV/LV distribution substations . The simplicity of this arrangement is countered by the high cost of weatherproof switchgear. or one or more switchfuse or circuit breaker unit(s). and c for one or more LV distribution pillar(s). These comprise a fenced area in which three or more concrete plinths are installed: c for a ring-main unit. and for these reasons have been largely supplanted by prefabricated housings and indoor-type equipment in many countries.

The following example is based on a 400 kVA. be less than 40 A. The transfer current of the combination when fitted with the 40 A fuses concerned is less than its rated transfer current. it matches the transformer overload capability. the maximum short-circuit primary currrent (based on 5% transformer reactance) is greater than the transfer current (current at which the switch operates concurrently with the fuse(s))* when the combination includes the recommended 40 A fuses. the timecurrent characteristics of the HV and LV fuses should intersect at a current value which is greater than that of the maximum possible short-circuit current on the LV system. Figure AC1-1 shows that the transfer current in this case is 280 A. example in coordination of the characteristics of an HV switch-fuse combination protecting an HV/LV transformer C This appendix is based on Appendices A and B of IEC 420.e.87 Isc3 while one HV fuse (only) passes Isc3. The manufacturer will provide a list of fuses which are suitable for use in the combination.7. The normal current rating of the combination when using the recommended fuses is adequate to carry 33 A periodically in an ambient-air temperature of 45 °C.1 second (Clause 4a of IEC 787). since the LV fuses pass 0. particularly in the abovestandard ambient temperature conditions. and/or in consultation with the fuse manufacturer.6 (figures H2-56 and H2-57). and will recommend those fuses necessary for this particular application. and/or in consultation with the fuse manufacturer. assumed in this case to be 1.e. The user has selected a 12 kV switch-fuse combination from a certain manufacturer to protect the transformer. so that the primary current in the overload condition is: 21 x 1.1 .1 second. 16 kA (at least) fuse of a given type from a certain fuse manufacturer. as shown in figure AC1-2 (b). This is generally the worst condition for discrimination. c the full-load current is 21 A.2 (figure C21) and Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. c the magnetizing in-rush current surge is: 21 x 12 = 252 A maximum for a duration of 0.5% tap. c the permissible periodic overload is 150% F. The fuse can withstand the 252 A of inrush current for 0.000 A. The fuses alone will clear a solid 3-phase short-circuit fault at the LV terminals of the transformer.05 = 33 A. and is intended to clarify some of the operational features of these combination units. as shown in figure AC1-3. i. The pre-arcing current in the fuse is low enough in the 10-second region of the fuse time-current characteristic. 2. The installation designers must check that the fuse discriminates with the highest rating of a LV fuse (if existing) in the event of a phaseto-phase fault on the LV system.L. to ensure satisfactory protection of the transformer (Clause 4c of IEC 787). To justify this choice. To ensure discrimination in this case. This information will be obtained by the switch-fuse manufacturer. 40 A.e. * transfer current is defined below. c the off-circuit tapping switch is selected to the . This will be done by reference to the timecurrent characteristic of the fuse. 3. the manufacturer will have ascertained that: 1. Temperature-rise tests carried out by the switch-fuse manufacturer. 11 kV/LV transformer with a maximum fault level at its HV terminals of 16 kA. i. 5.5 x 1. c the ambient-air temperature at site is 45 °C. Appendix C1 . 4. in fact. Suppose the manufacturer recommends a 12 kV. without any modification to its subsequent performance. Note: the normal current rating of the combination when fitted with the recommended 40 A fuses may. i. The choice of the manufacturer will be based on factory type-tests to the appropriate IEC specifications covering this class of HV switch-fuse combination.. may indicate a normal current rating of (for example) 35 A at 45 °C. 5 °C higher than the IEC standard. or calculations based on such tests. Discrimination between HV fuses and LV circuit breakers has been covered in Chapter C Sub-clause 3. Such a rating is evidently satisfactory for this application. from the fuse characteristic curves.

AC1-2: short-circuit currents for the transformer of the example. etc.Appendix C1 .3 kA 215 A (b) phase-to-phase S. as shown on the time-current fuse-characteristic curve.) 10 full-load current 50% overload current 1. AC1-1: principles of HV/LV transformer protection by HV switch-fuse combination. is taken into account when calculating the operating time of the second fuse. 2 .045 seconds after fault initiation. Figure AC1-1 is intended only to show the basic principles involved.7 kA take-over current The take-over current of the combination is the level of overcurrent at which the fuses take over the duty of protection from overload relays. reference should be made to IEC 420. the fastest fuse to melt clears one pole and operates its striker pin.045 secs. and the timecurrent characteristic of the fuse. * this is the transfer-current value.7 kA 10. not to scale minimum rated breaking current of fuse take-over current level overload relay characteristic 40 A fuse characteristic 0.01 10 21 33 100 252 420 1000 280 faults cleared by fuses only faults cleared overload cleared by (strikers operate but fault is cleared switch only on operation by fuses and switch through striker action before switch contacts open) of overload relay fig.e. assuming a 242-420 V secondary winding. 430 A 430 A 10.0 248 A (c) 1 . Near the transfer-current level. fig.phase S. which will be interrupted by the switch or by the fuses. fault current (amps) 0. following operation of the first fuse. during a LV 3-phase short-circuit (at the transformer terminals). For greater detail. The two remaining poles are then passing a reduced current (87%). the second fuse must melt at the instant of switch opening (by striker action of the first fuse to operate).phase-to-earth S. and takes no account of maximum and minimum tolerances in the fuse pre-arcing curves.C. is that corresponding to a period of 0. 430 A 215 A 9. from the take-over current level up to and beyond the transfer current level. For this to occur. Its reduction to 87%. By calculation (demonstrated in Appendix B of IEC 420) it is shown that the level of 3-phase fault current* which will cause the second fuse to melt at a time (equal to the switch-opening time) after the operation of the first fuse. The transfer point is that at which the switch opens and one or both remaining fuses melt simultaneously.C 7.1 transfer current level rated transfer current of the combination 0. 0 248 A 10.7 kA 10.1 transfer current and take-over current transfer current The transfer current of a combination depends on both the fuse-initiated (striker) opening time of the switch.C.7 kA 430 A (a) 3 . time (secs.C. i. the switch will be tripped by striker-pin action.

with the advantage of enhanced switchgear performance noted above. AC1-3: discrimination between HV and LV fuses. time (seconds) minimum time-current characteristic of HV fuse maximum fault current at LV (referred to HV side) maximum operating time of LV fuse (referred to HV side) 430 A HV fault current (amps) fig. The breaking of solid (i. diagram (c) of figure AC1-2 shows that the HV fault current is less than the calculated value (280 A) for the transfer-current limit. before the striker-operated switch opens its contacts.3 . but will be in direct phase opposition around the fault-current loop. i. The fuse of that phase will clear rapidly. This feature improves the switch performance for breaking current which is (in the present case) mainly transformer-magnetizing current. non-arcing) 3-phase faults is associated with severe TRV values which the switch in the combination is not designed to interrupt. Appendix C1 . * because the LV voltages induced in the faulted phases will then be sensibly equal in magnitude. as well as improving the power factor of the fault current. the diagram (b) of figure AC1-2 shows that the HV fault current of one phase is equal to that of a 3-phase LV short-circuit.e. For a phase-to-phase LV terminal fault. that the transfercurrent limit (280 A in the example) shall always be lower than that of a 3-phase LV-terminals short-circuit (430 A at HV). and be cleared in the transfer-current region by two of the switch contacts acting in series. following the operation of one fuse (assuming that both fuses do not clear simultaneously). The switch contacts breaking this low-valued (but highly-inductive) current. are acting in series.e. For a phase-to-earth LV terminal fault. The primary short-circuit currents arising from solid short-circuits at the transformer secondary terminals are shown in figure AC1-2.C 7. upstream of the LV protection devices.2 types of faults involved in the transfer region Primary-side protective devices are particularly concerned with faults in the secondary-terminals zone of the transformer. It is necessary therefore. then 3-phase short-circuit transfer currents correspond to faults for which LV arc impedance reduces the magnitude of both the current and TRV values. the current in the two remaining phases will then reduce to practically zero*. This condition being fulfilled. the fault current will reduce to a very low value. This type of fault therefore must be cleared by the fuses only. as shown in figure AC1-1. As in the previous case.

a shortcircuit to earth) is at an infinite distance from the electrode.3 +0. When two electrodes exchange fault current. are generally at their maximum values and are therefore (for the ground-surface gradients) the most dangerous.6 + 0.3 -0.0 pu 0 B (a) plan view of ground-surface equipotential contours ground-surface -1. and are based on the following simplifying assumptions: c perfectly homogeneous soil.1 +0. i. both in the soil and on the ground surface. The following notes show that.0 pu .2 -0. The resulting measured values correspond closely to those calculated by the classical theory.0. current-flow lines equipotential contours fig.4 -0. there exists (at some point between the two electrodes) an equipotential vertical-plane surface of infinite area.1 . AC2-1: idealized current-flow pattern and associated equipotential contours of a single-rod vertically-driven earth electrode. or in interconnected groups. located at an infinite distance from the electrode concerned.0.8.2 . test-electrode P must be located at 0.1 typical current-flow (b) equipotential surfaces in the earth positive potential region vp A negative potential region vp + 1.e.9 0.1 + 0.0.5 . the position of which is not known exactly (see text for fig.5 +0. a local zero-potential-earth reference is available. the potential gradients. either singly.3 .1 -0.0.0. as shown in figure AC2-2. Note: current-flow lines are identical to the lines of the electric field. thereby creating a perfectly symmetrical current-flow between the electrode and the surrounding soil. Earth rod at 1. where a current circulates between two electrodes.5 0 "local-earth" zero-voltage equipotential reference plane A + 1. typical current-flow electrode A electrode B lines +0. which can be used in practical electrode-resistance tests.0 zero B (c) voltage profile not to scale RI VI -1 (d) measured resistance for different locations of electrode P zero A VI = (V . perpendicular to the flow lines of the fault current. Close to the location of the buried electrode.e.8 ground surface 0. ground-surface potential gradients due to earth-fault currents C When earth-fault current flows between an earthing electrode and the surrounding soil. fig.4 nature of the potential gradients A vertical-rod electrode is very commonly used.5 0.4 -0.vp) V in zone A O VI = (V + vp) in zone B B Vg distance from A of test-electrode P Vg = voltage of test-instrument generator RI = resistance in ohms indicated by an electrode-resistance measuring instrument VI = voltage applied to test instrument V = voltage at electrode A with respect to local-earth reference Vp = voltage at probe P with respect to local-earth reference For an accurate measurement of resistance of electrode A.0 pu (per unit) volts with respect to remote-earth. 0. The current flow and associated potential contours associated with a rod electrode are shown in figure AC2-1.3 + 0. the power-source electrode and the electrode of an installation at which an earth fault occurs. F52 Chapter F).0. Appendix C2 . "remote-earth" and "local-earth" zero-potential references In classical theory "remote-earth" is an earthreference point at zero potential.6 lines . c the origin of the fault current (i.5 + 0.2 +0. potential gradients exist in the soil and on the ground surface.6 0. a single-rod electrode is taken as an example in the following notes.4 + 0.7 0.4 . AC2-2: zero-voltage local-earth reference for two electrodes.2 + 0.

between 0. When "local-earth" is mentioned in these notes. expressed in ohm-metres. zero). as the areas of successive surfaces are larger. The location of local-earth in each of the diagrams of F52 (and of diagram (d) in AC2-2) is indicated by 0 (i. where earth-fault currents are high. as shown in figure AC2-3. in which the equipotential contours are shown at 0. respectively. it can be seen that the zero-voltage equipotential surface is also the boundary of the two "zones of influence" of the two electrodes.C The vertical plane surface is the locus at which the strength of the positive* electric field from one electrode (A) is exactly equal to the strength of the negative field of the other electrode (B).5 0.5 pu and 0.c.1 pu voltage intervals. Note: the equipotential contours on the surface of the ground. As a matter of interest. This means that. the current passes through increasingly-large areas. It is clear therefore. and the voltage drops across equally-spaced intervals become less and less.5 rod 0.0 pu 0. the electric fields of the two electrodes (X) and (C) for the electrode-resistance test. Since the same current is passing through all the equipotential surfaces. and that the maximum gradient at the surface occurs immediately adjacent to the point at which the rod emerges from the soil.e. approximately the length of a step) for very long-rod and very short-rod electrodes.8 pu of the voltage at the rod is measured between the rod and a point on the ground at 1 metre from it (i.Appendix C2 . The spacing between successive surfaces must therefore be greater (i. Another way of considering the formation of potential gradients is shown in figure AC2-1. AC2-3: voltage profile of the single-rod electrode of figure AC2-1. l/a must be constant) and this results in progressively lower potential gradients. are concentric circles around the rod location (in the idealized conditions assumed). for a given distance (l) along.e. as shown in figure AC2-3. reason for potential gradients The resistance to a flow of current in a conducting medium is given in ohms by the ρl formula R = where a ρ is the resistivity coefficient of the medium. Measures taken to reduce such dangers are described later in this appendix. * Since a. sometimes also referred to as "zones of resistance". therefore. From the foregoing description. 2 . so that the voltage gradients are smaller and smaller with distance from the rod. it refers to a point on the ground at which the edge of this plane surface is located. This means that the resultant polarity at the plane is neither positive nor negative. in a homogeneous soil. a is the cross-sectional area in square metres through which the current flows. systems are being considered. potential gradients of a vertical-rod electrode It will be seen in figure AC2-1 that the high current density at the (pointed) tip of the rod results in steep potential gradients in the soil beneath the buried extremity of the electrode. as indicated by the close proximity of adjacent equipotential contours in that region. For equal lengths of current-flow path. while at points progressively further from the rod.8 m step length ground surface maximum gradient at the rod-soil interface 1. the lengths of the current paths between successive surfaces must increase for R to remain constant (reminder R = ρl/a). shown in figure F52 (Chapter F) are essentially similar to those mentioned above. the resistance of the mass of soil between any two adjacent equipotential surfaces will have the same value. that.5 position 1 metres fig. It can also be seen that the gradient at the ground surface is less severe than those below the surface. the resistance becomes progressively lower and lower. the current-flow lines R ∝ 1 a The soil in contact with the rod has an area (a) equal to that of the rod surface. the area close to such an electrode will be dangerous. when viewed from above.32 pu step voltage local-earth datum (zero volts) 1 0. l is the length in metres of the conducting path (in the direction of the current-flow lines). each electrode will change its polarity at every half cycle. Investigations have shown that. It therefore constitutes an equipotential surface at zero volts with respect to the two electrodes. So that. Vpu 0.e.

potential gradients will always occur when earth-fault currents are flowing. The same "grading-electrode" technique is sometimes used around the base of transmission-line towers. and using "grading electrodes" at the grid boundaries. (b) using special low-resistance "soils" in the space surrounding the electrodes. etc. but providing the grid meshes are appropriately dimensioned (i. (d) without insulation α voltage profiles β with insulation insulation ground surface step voltage touch voltage grid voltage with respect to local-earth zero potential fig. fig. During an earth fault. c for electrodes generally (figure AC2-5) by: (a) increasing the length and/or number of rods to reduce the electrode resistance and therefore the voltage rise at the electrode.C voltage gradients associated with earthing grids The purpose of an earthing grid (or mat) is to provide a close approximation to an equipotential condition at the ground surface over a large area. Note: the connection at the top of the rod. (a) α long rod β short rod The resistance of a rod electrode is approximately inversely proportional to its length.or reactance-earthed sources (generators or transformers as appropriate). AC2-4: voltage profile and potential gradients of an earthing grid. to reduce the severity of the gradients. AC2-5: voltage profiles and methods of reducing maximum potential gradients in some common earthing arrangements. from the surface of the ground to a depth of approximately 1 m. the permissible maximum values of gradient at the highest anticipated levels of earth-fault current will not be exceeded. (c) reducing earthing-grid-mesh sizes. boundary fences. the whole of the earthing grid and all metallic parts connected to it (together with any personal present) may be raised to several hundreds (or thousands) of volts. S2 and S3 are strip grading electrodes running parallel to the fence and connected to it at frequent intervals. not too large). i. must also be insulated. Potential gradients in the grid meshes will have the general form shown in figure AC2-4. and connected to an insulated connecting lead. In practice. unless adequate precautions are taken.3 .e. as well as the connecting lead. (d) insulating driven rods from contact with the earth over the upper section. fence special low-resistance earth fill (c) metal fence fence is out of reach S1 grid voltage with respect to local-earth α zero voltage profiles at the ground surface S2 S3 β with grading without grading S1. An alternative method is to bury the rod completely with the top of the rod below ground level. generally that of a switchyard or substation. This figure also shows that connecting a metallic boundary fence to the earthing grid can be dangerous.e. (b) α gradient α with original soil β gradient β with special earth fill reducing potential gradients due to earth faults Some of the methods commonly employed in the reduction of potential gradients include: c reduction of earth-fault-current levels: v by using resistance. v where transformers or generators (according to the case) operate permanently in parallel. Appendix C2 . some of them are left unearthed. and therefore that of both "touch" and "step" voltages.

a touch-voltage is more dangerous to human beings than a step-voltage (since. for a given voltage level. If the gradients are such that the touchvoltage criterion is satisfied. then the stepvoltage condition is also considered to be satisfactory. etc. long-duration touch-voltage values which are significantly higher than 50 V AC maximum are permitted. in the former case. even when wet. thick layers of asphalt. therefore. 0.5 seconds) touch voltages. and in certain cases.03 to 0. rubber mats. highly-resistive surfaces. it is necessary to comply with the appropriate local regulations. More commonly. or mud etc. between the stones greatly reduces the insulating performance of such surfaces. measures are taken to reduce the current passing through a person's feet by providing an insulated floor covering indoors.. Leaf mould. 4 . a substantial part of the current passes through the vital organs in the thorax). while there is an even greater difference above the recommended IEC 364 values for allowable short-duration (e. safe levels of ground-surface potential gradient There is no IEC-recommended safe value of maximum long-duration (> 10 seconds) touch voltage for HV installations at the time of writing (1994).C other methods of reducing the dangers of ground-surface potential gradients The easiest method (but wasteful in terms of space) is simply to fence off the area around the electrode(s) with warning notices. Standards differ in various countries. Cenelec Technical Committee 112 is preparing a European HV installation standard. providing the stones are clean. At the time of writing. In the present circumstances. Chapter 9 (according to present proposals) of this future standard will include recommendations for safe touchvoltage/time duration levels.Appendix C2 . such as crushed rock. or clean gravel or pebbles are frequently used.g. such as plastic tiles. Gravel or pebbles provide a very effective high-resistance surface. while for outdoor locations. but many authorities have adopted the 50 V AC (or 25 V AC in wet conditions) criteria of IEC 364-4-41. It is recognized that.

05 .j 0.j 0.0866 10 90° 1 210° I3 = = 1 300° = 0.953 = 1.066 pu IL1 V 3 E = 0.1 -60° x 1.9. The procedure is as follows: c compute the current IN in an imaginary neutral of negligible impedance (i.1 -60° calculation of ZNE ZNE is the parallel combination of XL1. 1 90° I1 = = 0. Appendix C3 . XL > XC. XL1 in parallel with XL2 = j 5 j 5 in parallel with XC3 = j 5 x (-j 1) 5 = = -j 1. According to Thévenin's theorem IN also equals VNE where ZNE + Z VNE is the voltage between N and E when no neutral connection exists.066 pu IC3 N 1 3 E IL2 IL1 + IL2 = 0.25 pu ohms.1 0° = 0.j 1. The vector diagram can be constructed as follows.1 -120° = -0.375 pu 210° V1 not to scale complete vector diagram Other values shown in the vector diagram are easily obtained from the above calculations.866 1 -90° IN = 0.5 .1 Chapter C shows how the neutral of an unearthed 3-phase source can be displaced from its normal near-zero potential. K in figure C14 of Chapter C). ≠ and Ž are the power-supply terminals.375 pu 2.1 .25 j5-j1 j4 ZNE = . This means that VNE = IN ZNE fig. as shown in figure AC3-1. as a result of the particular ferro-resonant condition described. AC3-2: vector diagram for the resonant condition. 1 L1 imaginary neutral N 3 source 2 C3 E L2 calculation of IN In figure C14 of Chapter C it was stated that. vector diagram of ferro-resonance at 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) C Figure C13 of Sub-clause 3.e. ZN is the impedance of the neutral conductor (zero in the present case).375 pu not to scale 1 2 I1 + I2 + I3 = IN fig. ZN = 0) by summating the individual phase currents.e. ZNE is the impedance of the network measured between terminals N and E when no neutral connection exists.1 + j 0 10 90° 1 -30° I2 = = 0. I1 V2 N V3 VNE I2 I1 + I2 1 VNE = 1. in the resonant condition. In these calculations XC = -j 1 pu impedance.25 -90° = 1. calculation of VNE 1. c the source impedance is assumed to be negligible.circuit and vector diagrams.j 0. AC3-1: calculation of VNE .375 pu 2. and XL = j 10 pu. XL2 and Xc.375 -150° or 1.55 . Per-unit notation is used to generalize and simplify the calculations: c 1 pu voltage is the nominal phase-toneutral system voltage. c 1 pu impedance is equal to the normal capacitive reactance of one phase-to-earth at power frequency (i. Œ.

88 kV 225/390 (A) 220/380 (A) 13.3 ± 10 50 ± 0. by definition.6 kV 220/380 (A) ±5 Hong Kong (and Kowloon) 50 ± 2 200/346 (A) 200 (L) (1) 11 kV 200/346 (A) 220/380 (A) 200 (L) ±6 * IEC 38 (1983). fourth edition.* Low-voltage consumers are.1 50 ± 1 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) ± 10 + 10 ± 10 ± 10 Egypt (AR) Finland France 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 127/220 (E) 127 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 127/220 (A) 127 (L) 220 (L) (1) 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (D) 380 (B) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) Germany Ex-DRG Ex-FRG 50 ± 0. the lower or upper extremes of the most common 3-phase levels in general use. The voltage of the local LV network may be 120/208 V or 240/415 V.5 kV 347/600 (A) 120/208 600 (F) 480 (F) 240 (F) 220/380 (A) (3) 220/380 (A) (3) 13. but power-supply organizations generally propose a HV service at load levels for which their LV networks are marginally adequate.0 225 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 225/390 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) Brazil 60 220 (L) (1) 127 (L) (1) ± 10 (9) Belgium 50 ± 3 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 220 (F) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 220 (F) + 5 (day) ± 10 (night) Bolivia Cambodia Canada 50 ± 1 50 60 ± 0.e.1 domestic Loads up to 250 kVA can be supplied at LV. while bracketed numbers refer to the notes which follow the diagrams. Western Algeria 50 50 ± 1.1 220 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 120/240 (G) 120 (L) 120 (L) (1) 230/380 (A) 220 (L) (9) ±7 ± 10 (9) ± 10 Denmark 50 ± 0. but power-supply organizations generally propose a HV service at load levels for which their LV networks are marginally adequate. commercial industrial Australia 240/415 (A) (E) 240 (L) 240/415 (A) 250/440 (A) 440 (N) (6) 22 kV 11 kV 6. Loads up to 250 kVA can be supplied at LV.8.1 low-voltage consumers the most-common LV supplies are within the range 120 V single phase to 240/415 V 3-phase 4-wires.02 115/230 (H) 120/208 (A) 120 (L) 120/240 (K) 115/230 (H) 220/380 (A) 120/208 (A) 347/600 (A) 480 (F) 240 (F) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 220/380 (A) (1) 220/380 (A) 120/240 (G) 120 (L) 120/240 (K) 120 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) ±5 (9) ±4 . low-voltage public distribution networks D 1.1.6 kV 220/380 (A) 11 kV 200/346 (A) 220/380 (A) (3) low-voltage tolerance % ±6 the adjoining table is extracted from the document "World Electricity Supplies". low-voltage service connections . 6.D1 .8 kV 11. An international voltage standard for 3-phase 4-wire LV systems is recommended by the IEC to be 230/400 V.5 kV 6. as shown in table D1.2 kV 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 15 kV 6 kV 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 220 (F) 115/230 (H) (3) 220/380 (A) (3) 120/208 (A) 7.2/12.3 ±5 Greece 50 ± 1 table D1: survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world.2 kV 6.6 kV 240/415 (A) 250/440 (A) (9) 10 kV 5.* country frequency & tolerance Hz & % 50 ± 0. i.4 50 ± 1 50 ± 0. or at some intermediate level.6 kV 220/380 (A) 380/660 (A) 500 (B) 220/380 (A) (D) 20 kV 15 kV 230/400 380 (B) 220/380 (A) (D) 20 kV 10 kV 220/380 (A) 10 kV 6 kV 380/660 (A) 220/380 (A) 22 kV 20 kV 15 kV 6. Bracketed letters relate to the circuit diagrams at the end of the table.3 Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Czechoslovakia 50 50 60 ± 1 60 50 ± 0.5 250/440 (A) 127/220 (E) 220 (L) (1) (9) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) ± 6 (10) + 5 and + 10 Argentina 50 ± 1.2 kV 120/240 (G) 120/240 (G) (3) 22 kV 15 kV 6 kV 3 kV 220/380 (A) 30 kV 10 kV 220/380 (A) 11 kV 6.6 kV 220/380 (A) 13. those consumers whose loads can be satisfactorily supplied from the low-voltage system in their locality. An international voltage standard for 3-phase 4-wire LV systems is recommended by the IEC to be 230/400 V.

2 (5) 60 ± 0.16 230 (L) (1) 110/220 (K) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 13.6 (10) (9) (9) ± 5 and ± 10 +5 .6 kV 105/210 (H) 100/200 (H) 220/380 (A) (9) 240/415 (A) (3) 20 kV 15 kV 5 kV 240/415 (A) (3) 13.4 kV 110/220 (H) 240/120 (H) (K) 240/120 (H) (9) ±5 table D1: survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world.10 Hungary 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) Iceland India (4) Bombay New Delhi Romakrishnapuram (2) Indonesia Iran 50 ± 0.2 + 6.4 kV 440 V (B) 110/220 (H) 20 kV 6.6 kV 240/120 (H) 10 kV 6 kV 225 (B) +4 +6 +6 +5 + 15 Iraq 50 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) +5 Ireland (Northern) Ireland (Republic of) Israel 50 ± 0.4 50 ± 1.2 230 (B) 220/380 (A) 230 (B) ± 10 Pakistan Philippines 50 60 ± 0.0 60 ± 0.16 kV 2.6 kV 100/200 (H) 200 (G) (J) 22 kV 6.13. D2 .8 kV 4.4 50 50 ± 0.8 .6 kV 6.2 230 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) +6 (9) +6 Italy 50 ± 0.6 kV 3 kV 220/380 (A) 230/400 (A) (3) 220/380 (A) 10 kV 220/380 (A) 22 kV 12. Bracketed letters relate to the circuit diagrams at the end of the table.1 low-voltage consumers (continued) country frequency & tolerance Hz & % 50 ± 2 domestic commercial industrial low-voltage tolerance % + 5 .10 ±6 Malaysia Mexico Morocco Netherlands 50 50 ± 0.3 kV 230/400 (A) 20 kV 15 kV 10 kV 220/380 (A) 220 (C) 6.16 kV 2.c. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1.1 (5) 100/200 (K) 100 (L) 105/210 (K) 100/200 (K) 100 (L) 220 (L) 100 (L) 240 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 120/208 (A) 240 (L) (1) 127/220 (A) 220 (L) 120 (M) 127/220 (A) 115/200 (A) 220/300 (A) 220 (E) (L) 230/400 (A) (E) 230 (L) 240 (L) 230 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 100/200 (H) (K) ± 10 Japan (West) (4) 105/210 (H) (K) 100/200 (K) 100 (L) 220/380 (A) 100/200 (K) 240/415 (A) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 120/208 (A) 240/415 (A) 127/220 (A) 220 (L) 120 (M) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) ± 10 Korea (North) Korea (South) Kuwait Luxembourg 60 + 0 -5 60 50 50 ± 0.4 220/380 (A) 127/220 (E) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (E) ± 5 (urban) ± 10 (rural) Japan (East) (4) 50 ± 0.24 kV 3.2 kV 277/480 (A) 127/220 (B) 220/380 (A) (3) 10 kV 3 kV 220/380 (A) 11 kV 230/400 (A) 240/415 (A) 440 (N) (6) 15 kV 11 kV 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 20 kV 10 kV 5 kV 220/380 (A) 230 (B) 230/400 (A) (3) 13.8 kV 4.low-voltage service connections Manila 60 ± 5 240/120 (H) (K) 240/120 (H) ±5 Peru 60 225 (B) (M) 225 (B) (M) (9) .5 (9) ±6 ±5 New Zealand Nigeria 50 ± 1 240/415 (A) (E) 230/400 (A) (E) 230 (L) 240 (L) 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) ±5 Norway 50 ± 0. 50 ± 1 -2 50 ± 5 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 250/440 (A) 230 (L) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 230/460 (P) 127/220 (A) 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 250/440 (A) 230 (L) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 220/400 (A) 230 (L) 230/460 (P) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 220/380 (A) 20 kV 220 (L) 10 kV 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) (3) (9) 11 kW 250/440 (A) 11 kV 230/400 (A) 22 kV and 11 kV (9) (9) 220/380 (A) (3) 20 kV 11 kV 231/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 11 kV 6.1.8 kV 13.1 50 ± 1 50 ± 3 50 ± 3 25 d. while bracketed numbers refer to the notes which follow the diagrams (continued).5 50 ± 1.

6 kV 3.8 kV 11.8 kV 4.D3 .6 kV 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) ±5 ±3 ±7 Spain South Africa 50 ± 2.2 60 ± 0.4 kV 265/460 (A) 120/208 (A) 460 (F) 230 (F) 19.47 kV 4. while bracketed numbers refer to the notes which follow the diagrams (continued).8 kV 120/240 (G) 120/240 (K) 120/240 (H) 120/208 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 240 (F) 265/460 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 460 (F) 230 (F) ±5 ±5 New York (New York) 60 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) (9) Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) 60 ± 0.16 kV 480 (F) 120/240 (H) 120/208 (A) 4.2 kV 2.4 kV 220/380 (A) 220 (H) 15 kV 10 kV 220/380 (A) 15 kV 6.4 kV 575 (F) 460 (F) 240 (F) 265/460 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 13.6 Los Angeles (California) Miami (Florida) 60 ± 0.3 kV 220/380 (A) 22 kV 11 kV 6. (4) Charlotte (North Carolina) 60 ± 0.03 120/240 (K) ± 5 (lighting) ± 10 (power) table D1: survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world.5 50 ± 3 127/220 (A) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 220/380 (A) (E) 220 (L) 127/220 (A) (E) 127 (L) 250/433 (A) (7) 230/400 (A) (7) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 230/400 (A) (7) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 127/220 (A) 220/380 (A) 6.8 kV 220/380 (A) 22 kV 6.06 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 265/460 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) + 5 .6 kV 3.1 low-voltage consumers (continued) country frequency & tolerance Hz & % 50 ± 1 50 ± 1 domestic commercial industrial low-voltage tolerance % ±5 ±5 Poland 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) Portugal 220/380 (A) 220 (L) Rumania 50 ± 1 220 (L) (1) 15 kV 5 kV 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (L) 15 kV 6 kV 220/380 (A) 15 kV 5 kV 220/380 (A) 20 kV 10 kV 6 kV 220/380 (A) 13.5 25 (8) 11 kV 6.6 kV 230/400 (A) 15 kV 11 kV 220/380 (A) 11 kV 6.5 Detroit (Michigan) 60 ± 0.2 kV 2.16 kV 277/480 (A) 480 (F) 13. Bracketed letters relate to the circuit diagrams at the end of the table.3 kV 250/433 (A) (7) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) ±5 Sweden 50 ± 0.2 kV 2.2 kV 4.5 50 ± 0.8 kV 120/240 (G) 13.3 kV 240/415 (A) 14.9 kV 12 kV 7.6. Portland (Oregon) 60 120/240 (K) 227/480 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 480 (F) 240 (F) (9) low-voltage service connections .3 kV 500 (B) ±5 Saudi Arabia Singapore 60 ± 0.2.4 kV 7.S.3 120/240 (K) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 4.5 kV 2.A.4 kV 277/480 (A) 120/208 (A) 480 (F) 240 (F) ± 5 and ± 10 + 10 ± 10 ±6 U.4 kV 480/277 (A) 120/240 (H) 12.6 kV 3.D 1.2 Syria 50 220 (L) (1) 115 (L) (1) Taiwan 60 ± 4 Tunisia 50 + 2 50 ± 2 50 ± 1 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 110/220 (K) 110 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 115/200 (A) 115 (L) 220/380 (A) 110/220 (H) 20 kV 10 kV 6 kV 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) (3) 115/200 (A) ± 10 (9) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) Turkey United Kingdom 240 (L) (1) 240/415 (A) 22.2 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 480 (F) 120/240 (H) 120/208 (A) + 4 .2 kV 11.

2 kV 4.1 50 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 127/220 (A) 127 (L) 220 (L) (1) 120 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) (9) 220/380 (A) 120/208 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 15 kV 220/380 (A) 10 kV 6.8 kV 4.8 kV 12 kV 4.low-voltage service connections . while bracketed numbers refer to the notes which follow the diagrams.1 low-voltage consumers (continued) country frequency & tolerance Hz & % 60 ± 0.16 kV 480 (F) 277/480 (A) 120/208 (A) 220/380 (A) (3) Toledo (Ohio) 60 ± 0.1. Bracketed letters relate to the circuit diagrams at the end of the table. D4 .47 kV 7.08 domestic commercial industrial low-voltage tolerance % ±5 San Francisco (California) 120/240 (K) 277/480 (A) 120/240 (K) 20.6 kV 220/380 (A) ± 10 (9) table D1: survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world.16 kV 277/480 (A) 120/240 (G) 12. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1.08 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 277/480 (C) 120/240 (H) 120/208 (K) ±5 USSR (former) 50 Viet-Nam Yugoslavia 50 ± 0.

(5) Frequency is 50 Hz (eastern area) and 60 Hz (western area). (8) Refers to isolated mining districts. (4) More than one area of country is given to illustrate the differences which exist. four-wire: non-earthed neutral (e) two-phase star.c. supplies are used in limited areas only.: three-wire: unearthed * Windings (A) (B) (C) (D) and (F) may be transformer-secondary windings or alternator stator windings. The dividing line from north to south passes through Shizuoka on Honshu Island. low-voltage service connections . four-wire: earthed mid point of one phase (h) three-phase open delta. four-wire: earthed mid point of one phase (j) three-phase open delta: earthed junction of phases (k) single-phase. (3) Information on higher voltage supplies to factories is not available. (9) Information not available. (6) Some remote areas are supplied via a Single Wire Earthed Return (SWER) system.D circuit diagrams* (a) three-phase star. three-wire: earthed mid point (l) single-phase. two-wire: earthed end of phase (m) single-phase. (7) A few towns only have this supply. The examples given show the diversity of possibilities existing. (2) Frequencies below 50 Hz and d.c. three-wire: earthed neutral (d) three-phase star. four-wire: earthed neutral (b) three-phase star: three-wire (c) three-phase star. Notes (1) The supply to each house is normally single-phase using one line and one neutral conductor of systems (A) or (G). three-wire: earthed neutral (f) three-phase delta: three-wire (g) three-phase delta. (10) Observed values.D5 . two-wire: unearthed V kV (n) single-wire: earthed return (swer) (p) d.

4 22 80 83 86 * The table D2 values shown are indicative only. being (arbitrarily) based on 60 A maximum service currents for the first three systems.low-voltage service connections . dedicated supply lines at LV are generally applied (at 220/380 V to 240/415 V) to a load range of 80 kVA to 250 kVA. when carrying its maximum current. a dedicated cable can usually be provided from the LV distribution fuse. this method can be economically unfavourable. D6 . In practice. c restaurants. c farms. however: c large loads (e.e. arbitrarily) based on a maximum permitted service current of 120 A. For these reasons. workshops and filling stations. c the total load already connected to the distributor. medium-size and small industrial consumers (with dedicated LV lines direct from a public-supply HV/LV substation) Medium and small industrial consumers can also be satisfactorily supplied at low-voltage. The current-rating requirements of distributors are estimated from the number of consumers to be connected and an average demand per consumer. c small factories. The load levels listed above are adequate for all normal domestic consumers. since smaller voltage drops are allowed at these lower voltages.1) viz: 120 V single phase to 240/415 V 3-phase. typical maximum permitted loads connected to a LV distributor might* be: assumed max. and c the maximum length of cable which. and will be sufficient for the installations of many administrative. Consumers normally supplied at low voltage include: c domestic dwellings. > 300 kVA) require correspondingly large cables. c shops and commercial buildings. or near the remote end of the distributor. c many power-supply organizations prefer to supply loads exceeding 200 kVA (this figure varies with different suppliers) at high voltage. the upper load limit which can be supplied by this means is restricted only by the available spare transformer capacity in the substation. etc. will not exceed the statutory voltage-drop limit.2 14. For loads which exceed the maximum permitted limit for a service from a distributor. In short. unless the load centre is close to the substation. commercial and similar buildings. permitted current per consumer service 60 A 60 A 60 A 120 A 120 A 120 A kVA 7. etc.(or switch-) board from which the mains distributors emanate.1. and no "standardized" values can be given. These constraints mean that the magnitude of loads which power-supply organizations are willing to connect to their LV distribution mains. The second group of systems is (again. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1. system 120 V 1-phase 2-wire 120/240 V 1-phase 3-wire 120/208 V 3-phase 4-wire 220/380 V 3-phase 4-wire 230/400 V 3-phase 4-wire 240/415 V 3-phase 4-wire table D2.g.1 low-voltage consumers (continued) residential and commercial consumers The function of a LV "mains" distributor (underground cable or overhead line) is to provide service connections to a number of consumers along its route. is necessarily restricted. so that. In principle. i. each case must be examined individually. c the location along the distributor of the proposed new load. Practices vary considerably from one powersupply organization to another. in the power-supply authority substation. close to the substation. The two principal limiting parameters of a distributor are: c the maximum current which it is capable of carrying indefinitely. For the range of LV systems mentioned in the second paragraph of this sub-clause (1. for a given percentage statutory limit. Factors to be considered include: c the size of an existing distributor to which the new load is to be connected.

HV/LV distribution substations. Many countries are currently converting their LV systems to the latest IEC standard of 230/400 V nominal (IEC 38-1983). short lengths of distributor (between two link boxes) can be isolated for fault-location and repair. c one or two (coupled) 6-or 8-way LV 3-phase 4-wire distribution fuse boards. LV distribution networks in cities and large towns. by removing (phase) links. or simply through isolating links. Some links are removed. a standard size of distributor is laid to form a network.2. c one or two 1. Where a link box unites a distributor from one substation with that from a neighbouring substation.000 kVA HV/LV transformers.D 1. as shown in figure D3. and one or two HV circuit breakers or combined fuse/ load-break switches for the transformer circuits. where two cables cross. 4-way link box HV/LV substation service cable phase links removed fig. Moreover. or where possible. D3: showing one of several ways in which a LV distribution network may be arranged for radial branched-distributor operation. while the area normally supplied from it is fed from link boxes of the surrounding substations. or moulded-case circuit breaker boards. either against a wall. generally referred to as “distributors". standardsized LV distribution cables form a network through link boxes. The output from a transformer is connected to the LV busbars via a load-break switch. the phase links are omitted or replaced by fuses. In densely-loaded areas. or 240/415 V. often made up of incoming and outgoing load-break switches forming part of a ring main.D7 . flush-mounted in the wall. Medium to large-sized towns and cities have underground cable distribution systems. 230/400 V. In European countries the standard 3-phase 4-wire distribution voltage levels are 220/380 V. This arrangement provides a very flexible system in which a complete substation can be taken out of service. control and protect outgoing 4-core distribution cables. but the neutral link remains in place. low-voltage service connections . The target date for completion is the year 2003. mutually spaced at approximately 500-600 metres. are typically equipped with: c a 3-or 4-way HV switchboard. Links are inserted in such a way that distributors form radial circuits from the substation with open-ended branches (see figure D3). so that each (fused) distributor leaving a substation forms a branched openended radial system. Recent trends are towards weather-proof cabinets above ground level. with (generally) one cable along each pavement and 4-way link boxes located in manholes at street corners.

improved methods using insulated twisted conductors to form a polemounted aerial cable are now standard practice in many countries. similar principles have been applied at higher voltages.g. a 3-phase 4-wire system from which single-phase distributors (phase and neutral conductors) supply numerous single-phase transformers. and 3-phase supplies to domestic premises in residential areas are rare. each public-supply distribution substation is able to supply at LV an area corresponding to a radius of approximately 300 metres from the substation. by direct service cable (or line) from the transformer location. North and Central American systems of distribution consist of a HV network from which numerous (small) HV/LV transformers each supply one or several consumers.500 kVA are sometimes necessary. Each HV/LV transformer normally supplies one or several premises directly from the transformer position by radial service cable(s) or by overhead line(s). and supplied from pole-mounted or ground-mounted transformers. in which conductors of reduced size are installed as the distance from a substation increases. based on free-standing LV distribution pillars.2 LV distribution networks (continued) in less-densely loaded urban areas a more-economic system of tapered radial distribution is commonly used. and selfsupporting “bundled” insulated conductors for HV overhead installations are now available for operation at 24 kV. Where more than one substation supplies a village. and transformers up to 1. in that LV networks are practically nonexistent. for many years. in fact. in Europe. The neutral conductors are permanently connected. As a matter of interest. Distribution in market towns. which. under-eaves wiring) where they are hardly noticeable. each public-supply distribution substation is able to supply at LV an area corresponding to a radius of approximately 300 metres from the substation. from which smaller distributors supply consumers immediately surrounding the pillar. concrete or steel poles. Where the load density requires it. the secondary windings of which are centre-tapped to produce 120/240 V single-phase 3-wire supplies. The HV system is. The distribution is effectively carried out at high voltage in a way. are solidly earthed at intervals along their lengths. This scheme exploits the principle of tapered radial distributors in which the distribution cable conductor size is reduced as the number of consumers downstream diminish with distance from the substation.1. In recent years. North and Central American practice differs fundamentally from that in Europe. The central conductors provide the LV neutrals. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1. twisted to form a two-core or 4-core selfsupporting cable for overhead use. are widely used in areas of lower load density. arrangements are made at poles on which the LV lines from different substations meet. In this scheme a number of large-sectioned LV radial feeders from the distribution board in the substation each supply the busbars of a distribution pillar. Other forms of urban LV network. and are considered to be safer and visually more acceptable than bare copper lines. This is particularly so when the conductors are fixed to walls (e. LV insulated conductors. have been developed. villages and rural areas generally has. D8 . which again differs from standard European practices. In Europe. to interconnect corresponding phases at times of emergency. been based on bare copper conductors supported on wooden. together with the HV neutral conductors. placed above ground at strategic points in the network.low-voltage service connections . the substations are more closely spaced.

Note: at primary voltages greater than 72.4-4.3 wire distribution transformer N 1 1 N HV (2) } tertiary delta normally (not always) used if the primary winding is not delta 1 ph HV / 230 V service transformer to isolated consumer(s) (rural supplies) Ph resistor replaced by a Petersen coil on O/H line systems in some countries N HV (1) } N 2 2 N 1 2 3 N main 3 ph and neutral HV distributor N 3 ph HV / 230/400 V 4-wire distribution transformer N 1 2 3 LV distribution network (1): 132 kV for example (2): 11 kV for example fig.8 kV / 2.D Many other systems exist in these countries.4 kV / 120-240 V 1 ph . The neutral point on the secondary side is then provided by a zigzag earthing reactor. Frequently. D4: widely-used American and European-type systems.D9 . the star point of which is connected to earth through a resistor.5 kV (see note) primary winding may be : – delta with on-load – earthed star tap changer – earthed zigzag depending on the country concerned 13. but the one described appears to be the most common. It is then referred to as an “earthing transformer”. the earthing reactor has a secondary winding to provide LV 3-phase supplies for the substation. it is common practice in some European countries to use an earthed-star primary winding and a delta secondary winding.16 kV N 1 2 3 each HV/LV transformer shown represents many similar units 2 3 N 2. Figure D4 shows the main features of the two systems.5 kV in bulk-supply substations. low-voltage service connections . for primary voltages > 72.

A more recent trend is (as far as possible) to locate these service components in a weatherproof housing outside the building. overcurrent protection by circuit breaker or switch-fuse is required. A further reason for this MCCB is that the consumer cannot exceed his (contractual) declared maximum load.1. A MCCB which incorporates a sensitive residual-current earth-fault protective feature is mandatory at the origin of any LV installation forming part of a TT earthing system. invariably terminated inside the consumer's premises. For a TN service. following a satisfactory test and inspection of the installation.low-voltage service connections . D10 . low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1. A = Service cable tee-joint F = Supply authority fuses C = Metering equipment S = Isolating link DB = Installation main circuit breaker LV consumers are normally supplied according to the TN or TT system. D5: typical service arrangement for TT-earthed systems. which is sealed by the supply authority. A typical arrangement is shown in figure D5.3 the consumer-service connection service components and metering equipment were formerly installed inside a consumer's building. The supply-authority/consumer interface is often at the outgoing terminals of the meter(s) or. fig. In view of the inconvenience to both the meter reader and consumer. as shown in figure D8. The installation main circuit breaker for a TT supply must include a residualcurrent earth-leakage protective device. but with cable termination and supply authority’s fuses located in a flush-mounted weatherproof cabinet accessible from the public way. or due to an appliance fault. In the past. where the cable-end sealing box. at the outgoing terminals of the installation main circuit breaker (depending on local practices) to which connection is made by supply-authority personnel. the location of meters is nowadays generally outside the premises. since the overload trip setting. The modern tendency is to locate these items outside in a weatherproof cabinet. c in a space inside a building. as described in chapters F and G. in some cases. either: c in a free-standing pillar-type housing as shown in figures D6 and D7. so that if the MCCB is inadvertently tripped on overload. Closing and tripping of the MCCB is freely available to the consumer. will cut off supply above the declared value. the supplyauthority fuses (inaccessible to the consumer) and meters were installed. The reason for this feature and related leakage-current tripping levels are discussed in Clause 3 of Chapter G. supplies can be quickly restored following correction of the anomaly. an underground cable service or the wall-mounted insulated conductors from an overhead line service.

D6: typical rural-type installation. D7: semi-urban installations (shopping precincts. The main installation CB is located in the consumer's premises in cases where it is set to trip if the declared kVA load demand is exceeded.g. fig.D11 . The service cable terminates in a flushmounted wall cabinet which contains the isolating fuse links. when the consumer can provide a suitable metering and main-switch location.D fig. pumping stations. accessible from the public way. etc. fig. low-voltage service connections . D8: town centre installations.). saw-mills. etc. e. In this kind of installation it is often necessary to place the main installation circuit breaker some distance from the point of utilization. This method is preferred for esthetic reasons.

Figure D9 shows the general arrangement. D12 . supply authority/ consumer interface overhead line LV distributor service cable isolation by fuse links installation meter meter cabinet main installation circuit breaker fig. the equipment shown in the cabinet in figure D5 is installed in a weatherproof cabinet mounted vertically on a metal frame in the front garden.3 the consumer-service connection (continued) c for private domestic consumers. reading. in which removable fuse links provide the means of isolation. and accessible to authorized personnel from the pavement.low-voltage service connections . using information technology (IT) techniques. the modification of tariff structures for a given meter will be possible from a central control location.1. and it is confidently predicted that. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1. in addition to remote reading and recording. D9: typical LV service arrangement for domestic consumers. in areas where it is economically justified. and recording on magnetic cards is now possible. Experiments are now well-advanced in the field of electronic metering. or flush-mounted in the boundary wall.

the ± 2% voltage band may be centred on a voltage level which is higher than the nominal HV value.4) = 102. the HV/LV distribution transformer should have its HV off-circuit tapping switch selected to the + 2. then the voltage drop within the transformer when supplying full load at 0. This would result in a voltage band of 102% to 106% in the present case. Furthermore.5% tap position. c freedom from continual fluctuation within those limits. or is corrected by the tapping switch. an unloaded transformer output voltage will be held within a band of ± 2% of its no-load voltage output. For example. 0. the same load at the premises of a single consumer could be supplied at a distance of 153 metres from the transformer.D13 .5 x 0. practical application With the HV/LV transformer correctly selected at its off-circuit tapping switch.6% voltage margin is not unduly restrictive. that a medium-sized 230/400 V 3-phase 4-wire distribution cable of 240 mm2 copper conductors would be able to supply a total load of 292 kVA at 0. power-supply authorities have a statutory obligation to maintain the level of voltage at the service position of consumers within the limits of ± 5% (or in some cases ± 6% or more-see table D1) of the declared nominal value.6%. In this Sub-clause the maintenance of voltage magnitude only will be discussed.6 . c preservation of a near-sinusoidal wave form.8 power factor lagging. This means. or as a result of system faults or other emergencies. As a matter of interest.6 = 0. when nominal voltage is applied at HV. as described above.6%. and so on.e. A typical LV distribution transformer has a short-circuit reactance voltage of 5%. except for scheduled maintenance shutdowns. In most countries. the cable can be fully loaded for distances normally required in LV distribution systems. In present-day practice.95 = 3. and resulting voltage drops in a typical LV system.8 PF lagging. so that the volt-drop noted above may be considered as a “worst case” example. under the worst conditions (of minus 5% at the service position. the maximum rating of the cable.. show the importance of maintaining a high Power Factor as a means of reducing voltage drop. The different levels of voltage in a system are normal. i. Practical values of current. i. The maximum allowable voltage drop along a distributor is therefore 98.9 is generally used for calculations concerning residential areas. for example) of 5% allowable voltage drop in the installation wiring.8 PF lagging is appropriate to industrial loads. If the HV/LV transformer is in a location close to a bulk-supply substation. 104% at no-load*. for the same volt-drop.4% The voltage band at the output terminals of the fully-loaded transformer will therefore be (102 .e. the winding ratios generally give an output voltage of about low-voltage service connections . the voltage could be 20. the output voltage at no-load must be as high as possible without exceeding the upper + 5% limit (adopted for this example). will be: V% drop = R% cos ø + X% sin ø = 0. Again. in practical terms. Moreover. while 0. If it is assumed that its resistance voltage is one tenth of this value.5% position. these voltage differences are the reason for the term “nominal” when referring to the system voltage. distributed evenly over 306 metres of the distributor..5 kV ± 2% on a 20 kV system. an adequate level of voltage at the consumers supply-service terminals is essential for satisfactory operation of equipment and appliances.3. the remaining subjects are covered in Clause 2 of chapter F.4) = 98. and depend on the system powerflow pattern.D 1. In mixed semi-industrial areas 0. In this case. Conversely.8 + 5 x 0. * Transformers designed for the 230/400 V IEC standard will have a no-load output of 420 V.4 quality of supply voltage The quality of the LV network supply voltage in its widest sense implies: c compliance with statutory limits of magnitude and frequency. This leaves a margin. which feed the HV network from a higher-voltage subtransmission system. The voltage drops in a typical distribution system occur as follows: the voltage at the HV terminals of a HV/LV transformer is normally maintained within a ± 2% band by the action of automatic onload tapchangers of the transformers at bulk-supply substations. and so the 3.6% to (106 . 105% of the nominal voltage. IEC and most national standards recommend that LV appliances be designed and tested to perform satisfactorily within the limits of ± 10% of nominal voltage. in which case the off-circuit tapping switch should be selected to the .4 + 3 = 3. To ensure that the transformer can maintain the necessary voltage level when fully loaded. Alternatively.85 is a more common value.5 kV ± 2% is possible. based on calculations derived from IEC 287 (1982) is 290 kVA.3. c uninterrupted power supply. at locations remote from bulksupply substations a value of 19.

The kVA demand generally used for tariff purposes is the maximum average kVA demand occurring during each billing period. has resulted in tariffs which offer substantial reduction in the cost of energy at: c certain hours during the 24-hour day.). many tariff structures are based partly on kVA demand. and is based on average kVA demands. Some tariffs are very complicated in detail but certain elements are basic to all of them and are aimed at encouraging consumers to manage their power consumption in a way which reduces the cost to the supply authority of generation. c certain periods of the year. The signal is injected as coded impulses. the minimum value of kVA occurs at unity power factor. i. The heater can be switched on and off at any time during the day if required. D14 . over fixed periods (generally 10.2. when using classical electro-mechanical equipment. In this way. transmission and distribution. reduction of peak power demand The second aim. 30 or 60 minute periods) and selecting the highest of these values. In principle the lowest losses in a power system are attained when all parts of the system operate at unity power factor.low-voltage service connections . while increasing the demand at low-load periods. that of reducing peak power demands. since there appears to be as many different tariff structures around the world as there are distribution authorities. thereby exploiting the generating plant more fully. and a similar number for different periods of the year. closes the circuit of the water heater. the consumption of which is then indicated on the register to which the cheaper rate applies. meters It will be appreciated that high-quality instruments and devices are necessary to implement this kind of metering. The meter has two digital registers. tariffs and metering D tariffs and metering No attempt will be made in this guide to discuss particular tariffs. reduction of losses Although the ideal condition noted in the first possibility mentioned above cannot be realized in practice. c reduction of the peak power demand. etc. as well as on kWh consumed. Large industrial consumers may have 3 or 4 rates which apply at different periods during a 24-hour interval. Recent developments in electronic metering and micro-processors. the consumer can minimize billing costs by taking steps to improve the power factor of the load (as discussed in Chapter E). The principle is described below in "principle of kVA maximum-demand metering". and facilitate considerably the application of the principles discussed. may be as much as 10: 1. * Ripple control is a system of signalling in which a voicefrequency current (commonly at 175 Hz) is injected into the LV mains at appropriate substations. and minimizing plant redundancy. A contactor.) are now operational. while increasing demand at low-load periods. The simplest example is that of a domestic consumer with a storage-type water heater (or storage-type space heater. one of which operates during the day and the other (switched over by a timing device) operates during the night. but will then be metered at the normal rate. and that for the lowest-load period of the year. The two predominant ways in which the cost of supplying power to consumers can be reduced. and relays which are tuned to the signal frequency and which recognize the particular code will operate to initiate a required function. for a given kW loading. up to 960 discrete control signals are available. etc. Since. transmission and distribution of electrical energy. are: c reduction of power losses in the generation. operated by the same timing device. together with remote ripple-control* from a supply-authority control centre (to change peak-period timing throughout the year.e. In such schemes the ratio of cost per kWh during a period of peak demand for the year.

The meter measures the average value of kVA during each of these 10 minute periods. In this case the average kVA for the period will be: 1 5x = 5 x 6 = 30 kVA 1/6 Every point around the dial will be similarly marked i. are partly based on kVA demand. the red indicator will be at the maximum of all the average values occurring in the billing period. Figure D10 shows a typical kVA demand curve over a period of two hours divided into succeeding periods of 10 minutes.e. then the average kVA for the period is obtained. is. in addition to the kWh consumption. as noted above. the 5 kVAh is divided by the number of hours. principle of kVA maximumdemand metering A kVAh meter is similar in all essentials to a kWh meter but the current and voltage phase relationship has been modified so that it effectively measures kVAh (kilo-volt-amphours). this instrument has a rotating pointer. Furthermore.e. are the same as those described above. the figure for average kVA will be 6 times greater than the kVAh value at any given point. and that position. When the pointer turns it is measuring kVAh and pushing a red indicator before it. If now.e. The red indicator remains at the position reached by the measuring pointer. The red indicator will be reset to zero at the beginning of each billing period. to start another 10 minute period. It is known that a varying amount of kVA of apparent power has been flowing for 10 minutes. corresponds to the number of kVAh (kilo-volt-ampere-hours) taken by the load in 10 minutes. i. Similar reasoning can be applied to any other reset-time interval. At the end of 10 minutes the pointer will have moved part way round the dial (it is designed so that it can never complete one revolution in 10 minutes) and is then electrically reset to the zero position. certain tariffs. as in the case of a conventional kWh meter. a maximum (i. The maximum demand registered by the meter to be described. Supposing the point at which the red indicator reached corresponds to 5 kVAh. The following figures will clarify the matter.D In most countries. D10: maximum average value of kVA over an interval of 2 hours. At the end of the billing period. 0 1 time 2 hrs fig. the highest) average kVA demand kVA maximum average value during the 2 hour interval average values for 10 minute periods registered for succeeding periods during the billing interval. in fact.D15 . during the billing periods (often 3-monthly intervals). Instead of the dial being marked in kilo-VAhours at that point however it can be marked in units of average kVA. 1/6 hour. The basic measuring principles on which these electronic meters depend however. instead of having a set of decade counter dials. low-voltage service connections . Electro-mechanical meters of the kind described are rapidly being replaced by electronic instruments.

motors. magnetic fields have to be established in the machines. such as cable capacitance or banks of power capacitors. power factor improvement E 1.c. Q. The reason for this is that inductive plant cyclically absorbs energy from the system (during the build-up of the magnetic fields) and re-injects that energy into the system (during the collapse of the magnetic fields) twice in every power-frequency cycle. power factor improvement . while the impedances of transmission and distribution systems are predominantly inductively reactive.1 the nature of reactive energy alternating current systems supply two forms of energy: c "active" energy measured in kilowatt hours (kWh) which is converted into mechanical work. energy is stored electrostatically. power capacitors. at any instant. the wattless component of a load current) does not draw power from the system. Wattless (capacitive) currents have the reverse effect on voltage levels and produce voltage-rises in power systems. heat. the reactive current is "wattless". The pulsating torque is stricly true only for single-phase alternators.1. In order to perform this conversion. etc.E1 . In practical power systems. viz: c transmission power losses and c voltage drop. which again takes two forms: v "reactive" energy required by inductive circuits (transformers. Sub-clause 1. etc. electromagnetic) machines and devices that operate on a. Figure E1 shows that the kVA of apparent power is the vector sum of the kW of active power plus the kvar of reactive power. The combination of inductive current passing through an inductive reactance produces the worst possible conditions of voltage drop (i. It should be noted that while this "wattless" current (more accurately. The cyclic charging and discharging of capacitive plant reacts on the generators of the system in the same manner as that described above for inductive plant. known as "reactive" or "wattless" energy. it does cause power losses in transmission and distribution systems by heating the conductors. S (kVA) Q (kvar) P (kW) fig. This energy is measured by kWh meters. For these reasons. and S.Q). In three-phase alternators the effect is mutually cancelled in the three phases. i. In this case. etc. etc). The reactive power (kvar) is represented by Q.3 shows the relationship between P.e. S represents kVA of "apparent" power. systems convert electrical energy from the powersystem generators into mechanical work and heat. c "reactive" energy. and is referred to as "active" or "wattful" energy.). but the current flow to and from capacitive plant is in exact phase opposition to that of the inductive plant. This feature is the basis on which powerfactor improvement schemes depend. v "reactive" energy required by capacitive circuits (cable capacitance. wattless components of load currents are invariably inductive. Inductively-reactive power is conventionally positive (+ Q) while capacitively-reactive power is shown as a negative quantity (. All inductive (i. and these fields are associated with another form of energy to be supplied from the power system. since. E1: an electric motor requires active power P and reactive power Q from the power system. light. The power-supply authorities reduce the amount of wattless (inductive) current as much as possible. The effect on generator rotors is to (tend to) slow them during one part of the cycle and to accelerate them during another part of the cycle. An exactly similar phenomenon occurs with shunt capacitive elements in a power system. The power (kW) associated with "active" energy is usually represented by the letter P. The nett result is zero average load on the generators. the reactive energy supplied on one (or two) phase(s) is equal to the reactive energy being returned on the other two (or one) phase(s) of a balanced system.e.e. in direct phase opposition to the system voltage).

These machines can be made to operate at lagging (underexcited) or leading (overexcited) power factors. A power factor close to unity means that the reactive energy is small compared with the active energy. Conventionally. The most common items in this class are transformers and reactors. the ballasts of).e. this angle is given the symbol ϕ. The accuracy of this equivalence depends on an absence of harmonic currents and voltages on the system. power factor improvement (continued) E 1. It is generally assumed that these effects are small. c 5-10% for transformers. which may be a single power-consuming item. while a low value of power factor indicates the opposite condition.e.1. for all practical purposes. motors and discharge lamps (i. or a number of items (for example an entire installation). the greater the benefit to consumer and supplier. The power factor at which a synchronous motor operates may be changed. for optimum transmission-line performance under changing load conditions. E2: power consuming items that also require reactive energy.power factor improvement . In the latter condition.c. a synchronous motor is sometimes referred to as a "synchronous condenser". E2 . All a. plant and appliances that include electromagnetic devices. is given by the ratio of P/S i. The proportion of reactive power (kvar) with respect to active power (kW) when an item of plant is fully loaded varies according to the item concerned being: c 65-75% for asynchronous motors. synchronous condensers were widely used on transmission systems to provide reactivepower compensation. The closer the power factor approaches its maximum possible value of 1. The power diagram of figure E3 shows that the ratio mentioned above gives the cosine value for the angular displacement between the kW vector and the kVA vector. require some degree of reactive current to create magnetic flux. kW divided by kVA at any given moment. fig.3 the power factor the power factor is the ratio of kW to kVA. so that cos ϕ and power factor are considered to be exact equivalents. by adjustment of the excitation current. Before capacitor technology had developed sufficiently to guarantee the high standard of reliability of modern capacitors. or depend on magnetically-coupled windings. 1. in which case power factor = cos ϕ. The value of a power factor will range from 0 to 1. PF = P (kW) ≈ cos ϕ S (kVA) P = active power S = apparent power definition of power factor The power factor of a load.2 plant and appliances requiring reactive current items of plant which require reactive energy.

If the vector I is multiplied by V. A low value of tan ϕ corresponds to a high power factor and to a favourable consumer bill. and derivation of the power diagram The power "vector" diagram is a useful artifice. kVA and kvar are double-frequency functions and cannot be represented on a simple vector diagram. 1. E4: current and voltage vector diagram per phase. with the aid of the true vector diagram of current components and one phase-voltage (figure E4). derived directly from the true rotating vector diagram of currents and voltage. while VI cos ϕ equals the active power (in kV) in the circuit. as follows: The power-system voltages are taken as the reference quantities. power factor improvement . Since. P: active power Q: reactive power S: apparent power S= P +Q 2 * for balanced and near-balanced loads on 4-wire systems. and the current (I) of that phase will. The above kW. which shows the amount of reactive power supplied per kW. if V is expressed in kV. when multiplied by 3. lag the voltage by an angle ϕ. to provide a visual representation. if V is expressed in kV. power vector diagram Active power P (in kW) c single phase (1 phase and neutral): P = VI cos ϕ c single phase (phase to phase): P = UI cos ϕ c three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): P = e UI cos ϕ* Reactive power Q (in kvar) c single phase (1 phase and neutral): Q = VI sin ϕ c single phase (phase to phase): Q = UI sin ϕ c three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): Q = e UI sin ϕ* Apparent power S (in kVA) c single phase (1 phase and neutral): S = VI c single phase (phase to phase): S = UI c three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): S = e UI* where: V: voltage between phase and neutral U: voltage between phases 2 ϕ P kW Q S kVA kvar fig. in the diagram. kW. can therefore conveniently represent the relationships of kVA.E3 . The reference phase voltage (V) is co-incident with the horizontal axis. The component of I which lags 90 degrees behind V is the wattless component of I and is equal to I sin ϕ. and one phase only is considered on the assumption of balanced 3-phase loading. E3: power diagram. as shown in figure E3. kvar and power factor for a total 3-phase load. the power quantities have direction and magnitude. ϕ P = VI cos ϕ (kW) V S = VI (kVA) Q = VI sin ϕ (kvar) fig. for practically all power-system loads. current and voltage vectors. A static diagram for these quantities (figure E3) can be obtained. then VI equals the apparent power (in kVA) for the circuit. they are referred to as "vectors" for convenience. expressed in kV. The component of I which is in phase with V is the wattful component of I and is equal to I cos ϕ. however. while VI sin ϕ equals the reactive power (in kvar) in the circuit.E power quantities kA. kvar and kVA values per phase.4 tan ϕ tan ϕ = Q (kvar) P (kW) Some electricity tariffs are partly based on this factor.

0 0. equipment and appliances plant and appliances c common loaded at induction motor 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% cos ϕ 0.91 S = apparent power = P P = = 65 kVA cos ϕ 0. which allows a record over a period of time to be obtained. Readings taken over an extended period provide a useful means of estimating an average value of power factor for an installation.62 0 1.91 (motor efficiency) apparent power active power S (kVA) P (kW) S = VI P = VI cos ϕ S = UI P = UI cos ϕ 10 kVA 5 kW S = e UI 65 kVA P = e UI cos ϕ 56 kW reactive power Q (kvar) Q = VI sin ϕ Q = UI sin ϕ 8. of current.02 to 0.5 0.85 0.8 to 0.86 so that.86 ρ = 0. E4 . on referring to Table E20 or using a pocket calculator.55 0.75 c incandescent lamps c fluorescent lamps (uncompensated) c fluorescent lamps (compensated) c discharge lamps c ovens using resistance elements c induction heating ovens (compensated) c dielectric type heating ovens c resistance-type soldering machines c fixed 1-phase arc-welding set c arc-welding motor-generating set c arc-welding transformer-rectifier set c arc furnace table E7: values of cos ϕ and tan ϕ for commonly-used plant and equipment.02 to 0.75 to 0.7 to 0.7 to 0. 1.75 0.85 0.8 0.5 three phase 3-wires or 3-wires + neutral example motor Pn = 51 kW cos ϕ = 0.17 0.6 1.93 0.4 to 0. Alternatively 2 ϕ P = 56 kW Q = 33 kvar S= 65 kVA fig. or c a recording var meter.29 to 1. voltage and power factor. in addition to other information Table E20 gives corresponding cosine and tangent values for given angles.5 0.7 kvar Q = e UI sin ϕ 33 kvar table E5: example in the calculation of active and reactive power.1.9 0.6 practical values of power factor an example of power calculations type of circuit single-phase (phase and neutral) single-phase (phase to phase) example 5 kW of load cos ϕ = 0.P = 2 2 65 . E6: calculation power diagram.9 0.80 0.73 0.75 0.59 = 33 kvar. The calculations for the three-phase example above are as follows: Pn = delivered shaft power = 51 kW P = active power consumed = Pn 51 = = 56 kW ρ 0. the value of tan ϕ corresponding to a cos ϕ of 0.8 tan ϕ 5.62 0.73 1.56 = 33 kvar 2 average power factor values for the most commonly-used plant.85 1.33 0 0. Q= S . power factor improvement (continued) E 1.0 0.94 0.59 Q = P tan ϕ = 56 x 0.48 1.5 practical measurement of power factor The power factor (or cos ϕ) can be measured. either: c by a direct-reading cos ϕ meter for an instantaneous value.39 2.62 0.80 1.73 0.power factor improvement .52 0.86 is found to be 0.48 1.

In practice. reduction of voltage drop PF correction capacitors reduce or even cancel completely the (inductive) reactive current in upstream conductors.1 reduction in the cost of electricity an improvement of the power factor of an installation presents several technical and economic advantages.4. power factor improvement . Against the financial advantages of reduced billing. Good management in the consumption of reactive energy brings with it the following economic advantages. and are measured by the kWh meter for the installation. and 0. tan ϕ > 0.4 corresponds to a PF of 0. In this particular tariff. the consumer must balance the cost of purchasing. the current through the transformer will be reduced. the consumer will have nothing to pay for the reactive power consumed.4 kWh is the amount of reactive energy delivered free during a period of limitation. the quantity of reactive energy billed in these periods will be: kvarh (to be billed) = kWh (tan ϕ . Note: Overcompensation will produce a voltage rise at the capacitors. reactive energy is billed according to the tan ϕ criterion. as well as reducing power losses and voltage drop in an installation. notably in the reduction of electricity bills. will reduce the losses by almost 20%. During the periods of limitation.67 2. thereby allowing more load to be added.e. except in very simple cases. automatic control equipment (where stepped levels of compensation are required) together with the additional kWh consumed by the dielectric losses of the capacitors.E5 . multiplying factor 1 1. The installation of power-factor correcting capacitors on installations permits the consumer to reduce his electricity bill by maintaining the level of reactive-power consumption below a value contractually agreed with the power-supply authority.8 0. why improve the power factor? E 2. This matter is further elaborated in clause 6. but to achieve the best results. switchgear and cables. reduction of cable size Table E8 shows the required increase in the size of cables as the power factor is reduced from unity to 0. and in spring and summer.0. the power supply distributor delivers reactive energy free. reactiveenergy consumption exceeding 40% of the active energy (i. designed to encourage consumers to minimize their consumption of reactive energy. As previously noted: Q (kvarh) tan ϕ = P (kWh) At the supply service position. kW) in cables Losses in cables are proportional to the current squared. A high power factor allows the optimization of the components of an installation. reduction of losses (P.6 0. as previously noted.4 table E8: multiplying factor for cable size as a function of cos ϕ.4) for a maximum period of 16 hours each day (from 06-00 h to 22-00 h) during the most-heavily loaded period (often in winter). etc.2 technical/economic optimization power factor improvement allows the use of smaller transformers.93 so that.2.25 1. 2. The question of power-factor correction is a matter of optimization. Overating of certain equipment can be avoided.93. Reduction of the total current in a conductor by 10% for example. it may be less expensive to improve the power factor*. the correction should be effected as close to the individual items of inductive plant as possible. if steps are taken to ensure that during the limitation periods the PF never falls below 0. c without limitation during light-load periods in winter. installing and maintaining the power-factor-improvement capacitors and controlling switchgear. Thus. etc. tan ϕ = 0. than to replace the transformer by a larger unit.5 for the cross-sectional area of the cable core(s) cos ϕ 1 0. It may be found that it is more economic to provide partial compensation only. These notes are based on an actual tariff structure of a kind commonly applied in Europe. and that paying for some of the reactive energy consumed is less expensive than providing 100% compensation. until: c the point at which it reaches 40% of the active energy (tan ϕ = 0. * Since other benefits accrue from a high value of PF.4) where kWh is the active energy consumed during the periods of limitation. and kWh tan ϕ is the total reactive energy during a period of limitation. increase in available power By improving the power factor of a load supplied from a transformer.4) is billed monthly at the current rates. thereby reducing or eliminating voltage drops.

In diagram (c) of figure E9.3. it is not economical to fully compensate an installation. If a bank of shunt capacitors is added to the load. Example: A motor consumes 100 kW at a PF of 0.e.power factor improvement .1.75 (i. as noted in sub-clause 1. It will be seen from diagram (b) of figure E9. This is indicated in figure E9 (a) and (b) which show the flow of the reactive components of current only. all reactive power is supplied from the capacitor bank IR IC C IR + IL IL L IR R load c) with load current added to case (b) fig.17). For this reason. E10: diagram showing the principle of compensation: Qc = P (tan ϕ . capacitors). In this latter condition. E9: showing the essential features of power-factor correction. P ϕ ϕ' Q' S' Q S Qc fig. In this figure: R represents the active-power elements of the load L represents the (inductive) reactive-power elements of the load C represents the (capacitive) reactive-power elements of the power-factor correction equipment (i. tan ϕ = 0. To improve the PF to 0. This arrangement is said to provide reactive energy compensation. the reactive energy consumed by a motor results in a very low power factor (≈ 0. oversizing of motors should be avoided. how to improve the power factor E 3. The factors requiring attention are explained in a general way in clause 5.4). capacitors are sometimes referred to as "generators of lagging vars".1. IL . this capacitive current Ic (which leads the system voltage by 90 degrees) is in direct phase opposition to the load reactive current (IL). that the capacitor bank C appears to be supplying all the reactive current of the load.e. the magnitude of the apparent power S is seen to reduce to S'. In doing so. In particular.1 theoretical principles improving the power factor of an installation requires a bank of capacitors which acts as a source of reactive energy.93 (i. this is because the kW taken by the motor (when it is unloaded) are very small. load a) reactive current components only flow pattern IL . Note: Before embarking on a compensation project. as well as the operation of the motors in an unloaded condition. Since.3 (figure E3) to illustrate the principle of compensation by reducing a large reactive power Q to a smaller value Q' by means of a bank of capacitors having a reactive power Qc. In general. and in clauses 6 and 7 for transformers and motors. and shows that the (fully-compensated) load appears to the power system as having a power factor of 1.0. An inductive load having a low power factor requires the generators and transmission/distribution systems to pass reactive current (lagging the system voltage by 90 degrees) with associated power losses and exaggerated voltage drops.4) = 48 kvar The selected level of compensation and the calculation of rating for the capacitor bank depend on the particular installation. a number of precautions should be observed. the two components flowing through the same path will cancel each other. the active-power current component has been added. as pointed out in sub-clause 1.e.tan ϕ').88). the reactive power of the capacitor bank must be : Qc = 100 (0. such that if the capacitor bank is sufficiently large and Ic = IL there will be no reactive current flow in the system upstream of the capacitors.IC IC C IL IL L R Figure E10 uses the power diagram discussed in sub-clause 1.88 . tan ϕ = 0.IC = 0 IC C IL = IC IL L R load b) when IC = IL. E6 . its (capacitive) reactive current will take the same path through the power system as that of the load reactive current.

c at the terminals of a heavily-loaded feeder cable. E12: example of automatic-compensation-regulating equipment. power factor improvement . or banks which allow continuous adjustment according to requirements. Note: When the installed reactive power of compensation exceeds 800 kvar. compensation can be carried out by a fixed value of capacitance in favourable circumstances. c in cases where the level of load is reasonably constant. These capacitors are applied: c at the terminals of inductive devices (motors and transformers).V. compensation is more-commonly effected by means of an automatically-controlled stepped bank of capacitors. Control may be: c manual: by circuit breaker or load-break switch.E7 .E 3. automatic capacitor banks This kind of equipment provides automatic control of compensation. E11: example of fixed-valuecompensation capacitors. c direct connection to an appliance and switched with it.2 by using what equipment? compensation at L. compensation is provided by: c fixed-valued capacitor. fig. c semi-automatic: by contactor. a selected level of power factor. maintaining within close limits. Such equipment is applied at points in an installation where the active-power and/or reactive-power variations are relatively large. for example: c at the busbars of a general power distribution board. c equipment providing automatic regulation. c at busbars supplying numerous small motors and inductive appliance for which individual compensation would be too costly. as loading of the installation changes. fig. it is often found to be economically advantageous to instal capacitor banks at high voltage. fixed capacitors This arrangement employs one or more capacitor(s) to form a constant level of compensation. At low voltage. and the load is continuous and stable.

Closure of a contactor switches its section into parallel operation with other sections already in service. and possible damage to appliances and equipment.2 by using what equipment? (continued) automatically-regulated banks of capacitors allow an immediate adaptation of compensation to match the level of load. local (at each individual device). partial (section-by-section). for using automatic compensation A bank of capacitors is divided into a number of sections. as shown in figure E13. it is advisable to install an automatically-controlled bank of capacitors. technical and economic factors govern the choice. or some combination of the latter two. By closely matching compensation to that required by the load.3 the choice between a fixed or automatically-regulated bank of capacitors commonly-applied rules Where the kvar rating of the capacitors is less than. E8 . The current transformer for the monitoring relay must evidently be placed on one phase of the incoming cable which supplies the circuit(s) being controlled. In practice. E13: the principle of automatic-compensation control. In principle. The location of low-voltage capacitors in an installation constitutes the mode of compensation. thereby preventing an overvoltage condition. by the closure and opening of the controlling contactors. 3. Above the 15% level. The size of the bank can therefore be increased or decreased in steps. which may be global (one location for the entire installation). and reasons.3. the possibility of producing overvoltages at times of low load will be avoided. A control relay monitors the power factor of the controlled circuit(s) and is arranged to close and open appropriate contactors to maintain a reasonably constant system power factor (within the tolerance imposed by the size of each step of compensation). how to improve the power factor (continued) E 3. the ideal compensation is applied at a point of consumption and at the level required at any instant. or equal to 15% of the supplytransformer rating. Overvoltages due to excessive reactive compensation depend partly on the value of source impedance.power factor improvement . a fixed value of compensation is appropriate. the principles of. CT In / 5 A cl 1 varmetric relay fig. each of which is controlled by a contactor.

principle Capacitor banks are connected to busbars of each local distribution board. or will have additional capacity for possible load increases. c relieves the supply transformer. n°1 comments c reactive current still flows in all conductors of cables leaving (i. n°2 n°2 M M M M fig. c reduces the apparent power kva demand. n°1 advantages The compensation by sector: c reduces the tariff penalties for excessive consumption of kvars. E14: global compensation. c where large changes in loads occur. c the size of the cables supplying the local distribution boards may be reduced. as shown in figure E14. E15: compensation by sector. power factor improvement .4. c for the above reason. which is then able to accept more load if necessary. on which standing charges are usually based. where to install correction capacitors E 4. principle The capacitor bank is connected to the busbars of the main LV distribution board for the installation. the sizing of these cables.1 global compensation where a load is continuous and stable. are not improved by compensation by sector. downstream of) the main LV distribution board. c reduces the apparent power kVA demand. A significant part of the installation benefits from this arrangement. 4.2 compensation by sector compensation by sector is recommended when the installation is extensive.E9 . there is always a risk of overcompensation and consequent overvoltage problems. and the power losses in them. and power losses in them. are not improved by the global mode of compensation. notably the feeder cables from the main distribution board to each of the local distribution boards at which the compensation measures are applied. and remains in service during the period of normal load. kW kvar conductors comments c reactive current still flows in all cables downstream of the local distribution boards. global compensation can be applied. and where the load/time patterns differ from one part of the installation to another. M M M M fig. which is then able to accept more load if necessary. the sizing of these cables.e. advantages The global type of compensation: c reduces the tariff penalties for excessive consumption of kvars. c for the above reason. c relieves the supply transformer. on which standing charges are usually based. c losses in the same cables will be reduced.

Individual compensation should be considered when the power of the motor is significant with respect to the declared power requirement (kVA) of the installation.4. principle Capacitors are connected directly to the terminals of inductive plant (notably motors. E16: individual compensation. c reduces the size of all cables as well as the cable losses. fig. where to install correction capacitors (continued) E 4. c reduces the apparent power kVA demand. see further in Clause 7). Complementary compensation at the origin of the installation (transformer) may also be beneficial. E10 .power factor improvement . n°1 advantages Individual compensation: c reduces the tariff penalties for excessive consumption of kvars.3 individual compensation individual compensation should be considered when the power of motor is significant with respect to power of the installation. n°3 n°2 n°2 n°3 n°3 n°3 M M M M comments c significant reactive currents no longer exist in the installation. The kvar rating of the capacitor bank is in the order of 25% of the kW rating of the motor.

).355 kvar per kW of load.93) and to reduce losses. technical-economic optimization for an existing installation The optimum rating of compensation capacitors for an existing installation can be determined from the following principal considerations: c electricity bills prior to the installation of capacitors.93 (after correction) indicates a value of 0. 500 x 0. The active power demand is 666 x 0.e.E11 . Example It is required to improve the power factor of a 666 kVA installation from 0.3 and 5.8 (lagging) before compensation. Several simplified methods applied to typical tariffs (common in Europe) are shown in sub-clauses 5. c future electricity bills anticipated following the installation of capacitors. From the table. but is assumed here to be 0. relaying. it can be seen that. reference can be made to table E17.75 to 0.2 simplified method general principle An approximate calculation is generally adequate for most practical cases. v cost of dielectric heating losses in the capacitors.75 = 500 kW.1 general method listing of reactive power demands at the design stage This listing can be made in the same way (and at the same time) as that for the power loading described in chapter B. to raise the power factor of the installation from 0. The levels of active and reactive power loading. This simple approach allows a rapid determination of the compensation capacitors required. etc. i. The rating of a bank of capacitors at the busbars of the main distribution board of the installation would be Q (kvar) = 0.487 kvar of compensation per kW of load. how to decide the optimum level of compensation E 5. and may be based on the assumption of a power factor of 0.. versus reduced losses in cables. albeit in the global.4.93 will require 0.8 to 0. cabinets. For a load of 500 kW. in the installation. volt-drops.355 x P (kW). is independent of voltage.5. etc. therefore. c costs of: v purchase of capacitors and control equipment (contactors. In order to improve the power factor to a value sufficient to avoid tariff penalties (this depends on local tariff structures. at each level of the installation (generally at points of distribution and sub-distribution of circuits) can then be determined. following the installation of capacitors.928. etc. power factor improvement . the intersection of the row cos ϕ = 0. Note: this method is valid for any voltage level. 5. In table E17. transformer.75 (before correction) with the column cos ϕ = 0.487 = 244 kvar of capacitive compensation is required. v installation and maintenance costs. partial or independent mode.

878 0.349 1.165 1.480 0.085 2.51 0.230 1.202 1.198 0.737 1.167 0.202 0.499 1.300 1.192 0.682 0.601 0.81 0.976 1.417 0.699 0.685 0.608 0.51 0.909 0.921 0.887 0.809 0.343 1.986 1.744 0.805 1.393 1.896 1.196 1.437 0.567 1.837 1.140 0.381 0.442 1.565 0.434 0.907 0.138 1.578 1.573 0.105 0.729 0.751 1.291 0.541 0.998 2.246 0.75 0.677 1.988 1.519 1.817 0.23 0.78 0.53 0.357 1.power factor improvement .162 0.228 1.109 0.558 1.544 1.343 0.99 2.684 0.519 0.329 0.22 0.800 1.64 0.321 0.634 0.538 0.278 1.299 0.202 1.44 1.484 E12 .831 1.441 1.377 1.935 1.508 0.618 0.190 1.939 0.99 0.949 0.774 0.230 1.595 0.936 1.557 1.000 1.156 1.870 0.840 1.294 0.913 1.41 1.356 1.347 0.857 0.73 0.62 0.538 0.559 1.281 table E17: kvar to be installed per kW of load.713 0.82 0.408 0.645 0.508 0.010 1.400 1.229 1.270 0.997 1.52 0.567 0.600 1.758 0.374 0.14 0.63 0.124 1.514 0.732 1.929 1.959 1.041 1.076 1.96 0.108 1.076 1.93 0.849 0.103 1.76 0.230 0.507 0.043 1.425 0.48 0.686 1.369 0.268 1.93 0.909 0.022 1.776 0.876 1.713 1.005 1.159 0.786 1.452 0.072 0.191 1.80 0.750 0.225 0.86 0.049 1.843 0.155 0. to improve the power factor of an installation.80 0.151 1.58 0.257 0.532 1.160 1.37 0.673 0.881 1.248 1.665 0.847 0.538 0.725 1.580 0.441 1.369 1.966 0.413 1.904 0.658 0.329 0.492 0.124 0.639 1.918 1.042 1.008 1.271 1.447 0.421 0.828 0.007 0.419 0.083 1.458 1.672 0.05 0.592 1.569 0.720 0.36 0.364 0.028 0.026 0.804 0.623 1.303 0.974 1.870 0.473 1.712 0.79 0.317 0.912 0.89 0.83 0.959 1.733 0.677 1.91 0.234 0.079 0.242 0.591 0.479 0.861 1.91 0.964 1.353 1.92 0.625 0.200 1.091 1.107 2.288 2.60 0.154 1.597 0.319 0.741 0.450 0.463 0.730 0.70 0.113 1.130 1.46 0.855 1.48 0.679 0.082 2.588 1.371 0.243 0.585 1.090 1.846 1.878 0.48 0.636 1.620 0.72 0.88 0.69 0. 0.771 1.677 1.329 0.02 0.654 0.982 1.88 0.014 1.593 0.268 1.283 0.561 1.0 1 2.936 0.117 1.268 0.188 0.591 0.663 0.266 0.150 0.33 0.691 1.809 0.72 0.183 0.769 0.143 0.426 0.47 1.309 0.336 0.918 0.345 0.361 0.894 1.096 1.692 0.629 1.485 0.343 0.716 0.85 0.512 0.387 0.61 0.25 0.242 0.826 1.56 0.620 0.228 1.478 0.485 1.90 0.684 1.146 2.70 0.42 1.745 0.644 1.317 0.966 1.144 1.815 0.600 1.421 0.83 0.063 1.75 0.939 0.836 1.80 0.446 1.077 1.754 0.083 0.805 0.654 0.647 1.942 0.882 0.584 0.504 0.005 1.413 0.788 0.74 0.502 1.645 0.478 0.816 1.08 0.65 0.186 0.291 1.316 1.75 0.874 1.57 0.840 0.215 1.54 0.685 0.552 0.709 0.594 0.564 0.515 0.089 0.424 0.20 0.77 0.629 0.971 1.650 0.116 1.405 1.281 1.308 1.98 0.701 0.604 0.249 1.489 0.481 1.590 1.474 1.338 1.441 1.466 0.347 0.233 1.450 0.905 0.805 0.085 1.232 1.652 0.309 0.628 1.935 1.054 0.681 1.430 1.309 1.832 1.652 0.45 1.600 0.836 0.046 0.533 1.369 0.453 0.530 1.400 0.447 0.782 1.709 1.680 1.087 1.151 1.086 0.672 0.257 1.237 1.83 0.698 0.781 0.97 0.501 1.395 1.239 1.973 2.500 0.230 1.783 0.534 1.903 2.769 0.695 1.169 1.87 0.483 1.459 0.217 0.454 1.27 0.86 0.114 0.30 0.534 0.433 0.958 0.936 0.777 0.575 1.390 0.04 0.614 1.768 0.149 0.021 2.620 0.230 0.334 1.121 0.449 0.55 0.716 0.062 1.578 0.837 0.373 0.743 0.850 1.94 0.631 0.399 0.297 1.326 1.536 0.058 1.264 0.355 1.624 0.54 0.483 0.65 0.758 1.053 0.798 1.191 0.499 0.358 0.618 0.790 1.712 1.68 0.079 1.386 1.884 0.031 0.192 1.039 1.337 1.724 0.767 0.157 1.541 0.112 0.276 1.40 0.82 0.136 0.364 0.226 1.131 1.553 0.164 1.301 0.546 0.48 1.811 0.40 1.582 0.085 0.395 0.288 0.037 2.532 1.536 0.263 1.949 0.269 0.098 0.779 0.079 1.214 0.132 0.878 0.275 0.593 0.335 0.403 1.803 0.90 0.489 1.937 0.742 1.526 0.713 0.238 0.440 0.549 0.794 0.369 0.240 0.563 0. to improve cos ϕ (the power factor) or tan ϕ.530 0.179 1.904 0.59 0.784 1.20 tan ϕ cos ϕ cos ϕ 0.841 0.568 0.59 0.123 1.117 1.030 1.020 0.850 0.14 0.204 0.262 0.86 0.634 0.225 2.020 0.502 1.749 0.370 1.175 0.407 0.96 0.661 0.607 0.315 1.64 0.98 2.67 0.33 0.665 0.686 0.94 0.40 0.687 0.292 0.713 0.62 0.497 1.88 0.507 0.50 0.420 1.778 1.035 1.973 1.320 0.71 0.95 0.309 0.368 1.356 1.381 0.771 0.525 0.992 0.657 0.164 2.043 1.172 0.727 0.417 1.43 0.11 0.961 2.46 1.556 0.43 1.179 1.047 1.299 1.425 1.623 0.84 0.059 0.480 1.474 0.058 0.323 1.855 0.651 1.564 0.982 1.303 1.567 0.205 1.277 1.838 0.625 1.17 0.659 1.996 1.529 1.691 0.809 0.519 1.290 1.051 1.030 1.341 0.5.048 1.435 1.29 0.209 0.902 0.487 0.229 0.738 1.190 0.870 0.024 1.740 0.397 1.67 0.395 0.57 0.141 0.251 0.700 0.52 0.73 0.60 0.49 1.473 0.355 0.970 1.44 0.905 1. compensation to a given value tan ϕ 0.740 0.392 0.996 0.624 1.188 1.742 1.515 0.775 0.397 1.117 0.420 0.561 1.899 1.879 0.871 0.769 1.388 0.130 1. how to decide the optimum level of compensation (continued) E before kvar rating of capacitor bank to install per kW of load.10 0.453 0.512 0.16 0.56 0.840 1.78 0.330 1.164 0.255 0.480 0.59 0.29 0.69 0.216 0.750 0.335 0.213 0.963 0.295 0.936 0.895 1.453 1.114 1.277 0.398 0.176 0.806 0.189 1.78 0.829 0.426 0.924 1.464 1.075 1.460 0.171 1.633 0.384 1.798 0.265 1.013 1.66 0.355 0.821 0.395 0.

c the necessary value of compensation kvarh billed in kvar = = Qc number of hours of operation* * in the billing period. 0. thereby avoiding the payment of an excessive price per kVA during the periods of excess.7 to 0. The method determines the minimum compensation required to avoid these charges which are based on kvarh consumption. either from 06.E 5.95 S = 122 kVA S' = 90 kVA Q = 87.4 kW Example: A supermarket has a declared load of 122 kVA at a power factor of 0.3 method based on the avoidance of tariff penalties in the case of certain (common) types of tariff. These devices and accompanying documentation advise on suitable equipment and control schemes. and/or tripping of the the main circuit breaker. c evaluate the total period of loaded operation of the installation for that month.1 kvar S' Q S Qc fig. Outside these periods. Choose the bill which shows the highest charge for kvarh (after checking that this was not due to some exceptional situation). the kVA value diminishes for a given value of kW (P). a table (E16) allows determination of the kvar of compensation required to reduce the value of kVA declared.95 (0. an examination of several bills covering the most heavily-loaded period of the year allows determination of the kvar level of compensation required to avoid kvarh (reactive-energy) charges.691 x 85.7 cos ϕ' = 0.e. 5. Certain manufacturers can provide "sliderules" especially designed to facilitate these kinds of calculation. an improvement of 30%. it can be seen that a 60 kvar bank of capacitors will improve the power factor of the load from 0.E13 .4 method based on reduction of declared maximum apparent power (kVA) for 2-part tariffs based partly on a declared value of kVA. voltage and current ratings) and/or harmonic-suppression inductors or filters (see Appendix E3). Such voltages require either overdimensioned capacitors (in terms of heat-dissipation. c identify the line on the bills referring to "reactive-energy consumed" and "kvarh to be charged". The hours which must be counted are those occurring during the heaviest load and the highest peak loads occurring on the power system. For example: 15. The following method allows calculation of the rating of a proposed capacitor bank. plus a charge per kWh consumed. The improvement of the power factor is aimed at (apart from other advantages previously mentioned) reducing the declared level and never exceeding it. this is a common feature in many types of two-part tariff). Referring to table E17. the pay-back period of a bank of power-factor-improvement capacitors and associated equipment is generally about 18 months. The declared value of kVA will then be 85. and to avoid exceeding it. E18: reduction of declared maximum kVA by power-factor improvement. required to improve from one value of power factor to another. P = 85. during the hours for which reactive energy is charged for the case considered above: 15. according to particular tariffs. Note: in tropical climates the summer months may constitute the period of heaviest loading and highest peaks (owing to extensive airconditioning loads) so that a consequent variation of high-tariff periods is necessary in this case. for instance: 220 hours (22 days x 10 hours).4 = 59 kvar in the table). power factor improvement .00 H to 22. In the case being considered. The diagram of figure E18 shows that as the power factor improves. an active-power load of 85.4 kW. Table E17 indicates the value of kvar of compensation per kW of load. it is evident that a reduction in declared kVA would be beneficial.00 H or from 07.4 = 90 kVA. i. based on billing details. no charge is made for kvarh consumption. and are (commonly) during a 16 hour period each day.95 ϕ ϕ' Q' cos ϕ = 0.966 kvarh in January.00 H to 23. and 12 kVA steps above that value. as well as drawing attention to constraints imposed by harmonic voltages on the power system. where the tariff structure corresponds with (or is similar to) the one described in sub-clause 2.966 kvarh Qc = = 73 kvar 220 h The rating of the installed capacitor bank is generally chosen to be slightly larger than that calculated.7 lagging.1 of this chapter. The remainder of this example will assume Winter conditions in France.00 H according to the region.e. These are given in the tariff documents. The procedure is as follows: c refer to the bills covering consumption for the 5 months of winter (in France these are November to March inclusive). i.1 kvar Qc = 59 kvar Q' = 28. the consumer was billed on the basis of 132 kVA. The particular contract for this consumer was based on stepped values of declared kVA (in steps of 6 kVA up to 108 kVA. For consumers whose tariffs are based on a fixed charge per kVA declared.

when supplying loads at different values of power factor.8 lagging.1 compensation to increase the available active power output the installation of a bank of capacitors can avoid the need to change a transformer in the event of a load increase. So that the minimum size of capacitor bank to instal: Qkvar = 439 . Qm = 630 2 .e.86 0.70 0. Cases can arise where the replacement of a transformer by a larger unit. The apparent power S1 = 450 = 562 kVA 0.94 0.00 0.29 0.74 0.02 cos ϕ 1 0. E14 . The best possible improvement. i. as discussed in subclause 5.82 0. Q S2 Q2 Q P2 S1 S Q1 P1 Qm P fig.76 0.91 0.e.88 0. to supply more active power. in order to avoid a change of transformer? Total power now to be supplied: P = P1 + P2 = 550 kW.8 The corresponding reactive power 2 2 Q1= S1 − P1 = 337 kvar The anticipated load increase P2 = 100 kW at a power factor of 0. can be obtained. correction which attains a PF of 1 would permit a power reserve for the transformer of 630 .96 1. the output of which is limited to S.80 0. compensation at the terminals of a transformer E 6.6. from which the increase of active-power output.78 0.84 0. i.90 0. Table E20 shows directly the power (kW) capability of fully-loaded transformers at different load power factors.54 0.59 0. without the need to replace the existing transformer.86 0. i. It should be noted that this calculation has not taken account of peak loads and their duration.36 0.48 0.7 The corresponding reactive power Q2 = S2 − P2 = 102 kvar 2 2 What is the minimum value of capacitive kvar to be installed.92 0.20 0. may be avoided by this means. to cater for load growth.75 0.e.70 nominal kVA rating of transformers (in kVA) 100 160 250 315 400 100 160 250 315 400 98 157 245 309 392 96 154 240 302 384 94 150 235 296 376 92 147 230 290 368 90 144 225 284 360 88 141 220 277 352 86 138 215 271 344 84 134 210 265 336 82 131 205 258 328 80 128 200 252 320 78 125 195 246 312 76 122 190 239 304 74 118 185 233 296 72 115 180 227 288 70 112 175 220 280 500 500 490 480 470 460 450 440 430 420 410 400 390 380 370 360 350 630 630 617 605 592 580 567 554 541 529 517 504 491 479 466 454 441 800 800 784 768 752 736 720 704 688 672 656 640 624 608 592 576 560 1000 1000 980 960 940 920 900 880 860 840 820 800 780 760 740 720 700 1250 1250 1225 1200 1175 1150 1125 1100 1075 1050 1025 1000 975 950 925 900 875 1600 1600 1568 1536 1504 1472 1440 1408 1376 1344 1312 1280 1248 1216 1184 1152 1120 2000 2000 1960 1920 1880 1840 1800 1760 1720 1680 1640 1600 1560 1520 1480 1440 1400 table E20: active-power capability of fully-loaded transformers.P 2 Total reactive power required by the installation before compensation: Q1 + Q2 = 337 + 102 = 439 kvar.7 lagging. as the value of power factor increases. The maximum reactive power capability of the 630 kVA transformer when delivering 550 kW is: Qm = S 2 .43 0. Steps similar to those taken to reduce the declared maximum kVA. E19: compensation Q allows the installation-load extension S2 to be added.power factor improvement .96 0. improvement of the load power factor.98 0. The capacitor bank would then have to be rated at 439 kvar. Example: Refer to figure E19.4. An installation is supplied from a 630 kVA transformer loaded at 450 kW (P1) with a mean power factor of 0. The apparent power S2 = 100 = 143 kVA 0.307 = 132 kvar.550 2 = 307 kvar tan ϕ 0.65 0. will maximise the available transformer capacity.80 0.550 = 80 kW.72 0.

Example: A 630 kVA transformer with a short-circuit reactance voltage of 4% is fully loaded. to compensate for the reactive energy absorbed. however. in transformers. This arrangement is operationally difficult.e. however. c that kvar losses due to leakage reactance vary according to the current (or kVA loading) squared. Complete compensation can be provided by a bank of shunt-connected LV capacitors.8% of the transformer kVA rating) must be added to the foregoing "series" losses. series inductances can be compensated by fixed series capacitors (as is commonly the case for long HV transmission lines). E21: reactive power absorption by series inductance. but often corresponds to a tan ϕ value of 0. As far as reactive-energy losses only are concerned. This level depends on the tariff. The magnetizing current remains practically constant (at about 1.E 6. In principle. also absorb reactive energy. a transformer may be represented by the elementary diagram of figure E22. so that.04 = 25.04 = 0. with a constant primary voltage. etc. in normal circumstances. series-connected reactances. such as the inductive reactances of power lines and the leakage reactance of transformer windings. Table E24 shows the no-load and full-load kvar losses for typical distribution transformers.. What is its reactive-power (kvar) loss? 4% = 0.).8 % of full-load current) from no load to full load.5 pu the losses will be 0.2 compensation of reactive energy absorbed by the transformer where metering is carried out at the HV side of a transformer.01 = 6. Where metering is carried out at the HV side of a transformer. all of the kvar of the transformer is being supplied from the capacitor bank. The reason for this is that shuntconnected plant requires (by far) the largest quantities of reactive energy in power systems. The 3-phase kvar losses are 630 x 0. while the input to the HV side of the transformer is at unity power factor. shunt compensation is always applied. the kvar losses in a transformer can be completely compensated by adjusting the capacitor bank to give the load a (slightly) leading power factor.04 = 0. It can be shown that this kvar value is equal to I2XL (which is analogous to the I2R activepower (kW) losses due to the series resistance of power lines. From the I2XL formula it is very simple to deduce the kvar absorbed at any load value for a given transformer.3 kvar and so on. and can amount to (about) 5% of the transformer rating when supplying its full load. I = 0.E15 .31 (cos ϕ of 0. so that a shunt capacitor of fixed value can be installed at the HV or LV side.04 pu kvar where 1 pu = 630 kVA power factor improvement . This example. The reactive-current component through the load = I sin ϕ so that kvarL = VI sin ϕ.955). Compensation can be provided by a bank of capacitors.52 x 0. as shown in figure E23. The reactive-current component from the source = I sin ϕ' so that kvars = EI sin ϕ' where V and E are expressed in kV.e. the reactive-energy losses in the transformer may (depending on the tariff) need to be compensated. and PF-correcting capacitor banks etc. reactive power is absorbed by both shunt (magnetizing) and series (leakage flux) reactances. reactive-power absorption in series-connected (leakage flux) reactance A simple illustration of this phenomenon is given by the vector diagram of figure E21. where the shunt branch represents the magnetizing-current path. As a matter of interest. To determine the total kvar losses of a transformer the constant magnetizing-current circuit losses (approx. at the voltage levels covered by this guide. etc. In such a case. perfect transformer primary winding secondary winding leakage reactance magnetizing reactance fig.. the nature of transformer inductive reactances All previous references have been to shuntconnected devices such as those used in normal loads. the reactive power absorbed by a transformer cannot be neglected. as follows: If per-unit values are used (instead of percentage values) direct multiplication of I and XL can be carried out. quite simply. XL E source V load E V ϕ ϕ' IXL I sin ϕ I sin ϕ' fig.01 pu = 630 x 0. In the case of HV metering. The difference between EI sin ϕ' and VI sin ϕ gives the kvar per phase absorbed by XL.. 4% of 630 kVA). c that full-load kvar losses due to leakage reactance are equal to the transformer percentage reactance (4% reactance means a kvar loss equal to 4% of the kVA rating of the transformer). It can be seen that E > V and sin ϕ' > sin ϕ. E22: transformer reactances (per phase). the reactive-energy losses in the transformer may (depending on the tariff) need to be compensated. and the vector diagram of figure E21 show that: c the power factor at the primary side of a loaded transformer is different (normally lower) than that at the secondary side (due to the absorption of vars). All reactance values are referred to the secondary side of the transformer. it is sufficient to raise the power factor to a point where the transformer plus load reactive-power consumption is below the level at which a billing charge is made.2 kvar (or.04 pu Ipu = 1 loss = I2XL = 12 x 0. 1. i. At half load i.

6 45.6 3.2 compensation of reactive energy absorbed by the transformer (continued) E (input voltage) I ϕ V (load voltage) I0 compensation current IXL load current fig.5 8.9 38. the transformer absorption (i.9 5.9 19. These values correspond closely to those given in the worked example above. and so mismatching of compensation at times of load change is not likely to be a problem.7 8.3 35.0 125. compensation for transformer-absorbed kvar is included in the capacitors primarily intended for powerfactor correction of the load.2 table E24: reactive power consumption of distribution transformers with 20 kV primary windings.4 9.6 12. E16 . for a standard range of distribution transformers supplied at 20 kV (which include the losses due to the leakage reactance).7 9. Table E24 indicates typical kvar loss values for the magnetizing circuit (“no-load kvar” columns).7 7.8 32.e. then an average level of loading will have to be assumed.5 5.7 24. as well as for the total losses at full load. Note: for a 630 kVA transformer.0 82.0 19.9 2.3 5. rated power kVA 50 100 160 250 315 400 500 630 800 1 000 1 250 1 600 2 000 2 500 reactive power (kvar) to be compensated oil immersed type cast resin type no load full load no load full load 1.8 11.0 7. or in the individual mode.9 2.7 5. this kvar consumption generally forms only a relatively small part of the total reactive power of an installation.2 113.0 178.5 24. if individual compensation is applied to the transformer. partially.2 20 66.5 36.0 88.5 30. the part due to the leakage reactance) changes significantly with variations of load level.5 28.3 22.0 140.0 155.6.7 12. Unlike most other kvar-absorbing items.5 100. so that. E23: overcompensation of load to completely compensate transformer reactive-power losses. either globally.8 10.5 6.7 kvar at full load.5 2.6 22. compensation at the terminals of a transformer (continued) E 6.2 45. the range of kvar losses extends from 11.0 71. In practical terms.0 27. Fortunately.8 15.0 29.2 3.power factor improvement .3 at no load to 35.3 14.0 191.4 57. therefore.9 6.3 18.

Two good general rules therefore are that unloaded motors should be switched off. connection The bank of capacitors should be connected directly to the terminals of the motor. the overcurrent relay settings must be reduced in the ratio: cos ϕ before compensation cos ϕ after compensation For motors compensated in accordance with the kvar values indicated in Table E28 (maximum values recommended for avoidance of self-excitation of standard induction motors. the power factor of a motor is very low at no-load or on light load. E25: before compensation.) should not be compensated. the current to the motor-capacitor combination will be lower than before. inching.91 0. and motors should not be oversized (since they will then be lightly loaded).1 connection of a capacitor bank and protection settings individual motor compensation is recommended where the motor power (kVA) is large with respect to the declared power of the installation. for reasons explained in preceding sections. power factor improvement . general precautions Because of the small kW consumption.90 0. after compensation.P. as shown in figure E25.93 table E26: reduction factor for overcurrent protection after compensation. plugging. the transformer supplies all the reactive power.E17 .7. This is because a significant part of the reactive component of the motor current is being supplied from the capacitor. compensation at the terminals of an induction motor E 7. before compensation transformer after compensation speed in R. the capacitor supplies a large part of the reactive power. special motors It is recommended that special motors (stepping. The reactive current of the motor remains practically constant at all loads. reversing motors.2). etc. power made available active power C M motor M reactive power supplied by capacitor fig. 750 1000 1500 3000 reduction factor 0. Where the overcurrent protection devices of the motor are located upstream of the motorcapacitor connection (and this will always be the case for terminal-connected capacitors). assuming the same motor-driven load conditions. the above-mentioned ratio will have a value similar to that indicated for the corresponding motor speed in Table E26.88 0. effect on protection settings After applying compensation to a motor. as discussed in sub-clause 7. so that a number of unloaded motors constitute a consumption of reactive power which is generally detrimental to an installation.M.

The characteristics of a motor being driven by the inertia of the load are not rigorously identical to its no-load characteristics. The "magnetic inertia" of the rotor circuit means that an emf will be generated in the stator windings for a short period after switching off. until the stored inertial energy is dissipated).power factor improvement . E18 . immediately following the loss of power supply. constitute a 3-phase "wattless" load for this decaying emf. so that the braking (retarding) effect on the motor is mainly due only to the load represented by the cooling fan in the motor. 400 V.7. which causes capacitive currents to flow through the stator windings. High-inertia motors and/or loads In any installation where high-inertia motordriven loads exist. too small to adequately compensate the motor to the level of cos ϕ normally required. then selfexcitation to very high voltages is likely to occur. and the voltage at the terminals of the motor increases. Table E28 gives appropriate values of Qc corresponding to this criterion. 3 000 Rpm. It is for this reason that the two characteristics may be superimposed on the graph. sometimes to dangerously-high levels. the circuit breakers or contactors controlling such motors should.c. both have the same phase relationship to the terminal voltage. but will increase. installed for global compensation of a number of smaller appliances.2 how self-excitation of an induction motor can be avoided when a capacitor bank is connected to the terminals of an induction motor. 2. This assumption. The table values are. in general. The (almost 90° lagging) current taken from the supply in normal circumstances by the unloaded motor. generators are not normally operated at leading power factors. be rapidly tripped. for example an overall bank. Compensation capacitors however. The rotor flux consequently increases. the stator currents increase. in the event of total loss of power supply. since all other banks of capacitors in the installation will effectively be in parallel with those of the high-inertia motors. together with reverse-power checking contacts (the motor will feed power to the rest of the installation. Additional compensation can. With the motor acting as a generator.e. 3. This phenomenon is known as self-excitation and is one reason why a. the motor will continue to rotate (unless deliberately braked) after the motor supply has been switched off. Example A 75 kW. The protection scheme for these motors should therefore include an overvoltage tripping relay. in the case of an uncompensated motor.9 Io Un e where Io = the no-load current of the motor and Un = phase-tophase nominal voltage of the motor in kV. the kvar rating of the capacitor bank must be limited to the following maximum value: Qc i 0. and would normally reduce to zero after 1 or 2 cycles. and the (almost 90° leading) current supplied to the capacitors by the motor acting as a generator. E27: connection of the capacitor bank to the motor. i. there is a tendency to spontaneously (and uncontrollably) selfexcite. An undervoltage relay would not be suitable because the voltage is not only maintained. compensation at the terminals of an induction motor (continued) E 7. be applied to the system. however. the currents circulating are largely reactive. it is important to check that the size of the bank is less than that at which self-excitation can occur. 3-phase motor may have a capacitor bank no larger than 17 kvar according to Table E28. Notes 1. If this precaution is not taken. however. fig. is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. In order to avoid self-excitation as described above. When a motor is driving a high-inertia load. These stator currents will produce a rotating magnetic field in the rotor which acts exactly along the same axis and in the same direction as that of the decaying magnetic field.

F.5 10 11 12. power factor improvement .E If the capacitor bank associated with a highinertia motor is larger than that recommended in Table E28. then it should be separately controlled by a circuit breaker or contactor. 3-phase motors 230/400 V nominal kvar to be installed power speed of rotation (RPM) kW hp 3000 1500 1000 750 22 30 6 8 9 10 30 40 7. which trips in unison with the main motorcontrolling circuit breaker or contactor.E19 . as shown in figure E27.5 37 50 9 11 12. correction applicable to motor terminals without risk of self-excitation. Note Exact sizing of capacitor unit for a particular motor is only possible when the "no-load current" or "no-load magnetising" kvar is known. Closing of the main contactor is commonly subject to the capacitor contactor being previously closed.5 16 45 60 11 13 14 17 55 75 13 17 18 21 75 100 17 22 25 28 90 125 20 25 27 30 110 150 24 29 33 37 132 180 31 36 38 43 160 218 35 41 44 52 200 274 43 47 53 61 250 340 52 57 63 71 280 380 57 63 70 79 355 482 67 76 86 98 400 544 78 82 97 106 450 610 87 93 107 117 table E28: maximum kvar of P.

power factor improvement . * the arrows denote vector quantities. fig. c losses in cables are calculated as a function of the current squared: (960)2 P=I2R c the losses in the cables are (778)2 reduced to = 65% of the former value. and cables must be over-dimensioned. the cos ϕ of the workshop remains at 0. c the transformer. correction *¡¡¡ kVA=kW+kvar kVA kW kvar installation after P. the cos ϕ at the HV side of the transformer will be slightly lower. c the corresponding excess current causes losses (kWh) which are billed.928 c transformer no longer overloaded c the power-demand is 539 kVA c there is 14% spare-transformer capacity available. or v reduced. cos ϕ = 0.2. * moreso in the pre-corrected case. Characteristics of the installation 500 kW cos ϕ = 0.75 but cos ϕ for all the installation upstream of the capacitor bank to the transformer LV terminals is 0. 630 kVA Characteristics of the installation 500 kW cos ϕ = 0. according to the cos ϕ required. * due to the reactive power losses in the transformer. c the fixed charge based on kVA demand is adjusted to be close to the active power kW demand. correction ¡¡¡ kVA=kW+kvar kVA kW c kvarh are billed heavily above the declared level. circuit breaker. c the tariff penalties v for reactive energy where applicable v for the entire bill in some cases are eliminated. E29: technical-economic comparison of an installation before and after power-factor correction. E20 .F.75 workshop cos ϕ = 0. c the installation must be over-dimensioned.928 workshop Note: In fact. c apparent power kVA is significantly greater than the kW demand. cos ϕ = 0. kvar Capacitor bank rating is 250 kvar in 5 automatically-controlled steps of 50 kvar.8.75 c transformer is overloaded c the power demand is P 500 S= = = 665 kVA cos ϕ 0. (960)2 thereby economizing in kWh consumed.928 c reactive energy is supplied by the capacitor bank. c the consumption of kvarh is v eliminated.F. example of an installation before and after power-factor correction E installation before P.928.75 c reactive energy is supplied through the transformer and via the installation wiring.75 S = apparent power 630 kVA 400 V 400 V c the current flowing into the installation downstream of the circuit breaker is P I= = 960 A eU cos ϕ c the current flowing into the installation through the circuit breaker is 778 A. As mentioned in Sub-clause 6. cos ϕ = 0.

In this particular case. practical means of reducing the influence of harmonics are recommended.93 = 146. In many instances.. between 1. fo/50 for a 50 Hz system. Harmonics have existed from the earliest days of the industry and were (and still are) caused by the non-linear magnetizing impedances of transformers. with amplified values of voltage and current at the harmonic frequency concerned. even-numbered harmonics are now sometimes encountered. countering the effects of harmonics The presence of harmonics in the supply voltage results in abnormally high current levels through the capacitors. in which the peak value of the normal sinusoidal wave is increased. countering the effects of resonance Capacitors are linear reactive devices. and consequently do not generate harmonics. which aim basically at reducing the distortion of the supply-voltage wave form. value of current equal to 1.93 which shows that the natural frequency of the capacitor/system-inductance combination is close to the 3rd harmonic frequency of the system. From ho = fo/50 it can be seen that fo = 50 ho = 50 x 2. The installation of capacitors in a power system (in which the impedances are predominantly inductive) can. In this section. this means that a relatively small percentage of harmonic voltage can cause a significant current to flow in the capacitor circuit. together with other overvoltage conditions likely to occur when countering the effects of resonance.E21 . etc.5 Hz The closer a natural frequency approaches one of the harmonics present on the system.. switches. and ho = the harmonic order of the natural frequency fo i. The presence of harmonic components causes the (normally sinusoidal) wave form of voltage or current to be distorted. The harmonic order ho of the natural resonant frequency between the system inductance and the capacitor bank is given by SSC / Q where Ssc = the level of system short-circuit kVA at the point of connection of the capacitor Q = capacitor bank rating in kvar.s. This possibility. which may result in its eventual failure. fluorescent lamp ballasts. An allowance is made for this by designing for an r.total elimination is not possible. 5th. In the above example. Harmonic distortion of the voltage wave frequently produces a "peaky" wave form. and the bank of capacitors in question. result in total or partial resonance occurring at one of the harmonic frequencies.2 possible solutions harmonics are taken into account mainly by oversizing capacitors and including harmonic-suppression reactors in series with them.3 times the nominal rated current.m. This is generally accomplished by shunt connected harmonic filter and/or harmonic-suppression reactors. strong resonant conditions with the 3rd harmonic component of a distorted wave would certainly occur.. etc. the greater will be the (undesirable) effect. the effect of harmonics on the rating of a capacitor bank E 9. the elevated current will cause overheating of the capacitor. the greater the harmonic content. however. such as connections. If the natural frequency of the capacitor bank/ power-system reactance combination is close to a particular harmonic. or fo/60 for a 60 Hz system. power factor improvement . reactors. the greater the degree of distortion . and associated non-linear components.e. All of these features may be used in various ways to reduce specific harmonics to negligible values .) have. thyristor-controlled rectifiers. 9. in recent years. etc. 9th.. In practice. Harmonics on symmetrical 3-phase power systems are generally* odd-numbered: 3rd. For example: SSC / Q may give a value for ho of 2. All series elements. considerably increased the problems caused by harmonics in powersupply systems. 7th. Several solutions to these problems are available. these two counter measures are all that is necessary to achieve satisfactory operation. with particular reference to capacitor banks. fuses. * With the advent of power electronics devices. are taken into account by increasing the insulation level above that of "standard" capacitors.1 problems arising from power-system harmonics Equipment which uses power electronics components (variable-speed motor controllers. as described below. associated with the capacitors are similarly oversized. then partial resonance will occur. between the equipment causing the distortion.9.3 to 1. with degradation of the dielectric. Capacitors are especially sensitive to harmonic components of the supply voltage due to the fact that capacitive reactance decreases as the frequency increases. and the magnitude decreases as the order of the harmonic increases.5 times nominal rating.

If the ratings of some of these devices are quoted in kW only. E22 . steps are taken to change the natural frequency to a value which will not resonate with any of the harmonics known to be present. i. If a number of transformers are operating in parallel. On 50 Hz systems. can be made.60 Sn filters table E30: choice of solutions for limiting harmonics associated with a LV capacitor bank.15 Sn < Gh i 0. directly connected to) the system level of which the busbars form a part. inverters. etc. c Ssc = the 3-phase short-circuit level in kVA at the terminals of the capacitor bank. a choice of capacitor specification which will ensure an acceptable level of operation with the system harmonic voltages and currents.power factor improvement . These frequencies correspond to a value for ho of 3. speed controllers.7 to obtain the kVA ratings.e.) connected to the busbars from which the capacitor bank is supplied.9. by using capacitors which are designed for 440 V operation on 400 V systems. This feature is taken into account. the effect of harmonics on the rating of a capacitor bank (continued) E 9. the capacitor bank + reactors to 190 Hz.25 Sn < Gh i 0. the removal from service of one or more. In this arrangement. for example.2 possible solutions (continued) countering the effects of resonance (continued) In such cases. these reactors are often adjusted to bring the resonant frequency of the combination. approximately mid-way between the 3rd and 5th harmonics. by reference to the following table. The reactors are adjusted to 228 Hz for a 60 Hz system.60 Sn capacitor voltage rating increased by 10% + harmonic suppression reactor Gh > 0. i.15 Sn 0.25 Sn standard capacitors capacitor voltage rating increased by 10% (except 230 V units) c Sn = the sum of the kVA ratings of all transformers supplying (i.e.3 choosing the optimum solution A choice is made from the following parameters: c Gh = the sum of the kVA ratings of all harmonic-generating devices (static converters. will significantly change the values of Ssc and Sn. capacitors supplied at LV via transformer(s) c general rule valid for any size of transformer Ssc i Gh i Ssc Gh i Ssc 120 120 70 standard capacitors capacitor voltage rating increased by 10% (except 230 V units) c simplified rule if transformer(s) rating Sn i 2 MVA Gh i 0. Gh > Ssc 70 capacitor voltage rating increased by 10% + harmonic-suppression reactor 0. 9. This is achieved by the addition of a harmonic-suppression inductor connected in series with the capacitor bank. assume an average power factor of 0.8 for a 50 Hz system.e. From these parameters. the presence of the reactor increases the fundamental-frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz) current by a small amount (7-8%) and therefore the voltage across the capacitor in the same proportion.

750 kVA 4 Ssc 15. Example 2: 1. and overdimensioned plus harmonic-suppression-equipped capacitor banks should be installed. with respect to the r.F.m.667 = = 139 120 120 Ssc 16.s. overdimensioned. then recourse has to be made to low-voltage L-C series filters. Power-supply authorities generally impose a strict limit on the total-harmonic distortion (THD) permitted at the point of power supply to a consumer.000 x = 16. If this value of THD is unattainable. showing (respectively) situations in which standard.4 possible effects of power-factor-correction capacitors on the power-supply system it is necessary to ensure that interaction between harmonicgenerating devices and P. Example 3: 630 kVA transformer having 4% short-circuit voltage. this means that a maximum value of 4 or 5% for voltage THD is permissible at the LV terminals of the transformer. and are tuned to resonate at harmonic frequencies to which they present practically zero impedance. does not result in unacceptable levels of voltage and/or current wave-form distortion on the power-supply network. value of all harmonics present.000 kVA transformer having 6% short-circuit voltage. Example 1: 500 kVA transformer having 4% short-circuit voltage. value of the fundamental frequency wave (50 or 60 Hz).m. Such filters are shuntconnected.s. The degree of distortion is measured as the ratio of the r.E examples Three cases are presented.500 kVA 4 Ssc 12. 9.750 = = 225 70 70 Scc Gh = 250 > 70 Solution: use overated (440 V) capacitors and harmonic-suppression reactors. correction capacitors.E23 .667 kVA 6 Ssc 16. power factor improvement .667 = = 238 70 70 Ssc Ssc Gh = 220 is between and 120 70 Solution: use overated (440 V) capacitors. For LV loads supplied through a transformer from a high-voltage service connection. Total rating of harmonic-generating devices Gh = 220 kVA 100 Ssc = 1. Total rating of harmonic-generating devices Gh = 250 kVA 100 Ssc = 630 x = 15. Total rating of harmonic-generating devices Gh = 50 kVA 100 Ssc = 500 x = 12.500 = = 104 120 120 Ssc Gh = 50 i 120 Solution: use standard capacitors. Filters connected in this way fortuitously have the added benefit of contributing to reactivepower compensation for the installation.

50 Hz supply IEC 831. but insufficient to blow the fuse sometimes occur. electrical characteristics standards operating rated voltage range rated frequency capacitance tolerance temperature maximum temperature range average temperature over 24 h average annual temperature minimum temperature insulation level permissible current overload permissible voltage overload current on 400 V . v if the leakage current persists. thereby causing the fuse to blow. e. are not impregnated by liquid dielectric) comprising metallized polypropylene self-healing film in the form of a two-film roll. NF C 54-104.50 Hz supply consumption on 230 V . The protection scheme operates as follows: c a short-circuit through the dielectric will blow the fuse. i. Capacitors are made of insulating material providing them with double insulation and avoiding the need for a ground connection. the defect may develop into a short-circuit. VDE 0560 CSA standards. fuse discharge resistor short-circuiting contacts overpressure device fig.2/50 µs impulse withstand voltage: 25 kV standard range H range 30% 50% 10% 20% 2 A/kvar 2. E31: cross-section of a capacitor element. and will eventually operate a pressure-sensitive device to short-circuit the unit. Such "faults" often re-seal due to local heating caused by the leakage current. the units are said to be "self-healing".e.2 A/kvar 3. They are protected by a high-quality system (overpressure disconnector used with an HPC fuse) which switches off the capacitor if an internal fault occurs.5 A/kvar E24 . UL tests 400 V 50 Hz 0 to + 5% 55 °C 45 °C 35 °C -25 °C 50 Hz 1 mn withstand voltage: 6 kV 1. c current levels greater than normal. v gas produced by vaporizing of the metallisation at the faulty location will gradually build up a pressure within the plastic container. implementation of capacitor banks E 10.e.g. due to a microscopic flow in the dielectric film.10. and the fuse will blow.1 capacitor elements technology The capacitors are dry-type units (i.power factor improvement .

so that 1. must be adequate to cover this "worst-case" condition.3 x 1. control devices. in an ambient temperature of 50 °C maximum.e. plus harmonic components. For this condition. protection At the instant of closing a switch to energize a capacitor.E 10.5 times rated current. derating of the components will be necessary. however. components must be over-sized.E25 . i. All components carrying the capacitor current therefore. together with manufacturing tolerances of actual capacitance (for a declared nominal value) can result in a 50% increase above the calculated value of current. Approximately 30% of this increase is due to the voltage increases. The frequency f'o of the current from the energized capacitors is given by 1 fo' = Hz 2Π LC The total inrush current is the sum of the two infeeds. c the capacitance value. the current is limited only by the impedances of the network upstream of the capacitor.15 = 1. For capacitors. supplied from a 3-phase system having a phase/phase voltage of Un kilo-volts. the maximum highfrequency peak current is given by: Ip = U 2C A 3 Lo Where U = system phase-to-phase voltage in Volts C = capacitance of capacitor in Farads Lo = inductance of system impedance in Henrys (system resistance is ignored). The transient in-rush current from the previouslycharged units will then amount to an initial peak of I' P = U 2C n ( )A 3 L n +1 where L = the supply cable inductance in series with each capacitor n = the number of capacitor steps already energized before closure of the switch C = capacitance of each group forming 1 step (all steps are electrically identical).5 In. is given by: Q A In = 3 Un The permitted range of applied voltage at fundamental frequency. and based on 1. so that high peak values of current will occur for a brief period. which is superimposed on the 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) current wave. The first peak of transient high-frequency or (sometimes) unidirectional* current has the greatest magnitude. etc. the current is a function of: c the applied voltage and its harmonics. when charging an initially uncharged capacitor. will occur if the closing switch contacts touch at the instant of peak power-supply voltage. is generally a high-frequency phenomenon. from the system and from the previously-charged bank. while a further 15% is due to the range of manufacturing tolerances. Generally. In the case where higher temperatures (than 50 °C) occur in enclosures.2 choice of protection. c where a bank of capacitors is automatically switched in steps. those units which are already in service will initially discharge into an uncharged capacitor group at the instant of switching it into service. power factor improvement . and connecting cables due to the possible presence of harmonic currents and to manufacturing tolerances. component dimensions The choice of upstream cables and protection and control devices depends on the current loading. peak unidirectional currents are lower than the first peaks of high-frequency currents. This transient overcurrent however. The nominal current In a capacitor of kvar rating Q. The frequency fo of the transient current surge is given by: 1 fo = Hz 2Π LoC * In general. the upstream cables and transformers constitute the predominant part of Lo (the system inductance). rapidly falling to normal operating values. c for a single capacitor bank. the frequencies of the two infeeds will not be equal. The maximum value attainable.

as previously noted. This maximum condition occurs only if: c the existing voltage at the capacitor is equal to the peak value of rated voltage. care must be taken to ensure that a section of capacitors about to be energized is fully discharged. the transient peaks of voltage and current will be less than those mentioned above. when switching an uncharged capacitor into service. viz: twice that of its maximum when closing on to an initially uncharged capacitor. E26 . therefore. and c the switch contacts close at the instant of peak supply voltage. as a function of their characteristics. by using discharge resistors of a lower resistance value. the maximum voltage transient peak never (in the absence of steady-state harmonics) exceeds twice the peak value of rated voltage.power factor improvement . It is sometimes necessary to install small series inductors to achieve this limitation. In order to avoid undesirable nuisance tripping of controlling circuit breakers at the instant of energizing a capacitor bank. and c the polarity of the power-supply voltage is opposite to that of the charged capacitor. implementation of capacitor banks (continued) E 10. the instantaneous elements of overcurrent tripping relays should be given a suitably high setting.2 choice of protection. method of installation. Note: The short-circuit current-breaking rating of the circuit breaker must be adequate to match the short-circuit level existing at the point of connection of the capacitor bank. This maximum transient current peak occurs when the last step is energized.10. For any other values of voltage and polarity on the pre-charged capacitor. Section H1-2 of chapter H facilitates the selection of suitable cables. the current transient will be at its maximum possible value.5 times the nominal current rating for the capacitor bank concerned. and connecting cables (continued) The peak value of this transient current must not exceed 100 times the rated current of the capacitors in one step of a multi-step bank (IEC 831-1). control devices. In such a situation. In the particular case of peak rated voltage on the capacitor having the same polarity as that of the supply voltage. In the case of a capacitor being already charged at the instant of switch closure. and closing the switch at the instant of supply-voltage peak. as previously noted. must be based on 1. voltage transients High-frequency voltage transients accompany the high-frequency current transients. etc. in which case the manufacturer of the capacitors should be consulted. and ambient temperature. if necessary. The discharge delay time may be shortened. or other types of conductor. cross-sectional area of conductors The current rating of cables. however. there would be no voltage or current transients. Where automatic switching of stepped banks of capacitors is considered. the voltage transient can attain a maximum value approaching 3 times the normal rated peak value.

at each harmonic frequency for which a filter has been provided. The role of a filter bank. Harmonic-producing equipment must create the harmonic e. while practically eliminating these currents and voltages from the rest of the network. elementary harmonic filters E For this appendix. Care should be taken to ensure that frequencies corresponding to the lowimpedance point are not close to control frequencies (such as those of ripple-control schemes used by many power companies for remote control of power-network devices). If it is required to eliminate (almost) a harmonic voltage existing across two points A and B in a network.m.s.1 . thereby reducing VAB(h) to practically zero. as described. It will be seen that. Appendix E3 . AE3-1. The same procedure can be adopted for any number harmonic frequencies known to be present. IZI Ω fh/f50 1 5 7 11 13 (harmonic order) fig. high-impedance values occur. the response of the filter bank in terms of its impedance at different frequencies is shown in figure AE3-2.f. a series-connected LCR circuit (figure AE3-1(a)) tuned to resonate at the harmonic frequency concerned. is to allow a free flow of harmonic currents to circulate between the harmonic source and the filter bank. since each filter is affected by those in parallel with it. the impedance is very low. AE3-2. the more commonlyoccurring odd-numbered harmonics are shown in the diagrams. including a degree of damping caused by the load impedance. as well as by the powersystem source reactance shunting the filter bank (shown dotted in figure AE3-3). will constitute a virtual shortcircuit to the current of that harmonic frequency. so that the 100 Hz (on 50 Hz systems) separating one harmonic frequency from the next made the task of filters (despite manufacturing tolerances. When all factors have been taken into account. even-numbered harmonics were rarely encountered. harmonic source protected network and power source B fig. and resulting currents in order to function correctly. the individual filters being connected in parallel across the points A-B (figure AE3-1(b)). so that satisfactory results were achieved (and still are in all but exceptional cases) by the methods described below. Otherwise. Before the advent of power-electronics. etc.11. the control signals will be virtually short-circuited. while at intermediate frequencies. and impedance changes with temperature.) relatively straightforward. (a) A C L R B (b) A f= 1 2 π v LC An exact analysis of the combination is not simple.

Appendix E3 . In fact. IZI Ω R L C r R Hz fo fig. most of the harmonic voltage Vh will be dropped across the internal impedance Zh of the harmonic source and that small harmonic-current components only will pass through the power-system source impedance Xs and the loads (the latter having relatively high impedance). damped harmonic filters As noted in Chapter E. the successful application of power electronics devices is largely due to the development of effective filtering techniques which are. The filtering requirements are not. it forms a "highpass" filter). the magnitude of harmonic emfs diminishes as the order of the harmonic increases. by connecting a resistor in parallel with the reactor.1. The result is a filter which is less effective (but adequate) at its tuned frequency. so critical for high-order harmonics as those necessary for lower-order harmonics. while at all higher frequencies. as shown dotted in figure AE3-3. Since at fundamental frequency the capacitive reactance of each filter is much greater than its inductive reactance.E A Zh a loads X source Vh harmonic source 5 7 11 filter bank 13 B fig. There are several variations of damped filters and many combinations of band-pass and undamped filters in service. according to particular requirements. AE3-3. it will be seen that since the filters are practically short-circuits to harmonics.e. approaching the value of the resistor only (figure AE3-4) as the frequency increases (i. most of the power-frequency voltage will appear across the capacitors. For that reason. the impedance will be low (inductive/resistive). such as that shown in figure AE3-1 (b) is often damped. Sub-clause 9. the filter for the highest harmonic of a bank. beyond the scope of these brief notes. therefore. however. In figure AE3-3. AE3-4: damped filter circuit and characteristic impedance/frequency curve. 2 . so that a useful contribution to any power-factor correction requirement is fortuitously available. Such a high-pass filter is commonly used for the highest-order harmonic filter (the 11th or 13th for example) of a bank.

it does not reduce the amount of harmonic current which passes through the HV/LV transformer to the source. By similar reasoning. then the series resonant frequency of each step must be the same. This is because. harmonic suppression reactor for a single (power factor correction) capacitor bank E As shown in Appendix E2.e. It may be noted that. on which the series resonant frequency depends. providing that every step is tuned to the same series resonant frequency. as shown in figure AE4-1 (b). C L R (a) LS stepped banks of capacitors Power-factor correction capacitor banks are frequently made up of a number of switched sections. the crux of the problem for capacitor banks is that a fraction of the total component of a given harmonic current can be magnified to dangerous levels in a parallel LCR circuit if that circuit resonates at the harmonic frequency concerned.g. so that the product LC. Such currents must be eliminated by shuntconnected series filters. the first step in service must fulfill the conditions of series resonance already mentioned and shown in figure AE4-1 (b). no resonant condition is possible.12. as described in Appendix E3. This branch being in parallel with LS. since L generally has a much greater value than LS (e. the inductance has reduced to 1/n times its original value. and the upper due to the series LCR circuit. although the capacitance has increased n times (for n steps in service). the powersystem source inductance. the lower frequency is due to the parallel Ls//LCR combination. it follows that mixed steps of any kvar rating may be paralleled. although a harmonicsuppression reactor protects the capacitor bank against the problem of resonance with the source reactance. The reason for this is that for frequencies higher than the series-resonant frequency XL > XC so that the LCR branch behaves as an inductance + resistance series circuit. AE4-1. 2 to 9 times) and the parallelresonant frequency depends on L + LS. Furthermore. By connecting a reactor L in series with the capacitor bank. Appendix E4 . If all switched steps have the same kvar rating. i. to ensure complete immunity from resonance. remains constant.1 . It is sufficient that the two resonant frequencies be lower than those of the harmonics to be protected against. so that the amount of compensation can be adjusted to suit the requirements of a changing load. The addition of further identical steps in parallel will not affect the two resonant frequencies fp and fs. In fact. the circuit now resonates at two different frequencies. the parallel resonant condition is moved away from the harmonic frequency towards a lower frequency. the addition of reactor L means that changes in the power-system source reactance will have much less influence (than formerly) on the parallel-resonant frequency. IZI Ω (b) parallel resonance fP series resonance fS power source impedance f (Hz) f1 fp fS range of unwanted harmonic frequencies fig.

in some cases. each requiring an individual circuit or group of circuits. and.g. c socket-outlet circuits.1.F1 . or extension of a circuit may be effected without disturbing the greater part of the installation. on the failure of a circuit. the following circuit groups are required: c lighting circuits (the circuits on which the majority of insulation failures occur). The most common distribution arrangements for low-voltage installations are described in the following pages. etc. conduits. distribution circuits originate at a main general-distribution board (MGDB) from which cables are installed in various kinds of cables-ways. to supply local distribution and subdistribution boards. c circuits for safety systems (emergency lighting.1 the principal schemes of LV distribution In a typical LV installation. In general. fire-protection systems and uninterruptible-power-supplies (UPS) circuits for computer systems. general F 1. c simplification in locating a defective circuit. c heating and/or air-conditioning appliances circuits. c power circuits for motor-driven fixed plant. the installation of which is normally subject to strict national regulations and codes of practice. for fire-alarm and protection circuits). c power-supply circuits for auxiliary services (indication and control). etc. Division of circuits falls logically into several categories. constitute the practical realization of an electrical installation. while respecting aesthetic considerations. Circuit arrangements The creation of independent circuits to different parts of an installation allows: c the limitation of consequences. particular kinds of cable (e. The arrangement of groups of insulated conductors and the means of fixing them and of protecting them from mechanical damage. * IEC 38 (1983).). c maintenance work on. distribution within a low-voltage installation .

as well as prefabricated bus channels. ducts. Location of the defect is simplified. F1) in buildings intended for specific use: dwellings. Disadvantages A fault occurring on one of the cables from the main distribution board will cut off supply to all circuits of related downstream distribution boards and sub-distribution boards. in which the conductor size is the same throughout the circuit. general (continued) F 1. Conventional wiring installation (fig. conduits. F1: radial branched distribution by conventional wiring at 3 levels. etc. a ring-main circuit is standard. Conductor sizes can be tapered to suit the decreasing current levels towards the final sub-circuits. in which conductor sizes are progressively reduced at each point of circuit sub-division are the most commonly used systems in most countries.1 the principal schemes of LV distribution (continued) radial branched distribution schemes. Advantages Flexibility of installation in large nonpartitioned work-spaces. F2) for industrial and tertiary sector installations. MGDB (main general distribution board) D1 to lighting and heating distribution board D2 D3 D4 prefabricated bus channel a second prefabricated bus channel M M process M fig. schools. With prefabricated bus channels at the second level of distribution (fig.1. F2 . trays. agricultural activities. main distribution board distribution board "A" worhshop power sub-distribution board M process M lighting & heating sub-distribution board fig.distribution within a low-voltage installation . are commonly used. Maintenance or extensions to the circuit leaves the remainder of the installation in service. F2: radial branched distribution using prefabricated bus channels at the second level of distribution. etc. Circuit wires drawn through conduits. and its realization generally follows arrangements similar to those illustrated below: Advantages One sub-divided circuit only will be isolated (by fuses or MCCB) in case of a fault. hotels. Advantages Virtually unrestricted passage for cable ways. radial branched distribution This scheme of distribution is practically universal. easy exploitation. For socket-outlet circuits in certain countries.

Protective-device characteristics must be at a high level (proximity of source). F3): for offices. etc.. etc. F3: radial branched distribution using prefabricated pre-wired channels and lighting rails at final-circuits level. Disadvantages Surplus of copper due to a multiplicity of circuits. Advantages A fault (other than at the busbar level) will clear one circuit only. its control. F4: simple radial distribution. main distribution board M M M M fig. distribution within a low-voltage installation . maintenance and surveillance. bus rails for luminaires fig. laboratories.F With prefabricated bus-rail and pre-wired channels at final-circuits level (fig. skirting-board channels. flexible in locations where partitioning may change according to consumers requirements.. simple (unbranched) radial distribution This scheme is used for the centralised control of an installation or process dedicated to a particular application. easy exploitation.F3 . main distribution board A B C distribution board office C to heating control board prefabricated pre-wired columns. Advantages Aesthetically acceptable.

the advantages of the IT scheme. general (continued) F 1. F6: use of a LV/LV transformer to provide a 3-phase 3-wire TN system from a 3-phase 3-wire IT network.distribution within a low-voltage installation . 400 V or 415 V (or exceptionally 480 V) for power circuits. The HV/LV substation.1. shown on plans of the building(s) concerned. Many other factors must be considered however. In order to provide the lower voltages for lighting circuits. and in particular. should. the system comprises the three phase wires only. and operates as an IT scheme (discussed fully in Chapter G Clause 6). In fact.3 transition from IT to TN In large LV installations. PE protective earthing conductor PE protective earthing conductor Note: in this scheme of delta-connected loads. two voltage levels are normally used: c one level which is generally of 380 V. and the main LV distribution board. the agreement of the power-supply authority concerning the HV/LV substation. Very often. it is essential that balanced loading is maintained in all three phases. and its related civil engineering works. etc network retaining. F4 . the HV/LV substation being on the building line with the public way. which are mainly motors. standby-supply plant. particularly in factories and in some hospitals. In this way : c a 3-phase 3-wire supply is available at the secondary side of the LV/LV transformer with phase-to-phase voltages of 220 V. c and a second level of 220 V. for both technical and economic reasons. F6. LV/LV delta/star transformers are used. fig. c all loads are connected phase-to-phase only (see Note). 230 V or 240 V as required. while at the same time residual earth fault device IT power network TN lighting. and the physical location of distribution and sub-distribution boards.2 the main LV distribution board The starting point for the design of an electrical installation. etc. 1. fig. is the geographical division of the loads. The first set of voltages are the phase to phase voltages of 3-phase systems. be placed as near to the electrical centre of the load area as possible. and correspond respectively to the phase-toneutral voltages given in the second set. very often only the main LV distribution board can be located at the load centre. 230 V or 240 V (or exceptionally 277 V) for lighting and socket-outlet circuits. c earth faults occurring on the TN system will be cleared rapidly by the TN system circuit breaker and the advantages of the IT scheme will be preserved. as shown in fig. F5: low-voltage main distribution board. for those circuits requiring them.

etc.1 continuity of electric-power supply continuity of power supply is achieved by: c appropriate division of the installation and the provision of alternative supply sources. Figure F7 shows a typical arrangement of an automatic changeover scheme to provide LV standby power to an "essential" loads distribution board. c circuits which create excessive voltage changes. the sub-division of circuits.F5 . Triplen harmonics are of zero-phase-sequence on balanced 3-phase systems. Moreover. A case in particular concerns 3rd harmonics and all multiples of the 3rd harmonic*. F7: essential and non-essential loads are separated. arc furnaces. motor-speed controllers. is the most common way of ensuring a high level of supply continuity from the power network. G standby generator ant automatic changeover contactor NORMAL-STANDBY non-essential loads essential loads inverter sensitive load (computer. In this way. e. diesel-generator sets. c discriminative protection schemes. HV LV the provision of standby emergency power supplies Examples of standby emergency power supplies include: two separate HV/LV substations. with provision for interconnection of the LV main distribution boards. loads susceptible to disturbances. etc.) fig. relays). TT.g. * Known as "triplen" harmonics. e. A high degree of power-supply continuity can be achieved by: dividing the installation. commonly referred to as "essential" and "non-essential" loads are separated and supplied from different busbars. essential services standby supplies F In order to achieve the highest possible plant performance. and in some cases are completely eliminated. electric converters of various kinds (thyristor-controlled rectifiers. such as discharge lamps. the PCC (point of common coupling) is moved from the LV busbars to the HV busbars. it is necessary that the continuity and quality of the electric-power supply be assured. etc. two groups. In general. then triplen harmonic currents on the LV side of one transformer do not appear in the HVside conductors supplying it (the currents circulate internally around the delta winding) and so cannot affect neighbouring transformers. uninterruptible static power supply equipment (UPS). and (where the installed load justifies the expense) two or more HV/LV transformers. automatic local standby generation for essential services. with automatic standby supplies provided for essential loads. c the provision of local emergency standby generation. the division of installations and the provision of more than one source Ring-main type HV supplies. c circuits which create harmonics. etc. where the effects are considerably less between one group of loads and the next. These loads and others of similar characteristics. inverters. i. which accounts for their particular behaviour in delta/star transformers. the sub-division of circuits Circuits are divided into groups according to their relative importance. c sub-division and duplication of important circuits. c the type of earthing scheme (IT for example). The separation of loads through transformers in this way is sometimes referred to as "de-coupling".) and the use of selective protection devices (fuses. The use of several transformers allows a measure of separation of loads which would otherwise cause an unacceptable disturbance to other circuits. any triplen harmonic voltages which may be present on the HV busbars (from directly-connected HV loads for example) will not be transformed down to LV by a delta/star transformer. for example: c computer systems which are sensitive to voltage regulation (dips and peaks) and to waveform distortion (harmonics).2. a privately-owned power plant. the choice of earthing system (IT. and loads creating them. TN. a ringmain type service connection. 2. should preferably be supplied through different HV/LV transformers.). such as large motors. distribution within a low-voltage installation . If delta/star HV/LV transformers are used. providing more than one source.

1 continuity of electric-power supply (continued) A sub-group of the essential loads. * Chapter F Sub-clause 4-5 discusses the matter of earthing schemes in more detail. closed closed open fig.. This scheme allows normal (and safe) system operation to continue in the event of an earth-fault (by far the most common type of insulation failure). c flicker. A shutdown to trace the fault manually or automatically (see G 6. A second earth fault (if it occurs on a different phase or on a neutral conductor) will. particularly odd-numbered harmonics (3rd.).g. in continuous-process manufacturing. due to welding machines. c high-frequency phenomena. c harmonic voltages and currents. etc. requires the highest degree of continuity. namely computer and information technology equipment (ITE). Among the most onerous are: c voltage drops.). etc. in terms of the design and operation of a network. F8: an example of HV standby power supply. c flicker. repetitive voltage drops of less than 10%. i.. are: c excessive dips (occasional voltage drops. stable voltage level. e..). etc. c overvoltages. the IT scheme* of earthing is generally adopted.distribution within a low-voltage installation .g. from half a cycle to 1 s) and peaks of the supply voltage at normal frequency.2) and effect repairs can then be carried out later. particularly the odd harmonics (3rd. discrimination is achieved by increasing the operating time of relays as their location in a network becomes closer to the power source. over-loading. leaving all other circuit breakers and fuses unaffected. F6 ..2. at the end of a manufacturing process. or sudden peaks and dips. In radial branched installations. 5th.g. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2.2 quality of electric-power supply public and private power-supply networks are subject to diverse disturbances. The short-circuit (or overload) current will generally pass through one or more circuit breaker(s) or fuse(s) upstream of the circuit breaker (or fuses) controlling the faulted cable. this means the nearest upstream circuit breaker or fuse(s) to the fault position. choice of earthing system Where considerations of supply continuity are paramount. All downstream loads then being inevitably deprived of supply. c high-frequency phenomena. HV LV HV LV essential loads non-essential loads essential loads non-essential loads fig. and quality of wave form. c overvoltage surges. Power network disturbances may be of a continuous or transitory nature. By "discrimination" is meant that none of the upstream protective devices through which the fault (or overload) current flows will operate before the protective device controlling the faulted circuit has operated. which will cause overcurrent relays to trip the circuit(s). In this way. 2. is to trip the circuit breaker or blow the fuse(s) which control(s) the faulted circuit only.. the failure to operate of the relay closest to the fault means that the next relay upstream will operate in a slightly longer time. hospital operating theatres. however. Supply from a HV substation HV from a private power plant or from a different HV substation selective discrimination by protection relays and/or fuses The prime objective in any scheme of automatic protection against insulation faults. the level and frequency of which must be controlled and maintained within acceptable limits. etc. photocopiers. These requirements are met by a static UPS inverter system. In general. constitute a short-circuit fault. c harmonic currents and voltages. The most important of these.e... at any convenient time (e. from 15 to 90% of Un. F9: the principle of selective discrimination. e. 5th.

lift motors will affect local consumers. etc. plant. several successive dips may be experienced before the fault is cleared. for example: v a direct HV/LV fault occurring between the primary and secondary windings of a transformer. c high-torque motors.m. there can be the risk of a heavy current surge occurring at the restoration of normal voltage. c above 0. c for transitory (generally impulsetype) overvoltages.. c in all computer-based applications. cold incandescent lamps and resistive heating loads. by: v the application of lightning arresters. depending on the apparatus in question. v correct coordination in the insulation scheme noted above. In certain cases. A possible solution is a scheme of automatic load shedding and staged re-connection of apparatuses requiring high restarting currents.f.1. voltage dips are unacceptable. This kind of dip is the most common in "standard" systems. i. The frequency of such surges occurring is related to the so-called keraunic level of the region and to the types of network concerned.. This constitutes (more or less. outdoor substation equipment. c use of lamps which do not extinguish during dips. information technology. and switchgear and transformers. as opposed to networks close to heavy industry.discussions are still underway in the IEC). the origin of the dip may be due to one of the following causes: c less than 0. The keraunic level is defined as the number of days per annum on which the sound of thunder is heard at the location concerned. and cleared by protective devices (relays. v due to the flow of earth-fault current from a HV fault or lightning stroke.5 seconds include the starting of local electric motors (central station fire-alarm sirens produce cyclic dips in the neighbouring distribution network. depending on the degree of phase difference) conditions of short-circuit.). with the consequent tripping of main circuit breakers on overcurrent. since the loss of information or destruction of a programme can occur. voltage depressions of short duration ("dips") Types of voltage dip According to the duration of the undervoltage condition. At HV distribution voltage levels. c overvoltage on an LV installation due to faults on an HV system. switching overvoltages are adequately suppressed by standard lightning arresters. the blowing of fuses to clear fault current can also produce relatively severe surges of overvoltage. where large disturbances are frequent. while on LV networks. will very likely be out-of-phase with the restored voltage. and require several minutes (to cool) before re-igniting. and other solutions. the damaging effects of overvoltages can be avoided: c for overvoltages at power-system frequency by: v assuring adequate overvoltage withstand capability for the equipment concerned. connected directly to such exposed plant. Some common remedies include: c automatic load shedding and reconnection. while computer installations and related electronic processing equipments are frequently provided with independent (battery based) supplies.F the undesirable effects of voltage dips are countered in various ways.5 seconds: most of the faults occurring on HV systems fall into this category. Methods of protection against the dangers of such overvoltages are described in Chapter C Sub-clause 3. for example). c tests at normal power frequency. the following may be cited: c depending on the severity of the dip and the type of loads in a given installation. In industrial installations. v the use of voltage limiting devices where required. in sufficient number to maintain a safe level of illumination. A common remedy is to install high-inertia high peak-torque motors where the driven load allows. with catastrophic consequences. etc. Consequences and solutions All appliances.. and so on.e. according to their origin: c overvoltage surges due to lightning are referred to as being of atmospheric origin. associated with automaticallycontrolled diesel-generator sets. Switching at high voltage can produce surges of voltage similar to those of atmospheric origin. the deceleration during a voltage dip (torque α V2) means that its back-e.000 volts for 1 minute (or close to this value . based on trickle-charged storage cells and inverters. such as: word processing. c operational overvoltages. with a corresponding heavy current flow. but effectively isolate sensitive circuits from the kind of voltage surges in question. and equipment must have a basic overvoltage withstand ability.F7 . and so on. fuses. overvoltages Types of overvoltage Overvoltages are distinguished in a general way. These overvoltages mainly affect overhead transmission and distribution lines. In IT-earthed systems a voltage-limiting device between the supply-transformer neutral point and earth is obligatory for protection against power-frequency and possible induced-surge type overvoltages. distribution within a low-voltage installation . but the universal solution for important installations is the use of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) units. c some types of discharge lamp (notably mercury-vapour lamps) used for public lighting. or a HV line touching a LV overhead-line distributor. protection against overvoltage is considered to be achieved if all components of the installation have been successfully tested for power-frequency overvoltage withstand ability.1 to 0. c for an electric motor.e. The dielectric withstand test voltage at normal power frequency for most LV materials is 2U + 1. These devices are always necessary in IT earthed systems. Electric motors are particularly susceptible to winding insulation failure in the presence of high-frequency high-voltage surges. Other reasons for voltage dips exceeding 0. etc. etc.1 second: short-circuit faults occurring anywhere on local LV networks. The remedy is to use other types of lamp or to mix non-extinguishing lamps. in a properly co-ordinated insulation scheme. c the use of uninterruptible powersupply units.5 seconds: on rural networks where auto-reclosing circuit breakers are common. and the measures described below have been taken to protect against high-frequency high-voltage and unidirectional surge phenomena.. machine-tool control. which passes through a substation earthing system that is common to both the HV and LV networks. with a risk of damaging shafts and couplings. Some consequences and solutions Among the numerous undesirable consequences of voltage dips. underground cables or overhead lines. c from 0. excessive transient torques may occur. Some degree of voltage variation can be tolerated and voltage-stabilizing circuits are built-in for this purpose. which not only assure a high quality level of harmonic-free stable voltage as already described. e. extinguish below a certain voltage level. i.g.

The peak value is designated by Uimp (imp = impulse).3 kV 9. Other impulse test wave-forms. For LV installations. at terminals of large motors). characterized by the values 1. are used for test purposes.e.5 kV 4 kV table F10: assumed levels of transient overvoltage possible at different points of a typical installation. Note: all Compact* and Masterpact* circuit breakers have the class II front face feature. on the application of lightning arresters at the origin of the installation. compared to that on the HV side. Transformers with earthed screens between HV and LV windings may also be used to provide a costly but effective method of eliminating the problem. During the several impulse-voltage tests. 1. IEC Publication 947 takes account of the rules governing insulation coordination and requires that LV switchgear be impulse tested according to the withstand values shown in the relevant tables. concerning overvoltages. v industrial switchgear. kV 9.2 µs) and the time for the impulse to fall to 50% of its peak value (50 µs).8kV 50% 1. * Merlin Gerin brand names. regardless of the keraunic level. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2.000 metres. Their use is strongly recommended. levels of distribution main distribution board 230/400 V 400/690 V 6 kV 8 kV local distribution board 4 kV 6 kV final circuits level 2. The levels indicated in Table F12 are abstracted from IEC Publication 947.8 kV 9. This feature provides additional safety for operating personnel. but these tests are relevant only for very high system voltages.2/50 µs. together with voltage-surge suppression devices at sensitive points in the installation (e. These two values (in micro seconds) indicate the time interval for the wave to attain its peak value from the (defined) instant of impulse initiation (i.8 kV 12. Note: Materials tested to IEC standards have an impulse withstand capability of 123% of the values shown in Table F10. notably for representing switching overvoltages. v impulse voltage withstand capability of insulating materials. where equipment known to be susceptible to damage from overvoltage surges is installed.8 kV circuit breakers/isolators + class II front face 9. nominal voltage of the installation The basic test applies a standardized lightning voltage impulse of the form shown in figure F11. in addition to a basic impulse-voltage withstand capability of the insulating materials. F11: standardized impulse voltage wave-form 1. Such schemes require careful study and are best carried out in cooperation with the relevant manufacturers.8 kV 9. These values are called "front time" and "time to half value" respectively.2. the front face of which is insulated to class II level.2/50 µs.7 kV table F12: typical levels of impulse withstand voltage of industrial circuit breakers labelled Uimp = 8 kV. the transference of surge voltages through the interwinding capacitances of the HV/LV transformer reduces considerably the severity of the overvoltage on the LV side. application of impulse voltage between phases across the open circuit breaker between phases and earth impulse-voltage values circuit breakers circuit breakers/ isolators 9.distribution within a low-voltage installation .3 kV 14. no break down of insulation must occur between phases between open contacts or between any phase and earth.8 kV 12. but at the same time including an accessible manual-operating handle.2 50 µs fig. F8 .g. Table F12 also includes a test for switchgear. for altitudes of 0-2. Lightning arresters are necessary (obligatory in some countries) where an installation is supplied by a low-voltage overhead line and the keraunic level is 25 or more.8 kV 9. Table F10 shows maximum values of peak overvoltage assumed to be possible at different points in a typical LV installation. v use of lightning arresters. beyond the ranges used for distribution. These measures depend.2 quality of electric-power supply (continued) c measures against transient impulse-type overvoltage surges.

speed controllers for a. as described in chapter C sub-clause 3. series connected to a capacitor bank. then the more-costly TN-C-S system and equipotential "cage" earthing scheme will be necessary. in dieselgenerating sets). supplied through static thyristor-controlled rectifiers. If not. more or less. the manufacturer of the capacitor banks should be able to advise on suitable filtering arrangements.g. For the latter case. Refer to the manufacturers of single-phase static rectifiers and inverters for guidance. motors. which are related to winding slots in the magnetic circuits (slot ripple).g. Assuming that the neutral conductor and the lightning arresters are connected to the same earth electrode. and results from the non-linear relationship between current and magnetic flux produced by the current in ferro-magnetic materials. but in general the 5th and 7th harmonics are prominent. This non-linearity produces odd-order harmonics (principally 3rd order) with some additional harmonics from rotating machines. the wave front being chopped at this level. This potential will be transferred to the phase conductors of the installation.5 kV. c local overheating of magnetic circuits in motors. v oversizing of transformers. If the installation earth electrode is beyond the zone of influence of the arresters electrode. c discharge lamps and ballasts (both lamps and ballasts are highly nonlinear). Consequences Harmonics give rise to (among others) the following consequences: c the need to oversize certain network and installation components: v oversizing of conductors (refer to the manufacturers of the products concerned). such as: iron-cored inductances.or fluorescent-lighting circuits. generally on the first pole away from the HV/LV transformer position and on the pole at which the consumers service cable is connected to the line.F Arresters are commonly installed at each end of the LV line. a 33% 3rd-harmonic content in the current of each phase produces 100% 3rd-harmonic current in the neutral conductor (since 3rd harmonic currents have zerophase-sequence on 3-phase systems. Reducing the harmonic content of a system to an acceptable level consists of: c using delta/star LV/LV transformers to isolate the 3rd (and odd multiples of the 3rd-harmonic). and add arithmetically). capacitors). v harmonic-suppression reactor. and equipments complying with such standards are therefore adequately protected. transformers (magnetizing currents).c. v oversizing of capacitor banks. Solutions In general. to which they present a virtual short-circuit.2/50 µs impulse. The action of a series harmonic-suppression reductor is described in Appendix F1. distribution within a low-voltage installation . c possibility of resonance between network capacitances and inductances (ferroresonances) or between capacitor banks and the system source impedance (mainly inductive). c use of harmonics filters. harmonic voltages and currents Sources and types of harmonics The principal sources of harmonics are: c electromagnetic machines and devices.1. then the discharge current through the arresters will raise the potential of the neutral conductor. c installing filters. motors and generators and so on.. then the random perturbations are of lower average amplitude and the harmonics produced by the rectifiers are relatively significant. c computer installations.c. The value of the subtransient reactance of the alternator and the type of loads are important factors. Filters are of two kinds: v shunt-connected. c arc furnaces create a continuous spectrum of random disturbances. an installation cannot tolerate a significant percentage of harmonics: a value of 5% maximum is a limit often recommended. The withstand value of LV components is normally standardized at 6 kV for a 1. The action of a damped filter is described in Appendix F1. v oversizing of alternators (e. series-resonant: extremely effective for a particular harmonic (the 5th for example) and is used in association with others for selective filtration of harmonic voltages. v oversizing of neutral conductors (of a 3-phase 4-wire system) particularly for discharge. v increasing insulation levels v increasing current-carrying capability c isolation of a harmonic source by supplying it through a separate HV/LV transformer. but covering a wide band of frequencies. The harmonic generation is variable according to the function. rectifiers and so on) which depend on thyristor control and current-chopping techniques. If the arc is d. In this arrangement the voltage will not exceed 3-4.F9 . then a TT-earthed system is commonly used. while (unlike the ferromagnetic sources) the 2nd harmonic may be present. c static 3-phase converters of various kinds (inverters. for example. the undesirable effects of harmonic voltages and currents are minimized by: c over-sizing of components (e. v damped filter: less efficient. according to the resistance of the several different earth electrodes to which it is connected.

Whereas in a radiated wave the energy in the electric field is exactly equal to that of the magnetic field. Moreover.e. while at the same time in other circuits minute currents and voltages are normal and the circuit components are correspondingly fragile.2 quality of electric-power supply (continued) the undesirable effects of inductive (electric or magnetic) or commonimpedance coupling between adjacent circuits at power-system frequency (with its harmonics and superimposed high-frequency disturbances) together with highfrequency radiated electromagnetic waves. c commercial and amateur radio transmitters. earthing arrangements and equipotential bonding-guidance for installation contractors The following notes have been abstracted from November 1993 IEC draft proposal documents.or micro-volts. c radiation from ignition systems of internal combustion engines. or radiated electromagnetic fields.2. a very common example is the connection of earthed conductors of power supply cables and of cables for information technology systems in a wide (extensive) mesh. This is the case if large metal loops exist. or different combinations of any number of them. for example: the opening of contactor coils or circuit breaker tripping coils. i. can also present such induction loops.g. namely a charged conductor (electric field) or a current-carrying conductor (magnetic field). by common impedance and induction (electric or magnetic) at fundamental frequency and harmonic frequencies. their zone of influence rapidly diminishes with distance from the conductor. i. and on the size of the loop.e. This is why.) and abnormal (system faults. for all practical purposes. concerning electromagnetic compatibility. lightning. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2. etc. The European Directive of 3rd March 1989. together with unidirectional and H. at the instant of switching on a lamp. and the greater the portion of energy leaving the circuit as radiation. c the amount of energy leaving a conductor in the form of an electromagnetic wave depends on the acceleration of electrons. imposes a maximum level of permitted radiation from electrical installations and their component parts (the practical application of the methods to adopt is still being studied at the time of publication of this guide). for example. e. c specific studies. the greater the acceleration of electrons. this aspect of EMC will require closer attention than hitherto. The emfs induced by one or more of the three possible modes are generally of the order of milli. etc. In practice. The unifying feature of all inductive phenomena is that electric. All disturbances on power systems which cause electrons to accelerate.e. provoked by normal (switching. been very important. until recently. gas. these metal parts may contribute to a screening effect which reduces the induction and contributes to the protection against electromagnetic interference. building constructions or pipe systems for non-electrical supplies. where different electrical wiring systems for the supply of different electrical equipment. equipotential bonding systems. mobile transmitters and cordless telephones. result in producing emfs in any conducting medium in their paths. c a further difference between the above cases is that a non-radiating electric field can be much stronger than its associated magnetic field. are minimized by: c the selection of appropriate materials. leave the space immediately surrounding their point of origin. the field strength in both cases varies inversely with the distance squared from the conductor*. the circuit of origin generally being a capacitive/inductive combination where XC = XL at the frequency of natural resonance. The field strength of a propagated wave varies inversely as the distance from the conductor.) operating conditions. however. heating or air conditioning. However. and full protection against interference from any propagated or direct-coupled source. the radiation due to the initial acceleration of electrons can be heard in a radio receiver (i. will cause a radiated wave to leave the conductor and propagate through space. * except in very close proximity to the conductor.. surges. are installed on different routes.distribution within a low-voltage installation . electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) This subject concerns all cases of coupling. It may be noted that in the context of the present discussion. for example. and vice-versa. in a high-voltage high-impedance (low current) circuit. When non-electrical pipe-systems or metal parts of the building construction are connected with the equipotential bonding system of the building. etc. c mains-borne interference through conductors in the installation. its zone of influence is much greater than that of the electric or magnetic fields noted above.F. in a low-voltage lowimpedance (high current) circuit. The higher the frequency. where it varies inversely as the distance cubed. Furthermore. Protection against electromagnetic interference (EMI) Lightning currents in a lightning protection system (LPS) or in the vicinity of a building can cause overvoltages in electrical installations of buildings by induction. F10 . certain modern electronic circuits have enormous amplifying power. magnetic. radio-directed taxis. i. e. etc. the switching-transient current).g. for power supply and for information technology.. The value of the induced voltage depends on the rate of rise (di/dt) of the lightning current. include: c "white-noise" from fluorescent and other types of discharge lamps. and radiated electromagnetic waves. the effects of a radiated wave have not.e. walkie-talkies. Essential differences are as follows: c electric or magnetic fields at power-system frequency and its harmonics do not. commonly causing problems. equipment It is for the foregoing reasons that electronic equipment requires special care. whether in a unidirectional or oscillatory manner. Other sources. With the increasing use of walkie-talkies. for water.

In or near rooms for medical use. 2. busbars or equipment. screening. e. 7.2 and clause G5) in installations with sensitive equipment. concerning such situations is currently under consideration). in order to minimise the possibility of over-current and EMC problems. see figure F13. or are likely to have. Adequate separation of power and signal cables and crossovers at right angles.F11 . Provision of filters and/or surge suppressors in the circuits feeding sensitive electrical equipment. 3.e. 11. Wiring systems with single core conductors should be enclosed in bonded metal enclosures. Avoidance of induction loops by selection of a common route for the wiring systems. 10.g.g. See also item 17 of this list. lifts. Bonding of metal enclosures and screening. For TN-C-S systems. distribution within a low-voltage installation . c avoidance of loops between different "TN-S sections" of the TN-C-S system within the building (see figure F14). consideration must be given to the use of separate protective conductors (PE) and neutral conductors (N) beyond the incoming supply point. Avoidance of TN-C system (see subclause F 4. make the separation (of the PE conductor from the PEN conductor) at the origin of the installation. L N PE I equipment 1 loop equipment 2 I fig. significant information technology equipment installed. 6. which may influence or damage the related electrical equipment. Consideration must be given by the planner and designer of electrical installations to the following: 1. 4. electric or magnetic fields of electrical installations may interfere with medical electrical equipment (a new clause for Section 710 of IEC 364. screened and/or in twisted pairs. Location of sensitive equipment relative to heavily loaded centres. Recommended measures for reduction in the effect of induced overvoltages depend on adequate equipotential bonding. 5. there are two possibilities depending on the arrangement for interconnection of equipment and extraneous conductive parts within the building: c avoidance of the "TN-C section" of the TN-C-S system for distribution within the building. 8. i. L PEN I1 I1 equipment 1 I6 I1 I3 I6 loop equipment 2 I6 I5 I4 I6 I5 fig. F14: neutral currents in a TN-C system.F Power cables carrying large currents with a high rate of rise of current (di/dt) (e. use of filters and surge suppressors. physical separation. F13: neutral currents in a TN-S system. Location of potential sources of interferences relative to sensitive equipment. 9. Use of signal cables. due to the passage of neutral current through signal cables (see figures F13 and F14). For buildings which have. the starting current of lifts or currents controlled by rectifiers) can induce overvoltages in cables of information technology systems. Bonding connections should be made as short as possible.

Cables and pipes (e. transformers according to IEC 742). for IT* systems (local IT* systems). The following methods exemplify this range. Note: the problem of earth differential voltages on large public telecommunication networks are the responsibility of the network operator. Further examples of basic techniques used to achieve immunity to incoming electromagnetic disturbances are: a) to provide inherent immunity in the Information Technology equipment. from other supply circuits and earthing systems and extraneous conductive parts such as building metalwork.g. the following methods may be considered to avoid or minimise the problem. this can provide a low impedance earth reference plane for signal interconnections between those system components in close proximity to the mesh. the star earthing point (e. There is a continuous range of earthing and equipotential bonding methods to achieve electromagnetic compatibility. c) to provide equipotential bonding between equipment for the relevant range of frequencies. U ≠ 0. Method 2: use of a local horizontal equipotential bonding system (mesh) (see figure F17) The normal protective conductors are supplemented by equipotential bonding of the components of the Information Technology system to a local mesh (bonding mat). Provisions for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Signal connections In buildings which include a PEN conductor. In some cases. 14. F15: introduction of armoured cables and metal pipes into buildings (examples). 16.2. U = 0 b) introduction at different places is not suitable. incident disturbances can be much reduced. * not to be confused with Information Technology. either electrically or by use of error correction.g.1. Depending on the frequency and the mesh spacing.distribution within a low-voltage installation . Method 1: radially connected protective conductors (see figure F16) This uses the normal protective conductors associated with the supply conductors. Use of Class II equipment. or where there are EMC problems on signal cables due to inadequate EMC provisions in the electrical installations. for water. Use of local transformers with separate windings (double wound transformers) for the supply of the information technology equipment. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2.5. the PE bar in the relevant distribution board) of the radially connected protective and functional earthing conductors for the Information Technology equipment may be earthed by a separate dedicated insulated conductor connected to the main earthing terminal. for protection by electrical separation (e. By providing a dedicated supply circuit and earthing system serving the Information Technology equipment.2 quality of electric-power supply (continued) 12. b) to separate the Information Technology equipment from the sources of disturbance. screens and metal pipes and connections of these parts with the main equipotential bonding (MEB) of the building (see figure F15). gas or heating) for feeding the building should enter the building at the same place. Use of suitable wiring (cabling) routing in order to minimise the enclosed area of common loops formed by the supply cables and signal cables. telephone power supply earth electrode embedded in the foundation MEB I V U=0 cable from the antenna I water district heating gas waste water a) a common introduction is suitable. 15. telephone power supply Information Technology equipment may be subject to malfunction due to currents and voltages induced in equipment or between interconnected equipment. Avoidance of potential differences between different areas of equipotential bonding should be achieved by the use of metal-free fibre optic cable or other nonconducting interconnecting systems such as microwave or laser links. sub-clause 413. The protective conductor at each equipment provides a relatively high impedance path for electromagnetic disturbances (other than mains-borne transients) such that inter-unit signal cables are subject to a large proportion of the incident noise. including the bonding mesh.2. I cable from the antenna V U≠0 water district heating gas waste water I fig. 17. additional immunity may be provided by a separate dedicated Information Technology supply circuit and earthing system. IT earthing systems are defined in sub-clause F 4. As with Method 1.3 and IEC 364-4. who may employ other methods. or of clause 413-5. Equipment must therefore have a high immunity to function satisfactorily. 13.2. Bonding of metal sheaths. taking into account the requirements of IEC 364-3. F12 . d) to provide a low impedance earth reference plane to minimize earth potential differential voltages and provide shielding. sub-clause 312. Use of fibre optic links for signal connections.g.

All such meshes are interconnected by (numerous) vertical bonding conductors to minimize potential differences in the meshes. and in the absence of more precise information. Method 1 is most easily implemented. PE signal cables ITE PE signal cables ITE PE ITE distribution board main earthing terminal or earthing-bus-conductor fig. it may be necessary to consult specialists. PE signal cables ITE PE signal cables ITE PE ITE distribution board ITE .5 kV 5 kV 80 A 200 A table F18: compatibility levels for installation materials. it is recommended that materials be selected which satisfy the requirements indicated in table F18. F16: radially connected protective conductors. The difficulty and cost of implementation increases through Method 2 and its possible extensions.5 kV 7. The foregoing information concerning Methods 1 and 2 has been abstracted from a November 1993 draft proposal for a new section (548) of IEC 364 Part 5 Chapter 54. especially in existing buildings. However. In the case of particular difficulties.Information Technology Equipment main earthing terminal or earthing-bus-conductor fig.F Method 2 may be extended where necessary by the installation of bonding meshes on other floors. these are more likely to provide an acceptable environment for unspecified future Information Technology equipment. F17: local horizontal bonding mesh. distribution within a low-voltage installation .F13 . switch closing) 10 kV 7.2 at the origin 690 V of the installation 400 V other cases 690 V 400 V IEC 8/20 µs (in preparation) level minimum level 3 (8 kV) level 2 (3 V/m) level 2 recommended level 4 (15 kV) level 3 (10 V/m) level 4 current waves (lightning. For current projects. disturbance electrostatic discharge field strength high speed repetitive transient "bursts" (contact bounce) transient overvoltages reference IEC 801-2 IEC 801-3 IEC 801-4 IEC 60.

High Quality Supplies The objective is to supply sensitive equipment (information-technology devices. in normal circumstances. etc. The High Quality supply is achieved by means of an inverter and its associated battery of storage cells and rectifier (charger).2. HV LV Diesel generator UPS fig. within a low-voltage installation. F19: example of the production of High Quality power supply. Continuity of supply is assured by means of a diesel-generator set and automatic changeover switch. so that an uninterrupted power supply can be maintained indefinitely (if personnel are available to top up the fuel tank) or for several hours if the substation is unattended. micro-processors. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2. which is supplied.distribution within a low-voltage installation . at a reasonable cost. such as computerbased appliances.2 quality of electric-power supply (continued) it is possible. F14 . to provide a supply of High Quality (free from disturbances) for dedicated circuits specifically intended to supply highly sensitive equipments.) from a source which is free from the pollution discussed above. The diagram of figure F19 represents a scheme at the level of the main general distribution board. cash registers. etc. from one outgoing-way of the main general distribution board.

1 safety installations the provision of safety and emergency installations is a legal obligation. Among the many applications in which an interruption of power supply cannot be tolerated. It may be noted that where several emergency-services standby sources exist. plane reservations. Note: power supplies for security lighting are described in Chapter J. and that the failure of one of them does not affect the normal functioning of the others..F15 .. cash registers. safety and emergency-services installations. Apart from the general rules noted above. there are certain projects for which the safety regulations are related to a particular process (petro-chemical.2 standby reserve-power supplies standby reserve-power plant is an economic necessity in numerous circumstances where loss of supply would have far-reaching consequences. shops.). concerning: c establishments receiving the public. c military.). paper production. desalination plants. notably: c security and safety lighting. c automatic fire detection.. c industrial processes (continuity of "feed" material for continuous processing..). c high-rise apartment blocks. they can also be used as reserve-power sources.. They must be provided with the means for ensuring the safe evacuation of personnel. c surgical operating theatres.).6.. c smoke evacuation. c water pumps for re-filling the fireextinguishing system. F20: examples of reserve power supplies: central storage battery (left) and diesel-generator sets (right).)..3..) or services (tunnel lighting.. fig. on condition that any one of them is available and capable of starting and supplying all safety and emergency circuits.. c scientific research. airport runway lighting. c ticketing.. the following may be cited: c information technology installations (protection of data concerning insurances. egg-hatching. boiler feed-water pumps in power stations. c air compressors for the pressure-operated fire-extinguishing system. factories. Sub-clause 4. administrations. 3.. etc. c fire-extinguishing systems. banking. c establishments in which people are employed (offices. c alarms and warning systems. distribution within a low-voltage installation . professional practices. Safety and emergency-services installations are governed by statutory regulations. c food-processing industry (refrigeration plants. cement works. c telecommunications.. and standby power supplies F 3.

IT services banking insurance administration.3. v a break of less than 15 seconds. the time to evacuate an ERP (Establishments for Receiving the Public): 1 hour minimum.nuclear .biological . to ensure the utmost security. or more. (2) data-storage time limit. the following features are imperative: c supply interruption is not tolerated: v in information technology (IT) systems.indications and control of the process parameters .3.light machining .cold-working sequence .packaging assembly chain .heavy mechanical (high inertia) conditions allowable duration of break autonomy of source minimum and preferred solutions technique employed c c (1) c (1) c (2) c c c permanent if economical no-break generator or start-up and take over load from an inverter c c c c inverter with or without a generator to take over load of the inverter permanent generation set (1) according to economic circumstances. In large apartment blocks. v in continuous-process operations. and standby power supplies (continued) F 3. the following choices are imposed: v no break. c period for conserving data in information technology (IT) systems: 10 minutes.thermal .chemical . c autonomy is desirable for reserve-power supplies installations. except for loads of high inertia which can tolerate an interruption in the order of 1 second.distribution within a low-voltage installation . safety and emergency-services installations. imperceptible interruptions of several milli-seconds are sufficient to interfere with certain equipments. Specifications particular to safety installations Regulations covering safety installations contain a number of conditions to be respected concerning their electric-power sources: c duration time of an interruption: according to the case. . principal specifications In order to satisfy the requirement of economical exploitation. v a break of less than 1 second.management systems for production processes zero i1s i 15 s i 15 mn 10 mn 20 mn 1h .process control and monitoring . UPS systems are essential in these cases. As previously noted. and are used together with the reserve-power source. it is a function of the economics related to exploitation beyond the minimum demanded for the safety (only) of personnel. c autonomy demanded for the reserve-power source: in general it corresponds to the time necessary to complete all safety operations for persons: for example. table F21: table showing the choice of reserve-power supply types according to application requirements and acceptable supply-interruption times. F16 .data banks . choice and characteristics of reserve-power supplies Apart from perceptible (albeit very brief) cuts in power supply. continuous process requirement programmable controllers interruptible IT equipment sequential telecommunications process applications applications types examples of installations . the autonomy of the source must be 36 hours.

M G load pick-up (1) generators in permanent service c time required to supply load zero time (no break) c c 1 second 1 to 10 minutes (5) total time for a changeover operation zero c c related to the automatic c changeover scheme adopted for each source installation constraints Special location None. c complementary equipment.000 hrs and 5 to 10 years. Mechanical particularly clutch assembly and coupling shaft. (1) A motor-generator set permanently running and equipped with a heavy flywheel. x 2 if the installation is permanent. Mechanical and starter batteries.e. Fuel tanks. Frequent checking. e. Permanent operating staff.g. etc. maintenance work.c. immediate or delayed load pick-up time. necessary x 2 if installation is typically 2 for 1 redundance (4) permanent. but constraints only except on minimal wear and very clutch and coupling shaft little upkeep required. other parameters maintenance Periodic shut-downs None. Minor mechanical Periodic checks.4. Automatic synchronizing equipment. c operational constraints. operational mode and constraints Special network. type. c c c c c Special location (vibrations noise nuisance.F 3. additional equipment (apart from protection and changeover devices) Charger. distribution within a low-voltage installation . (4) A study of safety requirements allows the definition of an optimal scheme. fire protection). table F22: table of characteristics of different sources. reliability (4) constant checking Integrated checks. 1. batteries are open Special d. On the loss of normal supply. Starter. meters. batteries x 2. Manual or automatic. i.F17 . 4 to 5 years (for sealed batteries). and according to the source(s) used.000 to 10. Fixed maximum load. 5 to 10 years. emergency and/or reserve power supply battery inverter cold-start diesel generator An overall review of the many possibilities and associated constraints often leads to an optimum solution based on an inverter scheme associated with a standby dieselgenerator set. Inertial fly wheel and clutch. i. x 2 where security is important. Unless openfor checking and type batteries.. ability to supply the load for a given period without attention (refilling fuel tanks for example). by batteries or compressed air. life expectancy (3) 4 to 5 years (2). access required for maintenance. Automatic. but minimal wear and very little upkeep required. which could impose less than ideal restrictions during the periods allotted to such work.. 10. Unless Regulator. and their autonomy. (5) According to whether the set is pre-heated or not. and 3 for 2. It is also necessary to take account of: c constraints imposed by the installation: in particular for specialized locations. (2) Longer if the battery is of the open type. None. is important (numerous human errors). System losses. Automatic. Mechanical and system of synchronization.000 hrs or 1 year.. Periodic startups Periodic checks. additional batteries indications and are required. A battery of storage cells maintains an uninterrupted supply during the start-up and load pick-up time of the standby set. Unless (type of battery). network. (3) Before requiring an important overhaul.e. c routine maintenance requirements. choice and characteristics of different sources The several possible solutions are characterized by their availability. according to manufacturers operating instructions or local statutory regulations. the pick-up of load generally requires less than 1 second.

relative to its rating) that damaging transient torques on the generator shaft and couplings be avoided. Closing down of the inverter is also carried out progressively by similar controls on the rectifier circuits. The coupling is generally carried out at the LV main general distribution board. gradually increasing the current until the load is taken entirely by the generator and the battery is receiving its * necessary in some cases. an oversized generator may have to be installed). F23. power passes into the rectifier section. diesel generator network 1 network 2 battery charger static changeover switch manual by-pass maintenance switch protection and distribution equipment (complementary) battery protection box inverter fig. F18 . instantaneous closure of the static changeover switch will maintain supply. possible shedding of inessential loads. taken from Merlin Gerin "Guides Pratiques".distribution within a low-voltage installation .3. maintaining trickle charge. safety and emergency-services installations. is needed so that a local generator (usually driven by a diesel engine) is provided. This operation lasts for 10-15 seconds. The time required to effect a changeover from normal power source protection and distribution equipment (complementary) possible transformater * one source to the other depends on the characteristics of the particular installation. e. the latter being due to inertia in the speed-regulation governor system of the prime mover. the output from the inverter is in synchronism with the input supply to the rectifier. power is converted into interference-free a.5 local generating sets the association of an inverter and local generating set is the optimum solution for ensuring a long autonomy. in the event of overloading or failure of the inverter. i. of the battery must be sufficient to cover the period of starting the diesel and coupling the generator to the load.. In normal operation of the inverter. In order to avoid this phenomenon. so that. and fluctuations in frequency. and a very small part of the d. and standby power supplies (continued) F 3. power for the load. by means of an automatic changeover panel. a.. it is important (particularly if the load to be supplied from the generator is large.g. The remainder of the d. A gradual application of load also avoids the possibility of large transient currents.c. F23: example of an inverter/generating-set changeover scheme. Such torques occur for suddenlyapplied loads and are due to the oscillating transient torque of the shaft and the steady load torque adding and subtracting at the natural frequency of the shaft oscillations. independent of the normal public service.c. the rectifier is controlled electronically to pass a low current initially. an example of which is shown diagrammatically in fig. This question should be discussed with the UPS equipment manufacturer.e. In certain installations a power supply. to adapt the voltages. such as: start-up sequence for the engine. In the event of a changeover from normal to reserve-power generator supply.c. In this case the autonomy of the inverter.c. The rectifier in the conversion system creates harmonic currents which generally means that the reserve-power generator has to be derated (i. F23. In the example shown in fig. power at the output of the rectifier maintains the battery in a fullycharged condition. and is associated with an inverter.e.

connections to earth of metallic sheaths of communications cables require the authorization of the owners of the cables. connections The main equipotential bonding system The bonding is carried out by protective conductors and the aim is to ensure that.4.) being raised to some potential due to a fault external to the building. and be connected to the main earthing terminal (6). generally earth potential. F24. and providing an electrical connection with Earth (see F4. c earth electrode resistance: the contact resistance of an earth electrode with the Earth.1 earthing connections in a building. branched protective conductors to individual consumers (3) extraneous conductive parts (4) 4 3 3 3 main protective conductor heating water 4 gas 5 5 5 6 possible TN connection 1 7 2 fig. For example: v non-insulated floors or walls. and not forming part of the electrical installation (4). v earth electrode(s). definitions The following terms are commonly used in industry and in the literature. distribution within a low-voltage installation . compressed-air. the original bonding conductors present an unacceptably high resistance. to the means of earthing. c bonding conductor (5): a protective conductor providing equipotential bonding. However. Supplementary equipotential connections These connections are intended to connect all exposed-conductive-parts and all extraneous-conductive-parts simultaneously accessible. when correct conditions for protection have not been met. c earth electrode (1): a conductor or group of conductors in intimate contact with. including equipotential bonding conductors. no difference of potential can occur between extraneousconductive-parts within the installation.F19 . v metal conduits and pipework (not part of the electrical installation) for water.g. v the earthed point of the source or an artificial neutral.e. in the event of an incoming extraneous conductor (such as a gas pipe. F24: an example of a block of flats in which the main earthing terminal (6) provides the main equipotential connection. gas. but which may become live under fault conditions.6). c electrically independent earth electrodes: earth electrodes located at such a distance from one another that the maximum current likely to flow through one of them does not significantly affect the potential of the other(s). v extraneous-conductive-parts. and metal materials associated with them. TN systems). The removable link (7) allows an earth-electrode-resistance check. metal framework of buildings. v the main earthing terminal. i. The bonding must be effected as close as possible to the point(s) of entry into the building. c earthing conductor (2): a protective conductor connecting the main earthing terminal (6) of an installation to an earth electrode (1) or to other means of earthing (e. Bracketed numbers refer to fig. the connection to an earth electrode and the interconnection (bonding) of all metal parts of the building and all exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment prevents the appearance of dangerously high voltages between any two simultaneously accessible metal parts. and conductors for functional earthing. earthing schemes F 4. c extraneous-conductive-part (see table F25): a conductive part liable to introduce a potential. c exposed-conductive-part (see table F25): a conductive part of equipment which can be touched and which is not a live part. heating. etc. c earth: the conductive mass of the Earth. c main earthing terminal (6): the terminal or bar provided for the connection of protective conductors. whose electric potential at any point is conventionally taken as zero. if any. Connection of exposed-conductive-parts to the earth electrode(s) The connection is made by protective conductors with the object of providing a lowresistance path for fault currents flowing to earth. etc. c protective conductor (3): a conductor used for some measures of protection against electric shock and intended for connecting together any of the following parts: v exposed-conductive-parts.

earthing schemes (continued) F 4.. component parts to consider as extraneous-conductive-parts 1. appliances c exposed metal parts of class 1 insulated appliances 4. v metallic wall covering. etc. c metallized papers. c metallic covering.6. bathrooms. etc. installation and measurements of earth electrodes This subject is dealt with at the end of Subclause 4. non-electrical elements v metallic fittings associated with cable ways (cable trays. armoured or unarmoured c mineral insulated metal-sheathed cable (pyrotenax. c carpets and wall-to-wall carpeting. ducts. switchgear c enclosures made of insulating material. c metallic fittings in wash rooms. v prefabricated RC panels. reservoirs. c brick walls. radiators). c conductors and cables without metallic sheaths. is essential for effective protection against electric shocks. F20 . etc. c surface finishes: v floors and walls in re-inforced concrete without further surface treatment. cable ladders. v re-inforcement rods. component parts component parts to consider as exposed-conductive-parts 1.. c conduits of insulating material. regardless of the type of exterior envelope.distribution within a low-voltage installation . component parts not to be consider as exposed-conductive-parts 1. component parts not to be consider as extraneous-conductive-parts c wooden-block floors. tanks. etc. c rubber-covered or linoleum-covered floors. for gas. c mouldings in wood or other insulating material. switchgear c withdrawable section 3. etc. water and heating systems. toilets. c related metal components (furnaces. and all exposed-conductiveparts of electrical appliances and equipment. appliances c all appliances having class II insulation.) c metal objects: v close to aerial conductors or to busbars v in contact with electrical equipment. elements used in building construction c metal or re-inforced concrete (RC): v steel-framed structure.1 earthing connections (continued) the efficient bonding and connecting to earth of all accessible metal fixtures. table F25: list of exposed-conductive-parts and extraneous-conductive-parts. c dry plaster-block partition. building services elements other than electrical c metal pipes. trunking.4. conduits. diverse service channels. 2. cable ways c conduits c impregnated-paper-insulated lead-covered cable.) 2. 3. 2. v tiled surface. etc.

TN-S scheme The protective conductor and the neutral conductor are separate. L1 L2 L3 PEN Rn fig. In the scheme TN-C-S the TN-C (4 wires) scheme must never be used downstream of the TN-S (5 wires) scheme. the TN-S (5 wires) system is obligatory for circuits of crosssectional-area of less than 10 mm2 for copper and 16 mm2 for aluminium on mobile equipment.F 4. L1 L2 L3 N PE Rn fig. The choice of earthing scheme governs the measures to be taken for the protection of persons against the hazards of indirect contact. All exposed. characterize the method of earthing the LV neutral point of a HV/LV transformer. F26: TT scheme. The use of separate PE and N conductors (5 wires) is obligatory for circuits of cross-sectional area of less than 10 mm2 for copper and 16 mm2 for aluminium on mobile equipment. is generally at the origin of the installation. TN-C TN-S L1 L2 L3 N PE Rn fig. This electrode may or may not be electrically independent of the source electrode.F21 .and extraneous-conductive-parts are connected to a separate earth electrode at the installation. The point at which the PE conductor separates from the PEN (i. TN-C-S scheme The TN-C and TN-S schemes can be used in the same installation. The TN-C scheme requires the establishment of an efficient equipotential environment within the installation with dispersed earth electrodes spaced as regularly as possible. the protective conductor is generally the lead sheath. all exposed. At the installation. * Generally the star-point of a star-connected LV winding.2 definition of standardized earthing schemes the different earthing schemes described. Several different schemes of earthing can coexist in an installation if necessary. On underground cable systems where lead-sheathed cables exist. without affecting the operation of protective devices. the two zones of influence may overlap. neutral) conductor. and the earthing of the exposed conductive-parts of the LV installation supplied from it. 5 x 50 mm2 PEN L1 L2 L3 N PE PE 16 mm2 6 mm2 16 mm2 PEN bad bad 16 mm2 TN-C scheme not permitted downstream of TN-S scheme fig F29: TN-C-S scheme. The several versions of TN schemes are shown below: TN-C scheme The neutral conductor is also used as a protective conductor and is referred to as a PEN (Protective Earth and Neutral) conductor. distribution within a low-voltage installation . TT scheme (earthed neutral) One point* at the supply source is connected directly to earth. F27: TN-C scheme. F28: TN-S scheme.and extraneous-conductive-parts are connected to the neutral conductor. neutral Earth exposed-conductive-parts Neutral TN schemes The source is earthed as for the TT scheme (above). The choice of these methods governs the measures necessary for protection against indirect-contact hazards. This scheme is not permitted for conductors of less than 10 mm2 and for portable equipment. neutral Earth exposed-conductive-parts Earth The earthing schemes to be described characterize the method of earthing the LV neutral point of a HV/LV transformer (or of any other source) and the means of earthing exposed conductive parts of the related LV installation.e.

R2 and R3 equivalent to a neutral earth impedance Zct of 3. In particular. F33: equivalent impedance to leakage impedances in an IT scheme. Exposed.000 ohms. F34: IT scheme (impedance-earthed). Zs fig. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. F30: connection of the PEN conductor in the TN-C scheme. HV/LV IT scheme (impedance-earthed) An impedance Zs (in the order of 1.and extraneous-conductive-parts of the installation are connected to an earth electrode. All exposed. F34).000 to 4. In parallel with this (distributed) resistive leakage path there is the distributed capacitive current path. It has.000 ohms) is connected permanently between the neutral point of the transformer LV winding and earth (fig. with respect to earth.distribution within a low-voltage installation .000 to 2. the two paths together constituting the normal leakage impedance to earth (fig. C3 and R1. TNC 4 x 95 mm2 L1 L2 L3 PEN 6 mm2 16 mm2 10 mm2 6 mm2 PEN N PEN correct incorrect PEN connected to the neutral terminal is prohibited correct incorrect S < 10 mm2 TNC prohibited fig. HV/LV Isolated or Impedance-earthed fig F31: IT scheme (isolated neutral). the PEN conductor must be connected directly to the earth terminal of an applicance. neutral exposed-conductive-parts Earth IT scheme (isolated neutral) No intentional connection is made between the neutral point of the supply source and earth (fig. Example: In a LV 3-phase 3-wire system. The reasons for this form of power-source earthing are to fix the potential of a small network with respect to earth (Zs is small compared to the leakage impedance) and to reduce the level of overvoltages.2 definition of standardized earthing schemes (continued) important: in the TN-C scheme the protective conductor function of the PEN conductor takes priority. since no insulation is perfect.and extraneous-conductiveparts are connected to an earth electrode. F22 .4). and the bridging connection is then made to the neutral terminal. static charges. In practice all circuits have a leakage impedance to earth. F32: leakage impedance in an IT scheme. F32). HV/LV R1 C1 C2 C3 R2 R3 Zct fig.4. F31). etc. C2. fig. such as transmitted surges from the HV windings. the effect of slightly increasing the first-fault current level (see G 3. however. 1 km of cable will have a leakage impedance due to C1.

motor windings and magnetic frames) is high. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. the supply voltage drop. F35: with a TN-S scheme. v given the localised effect of earth electrodes. TN-C scheme Characteristics c earthing method: v the neutral point of the transformer is connected directly to earth and the neutral conductor is earthed at as many points as possible. exposed conductive parts and earth are at virtually the same potential. During a LV insulation fault. a current will flow through the earth electrode of the LV neutral and a power frequency voltage will appear between the exposed conductive parts of LV equipment and the distant earth. c power supply continuity. c overvoltages. c arrangement of PE protective conductors.3 earthing schemes characteristics Each earthing scheme (often referred to as the type of power system or system earthing arrangement) reflects three technical choices: c earthing method. These choices and their consequences will be described for each scheme.45 Un provides a rough approximation. fig. Given the high fault currents and touch voltages: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. The PE and neutral conductors are combined in a single PEN conductor. the neutral point of the triangle representing the 3-phase voltage system is displaced and the voltage between phase and the exposed conductive parts of the installation exceed the phase-to-neutral voltage. distribution within a low-voltage installation . all earth electrodes considered together. limited only by the impedance of the live conductors (phase and PEN).F23 . c protective conductors. The PE and neutral conductors are combined in a single PEN conductor. the neutral. during a HV insulation fault. a value of 1.F 4. electromagnetic disturbances and the risk of damage (fire. v exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts are connected to the neutral conductor. v exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts are connected to the neutral conductor. L1 L2 L3 N Ω Rm PE Rd Rc The consequences are related to the following points: c electric shock. On installations with a combined neutral and protective conductor. c fire. the potential may vary with the distance from the electrode. c design and operation. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. v this disconnection must be provided by circuit breakers or fuses. F36: any insulation fault occurring outside a building creates a rapid rise in the potential difference outside the building. c power supply continuity. Therefore. residual current devices cannot be used for this purpose since an insulation fault to earth also constitutes a phase-neutral short-circuit. The result of a high voltage insulation fault is shown here for a TN system. c overvoltages: v under normal conditions. electromagnetic compatibility and fire: the current of insulation faults is not limited by any earth electrode impedance and is therefore high (several kA). c electromagnetic disturbances. Consequences c earthing method: v the neutral point of the transformer is connected directly to earth and the neutral conductor is earthed at as many points as possible. fault currents can be very high. L1 L2 L3 PEN Rn fig. c overvoltages: during a LV insulation fault. In practice.

c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. The characteristics of the protection devices are determined from these elements. This phenomenon is amplified in the event of an insulation fault. that of the replacement source and the length of circuit C protected by circuit breaker C. These voltage drops are amplified in modern installations by the proliferation of equipment generating 3rd-order harmonics. resulting in a risk of fire and electromagnetic disturbances. the PE function has priority. F24 . c design and operation v when using circuit breakers or fuses to protect against indirect contact. certain medical equipment. Only residual current devices offer this type of protection.3 earthing schemes characteristics (continued) The PEN conductor must satisfy the requirements of both its functions. Given the high fault currents and touch voltages: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. The reason is that the connection of the extraneous conductive parts of the building to the PEN conductor creates a flow of current in the structures. The magnitude of this harmonic is tripled in the neutral conductor instead of being cancelled out as is the case for the fundamental. c fire protection The TN-C scheme is prohibited in premises where there is a high risk of fire or explosion. for example in class BE2 and BE3 premises respectively for standard NFC 15-100. 5 x 50 mm 2 L1 L2 L3 N PE PEN PE 16 mm2 6 mm2 16 mm2 PEN incorrect incorrect 16 mm2 TNC scheme not permitted downstream of TN-S scheme fig. This impedance must be measured after installation and then at regular intervals (depending on the type of premises concerned). F37: the presence of any length of PEN conductor in a building leads to the flow of currents in the exposed conductive parts and the shielding of equipment supplied by a TN-S scheme. it is necessary to know the impedance of the normal source. creating potential differences and therefore the flow of currents in any circuit formed by the exposed conductive parts of the installation. c corrosion: corrosion has two sources. TNC TNS v in a less apparent manner. these circulating currents correspond to an imbalance of the currents in the distribution circuit and therefore the creation of a magnetic field that can disturb cathode-ray tubes. During insulation faults. v this disconnection must be provided by circuit breakers or fuses. the extraneous conductive parts of the building. the telluric currents that corrode the earth electrodes and metal structures in the case of multiple earthing. L1 L2 L3 N PE Rn fig.). residual current devices cannot be used for this purpose since an insulation fault to earth also constitutes a phase-neutral short-circuit. c electromagnetic compatibility v when a PEN conductor is installed in a building.distribution within a low-voltage installation . coaxial cable and the shielding of computer or telecommunications systems. This situation therefore presents a risk of fire. These phenomena are the reason for prohibiting the use of the TN-S scheme in premises where the risk of fire is high. it leads to a power frequency voltage drop under normal operating conditions. regardless of its length. The TN-C scheme is prohibited for all circuits with cross-sectional areas less than 10 mm2 for copper conductors or 16 mm2 for aluminium conductors. first the DC component that the PEN conductor can carry and second. earthing schemes (continued) F 4.e. upstream circuits and downstream circuits (the ones to be protected) must be known at the design phase and subsequently remain unchanged unless the protection is also changed. In the event of a conflict. F38: to determine the breaking capacity of circuit breaker C.4. On installations with a combined neutral and protective conductor. engine generator set. monitors. at levels as low as 0. 5 A passing one metre from a sensitive device).7 A/m (i. these circulating currents are considerably increased. the impedance of the source. etc. etc. c fire: protection is not provided for certain types of faults (impedant faults) that are not instantly transformed into solid short-circuits. It is also prohibited for flexible conductors. v when the installation can be supplied from two sources (UPS. the characteristics governing the opening of the circuit breaker or the blowing of the fuse must be determined for each configuration and source used.

electromagnetic compatibility and fire: the effects of HV/LV faults. Given the high fault currents and touch voltages: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. TNC 4 x 95 mm2 L1 L2 L3 PEN 6 mm2 16 mm2 10 mm2 6 mm2 PEN correct incorrect PEN connected to the neutral terminal is prohibited correct incorrect S < 10 mm2 TNC prohibited fig. fault currents are limited by the earth electrode resistances and the accompanying voltage drops are very small. v this disconnection must be provided by circuit breakers. is not subject to voltage drop and all the resulting drawbacks of the TN-C scheme are therefore eliminated. v any modification to the installation requires reassessment and checking of the protection conditions. v the neutral point of the transformer (or the power supply system if the distribution uses a TN-C scheme and the installation a TN-S scheme) is earthed just once at the upstream end of the installation. the PE conductor. exposed conductive parts and earth electrode are at the same potential. F40: with a TT scheme. c overvoltages: under normal conditions. limited only by the impedance of the live conductors (phase and PE). F39: with a TN-S scheme. fuses or residual current devices since the protection against indirect contact can be separated from the protection against phase-phase or phase-neutral shortcircuits. voltage drop and load currents in the protective conductor under normal operating conditions. Oversized cable cross-sections may be necessary in certain cases. v in the event of an insulation fault. i. v exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protection conductors which are in turn connected to the transformer neutral. fault currents can be very high. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. fuses or residual current devices since the protection against indirect contact can be separated from the protection against phase-phase or phase-neutral shortcircuits. The TN-S scheme is similar in this respect to the TT scheme. a high impulse voltage appears along the PE conductor. This avoids creating a TN-C scheme with its inherent disadvantages. v exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protection conductors which are in turn connected to the transformer neutral.F v each circuit is designed once and for all and cannot exceed a maximum length specified in design tables as a function of the protection device used. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur.e. 3 and 4 of the corresponding part for the TN-C scheme). HV insulation faults and LV insulation faults are similar to those already described for the TN-C scheme. neutral and exposed conductive parts. c power supply continuity. the neutral of the transformer. c electromagnetic compatibility: v under normal conditions. creating the same transient problems as for the TN-C scheme. Given the high fault currents and touch voltages: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. as opposed to the PEN conductor. even if transient phenomena cannot be excluded and can lead to the use of lightning arrestors on the phases. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. the current of insulation faults is not limited by any earth electrode impedance and is therefore high (several kA) (see points 2. Consequences c earthing method: v the neutral point of the transformer (or the power supply system if the distribution uses a TN-C scheme and the installation a TN-S scheme) is earthed just once at the upstream end of the installation. distribution within a low-voltage installation .F25 . v this disconnection must be provided by circuit breakers. TN-S scheme Characteristics c earthing method. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. c the neutral conductor cannot be earthed. In particular. fig.

c fire: the use of residual current devices with operating currents i 500 mA helps prevent fires of electrical origin. v residual current devices are added in the form of relays for circuit breakers and in the form of RCCBs for fuses. an acceptable compromise. For instance. c overvoltages: although. etc. An installation can be modified or extended without calculations or in-situ measurements. Automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. v any modification to the installation requires reassessment and checking of the protection conditions. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. v the presence of residual current devices minimises the design and operating constraints. c fire: protection is not provided for impedant faults. TT scheme Characteristics c earthing method: v the neutral point of the transformer is connected directly to earth. the cross-sectional area of the PE conductor can be less than for a TN-S scheme. c exposed conductive parts of equipment are connected by protective conductors to the earth electrode of the installation which is generally independent with respect to the earth electrode of the transformer neutral. As a result. c electromagnetic compatibility: under normal conditions. as for the TN scheme. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. design and operation: v the drawbacks already discussed are eliminated and we obtain the advantages of the TT scheme. c electromagnetic compatibility: in the event of an insulation fault. limited by two earth electrode resistances in series. v the use of residual current devices with operating currents 500 mA helps to prevent damage of electrical origin which can occur in the event of an impedant fault or due to the high level of insulation faults. from an overall point of view.distribution within a low-voltage installation the accompanying electromagnetic disturbances and the transient difference in potential between two devices (e. limited by two earth electrode resistances in series. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. the fault current is only 100 A. Their operating currents must be low enough for the devices to detect the fault currents. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. the potential of the exposed conductive parts and the earth electrode is the same. In practice. c design and operation: for distribution circuits. the voltage drop created by the fault. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. Their operating currents must be low enough for the devices to detect the fault currents. The installation of lightning arrestors provides the necessary level of protection. If the protection against indirect contact is provided by residual current devices: to avoid nuisance tripping. the PE conductor is not subject to voltage drop and all the resulting drawbacks of the TN-C scheme are therefore eliminated. c design and operation: v calculation of the impedance of the sources and that of the circuit to be protected. engine generator set. In practice.3 earthing schemes characteristics (continued) If the protection against indirect contact is provided by overcurrent protection devices: the same characteristics apply as for the TN-C scheme.4. this may not be true for the neutral conductor which is galvanically connected to an earth electrode and the exposed conductive parts. this disconnection is carried out by residual current devices. F26 . On industrial sites or urban areas. . c earthing method. this is not generally the case. c fire. leading to a risk of fire. c arrangement of PE protective conductors.g. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. v double determination of the disconnection conditions when the installation can be supplied from two sources (UPS. v the use of a replacement source by the distribution utility or the operator is straight forward. two interconnected PCs) connected by a shielded cable are much easier to withstand than for a TN-S scheme. v exposed conductive parts of equipment are connected by protective conductors to the earth electrode of the installation which is generally independent with respect to the earth electrode of the transformer neutral. the impulse voltage that appears along the PE conductor is low and the resulting disturbances are negligible. with an earth electrode resistance of 230V/100A z 2. different and in some cases relatively far away (often the case for lightning strikes in rural areas).3 Ω. this disconnection is carried out by residual current devices. it is often possible to use high residual operating currents in the order of 1 A or more. The coupling of the two earth earth electrodes is. It is unnecessary to know the upstream source impedance and there is no limit concerning the length of the circuits (except to avoid excessive voltage drop).). with checking by measurements after installation and then at regular intervals. They can protect a single circuit or a group of circuits and their operating currents are chosen according to the maximum value of the resistance R of the earth electrode for the exposed conductive parts. In the event of an insulation fault. the fault current is relatively low. Consequences c the neutral point of the transformer is connected directly to earth. v the circuits have a maximum length that cannot be exceeded.

even if the standards allow for this possibility for safety reasons. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. The fault current in the event of a single insulation fault is low and does not represent a hazard. A high level of equipotentiality is maintained between protective conductors. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. HV/LV R1 C1 C2 C3 R2 R3 fig.F27 . distribution within a low-voltage installation . The fault current in the event of a single insulation fault is low and does not represent a hazard. functional earthing conductors. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. creating a short-circuit and the associated hazards. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. v an overvoltage limiter should be installed to prevent a rise in potential between the live parts and the exposed conductive parts that could exceed the withstand voltage of the LV equipment in the event of a fault originating in the high voltage installation. Under normal conditions. the standards stipulate that their rated voltages should be chosen according to the phase-tophase voltage.F c electromagnetic compatibility: insulation fault currents last only a short time. c overvoltages: v under normal conditions. its potential is held close to that of the exposed conductive parts by the earth leakage capacitances of the trunking and equipment. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. exposed conductive parts and earth electrode are at virtually the same potential. F41: with an IT scheme. The protection against overvoltages should be implemented according to the criteria common to all the earthing schemes. c power supply continuity and electromagnetic compatibility: v the current of a first insulation fault is low. The user of an IT system chooses that this situation must never occur. the equipment continues to be supplied with power and the phase-to-phase voltage gradually appears between the healthy phases and the exposed conductive parts. exposed conductive parts and the extraneous conductive parts of the building to which they are connected. Exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts of the building are connected to the building’s earth electrode. c overvoltages: after a first fault. its potential is maintained close to that of the exposed conductive parts by the earth leakage capacitances of the trunking and equipment. the PE conductors show no voltage drop. fault currents are limited by the earthing of the neutral and by the overvoltage limiter. Under normal conditions. c electromagnetic compatibility: under normal conditions. less than 100 ms (or less than 400 ms on distribution circuits) and are low in magnitude. v a first low voltage insulation fault does not produce any voltage drop on the mains or electromagnetic disturbance over a wide frequency range corresponding to the occurrence of a classical insulation fault current. c if lightning arrestors are used. Exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts of the building are connected to the building’s earth electrode. Equipment must be chosen with this constraint in mind. Consequences c earthing method. The occurrence of a second fault should be made highly improbable by installing an insulation monitoring device that will detect and indicate the occurrence of a first fault that can then be promptly located and eliminated. a result of the capacitances between the live conductors and the expoed conductive parts such as those of the load circuits and HF filters. The neutral point of the transformer is isolated from earth or earthed through an impedance and an overvoltage limiter. the neutral conductor. IT scheme Characteristics c earthing method The neutral point of the transformer is isolated from earth or earthed through an impedance and an overvoltage limiter. and even when a first insulation fault occurs. c power supply continuity and electromagnetic compatibility: second insulation fault can occur on a different phase. Notes: c standard IEC 950 (or EN 60950) defines a category of information processing equipment that can be used on IT systems.

examination of the influence of leakage currents. division of the installation. and their earth electrode systems are not connected. c fire: the use of an insulation monitoring device and possibly residual current devices with operating currents i 500 mA prevents fires of electrical origin. and as long as a residual current device is present upstream. the residual current device can trip on a first insulation fault. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. isolation of loads with high leakage currents (certain furnaces and certain types of computer hardware). The value is estimated using the phase-to-phase voltage for the phase and for the phase-to-neutral voltage for the neutral. Otherwise the use of sockets should be avoided or other measures taken. . This measure prevents one insulation fault on phase 1 of the first site and another on phase 2 of the second site from creating a dangerous situation. must be protected by 4-pole devices including neutral protection or 2-pole devices. v if 30 mA residual current devices are used to protect socket circuits: .the total capacitive earth leakage current downstream of such a device must not exceed 10 mA. v comment: the earth conductor. if distributed.3 earthing schemes characteristics (continued) The occurrence of a second fault should be made highly improbable by installing an insulation monitoring device that will detect and indicate the occurrence of a first fault that can then be promptly located and eliminated..4. If circuit breakers or fuses are used. In final distribution boxes. F28 . in particular with respect to residual current devices. A separate residual current device is therefore required for each circuit. the rules are similar to those for the TN scheme. a residual current device must always be included at the head of each installation. 1-pole + neutral protection devices are permitted as long as the ratings for the phase and neutral are the same or close. The protective devices are designed to operate in the event of a double fault. If the two faults occur downstream of the same residual current device.if the loads powered by such a circuit are not critical. Residual current devices can alos be used. v the installation must be designed with great care: use of the IT scheme where justified by requirements related to continuity of supply. etc. the device considers the fault current as a load current and may not trip. c design and operation: v trained maintenance personnel must be available for prompt locating and elimination of the first insulation fault.distribution within a low-voltage installation . If two sites have the same installation using an IT scheme. thereby eliminating it immediately.

c high insulation fault currents. The IT scheme is recommended if power supply continuity is imperative. IT. c protection against fire of electric origin. The IT scheme offers the best guarantee concerning the availability of power. c uneliminated impedant faults. 3rd criterion: comparison of earthing schemes A comparison of the different earthing schemes leads to the following recommendations for use: The TT scheme is recommended for installations that have only limited surveillance or installations subject to extensions or modifications. shielding.1 choice criteria 1st criterion No earthing scheme is universal. A detailed study is required. they provide this scheme with improved protection against fire and greater flexibility both in design and use. including those related to: c design. This scheme is generally implemented without medium-sensitivity residual current devices. It however requires: c a detailed study: v organisation of withstand to overvoltages and leakage currents. exposed conductive parts. The best solution often involves several different earthing schemes for different parts of the installation.4. basing the final choice on the specific constraints of the electrical installation. given the risk of fire and electromagnetic disturbances due to: c voltage drops along the PEN conductors. If medium-sensitivity residual current devices are installed. v to supervise extensions to the installation. c currents flowing in the extraneous conductive parts. c production losses.F 4. the needs of the user and the rules laid down by applicable legislation or by the power distribution utility. 2nd criterion These solutions must satisfy the following fundamental criteria: c protection against electric shock. The presence of any length of PEN conductor in a building leads to the flow of currents in the exposed conductive parts and the shielding of equipment supplied by a TN-S scheme. c the incoming systems are exposed to Uf. c protection against overvoltages. On the other hand. the effects of an HV insulation fault are eliminated. See the section dealing with lightning arrestors. distribution within a low-voltage installation . analyse every case separately. INFLUENCE OF EARTHING ELECTRODES Private substation with TN scheme c the inside of the equipment is not exposed (U2 = 230 V). c power supply continuity. 5th criterion When making an economic comparison. Drawbacks however include: c insulation fault currents are high and can result in: v transient disturbances. c trained maintenance personnel available at all times: v to promptly eliminate any first fault. v even fire! c a detailed study is required. TT and TN-S schemes are equally satisfactory if correctly implemented. LV consumer with TT scheme c the inside of the equipment is exposed in the event of nearby lightning strikes (Rb-If). c when correctly implemented. given the need for two separate LV earthing electrodes. c protection against electromagnetic disturbances. all costs must be taken into account. The TN-C and TN-C-S schemes are not recommended for use.F29 . overvoltage protection must often be provided. c maintenance. The TN-S scheme is recommended for installations that have a high level of surveillance or installations not subject to extensions or modifications. v high risk of damage. The main reason is that it is the simplest scheme to implement in private or public distribution. When it is possible to choose the earthing scheme. 4th criterion In terms of overvoltage withstand and electromagnetic disturbances. c modification or extensions.

2) If correctly implemented.protection against electromagnetic disturbances 1) For differential mode disturbances. For TN schemes. 4 .2 comparison for each criterion 1 . c the type of premises: v choose the appropriate level of safety. exposed conductive parts. for example by using an optical fiber communication link without a conductive sheath. The TN-C scheme presents a higher risk of fire under normal operating conditions than the other schemes. Furthermore. the earthing scheme used is of no importance.g. TT. one of the following solutions should be used: c equipotentiality by interconnection of the buildings in one of the two following manners: v by at least one accompanying conductor with a cross-sectional area of at least 35 mm2. for sites with a number of buildings supplied by the same source and interconnected by communications media. c complete isolation.). building.) on the lines of the different incoming and outgoing electrical systems.protection against overvoltages For all neutral schemes. A load imbalance current circulates continuously in the PEN conductors and the connected parts (e.level of protection against electric shock All earthing schemes provide equal protection against electric shock as long as they are implemented and used in accordance with applicable standards. For all common mode or differential mode disturbances with frequencies greater than 1 MHz. shielding. the insulation fault current is respectively low or very low. It is therefore prohibited in premises presenting a high risk of fire or explosion. metal frames. TN-S and IT schemes can satisfy all electromagnetic compatibility criteria. 3) Implement the necessary protection (lightning arrestors.protection against fire of electrical origin For TT schemes and IT schemes.4. the earthing scheme used is of no importance. 2) Decide on the number and quality of equipotential zones (room. v by a denser mesh. major disturbances are produced during an insulation fault. c the type of supply system: v in particular HV insulation faults. in the event of a single fault. it is recommended to use the TN-S scheme together with residual current devices rather than the standard TN scheme. F30 . This evaluation should be carried out at power frequency and then at higher frequencies up to several MHz. v nearby direct lightning strikes. 3 . The presence of 3rd order harmonics significantly amplifies this current in modern installations. etc. c TT installations generally require lightning arrestors (rural). 2 . protection against overvoltages due to HV faults must be provided by an overvoltage limiter. This continuous current creates voltage drops between the exposed conductive parts of sensitive equipment connected to the PEN conductor. the insulation fault current is high and major damage can result. In practice.4. These schemes are therefore not recommended for use.distribution within a low-voltage installation . exposed conductive parts of equipment and cable shielding. for IT schemes. etc. For TN type schemes. sized for the possible fault currents. in the event of a solid fault. Comment: c the use of a TN-S scheme does not eliminate the need for the above measures. a load imbalance current circulates continuously in the PEN conductor. the following steps are necessary: 1) Evaluate the disturbances to be taken into account as a function of: c site exposure: v overvoltages due to indirect effects of lightning. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. site) so as to organise the protection of each. protection against impedant faults is insufficient unless residual current devices are included: c in this case. The same is true for the risk of fire. 3) For TN-C or TN-C-S earthing schemes. Note however that for the TN-S scheme.

In this way. which is difficult to forecast. etc.F 4. An ideal structure would comprise: v normal power supply source. and so on. The cost of switchgear is reduced (shortcircuit current level is lower). HV/LV LV/LV TN system overvoltage device PIM IT system fig.implementation After consulting local regulations and relevant codes of practice. which would otherwise cause unacceptable disturbance to other loads. and c future operational expenditure that can arise from insufficient reliability. F42: a workshop in which supply continuity is paramount (IT) includes an arc furnace.F31 . continuity of service. example HV/LV overvoltage device PIM LV/LV IT system TN system arc furnace fig. via a LV/LV transformer. in a TN earthing scheme. distribution within a low-voltage installation . Including: c initial investments. The most suitable arrangement is an IT scheme for the workshop. the tables F40 and F41 can be used as an aid in deciding on divisions and possible galvanic isolation of appropriate sections of a proposed installation. e. and an isolating LV/LV transformer to supply the arc furnace. safety. the installation network may be arranged for optimum performance on different types of load.g. and a painting workshop for which supply continuity has top priority. etc. quality of materials.6). The technical/ economic appraisal must be made case by case. The latter supply is shown to be provided by an IT Island system. Division of source This technique concerns the use of several transformers instead of employing one large unit. Network islands The creation of galvanically-separated "islands" by means of LV/LV transformers allows an open choice of earthing system to be used on the secondary side. voltage depression during the start-up period of a large motor. The quality and continuity of supply to the whole installation are thereby improved. v local reserve power supply source (see Clause 3 of this chapter) and the appropriate earthing schemes.5 choice of earthing method . which is independent of any imposed earthing scheme in the primary LV network. This method has already been noted as a means of de-coupling loads. conclusion The optimization of the performance of the whole installation governs the choice of earthing system (see the following Sub-clause 4. F43: a factory with a load consisting mainly of welding machines requiring a TN system of earthing...

have approximately the same galvanic potential. The electrode should be buried around the perimeter of the excavation made for the foundations. Earthing rods (fig. or rod u 15 mm diameter. u 2 metres long in each case. zinc/copper) formed in the damp earth "electrolyte" would result in problems of corrosion. and where possible any reinforcing rods in concrete work should be connected to the electrode. F44) This solution is strongly recommended. since the elementary primary cell (e. c galvanized-steel cable. It is important that the bare conductor be in intimate contact with the soil (and not placed in the gravel or aggregate hard-core. and for improving (i. should ever be in contact with the foundation concrete. F44: conductor buried below the level of the foundations. so that copper earth electrodes may be connected to steel reinforcing rods with no danger of corrosion*. at least 50 cm below the hard-core or aggregate base for the concrete foundation. The quality of an earth electrode (resistance as low as possible) depends essentially on two factors: c installation method. the watertable level in areas of high soil resistivity) a very effective method of obtaining a low-resistance earth connection is to bury a conductor in the form of a closed loop in the soil at the bottom of the excavation for the building foundations. particularly when it is laid in an excavation for foundations. The latter are generally 1 or 2 metres long and provided with screwed ends and sockets in order to reach considerable depths. particularly in the case of a new building. the electrode conductor should be buried around the outside wall of the premises to a depth of at least 1 metre. care must be taken to avoid the occurrence of corrosion. The resistance R of such an electrode (in homogeneous soil) is given (approximately) in ohms by: R = 2ρ L where L = the length of the buried conductor in metres ρ = soil resistivity in ohm-metres. fig. divided by the number of rods in question. earthing schemes (continued) F 4.bare cable or multiple-strip u 25 mm2. c nature of the earth. however. Copper is the most expensive material.000 V). As a general rule. In the case noted. The conductor forming the earth electrode.4. The conductors may be: c copper . by a factor of 2 to 3. The total resistance (in homogeneous soil) is then equal to the resistance of one rod. Aluminium and lead are not suitable for use as earthing electrodes. requires specialized studies. F32 . will corrode if connected to steel reinforcing rods in concrete.6 installation and measurements of earth electrodes A low-impedance earth electrode improves considerably the protection of the electrical installation from external electromagnetic influences.g. F45) Vertically driven earthing rods are often used for existing buildings. eventually leaving an uncoated (corroding) steel conductor of high surface-to-earth contact resistance. The rods may be: c copper or (more commonly) copper-clad steel. reducing the resistance of) earth electrodes in cases where upper-strata soil-drying can only be countered by deeper penetration into the earth. and particularly in the case of overvoltages caused by lightning. c stainless steel cable or multiple strip u 35 mm2. if necessary (for instance. often forming a base for concrete). must be in the earth. on the other hand.e. Neither the electrode nor the vertical rising conductors to the ground floor. Protection of the building against direct lightning strokes. The use of more than one of these materials in the same soil is deprecated. The approximate resistance R of the electrode in ohms = 2ρ L where L = length of conductor in metres ρ = resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres (see tables F47 and F48). the zinc would be sacrificial to the copper. Steel rods in soil. Steel reinforcing rods in concrete. in the electro-chemical series. i. however. for n rods: R = ρ ohms nL c galvanized (see note below) steel pipe u 25 mm diameter.3 V. It is often necessary to use more than one rod. as copper in soil. but is the most suitable from considerations of corrosion.e. in which case the spacing between them should exceed the depth to which they are driven. * Practical experience has shown that corrosion is not a problem at potential differences of less than 0. and is not dealt with here. At least four (widely-spaced) vertically arranged conductors from the electrode should be provided for the installation connections. not in the concrete. installation methods Three common types of installation will be discussed: A conductor-type electrode forming a ring beneath the perimeter of the building which houses the installation concerned (fig. all vertical connections from an electrode to aboveground level should be insulated for the nominal LV voltage (600-1. notably where dissimilar metals are buried in close proximity. For existing buildings.distribution within a low-voltage installation .

8 ρ L where: ρ = resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres L = the perimeter of the plate in metres * Note: Where galvanized conducting materials are used for earth electrodes. The plates may be: c copper of 2 mm thickness. dry sand. Vertical plates (fig. being buried in a vertical plane such that the centre of the plate is at least 1 metre below the surface of the soil.5 metres. F45: earthing rods. c galvanized* steel of 3 mm thickness.300 1500 .600 table F48: mean values of resistivity (Ω-m) for an approximate estimation of an earthelectrode resistance with respect to zero-potential earth. bogs silt alluvium humus. are commonly used as earth electrodes. each side of which u 0.1000 50 .-m) 50 500 3000 resistivity (in Ω. sacrificial cathodic protection anodes may be necessary to avoid rapid corrosion of the electrodes where the soil is aggressive.100 10 . F46: vertical plate.150 5 .500 100 .-m) 1 . turf soft clay marl and compacted clay jurassic marl sandy clay siliceous sand stoney ground grass-covered-stoney sub-soil chalky soil limestone fissured limestone schist. shale mica schist granite and sandstone decomposed granite and sand stone table F47: resistivity (Ω-m) for different kinds of terrain. bare. leaf mold peat. gravel. data concerning earth resistivities in analogous terrains provide a useful base for designing an earth-electrode system.8 ρ ohms L 2 mm thickness (Cu) fig. The resistance R in ohms is given (approximately). compacted humid banks light soil arable land.3000 300 .500 200 .F33 . nature of the terrain heavy arable land.300 800 1500 .5000 500 .F The approximate resistance R obtained in ohms = ρ n L if the distance separating the rods > 4L where: L = the length of the rod in metres ρ = the resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres (see table F47) n = the number of rods Lu3m rods connected in parallel fig. fissured rocks mean value of resistivity (in Ω. In such circumstances specialist advice is recommended.30 20 .300 1000 . influence of the nature of the soil nature of the terrain swampy soil. F46) Rectangular plates.100 50 100 . distribution within a low-voltage installation . for a vertical plate electrode: R ≈ 0.200 30 . by: 0.10000 100 . roughly banked land stoney soil.40 50 . Specially prepared magnesium anodes (in a porous sack filled with a suitable "soil") are available for direct connection to the electrodes.

c ageing: the materials used for electrodes will generally deteriorate to some extent for various reasons. This is one of the reasons. and wrapping with a suitable greased-tape binding is the preventive measure commonly adopted.e. however. and is a measure of the contact resistance (of the electrode under test) with earth. each consisting of a vertically driven rod. while the second test electrode (P) picks up a voltage. v galvanic: due to stray d. Thorough cleaning of a newlymade joint. two auxiliary electrodes are required. passes a current through the earth and the electrode under test. but at a different frequency to that of the power system or any of its harmonics. This voltage. F49: measurement of the resistance to earth of the earth electrode of an installation by means of an ammeter. The distances between the electrodes are not critical and may be in different directions from the electrode being tested. In practical tests.c.. c oxidization: brazed and welded joints are the locations at which oxidization is most likely to occur. Measurement of the earth-electrode resistance There must always be removable links which allow the earth electrode to be isolated from the installation.c.) or leakage currents from power and communication networks and so on) the test current should be a. generator. together with that noted above. currents in the earth from traction systems. c frost: frozen earth can increase the resistivity of the soil by several orders of magnitude. A number of tests at differspacings and directions are generally made for cross-checking the test results. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. voltage at a frequency of between 85 Hz and 135 Hz. one from the other.i2 ) 2 In order to avoid errors due to stray earth currents (galvanic (d. therefore. c use of a direct-reading earthingresistance ohmmeter (fig. U A T t2 t1 fig. for example: v chemical reactions (in acidic or alkaline soils).6 installation and measurements of earth electrodes (continued) measurements and constancy of the resistance between an earth electrode and the earth The resistance of the electrode/earth interface rarely remains constant Among the principal factors affecting this resistance are the following: c the humidity of the soil: the seasonal changes in the moisture content of the soil can be significant at depths of up to 2 meters. If the distance (X) to (C) is increased. for recommending the installation of deep electrodes. The test electrode (C) furthest from the electrode (X) under test. F49) UTt1 A = RT + Rt1 = i1 Ut1t2 B = Rt1 + Rt2 = i2 Ut2T C = Rt2 + RT = i3 A + C . is due to the test current.68 of the distance (X) to (C).4. At a depth of 1 metre the value of resistivity (ρ) can vary in the ratio of 1 to 3 between a wet Winter and a dry Summer in temperate regions. low soil resistivity) are also those in which galvanic currents can most easily flow. the zones of resistance of electrodes (X) and (C) become more remote. according to site convenience. so that periodic check tests of the earthing resistance can be carried out. to allow it to be tested.B = 2RT When the source voltage U is constant (adjusted to be the same value for each test) then: U 1 1 1 RT = ( i1 + i3 .c.distribution within a low-voltage installation . together with two auxiliary electrodes. The distance (X) to (P) is generally about 0. 50) These instruments use a hand-driven or electronic-type of a. Unfortunately. different soils acting on sections of the same conductor can also form cathodic and anodic areas with consequent loss of surface metal from the latter areas. the most favourable conditions for low earth-electrode resistance (i.c. there must always be a (or a number of) removable link(s) to isolate an earth electrode. Instruments using hand-driven generators to make these measurements usually produce an a. It is clear that the distance (X) to (P) must be carefully chosen to give accurate results. F34 . etc. To make such tests. the spacing of which must be such that the zone of influence of the electrode being tested should not overlap that of the test electrode (C). and the curve of potential (voltage) becomes more nearly horizontal about the point (O). c ammeter method (fig. measured between (X) and (P). the distance (X) to (C) is increased until readings taken with electrode (P) at three different points viz: at (P) and at approximately 5 metres on either side of (P) give similar values.c. or due to dissimilar metals forming primary cells.

F50: measurement of the resistance to the mass of earth of electrode (X) using an earth-electrode-testing ohmmeter.F35 . a simplified measurement of the earth-electrode resistance is possible. In case of doubt. It equals the sum of the consumer earth-electrode resistance and the distributor earth-electrode resistance. but the distributor earth-electrode resistance is generally less than 5 Ω. This value is always pessimistic. the location of test electrode P is difficult to determine for satisfactory results. distribution within a low-voltage installation . It consists in measuring the impedance between the earthelectrode and the neutral conductor. X P C O b) showing the effect on the potential gradient when (X) and (C) are widely spaced. Simplified measurement (TT-system) In a TT-earthed system.F VG G V X P I C voltage-drop due to the resistance of electrode (X) O VG voltage-drop due to the resistance of electrode (C) a) the principle of measurement is based on assumed homogeneous soil conditions where the zones of influence of electrodes C and X everlap. The location of test electrode P is not critical and can be easily determined fig. use the general method.

F51). which afford double protection: c the protection of switchgear. vibrations and other external influences likely to interfere with operational integrity (EMI*. Modern practice is to enclose LV distribution boards in metal housings. Distribution boards are generally referred to in written texts by the abbreviation DB. distribution boards according to specific applications The principal types of distribution board are: c main general distribution board (fig. F52). fig. the power supply is connected to a set of busbars via a main switch (a circuit breaker or switch-fuse). and to the design principle adopted (notably in the arrangement of the busbars).. Individual circuits. vermin. fig. power and so on. Its design and construction must conform with welldefined standards. the load requirements dictate the type of distribution board to be installed. thereby creating three levels of distribution. Some of the circuits feed directly into the busbars of local distribution boards. F53). heating. In general. dust. fusegear. relays. and so on.e.. sub-distribution boards are sometimes necessary. "functional" distribution board.. indicating instruments.). A main general distribution board is the point at which the incoming-power supply divides into separate circuits. c local general distribution board (fig. etc. against mechanical shocks. fig. while in extensive installations. may differ according to the kind of application. c process-control i.5.. * electromagnetic interference 5. F52: local general distribution board. c the protection of personnel against the possibility of electric shock. which are usually grouped according to the circuit function (lighting. For example MCC (motor-controlcentre).). at which a division of circuits is made. or c in proximity to the process concerned. The process-control boards are either: c adjacent to the main general distribution board.1 types of distribution board Distribution boards. heating circuits control board.distribution within a low-voltage installation . distribution boards F a distribution board is among the most important elements in an installation. F36 . or an assembly of LV switchgear. each of which is controlled and protected by the fuses or switchgear of the board. F51: typical sub-distribution board. The local and sub-distribution boards are dispersed throughout the installation. are supplied from the busbars. moisture. c sub-distribution board (fig. F53: an example of a large industrial main general distribution board.

fuses. Using these prefabricated components greatly facilitates the assembly of the board. and so on. F54) The board is made up of fixed functional units such as contactors and associated relays. and the clearances necessary to ensure safe and trouble-free operation. distribution within a low-voltage installation . Isolation is effected on both the upstream and downstream sides by the complete withdrawal of the unit.F a distinction is made between: c traditional DBs in which switch. fig. are fixed to a chassis at the inside-rear part of the housing c functional DBs for specific applications.) are mounted on the front face of the board. Figure F54 is an example of an industrial functional DB. indicating lamps. F56) The switchgear and associated accessories fig. functional units which have isolating and disconnecting features (fig. The complete unit can therefore be removed for servicing. which comprise contactor. since it is sufficient to add the number of modules required. requires the shutdown of the entire board. fixed functional units (fig. realization of the two types of DB Traditional DBs Switchgear and fusegear. drawer-type motor control units. are normally located on a chassis near the back of the enclosure. control pushbuttons. taking into account the dimensions of each item. Functional DBs Dedicated to specific functions. etc. F54: board with fixed functional units. fig. pushbuttons. modifications and so on. with vacant spaces for later additional units if necessary. lamps. etc. recourse is made to functional modules which include switchgear and devices. are mounted on a drawer-type horizontally withdrawable chassis. Indications and control devices (meters. together with accessories for mounting and connections.F37 . withdrawable chassis-mounted functional units (fig. according to the particular function. These units are not suitable for circuit isolation (from the busbars for example) so that any intervention for maintenance. A quick estimation of the area required can be made by multiplying the sum of the areas of the individual items by 2. The function is generally complex and often concerns motor control. isolating switch. 5. the components of these boards have benefited from type tests. F55: board with isolating and disconnecting features on each functional unit. which are then limited to the interval required only to remove or withdraw the unit of the circuit concerned. without requiring a general shutdown. the connections to be made to it. Design of the board is rapid. thereby ensuring an excellent safety performance.5.and fusegear. For example. etc.2 the technologies of functional distribution boards There are three basic technologies in general use for the realization of functional DBs. The use of removable plug-in or withdrawable units however can minimize shutdown times. Moreover. F56: board with withdrawable chassismounted units. F55) Each functional unit is mounted on a removable panel and provided with a means of isolation on the upstream (busbars) side and disconnecting facilities on the downstream (circuit) side. The placement of the components within the enclosure requires very careful study.

F38 . form 1 form 2 form 3 form 4 fig. is assuming greater importance as Centralized Technical Management techniques become more general. metallic or non-metallic) shall be the subject of agreement between the manufacturer and the user. The form of the separation (e. analogue-todigital.g.) to suit the data-transmission links must therefore be housed. Certains types of distribution boards (in particular. functional distribution boards) in which all component parts are individually subject to IEC 947. thereby allowing safer intervention on functional units or their outgoing-circuit components. two elements of the standard IEC 439-1 largely contribute to operational safety: c forms of separation between adjacent functional units according to user's requirements c clearly defined individual and type tests. by barriers or partitions. functional DBs) in question. and instructions to equipment. Forms 2. concerned.4 centralized control the integration of functional distribution boards in a system of centralized technical management must be taken into account from the earliest design stage. individual type tests. except at their output terminals. v Form 4: as for Form 3. in schemes of remote control. but including separation of the outgoing terminals of all functional units.g. In the interests of economy (in communication-cable costs) all data and control-command signals should be processed at the equipment (e. so that without complete segregation between adjacent units. one from another. The separations provide: c protection against contact with live parts of adjacent functional units.distribution within a low-voltage installation . 5. etc. according to the degree of internal separation. unless the whole distribution board is shut down.3 standards conformity with the relevant standards is essential in order to ensure an adequate degree of operational safety. Forms 3 and 4 are adopted where the space available for each functional unit is limited. than that afforded by Form 1. the busbars are enclosed. IEC 439-1 defines four "forms" of assembly. IEC standard 439-1 IEC 439-1 covers LV switchgear and controlgear assemblies. at. etc. electrical-to-optical. The organization of data acquisition from.g. F57: representation of different forms of LV functional distribution boards. Such signal conversions (e. or very near to the distribution boards or other equipment. safe intervention for maintenance. in each case.. The following are typical forms of separation by barriers or partitions: v Form 1: no separation. v Form 3: separation of busbars from the functional units and separation of all functional units. c protection against the passage of foreign solid bodies from one unit of the assembly to an adjacent unit. for transmission to and reception from the central command post. c finally. also conform to specific recommendations of IEC 439-1.5. is not possible. distribution boards (continued) F 5. into different compartments. checks and functional tests carried out during manufacture ensure conformity to the standard of the entire assembly. 3 and 4 are generally used since. and supplied with suitable pollutionfree power. manufactured and type-tested as complete units. one from another. c limitation of the probability of initiating arcing faults. v Form 2: separation of busbars from the functional units.

flexibility. etc. F58: example 1: radial distribution wiring scheme for a hotel. etc. and by the number of connecting points possible. The method of installation will affect the maximum current permitted. and by the number of connecting points possible.1 description and choice two types of distribution are possible: c by insulated wires and cables. examples subdistribution board local general distribution board main general distribution board (MGDB) heating. distributors F 6. Distribution by prefabricated cable channels These channels are distinguished by their ease of installation. c by prefabricated pre-wired cable channels. general utilities distribution board fig.F39 . using conductors in conduits and cables. as noted in IEC 439 Parts 1 and 2. types Two types of distribution are possible: Distribution by insulated conductors and cables Includes the mechanical protection and fixing of conduits. distribution within a low-voltage installation . The latter are distinguished by their ease of installation.6. flexibility.

1.distribution within a low-voltage installation . In the case of a fixed installation which is unlikely to be modified. then the prefabricated cable channelling system should be the first choice.e. the most economic) c.2 and 2.1 description and choice (continued) transformer bus-duct transformer to MGDB mainbusbar trunking prefabricated pre-wired cable channels prefabricated distribution busbar trunking MGDB prefabricated power and light-current distribution column local general distribution board offices prefabricated pre-wired cable channels fig. F59: example 2: radial distribution with prefabricated bus trunking and cable channels for an entrepot installation. Where flexibility and ease of circuit modification are important. for the case of a wires-and-conduit installation. 2.s.a. then the insulated wires-andconduit system is the more-economic solution.3 of Chapter H1. F40 . is given in Sub-clauses 2. distributors (continued) F 6.6. Design information concerning the smallest allowable (i. either frequently or extensively. of wiring conductors and cables. selection of method-criteria The main considerations governing the choice of one method or the other are the first cost and the likelihood of extensive and frequent modifications.

Recommended erection methods are indicated in the table below. table F61: erection of wiring systems. flush floor trunking) 21. -: Not permitted. conductors and cables IEC 364-5-52 provides information on the selection and erection of wiring systems. * Table H52 of IEC 364-5-52 fills seven pages. 23 - - buried in ground embedded in structure surface mounted overhead 62. 13. 13. distribution within a low-voltage installation . concerning cables and conductors. 32 71. 15. and their enclosures or methods of protection against external influences. cable brackets 23 12. 72 34 61 24 4 18 - - - 0 - 18 17 immersed 81 81 0 - 0 - - The number in each box indicates the reference number in table H52 (IEC 364-5-52)*. Two of these pages are reproduced below by way of example. 16 12. 73. 14. 13. selection of wiring systems and methods of installation.F41 . their associated supports or suspensions. 0: Not applicable. 42 31. 53 - 0 51 11 61 1. table F60: selection of wiring systems. 73. 15. 14. -: Not permitted.2 conduits. 25 0 22. 14. 16 0 - building voids cable channel 4. 15. 32 cable cable on supducting ladder. 2. or not normally used in practice. inport cable sulators wire tray. inport cable sulators wire tray. flush floor trunking) + + cable cable on supducting ladder. 0: Not applicable. 16 12. Note: for current-carrying capacity see IEC 364-5-523. conductors and cables method of installation without clipped conduit cable fixings direct trunking (including skirting trunking. 74 74 43 43 41. 5 3 33 31. 16 0 0 12. 63 52. cable brackets bare conductors insulated conductors sheathed cables (including armoured and mineral insulated) c multi-core c single-core + - + + - + 0 + + + + + + + + + + 0 0 + + +: Permitted. 15. 13. situations method of installation without with conduit cable fixings fixings trunking (including skirting trunking.F 6. their termination and/or jointing. according to IEC 364-5-52 (1993) The selection of a wiring system may be made from the following table. or not normally used in practice. based on the principles described in IEC 364-1. 14.

conductors and cables (continued) example 1 description 2 insulated conductors in conduits embedded in thermally insulating walls room reference 3 1 multicore cables in conduits embedded in thermally insulating walls room 2 insulated conductors in surface mounted conduits 3 single or multicore cables in surface mounted conduits 3A insulated conductors in cable ducting on a wall single or multicore cables in cable ducting on a wall 4 4A insulated conductors in conduits embedded in masonry 5 single or multicore cables in conduits embedded in masonry 5A sheathed and/or armoured cables or sheathed single or multicore armoured cables c on a wall 11 c on a ceiling 11A c on unperforated trays 12 c on perforated trays 13 c on brackets run horizontally or vertically 14 c on cleats. spaced from a wall or a ceiling 15 c on ladders 16 F42 .distribution within a low-voltage installation .2 conduits. distributors (continued) F 6.6.

distribution within a low-voltage installation .F43 .F example 1 description 2 sheathed single-core or multicore cables suspended from or incorporating suspension wire reference 3 17 bare or insulated conductors on insulators 18 table F62: some examples of installation methods. Note: the illustrations are not intended to depict actual product or installation practices but are indicative of the method described.

internal and external protection medium external.) sea spray temporary immersion long-term immersion 4th complementary numeral: resistance to the penetration of solid bodies: conduits providing protection against: solid bodies greater than 2. and light internal protection medium external and internal protection heavy external and light internal protection heavy external and medium internal protection heavy external and internal protection 6th complementary numeral: resistance to solar radiation: conduits with protection: low degree medium degree high degree reference number indicating the exterior diameter in mm 16-20-25-32-40-50-63 3 4 5 6 7 8 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 table F63: designation code for conduits according to the most recent IEC publications.5 mm solid bodies greater than 1 mm dust dust-proof (total exclusion) 5th complementary numeral: resistance to corrosion: conduits with protection: light.distribution within a low-voltage installation . F44 . etc. distributors (continued) F 6. conductors and cables (continued) Designation of conduits according to the most recent IEC recommendations new designation code 3 90 3 2 8 6 1 2 25 obligatory marking code 1st numeral: mechanical properties average mechanical constraints: very light 1 light 2 medium 3 high 4 very high 5 2nd and 3rd numerals: classification according to temperature withstand capabilities: conduit class: -5°C 05 -25°C 25 +90°C 90 complementary marking code: 1st complementary numeral: malleability of conduits: rigid (slight bends only are possible) 1 malleable ("bendable") 2 transversally flexible (will flatten when bent) 3 flexible 4 2nd complementary numeral: electrical properties of conduits: with electrical continuity 1 intended for use as complementary insulation 2 intended for use as complementary insulation but including electrical continuity 3 3rd complementary numeral: resistance of conduits to the penetration of water.6.2 conduits. including: rain water projections of water (wind-blown rain) jets of water (from hose pipe.

Definitions c a conductor: as referred to in this subclause a conductor comprises a single metallic core in an insulating envelope. each of which is progressively replacing its national code by the CENELEC version. that at the time of writing. c a cable-way: the term cable-way refers to conductors and/or cables together with the means of support and protection. a code has been established by CENELEC* which "harmonizes" the several codes of member countries. are all "cable-ways". the term cable-way refers to conductors and/or cables together with the means of support and protection. Designation Most countries have national standards of codification for conductors and cables. but mechanically solid. Table F64 illustrates the form and significance of the designation code. but mechanically solid. ducts. trenches. for example : cable trays. It may be noted.. electrically separated. trenches. and so on... and so on.F designation code for LV conductors and cables as referred to in this sub-clause a conductor comprises a single metallic core in an insulating envelope. * Comité Européen de Normalisation de l'Electrotechnique.000 volts maximum 1 symbols for insulation materials ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) natural rubber or equivalent (Rubber) polyvinylchloride (PVC) cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) polychloroprene (neoprene) (PCP) symbol of sheath materials ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) natural rubber or equivalent (Rubber) polyvinylchloride (PVC) cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) polychloroprene (neoprene) (PCP) special constructions flat divisible cable flat indivisible cable core metals copper (no code) aluminium core symbols solid single core (inflexible) core of twisted strands (inflexible) flexible core. ladders. designation code (CENELEC) H 07 R N - - F 3 G 1. etc. and generally enclosed in a protective flexible sheath. for example: cable trays. ladders. CENELEC has undertaken a project of harmonization of different national standards.. In Europe. distribution within a low-voltage installation . and generally enclosed in a protective flexible sheath. class 5 standard flexible core (fixed installation) highly-flexible core. are all "cable-ways". ducts. electrically separated. with a view to facilitating exchanges between European countries. class 6 composition of the cables number of conductors multiplication sign if no green/yellow conductor is present sign when a green/yellow conductor is present cross-sectional area of conductor B R V X N B R V X N H H2 A U R F K H X X G X table F64: designation of conductors and cables according to CENELEC code for harmonized cables. c a cable: a cable is made of a number of conductors.5 "harmonized" cable H cable derived from a harmonized cable A cable according to a national standard FRN service voltage between conductors 300 volts maximum 03 500 volts maximum 05 750 volts maximum 07 1. a cable is made up of a number of conductors. etc. certain cable types (notably XLPE insulated) have not yet been included in the harmonized code.F45 .

a. identification marking of LV conductors LV wiring and cable conductors are marked either by colouring. c rule 3 Phase conductors may be identified by any colour.5 .300 1.5 . Note: if a circuit requires a protective conductor.5 : Harmonized cable . as recommended in IEC 446.. or c a black conductor.630 1. or by numbers. it must be coloured light-blue (or marked by the number 1 for multicore cables of more than 5 conductors). the conductor used must be marked by bands or grommets of striped green-and-yellow colours at the extremities of the cable..500 1.4 1. c rule 3 Phase conductors may be identified by any colour. the light-blue conductor may be used as a phase conductor if it is included in a cable of more than one conductor.5 . and along any of its exposed lengths. In the two last cases.5 . are governed by the following three rules: c rule 1 The green-and-yellow striped marking is reserved exclusively for protective conductors PE or PEN.5 ..s.xxx 1. the light-blue conductor may be used as a phase conductor if it is included in a cable of more than one conductor.5 . c rule 2 Where a circuit includes a neutral conductor.240 1.2 conduits.5 .5 .400 1..5 .5 .2.5 .5 .5 0.-voltage mm2 V cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) inflexible cables inflexible cables with halogen-free insulation (1) flexible elastomericinsulated cables PVC-insulated cables 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 2 to 5 7 to 37 2 to 5 2 to 5 2 to 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. v green.-U FRN 0. v light-blue (see rule 2). it must be coloured lightblue (or marked by the number 1 for multicore cables of more than 5 conductors).5 mm2.Rubber insulated .-R FRN 0. F46 . or c a light-blue conductor. except: v green-and-yellow. v yellow. Where a circuit does not include a neutral conductor.5 .5 .75 1. v yellow. table F66: commonly used conductors and cables.5 . Where a circuit does not include a neutral conductor.300 1. c rule 1 The green-and-yellow striped marking is reserved exclusively for protective conductors PE or PEN.630 1. the protective conductor may be: c either a separate conductor with green-andyellow striped insulation. c rule 2 Where a circuit includes a neutral conductor.400 1. v green. if the circuit includes a neutral conductor.35 0. conductors and cables designation according to the French national standards code U 1000 R12N U 1000 R2V U 1000 RVFV U 1000 RGPFV core core insulation non-metallic protective sheath fig.630 1.240 1. distributors (continued) F 6. conductors and cables (continued) Example of decoding: H07 RN-F 3G 1..distribution within a low-voltage installation .Nominal voltage 450/750 V .75 . F65: typical 3-core unarmoured cable.number of conductors c..35 1.Flexible-3 conductors: 1 green/yellow conductor .6.5 . designation according to CENELEC code cable standards not yet harmonized FRN 1X1X2 FRN 1X1G1 FRN 1X1X2Z4X2 FRN 1X1G1Z4G1 H 07 RN-F FRN 07 RN-7 FRN 05VV-U FRN 05VV-R H 05VV-F H 05VVH2-F H 07V-U H 07V-R H 07VK FRN 0. if the circuit does not include a neutral conductor.Neoprene (PCP) sheathed .300 1. v light-blue (see rule 2). except: v green-and-yellow.xxx PVC-insulated conductors conductors with halogen-free insulation (1) cable of category C1 (non-fire-propagating cable). These markings.All conductors are 1.5 . but the cable which is available for the circuit does not include a green-andyellow striped conductor.xxx 1.

is presented in table F67. such as IP degree. environmental conditions influence the definition and choice of appropriate installation materials and the choice of protective measures for the safety of persons. Codification Each condition of external influence is designated by a code comprising a group of two capital letters and a number as follows: The first letter relates to the general category of external influence. A = environment B =utilization C = construction of buildings The second letter relates to the nature of the external influence. water ingress. a concise list of external influences. that of the international standard IEC 364-3. For example the code AC2 signifies: A = environment AC = environment-altitude AC2 = environment-altitude > 2. or which closely resembles.7. Many national standards concerned with external influences include a classification scheme which is based on.000 m Note: the codification given in this chapter is not intended to be used for marking equipment. Following the IEC codification scheme given below. and for such detail the reader is referred to the standard. This standard (IEC 364-3) devotes many pages to detailed explanations of each class of influence. The number relates to the class within each external influence. 7. The environmental conditions are referred to collectively as "external influences". extracted from Appendix A of the IEC document. distribution within a low-voltage installation . however. external influences F Every electrical installation occupies an environment which presents a more-or-less severe degree of risk c for persons. c for the materials constituting the installation. Consequently.F47 .1 classification external influences shall be taken into account when choosing: c the appropriate measures to ensure the safety of persons (in particular in special locations or electrical installations) c the characteristics of electrical equipment. mechanical withstand.

F48 .distribution within a low-voltage installation . external influences (continued) F 7.7.1 classification (continued) A AA AA1 AA2 AA3 AA4 AA5 AA6 AB AC AC1 AC2 AD AD1 AD2 AD3 AD4 AD5 AD6 AD7 AD8 AE AE1 BA BA1 BA2 BA3 BA4 BA5 BB BC BC1 C CA CA1 CA2 materials non-combustible combustible CB CB1 CB2 structure negligible risk fire propagation building ambient (°C) -60°C +5°C -40°C +5°C -25°C +5°C -5°C +40°C +5°C +40°C +5°C +60°C humidity altitude (m) ≤ 2000 > 2000 water negligible drops sprays splashes jets waves immersion submersion foreign bodies negligible capability ordinary children handicapped instructed skilled resistance contact with earth none AE2 AE3 AE4 AF AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AG AG1 AG2 AG3 AH AH1 AH2 AH3 AJ AK AK1 AK2 BC2 BC3 BC4 BD BD1 BD2 BD3 small very small dust corrosion negligible atmospheric intermittent continuous impact low medium high vibration low medium high other mechanical stresses flora no hazard hazard low frequent continuous evacuation (low density/ easy exit) (low density/ difficult exit) (high density/ easy exit) AL AL1 AL2 AM AM1 AM2 AM3 AM4 AM5 AM6 AN AN1 AN2 AP AP1 AP2 AP3 AP4 AQ AQ1 AQ2 AR BD4 BE BE1 BE2 BE3 BE4 fauna no hazard hazard radiation negligible stray currents electromagnetic ionization electrostatics induction solar negligible significant seismic negligible low medium high lightning negligible indirect wind (high density/ difficult exit) materials no risk fire risk explosion risk contamination risk B utilization environnement CB3 CB4 structure movement flexible table F67: concise list of important external influences (taken from Appendix A of IEC 364-3).

Protection is afforded against the following external influences: c penetration by solid bodies. IP Code letters (International Protection) First characteristic numeral (numerals 0 to 6. or letter X) Additional letter (optional) (letters A. M. c protection against the ingress of liquids. Additional letters and/or supplementary letters may be omitted without replacement. distribution within a low-voltage installation . S.2 protection by enclosures: IP code The degree of protection provided by an enclosure is indicated in the IP code. or letter X) Second characteristic numeral (numerals 0 to 8.5 kV. recommended in IEC 529 (1989). fig. C. it shall be replaced by the letter "X" ("XX" if both numerals are omitted). D) Supplementary letter (optional) (letters H.F49 . c protection against the ingress of dust.F 7. c protection of persons against access to live parts. B. Note: the IP code applies to electrical equipment for voltages up to and including 72. F68: IP Code arrangement. W) 2 3 C H Where a characteristic numeral is not required to be specified.

F69: elements of the IP Code. external influences (continued) F 7.5 mm diameter u 1. Element Code letters Numerals or letters IP Meaning for the protection of equipment Against ingress of solid foreign objects 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 (non-protected) u 50 mm diameter u 12.distribution within a low-voltage installation . F50 .0 mm diameter dust-protected dust-tight Meaning for the protection of persons Against access to hazardous parts with (non-protected) back of hand finger tool wire wire wire First characteristic numeral Second characteristic numeral 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Against ingress of water with harmful effects (non-protected) vertically dripping dripping (15° tilted) spraying splashing jetting powerful jetting temporary immersion continuous immersion - Additional letter (optional) A B C D - Against access to hazardous parts with back of hand finger tool wire Supplementary letter (optional) H M S W Supplementary information specific to: High-voltage apparatus Motion during water test Stationary during water test Weather conditions - fig.7.5 mm diameter u 2.2 protection by enclosures: IP code (continued) Elements of the IP Code and their meanings A brief description of the IP Code elements is given in the following chart.

protects the equipment inside the enclosure against ingress of solid foreign objects having a diameter of 2. Adjustments through orifices by tools (screw drivers.omitting first characteristic numeral. IP2X . (S) is tested for protection against harmful effects due to the ingress of water when all the parts of the equipment are stationary (e. IPX5 .F Examples of the use of letters in the IP Code The following examples are to explain the use and arrangement of letters in the IP Code. box spanners.omitting first characteristic numeral. Access to the interior of a protective enclosure In the normal operating state. access doors and removable panels provided for maintenance purposes are closed. IP44 . no options. (C) protects persons handling tools having a diameter of 2. For additional information and full details of application and testing requirements of the IP Code.5 mm and greater. the reader is referred to IEC Publication 529 (1989). (3) protects the equipment inside the enclosure against the harmful effects due to water sprayed against the enclosure. Such penetrations could. IP3XD .using supplementary letter. IP23S . Figure F70 shows IEC test probes intended to prove the adequacy of protection against such dangers. handling tools having a diameter of 2. etc.no letters. the rotor of a rotating machine). c IP Code using optional letters: IP 2 3 C S Code letters 1st characteristic numeral 2nd characteristic numeral Additional letter Supplementary letter An enclosure with this designation (IP Code) (2) . distribution within a low-voltage installation .protects persons against access to hazardous parts with fingers . IPX5/IPX7 . but the majority of enclosures are provided with orifices for ventilation.protects persons. lead to accidental contact with live parts.using additional letter and supplementary letter.F51 . using additional letter. against access to hazardous parts .omitting second characteristic numeral.g.omitting second characteristic numeral. IPX1C . unless interior arrangements are carefully designed to prevent it.protects the equipment inside the enclosure against ingress of solid foreign objects having a diameter of 12.5 mm and greater. and the corresponding IP Code for each probe.omitting both characteristics numerals.5 mm and greater and a length not exceeding 100 mm against access to hazardous parts (the tool may penetrate the enclosure up to its full length). IP21CM . An extensive description of the numerous possible combinations of protective requirements is beyond the scope of this guide.5 mm and greater. Examples of designations with the IP Code c IP Code not using optional letters: IP 3 4 Code letters 1st characteristic numeral 2nd characteristic numeral An enclosure with this designation (IP Code) (3) . while limited access to some "safe" sections of an enclosure are frequently provided in the form of hand-holes under a removable plate. IPXXC .using additional letter. IP20C . (4) protects the equipment inside the enclosure against harmful effects due to water splashed against the enclosure from any direction. using additional letter. using additional letter.) from the outside are also common.giving two different degrees of protection by an enclosure against both water jets and temporary immersion for "versatile" application.

F70: access probes for the tests for protection of persons against access to hazardous parts. letter A access probe sphere 50 mm diameter approx. 100 mm long approx.7.distribution within a low-voltage installation .2 protection by enclosures: IP code (continued) first numeral 1 addit.0 mm diameter. protection against mechanical impact The selection of equipment according to an adequate IP code can ensure safety only if the enclosure is sufficiently robust to sustain anticipated mechanical stresses. viz: level 1 2 3 4 energy in joules 0. external influences (continued) F 7. notably impact forces. 6 D Ø35 stop face (insulating material) rigid test rod (metal) 1 N ± 10% Ø1 edges free from burrs handle (insulating material) Ø35 stop face (insulating material) rigid test wire (metal) test rod 2. AF3 or AF4) as listed in table F67. AG2 or AG3) according to the severity of possible impact stresses as listed in table F67.0 20. possible reduction in the degree of protection required. the possibility of weakening of enclosures or enlarging of orifices and so on.255 2. pending quantification of the AG code in IEC 364-3. and are based on four levels of impact energy. Specifications for such equipment should therefore include the appropriate AG code (AG1. due to external influences).5 edges free from burrs handle (insulating material) 4. Tests for standardized impact severities are being "harmonized" November 1993 internationally. without distortion which will adversely affect its IP classification.0 6. caused by corrosion must also be given due consideration.0 protection against corrosion For similar reasons to those mentioned above (i.5 mm diameter. F52 .e. The severity of the corrosive environment may be indicated in the equipment specifications by the AF code (AF1. 100 Ø10 rigid test sphere (metal) handle guard (insulating material) 2 B jointed test finger 80 Ø12 Ø45 10 N ± 10% 4 Ø50 test force 50 N ± 10% jointed test finger (metal) insulating material 3 C stop face (Ø50x20) 3 N ± 10% Ø2. 5. AF2. and defined in sub-clause 321 of IEC 364-3. It is recommended that these values be used in specifications. 100 Ø10 100 test wire 1. 100 Ø10 100 fig. 100 mm long approx.

IEC 755.G1 .2 direct and indirect contact standards and regulations distinguish two kinds of dangerous contact: c direct contact. the protection of persons against electric shock in LV installations must be provided in conformity with appropriate national standards and statutory regulations. direct contact A direct contact refers to a person coming into contact with a conductor which is live in normal circumstances.14%. etc. Any person coming into contact with live metal risks an electric shock. The protection of persons against electric shock in LV installations must be provided in conformity with appropriate national standards and statutory regulations. c indirect contact. IEC 1008.1 electric shock when a current exceeding 30 mA passes through a part of a human body. duration of current flow t Curve C1 (of figure G1) shows that when a current greater than 30 mA passes through a part of a human being. in each of which the pathophysiological effects are described (fig. The degree of danger for the victim is a function of the magnitude of the current. G1: curve C1 (of IEC 479-1) defines the current-magnitude/time-duration limits which must not be exceeded. electric shock An electric shock is the pathophysiological effect of an electric current through the human body. IEC Publication 479-1 defines four zones of current-magnitude/time-duration. Relevant IEC standards include: IEC 364. IEC 1009 and IEC 947-2 appendix B. ms 10000 5000 2000 1000 500 1 200 100 50 20 10 0. the parts of the body through which the current passes. official guides and circulars. the person concerned is in serious danger if the current is not interrupted in a very short time.5 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 mA current passing through the body Is fig. Relevant IEC standards include: IEC 364. official guides and circulars.1 0. Is: touch current fig. IEC 1008. etc. insulation failure 1 2 3 PE conductor Id 1 2 3 N busbars Is Is fig. but has become alive accidentally (due to insulation failure or some other cause). IEC 1009 and IEC 947-2 appendix B. Id: insulation fault current protection against electric shocks . G2: direct contact. Its passage affects essentially the circulatory and respiratory functions and sometimes results in serious burns. G1). codes of practice. codes of practice. G3: indirect contact. indirect contact An indirect contact refers to a person coming into contact with a conductive part which is not normally alive.1. unless the current is interrupted in a relatively short time. IEC 479-1. and corresponding protective measures. IEC 755. the person concerned is likely to be killed. IEC 479-1. and the duration of current flow. general G 1. The point 500 ms/100 mA close to the curve C1 corresponds to a probability of heart fibrillation of the order of 0.2 A B C1 C2 C3 2 3 4 ∂ imperceptible ∑ perceptible ∏ reversible effects: muscular contraction π possibility of irreversible effects C1: no heart fibrillation C2: 5% probability of heart fibrillation C3: 50% probability of heart fibrillation 0. 1.

protection against direct contact G two measures of protection against direct-contact hazards are often imposed. G4: inherent direct-contact protection by the insulation of a 3-phase cable with outer sheath.2). lacquers and varnishes do not provide an adequate protection. an opening in an enclosure (door. insulation. have access. etc. G2 . and in particular circumstances. despite the above measures. fig. measures of complete protection Protection by the insulation of live parts This protection consists of an insulation which conforms to the relevant standards. inaccessibility. since. etc. fig. these equipments must possess a degree of protection equal to at least IP2X or IPXXB (see Chapter F Sub-clause 7. Moreover. as described in Sub-clause G3. panel. This protection is based on residual-current operated high-sensitivity fastacting relays. enclosures) c partial or particular. in practice. The metal enclosure and all metal shutters must be bonded to the protective earthing conductor for the installation.2. or c after complete isolation of the live parts in the enclosure.) must only be removable. removable only with a key or with tools. or otherwise authorized personnel only. particular measures of protection Protection by the use of extra-low voltage SELV (Safety Extra Low Voltage) schemes This measure is used only in low-power circuits. drawer. opened or withdrawn: c by means of a key or tool provided for the purpose. or by placing out of reach This practice concerns locations to which qualified. Protection by means of barriers or enclosures This measure is in widespread use. since many components and materials are installed in cabinets. etc. G5: example of direct-contact prevention by means of an earthed metal enclosure.5. To be considered as providing effective protection against direct-contact hazards. Two complementary measures are commonly employed as protection against the dangers of direct contact: c the physical prevention of contact with live parts by barriers. Paints. 2. pillars.1 measures of protection against direct contact IEC and national standards frequently distinguish between degrees of protection c complete (insulation. the first measure may not prove to be infallible. or c with the automatic action of an intervening metal shutter. which are highly effective in the majority of direct contact cases. control panels and distribution-board enclosures.protection against electric shocks . partial measures of protection Protection by means of obstacles. c additional protection in the event that a direct contact occurs.

carelessness. installed in particular locations considered to be potentially dangerous. with a live conductor. for example. are highly recommended as an effective protection against both direct. and are referred to as RCDs of high sensitivity. c immersion in water. in which any difference between the current entering a circuit and that leaving it.G3 .and indirect-contact hazards. Among these reasons may be cited: c lack of proper maintenance. All the preceding protective measures are preventive. highly-sensitive fast-tripping devices. . but in any case. referred to as RCDs. Other standard IEC ratings for high-sensitivity RCDs are 10 mA and 6 mA (generally used for individual appliance protection). These devices operate on the principle of differential current measurement.a situation in which insulation is no longer effective. In order to protect users in such circumstances. c accidental contact. and even higher if the location is wet and/or temporary (such as work-sites for example). sufficiently sensitive for directcontact protection are rated at 30 mA of differential current. fig. Some national wiring regulations impose their use on all circuits supplying socket outlets. c imprudence. etc. Chapter L section 3 itemizes various common locations in which RCDs of high sensitivity are obligatory (in some countries). protection against electric shocks . or used for special purposes. of a normally healthy human being. This additional protection is imposed in certain countries for circuits supplying socket outlets of ratings up to 32 A. G6: high-sensitivity RCD. either through faulty insulation or through contact of an earthed object.2 additional measure of protection against direct contact an additional measure of protection against the hazards of direct contact is provided by the use of residualcurrent operated devices. flexure and abrasion of connecting leads. but experience has shown that for various reasons they cannot be regarded as being infallible. IEC wiring regulations impose the use of RCDs on circuits supplying socket outlets. such as a person. which operate at 30 mA or less.G 2. Standard residual-current devices. based on the detection of residual currents to earth (which may or may not be through a human being or animal) are used to disconnect the power supply automatically. must (on a system supplied from an earthed source) be flowing to earth. or death by electrocution. c normal (or abnormal) wear and tear of insulation. and with sufficient rapidity to prevent permanent injury to.

installation earth electrode Uc fig. in such a way that the touch-voltage/time safety requirements are respected for any level of touch voltage Uc(3).25 0.12 0.17 0. v non-conducting location(2) . (3) touch voltage Uc: Touch voltage Uc is the voltage existing (as the result of insulation failure) between an exposed conductive part and any conductive element within reach which is at a different (generally earth) potential.02 table G8: maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where UL = 50 V(1). See G4-1 and Clause L3. or an equivalent degree of insulation.08 0. but which is not part of the circuit for the appliance. G4 . TT. Failure of the basic insulation will result in the conductive parts becoming live.40 0. is separated from live parts by the "basic insulation". the limit is reduced to 25 V. is referred to as "exposed conductive parts". The highest value of Uc that can be tolerated indefinitely without danger to human beings is called the "conventional touch-voltage limit" (UL). TN or IT.out-of-reach or interposition of barriers.25 0. the maximum permitted touch voltage (UL) is 50 V. * For most locations. table G9: maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where UL = 25 V. depending on the system of earthing) c particular measures according to circumstances.18 0.02 0. Touching a normally-dead part of an electrical appliance which has become live due to the failure of its insulation. Conductive material(1) used in the manufacture of an electrical appliance.12 0. without dismantling the appliance. protection against indirect contact G national regulations covering LV installations impose. v equipotential locality. reminder of the theoretical disconnecting-time limits* assumed touch voltage (V) < 50 50 75 90 120 150 220 280 350 500 maximum disconnecting time for the protective device (seconds) alternating direct current current 5 5 5 5 0. principle This protective measure depends on two fundamental requirements: c the earthing of all exposed conductive parts of equipment in the installation and the constitution of an equipotential bonding network (see Sub-clause F4-1). c automatic disconnection of the section of the installation concerned.30 2 0.1 measure of protection by automatic disconnection of the supply protection against indirect-contact hazards by automatic disconnection of the supply can be achieved if the exposed conductive parts of appliances are properly earthed.48 5 0.protection against electric shocks .34 5 0. (2) The definition of resistances of the walls. Various measures are adopted to protect against this hazard.50 0. the greater the rapidity of supply disconnection required to provide protection (see Tables G8 and G9). (1) Conductive material (usually metal) which may be touched. the provision of devices for indirect-contact protection.20 0. in practice the disconnecting times and the choice of protection schemes to use depend on the kind of earthing system concerned.5 3. is referred to as an indirect contact. or strongly recommend. v electrical separation by means of isolating transformers.60 5 0. For special locations. floor and ceiling of a non-conducting location is given in Sub-clause G3.05 0.06 0. the measures of protection are: c automatic disconnection of supply (at the first or second fault detection. c special arrangements such as: v the use of class II insulation materials.30 0.27 1 0.3. G7: in this illustration the dangerous touch voltage Uc is from hand to hand. Precise indications are given in the corresponding paragraphs.04 0.80 0. (1) The resistance of the floor and the wearing of shoes are taken into account in these values.45 5 0.10 assumed touch voltage (V) 25 50 75 90 110 150 230 280 maximum disconnecting time for the protective device (seconds) alternating direct current current 5 5 0. The greater the value of Uc. and include: c automatic disconnection of power supply to the appliance concerned.

The impedance of the earth-fault loop therefore consists mainly of the two earth electrodes (i. protection against electric shocks . The supply system neutral is normally earthed at a point outside the area of influence of the electrode for the installation. and the use of a differential-current form of protection is essential.G 3. the source and installation electrodes) in series. but need not be so.e. so that the magnitude of the earth-fault current is generally too small to operate overcurrent relays or fuses. but. example The resistance of the substation neutral earth electrode Rn is 10 ohms. but where all other conditions required by the TN system cannot be fulfilled.2 automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation is effected by a RCD having a sensitivity of U 50 V* I∆n i L = RA RA where RA = resistance of the installation earth electrode * 25 V in some particular cases. The earth-fault current Id = 7.7 A. notably in the case of a consumer-type substation within the installation area. For temporary supplies (to work-sites etc. the value of UL in the abovementioned formula must be replaced by 25 V. where space limitations may impose the adoption of a TN earthing scheme. I∆n = 50 = 2. G10: automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation. The resistance of the installation earth electrode RA is 20 ohms. HV/400V 1 2 3 4 substation earth electrode installation earth electrode Uc Rn : 10 Ω RA : 20 Ω fig.) and agricultural and horticultural establishments. appears on an exposed conductive part. Automatic protection for a TT-earthed installation is assured by the use of a RCD of sensitivity: I∆n i UL = 50 V RA RA where RA = the resistance of the earth electrode for the installation. I∆n = rated differential current operating level.5 A so that a standard 300 mA 20 RCD will operate in 30 ms to clear a condition in which 50 V touch voltage. or more. The touch-voltage Uc = IdRA = 154 V and therefore dangerous. This principle of protection is also valid if one common earth electrode only is used. principle In this scheme all the exposed and extraneous conductive parts of the installation must be connected to a common earth electrode.G5 .

example A F E NS160 35 mm2 D 50 m 35 mm2 C B 3 2 1 PEN N RnA Uc fig. equal to the sum of the impedances of: the source. If ZBC and ZDE are predominant. the protective conductors from the fault position back to the source.2.2). specified disconnection time RCD is a general term for all devices operating on the residual-current principle. As noted in Chapter F Sub-clause 4. In high-rise apartment blocks.3 milli-ohm.protection against electric shocks less than this value. ** Note : the use of the term "circuit breaker" does not mean that a RCCB can break short-circuit currents.3 automatic disconnection for a TN-earthed installation the principle of the TN scheme of earthing is to ensure that earth-fault current will be sufficient to operate overcurrent protective devices (direct-acting tripping.3 .3. Type G (general) and type S (selective) have tripping time/current characteristics as shown in table G11. These characteristics allow a certain degree of selective tripping between the several combinations of rating and type. so that S Id = 230/64. all extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protective conductor at each level. x I∆n instantaneous (ms) domestic type S (ms) industrial setting I** (ms) * Merlin Gerin 1 2 5 300 150 40 >5 40 500 200 150 150 150 150 150 150 table G11: maximum operating times of RCCBs (IEC 1008). the earth-fault current Id = Uo or 0. in which the neutral conductor acts as both the Protective-Earth and Neutral (PEN) conductor. will give a fault current of 230 x 0. On large installations additional earth electrodes dispersed around the premises are often provided.816 A (≈ 18 In) 64. in order to reduce the touch voltage as much as possible.8 Uo u Ia where Zs Zc Uo = nominal phase-neutral voltage. TN-S.2 automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation (continued) the tripping times of RCDs are generally lower than those prescribed in the majority of national standards. in this example.3 = 3. is explained in chapter G Sub-clause 5. RCCB* (residual current circuit breaker) as defined in IEC 1008 is a specific class of RCD. In order to ensure adequate protection. High fault current levels simplify protection requirements but can give rise to touch voltages exceeding 50% of the phase-toneutral voltage at the fault position during the brief disconnection time. Zc = the faulty-circuit loop impedance (see "conventional method" Sub-clause 5. this feature facilitates their use and allows the adoption of an effective scheme of discriminative protection. so that positive operation in the shortest possible time is assured. therefore. The impedance Zs of the loop = ZAB + ZBC + ZDE + ZEN + ZNA.2 "conventional method" and. and need not be considered. Ia = a current equal to the value required to operate the protective device in the time specified. In practice. In all TN arrangements. overcurrent relays and fuses) so that Uo Uo* Ia i or 0. then: ZS = 2ρ x L = 64.3. the way in which this direct connection is carried out depends on whether the TN-C. For such duties RCDs known as RCBOs ("O" for overcurrent) as defined in IEC 1009 must be employed. as shown later in Sub-clause 4. any insulation fault to earth constitutes a phase-neutral short-circuit. Note: some authorities base such calculations on the assumption that a voltage drop of 20% occurs in the part of the impedance loop BANE. or TN-C-S method of implementing the TN principle is used.8 Zs Zc principle In this scheme all exposed and extraneous conductive parts of the installation are connected directly to the earthed point of the power supply by protective conductors. Note: the path through earth electrodes back to the source will have (generally) much higher impedance values than those listed above. 3. protection against indirect contact (continued) G 3. earth electrodes are normally installed at intervals along the neutral of the supply network. In figure G12 the method TN-C is shown. The "instantaneous" magnetic tripping device setting of the circuit breaker is many times G6 .576 A (≈ 22 In based on a 160 A circuit breaker). the live phase conductors to the fault position. In figure G12 the touch voltage 230 Uc = = 115 V 2 and is therefore dangerous. G12: automatic disconnection for a TN-earthed installation. Zs = earth-fault current loop impedance. while the consumer is generally required to instal an earth electrode at the service position. Id = the fault current. which is recommended.8 x 103 = 2. This method.

for 400 V If the circuits concerned are final circuits.8* Zs Zc * according to the "conventional" method of calculation (see sub-clause 5. must always be taken into consideration. in any area where socket-outlets are installed. for all practical purposes on TN systems. to be sure of tripping whithin the permitted time limit. protection against electric shocks .2 s. protection cannot be achieved if the loop impedance Zs or Zc exceeds a certain value. Uo (volts) phase/neutral 127 230 400 > 400 disconnection time (seconds) UL=50 V (see note 2) 0. In any case. Note 2: when the conventional voltage limit is 25 V. if the protection is to be provided by a circuit breaker.This impedance value must never be exceeded and should preferably be substantially less to ensure satisfactory fuse operation. Use of RCDs on TN-C-S systems means that the protective conductor and the neutral conductor must (evidently) be separated upstream of the RCD. be necessary on TN-earthed systems. The fault current Uo/Zs or 0. or than the very short-time tripping threshold level. instantaneous or slightly retarded. from which portable or mobile equipment might be supplied.2 0. t tc = 0. G15: disconnection by fuses for a TN-earthed installation. which.05 s. Ia can be determined from the fuse performance curve. then these times can easily be achieved by the use of RCDs. is the phase/neutral voltage. It is sufficient therefore that the fault current Uo / Zs or 0. specified maximum disconnection times The times specified are a function of the nominal voltage phase/earth. the provision of equipotential bonding of all extraneous and exposed conductive parts that are simultaneously accessible. the specified disconnection times are: 0.2).G for TN earthing. are suitable: Ia = Im.8 0.8 Uo / Zc determined by calculation (or established on site) be greater than the instantaneous trip-setting current. however.4 seconds. automatic disconnection within the maximum allowable time will always be assured. as mentioned in note 2. and certain national regulations impose.8 Uo as indicated in figure G15. Using the voltage (230 V) and the current Ia. it is sufficient to verify that the fault current will always exceed the current-setting level of the instantaneous or short-time delay tripping unit (Im): Im < Uo or 0.4 0. The corresponding value of Ia can be read from the graph. magnetic or electronic.4 s Ia Uo/Zs I fig. The common equipotential busbar is installed in the distribution-board cabinet for the area concerned. In consequence. Note 1: a longer time interval than those specified in the table (but in any case less than 5 seconds) is allowed under certain circumstances for distribution circuits. Zs Zc Example: The nominal phase-neutral voltage of the network is 230 V and the maximum disconnection time given by the graph in figure G15 is 0. t 1 : instantaneous trip 2 : short time-delayed trip 2 1 Im Uo/Zs I fig. IEC recommends. Note 3: the use of RCDs may. on condition that a dangerous touch voltage is not thereby caused to appear on another appliance. the complete loop impedance or the circuit loop impedance can be calculated from Zs = 230/Ia or Zc = 0.1 table G13: maximum disconnection times specified for TN earthing schemes (IEC 364-4-41). This separation is commonly made at the service position.35 s. G14: disconnection by circuit breaker for a TN-earthed installation. protection by means of fuses The value of current which assures the correct operation of a fuse can be accertained from a current/time performance graph for the fuse concerned. since all types of trip unit. as well as for final circuits supplying a fixed appliance. The condition to observe therefore is that: Ia < Uo or 0.8 x 230/Ia. for 230 V 0. must largely exceed that necessary to ensure positive operation of the fuse. The maximum tolerance authorized by the relevant standard. for 127 V 0. protection by means of a circuit breaker The instantaneous trip unit of a circuit breaker will eliminate a short-circuit to earth fault in less than 0.G7 . the maximum allowable disconnection time depends on the nominal voltage of the system.8 Uo/Zc as determined above.1 second.

as shown in figure G17.e. this amounts to 3 x 66 mA = 198 mA i. the current passing through the electrode resistance RnA is the vector sum of the capacitive currents in the two healthy phases. in an IT scheme it is intended that a first fault to earth will not cause any disconnection. etc. Since the exposed conductive parts of the installation are connected directly to earth.3. a rapid disconnection becomes imperative. it is conventional to double the loop impedance of a circuit. . The touch voltage Uc is therefore 198 x 5 x 10-3 = 0. and conventional overcurrent protective devices are used. B Id1 Zct 1500 Ω Id1 Id2 RnA = 5 Ω fig. For this reason. which is evidently harmless. In practice the current Id is feeble.4 automatic disconnection on a second earth fault in an IT-earthed system In this type of system: c the installation is isolated from earth. such that the rule Id x RA i 50 V (see G3.99 V. i.) in the event of a first earth fault occurring. so that the capacitive currents increase by the same amount. protection against indirect contact (continued) G 3. Example: For a network formed from 1 km of conductors. the leakage (capacitive) impedance to earth ZF is of the order of 3. the fault current is very small. In this case no earth electrodes are included in the fault current path. and rapid clearance by fuses or automatic circuit breaker tripping depends on the type of earth-bonding scheme. while the second fault could feasibly be located at the opposite end of the installation. together with an alarm signal (audio and/or flashing lights. a condition that is neither dangerous to personnel. on a different phase. c the rapid location and repair of a first fault is imperative if the full benefits of the IT system are to be realized. so that a high level of fault current is assured. the simultaneous existence of two earth faults (if not both on the same phase) is dangerous. The first fault could occur at the end of a circuit in a remote part of the installation.500 ohms per phase. or on a neutral conductor. The voltages of the two healthy phases have (because of the fault) increased to √3 the normal phase voltage.500 During a phase-to-earth fault. when calculating the anticipated fault setting level for its overcurrent protective device(s). The current through the short-circuit is given by the vector sum of the neutral-resistor current Id1 (= 153 mA) and the capacitive current (Id2). one from the other by 60°.protection against electric shocks second fault situation On the appearance of a second fault. nor harmful to the installation. the neutral impedance Zct plays practically no part in the production of touch voltages to earth. in the installation concerned. HV/400 V Id2 Id1 3 2 1 PE Id1 Id2 A Uc Id2 Id2 ZF fig. c all exposed and extraneous conductive parts are earthed via an installation earth electrode. so that when added vectorially. Fault clearance is carried out differently in each of the following cases: 1st case: concerns an installation in which all exposed conductive parts are bonded to a common PE conductor. * Resistive leakage current to earth through the insulation is assumed to be negligibly small in the example. circuit breakers and fuses. or the neutral point of its power-supply source is connected to earth through a high impedance. G8 . in this scheme: c a permanent surveillance of the condition of the insulation to earth must be provided. These currents are displaced. as shown in figure G19. Continuity of service is the great advantage afforded by the scheme.2) is respected and no dangerous touch voltages can occur. In normal (unfaulted) operation. G17: fault-current paths for a first (earth) fault on an IT-earthed installation. first fault On the occurrence of a short-circuit fault to earth. However. and whether separate earthing electrodes are used or not.e. referred to as a "first fault". Id2 in the present example. the capacitive current* to earth is therefore Uo = 230 = 66 mA per phase ZF 3. G16: phases to earth insulation monitoring relay (obligatory on IT-earthed installation).

G9 . (1) 0. H.5 x 50 = 64.3 = 129 mΩ The fault current will therefore be: 0.3) Ia = current level for trip setting Uo/U (volts) Uo = phase-neutral volts U = phase-phase volts 127/220 230/400 400/690 580/1000 c if no neutral conductor is provided. In such a case. Example HV/400 V A Id J K NS160 160 A 50 m 35 mm2 H F E 50 m 35 mm2 D B 3 2 1 PE busbars c in the case of a 3-phase 4-wire scheme.e.4 0. with fault-level calculations and tripping/fuseoperating times suitably adapted.2 seconds at 400/690 V.4 0. * based on the "conventional method" noted in the first example of Sub-clause 3. protection against electric shocks . 1. The current indicated should be significantly lower than the fault currents calculated for the circuit concerned. shown in Sub-clause 3. the two circuits involved in a phase-to-phase short circuit are assumed to be of equal length.s.3. Zct G C Rn RA fig.8 0. (2) 0. G. disconnection time (seconds) UL = 50 V (1) 3-phase 3-wires 3-phase 4-wires 0. (1) When the conventional voltage limit is 25 V. J will be 2 x 64. i.0 second at 127/220 V.8 x ex 230 x 103 = 2. The times recommended in table G18 can be readily complied with.470 A 129 c fuses The current Ia for which fuse operation must be assured in a time specified according to table G18 can be found from fuse operating curves. G19: circuit breaker tripping on second (earth) fault when exposed conductive parts are connected to a common protective conductor. therefore. then the voltage to use for the fault-current calculation is the phase-to-phase value.5 seconds at 230/400 V and 0. RCCBs are necessary.G 1st case: where all exposed conductive parts are connected to a common PE conductor conventional overcurrent protection schemes (such as those used in TN systems) are applicable. the phase-to-neutral voltage must be used to calculate short-circuit protective levels i. Example: from the case shown in figure G19. 0.3 mΩ 35 and the loop resistance B. c where the system includes a neutral conductor in addition to the 3 phase conductors. with the same sized conductors.2 seconds at 230/400 V and 0. 1 mm2 l = length of the circuit in metres a = c.2 of this chapter) will be twice that calculated for one of the circuits in the TN case.06 seconds at 400/690 V.8 Uo* u Ia where 2 Zc Uo = phase/neutral voltage Zc = impedance of the circuit fault-current loop (see G3. 0. In four-wire IT installations. E. the impedance of the circuit loop when using the "conventional method" (Sub-clause 5. determine that the short-circuit protection provided by the 160 A circuit breaker is suitable to clear a phase-to-phase shortcircuit occurring at the load ends of the circuits concerned. protection against indirect contact hazards can be achieved by using one RCCB for each circuit.1 5 0. 0. The current levels and protective measures depend on the switchgear and fusegear concerned: c circuit breakers In the case shown in figure G19. In this case. Reminder: In an IT system.s.8 e Uo* u Ia 2 Zc Specified tripping/fuse-clearance times Disconnecting times for 3-wire 3-phase IT schemes differ from those adopted for 4-wire 3-phase IT schemes. the levels of instantaneous and short time-delay overcurrent-trip settings must be decided. F. as described in figure G15. C.2 table G18: maximum disconnection times specified for an IT-earthed installation (IEC 364-4-41).2 0. D. and are given for both cases in table G18.a. the lowest short-circuit fault currents will occur if one of the (two) faults is from the neutral conductor to earth (all four conductors are insulated from earth in an IT scheme). c RCCBs In particular cases. So that the resistance of circuit 1 loop FGHJ = 2 RHJ = 2 ρ l mΩ a where: ρ = the resistance in milli-ohm of a copper rod 1 metre long of c. the PE conductors being the same size as the phase conductors.3. the disconnecting times become: c in the case of a 3-phase 3-wire scheme.e.8 0. of the conductor in mm2 = 2 x 22.a.4 seconds at 127/220 V.

2nd case: concerns exposed conductive parts which are earthed either individually (each part having its own earth electrode) or in separate groups (one electrode for each group). G21: low-voltage supplies from a safety isolating transformer. wandering-lead hand lamps. Clause 3: "special locations". is required. when the SELV voltage is less than 25 V.). so that inadvertent connection to a different voltage level is not possible. Three conditions of exploitation must be respected in order to provide satisfactory protection against indirect contact: c no live conductor at SELV must be connected to earth. protection against indirect contact (continued) G 3. and the nominal voltage does not exceed 25 V rms.2. These measures require that: c SELV circuits must use conduits exclusively provided for them. etc. The SELV circuit plugs and sockets must be special. as described above for case 1. protection of the neutral conductor. but the secondary circuit is earthed at one point. c exposed conductive parts of SELV-supplied equipment must not be connected to earth. or preferred for safety reasons.5 measures of protection against direct or indirect contact without circuit disconnection extra-low voltage is used where the risks are great: swimming pools. each appliance or each group must (in addition to overcurrent protection) be protected by a RCD. Particular requirements are indicated in Chapter L. and the equipment is used in normally dry locations only. IEC 364-4-41 defines precisely the significance of the reference PELV. unless cables which are insulated for the highest voltage of the other circuits are used for the SELV circuits. or to extraneous conductive parts. to other exposed conductive parts. c all live parts of SELV circuits and of other circuits of higher voltage must be separated by a distance at least equal to that between the primary and secondary windings of a safety isolating transformer. Note 1: see also Chapter H1 Sub-clause 7. G10 . then it is possible for the second earth fault to occur in a different group or in a separatelyearthed individual apparatus. and other portable appliances for outdoor use.3. The secondary voltage never exceeds 50 V rms. Protection against direct-contact hazards is generally necessary. and consists of a RCD placed at the circuit breaker controlling each group and each individually-earthed apparatus. there is no need to provide protection against direct-contact hazards. the use of SELV (Safety by Extra Low Voltage) Safety by extra low voltage SELV is used in situations where the operation of electrical equipment presents a serious hazard (swimming pools. . This measure depends on supplying power at very low voltage from the secondary windings of isolating transformers especially designed according to national or to international (IEC 742) standards. Additional protection to that described above for case 1. The more sensitive RCDs are therefore necessary.4 automatic disconnection on a second earth fault in an IT-earthed system (continued) 2nd case: where exposed conductive parts of appliances are earthed individually or in separate groups. 6 V rms is the maximum permitted voltage. The reason for this requirement is that the separate-group electrodes are "bonded" through the earth so that the phase-to-phase short-circuit current will generally be limited when passing through the earth bond. other than in the high-risk locations noted above. c socket outlets for the SELV system must not have an earth-pin contact. as shown in figure G20 (see also Table H1-65c). thereby making protection by overcurrent devices unreliable. where no direct-contact protection is provided. In all other cases. 3. 230 V / 24 V the use of PELV (Protection by Extra Low Voltage) This system is for general use where low voltage is required. If all exposed conductive parts are not bonded to a common electrode system. except when the equipment is in the zone of equipotential bonding. amusement parks. but the operating current of the RCDs must evidently exceed that which occurs for a first fault.protection against electric shocks fig. by the HV/LV case 1 electrode contact resistances with the earth. For a second fault occurring within a group having a common earth-electrode system. Note 2: in 3-phase 4-wire installations protection against overcurrent in the neutral conductor is sometimes more conveniently achieved by using a ring-type current transformer over the single-core neutral conductor. the overcurrent protection operates. Note: In normal conditions. G20: the application of RCDs when exposed conductive parts are earthed individually or by groups. on IT-earthed systems. The impulse withstand level of insulation between the primary and secondary windings is very high. as defined in IEC 742. etc. case 2 HV/LV RCD N PIM RCD N RCD RCD PIM group earth group 1 earth Rn RA 1 group 2 earth RA 2 Rn RA fig. and large-area contact with the human body is not expected. The conception is similar to that of the SELV system. and/or an earthed metal screen is sometimes incorporated between the windings.

etc. the direct contact current will progressively increase to a point where a dangerous electric shock will be experienced. Methods are also described for distribution boards. the separation of electric circuits The principle of separation of circuits (generally single-phase circuits) for safety purposes is based on the following reasoning. and that the length of the wiring system should not exceed 500 m. A simple example is that of drawing a cable into a PVC conduit. a voltage of 50 V or less is used.G FELV system (Functional Extra Low Voltage) Where. G23: principle of class II insulation level. radio and television sets have safety levels equivalent to class II. for example. contactors) insufficiently insulated with respect to circuits at higher voltages. equivalent to class II. through the earth and back to the other conductor through the low conductor-to-earth insulation resistance. but not all of the requirements relating to SELV or PELV are fulfilled. according to the location and use of these circuits. c supplementary insulation in an electrical installation (IEC 364-4-41: Sub-clause 413-2). successful exploitation of the principle requires that: c no conductor or exposed conductive part of the secondary circuit must be connected to earth. for what is referred to as "total insulation". Note: Such conditions may. The earth-pin connection is used in this case only to ensure the interconnection (bonding) of all exposed conductive parts. These conditions generally limit the application of this safety measure to an individual appliance.G11 . it is necessary to observe the following requirements: c the exposed conductive parts of all appliances must be connected together by an insulated protective conductor. with a high degree of insulation between primary and secondary windings.). Construction of the transformer is to class II insulation standards. relatively short lengths of well-insulated cable are essential in separation schemes.5 active part basic insulation supplementary insulation fig. It is important to take particular care in the exploitation of class II equipment and to verify regularly and often that the class II standard is maintained (no broken outer envelope. or with equivalent protection. IEC 439-1 describes a set of requirements. If a direct contact is made with one conductor. In the case of a second fault. but are not formally class II appliances. c a high insulation-resistance value must be maintained for the cabling and appliances. appropriate measures described in IEC 364-4-41 must be taken to ensure protection against both direct and indirect contact hazards. remote-control switches. a very small current only will flow into the person making contact. and some types of transformer are designed to have double insulation. It is preferably used for an individual appliance. since the current path is then via the person making contact. For these reasons. Chapter 41) describe in more detail the necessary measures to achieve the supplementary insulation during installation work. certain lamps. class II appliances symbol These appliances are also referred to as having "double insulation" since in class II appliances a supplementary insulation is added to the basic insulation. overcurrent protection must provide automatic disconnection in the same conditions as those required for an IT scheme of power system earthing. a low value of insulation resistance with respect to earth can result in danger. In the case where several appliances are supplied from a separation transformer. * It is recommended in IEC 364-4-41 that the product of the nominal voltage of the circuit in volts and length in metres of the wiring system should not exceed 100 000. G22: safety supplies from a separation transformer. The two conductors from the unearthed single-phase secondary winding of a separation transformer are insulated from earth. Electronic devices. via the inherent capacitance of that conductor with respect to earth. the current is generally below the level of perception. Some national standards such as NF C 15-100 (France) (annex to 413. c the socket outlets must be provided with an earth-pin connection. for functional reasons. but not connected to earth. Transformers are specially designed for this duty. be encountered when the circuit contains equipment (such as transformers. As indicated above. No conductive parts of a class II appliance must be connected to a protective conductor: c most portable or semi-fixed appliances. c some cables are recognized as being equivalent to class II by many national standards. As the length of circuit cable increases. protection against electric shocks . relays. c the length of secondary cabling must be limited to avoid large capacitance values*. c for distribution boards and similar equipment. the separation of electric circuits is suitable for relatively short cable lengths and high levels of insulation resistance. such as an earthed metal screen between the windings. Even if a short length of cable precludes any danger from capacitive current. separation transformer 230 V / 230 V class II fig. Since the conductor capacitance to earth is very small. through the earth and back to the other conductor.

in the absence of significant fault current. Suitable precautions must be taken to protect personnel from this danger (e. the resistance to earth at any point must be: > 50 kΩ (installation voltages i 500 V).e. and so is not an easily applied principle out-of-reach or interposition of obstacles. In such conditions. *Note: extraneous conductive parts entering (or leaving) the equipotential space (such as water pipes. c the placing of equipment and obstacles must be such that simultaneous contact with two exposed conductive parts or with an exposed conductive part and an extraneous conductive part by an individual person is not possible. requires also a non-conducting floor. G12 .g. so that care should be taken to ensure that the electrodes used are those supplied with the instrument. By these means. etc. Different instrument suppliers provide electrodes specific to their own product. i. such as a lighting switch mounted in an industrial-type cast-iron conduit box. In practice. There are no universally recognized standards established for these tests at the time of writing. Resistance is measured by means of "MEGGER" type instruments (hand-operated generator or battery-operated electronic model) between an electrode placed on the floor or against the wall.e.protection against electric shocks . > 100 kΩ (500 V < installation voltages i 1000 V). protection against indirect contact (continued) G 3. safety by placing simultaneously-accessible conductive parts out-of-reach. insulated obstacles insulated walls 2. c no exposed protective conductor must be introduced into the chamber concerned. this measure can only be applied in a dry location. earth-free equipotential chambers In this scheme. G25: equipotential bonding of all exposed conductive parts simultaneously accessible. since such parts are likely to be bonded to protective (earthed) conductors elsewhere in the installation. a person entering the chamber would be at risk (since he/she would be stepping on to a live floor). earth-free equipotential chambers are associated with particular installations (laboratories. and is implemented according to the following conditions: c the floor and the walls of the chamber must be non-conducting. A failure of insulation between a live conductor and the metal envelope of an appliance will result in the whole "cage" being raised to phase-to-earth voltage.) must be encased in suitable insulating material and excluded from the equipotential network. but no fault current will flow. Special protective devices are also necessary to detect insulation failure.3. while at the same time touching an extraneous conductive part at earth potential. such that no significant difference of potential can exist between any two points. all exposed conductive parts.5 m electrical apparatus insulated floor >2m electrical apparatus electrical apparatus <2m fig. etc. The electrode contact area and pressure must evidently be the same for all tests. M conductive floor insulating material fig. and earth (i.5 measures of protection against direct or indirect contact without circuit disconnection (continued) in principle. c entrances to the chamber must be arranged so that persons entering are not at risk. nonconducting floor at entrances. including the floor (see *Note) are bonded by suitably large conductors. the nearest protective earth-conductor).) and give rise to a number of practical installation difficulties. is extremely low. e.g.). a person standing on a conducting floor outside the chamber must not be able to reach through the doorway to touch an exposed conductive part. for example. or by interposing obstacles. the probability of touching a live exposed conductive part. etc. G24: protection by out-of-reach arrangements and the interposition of non-conducting obstacles.

the sensitivity must be compatible with the resistance of the earth electrode concerned. (1) these cases are treated in delail in Chapter L Clause 3. c strongly recommended for circuits of socket outlets u 20 A (mandatory if they are expected to supply portable equipment for outdoor use).1 protective measures the application to living quarters is covered in Chapter L Clause 1. etc. this requirement is mandatory for all socket-outlet circuits rated i 32 A. for given sensitivity levels of RCDs at UL voltage limits of 50 V and 25 V. "S" type. the sensitivity I∆n of which complies with the condition: 50 V (1) I∆n i RA (1) 25 V for work-site installations. and is given in table G26. In each case. RA 1 RA 2 a distant location fig. and travelling fairs(1). G28: separate earth electrode. A B fig.G13 . caravans. table G26: the upper limit of resistance for an installation earthing electrode which must not be exceeded. e. Case of distribution circuits IEC 364-4-41 and a number of national standards recognize a maximum tripping time of 1 second in installation distribution circuits (as opposed to final circuits). protection against indirect contact General case Protection against indirect contact is assured by RCDs. This protection may be for individual circuits or for groups of circuits.g. c socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations(1). c in some countries. agricultural establishments. high-sensitivity RCDs IEC 364-4-471 strongly recommends the use of a RCD of high sensitivity (i 30 mA) in the following cases: c socket-outlet circuits for rated currents of i 32 A at any location(1). are connected to a separate earth electrode Protection against indirect contact by a RCD at the circuit breaker controlling each group or separately-earthed individual appliance. c socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings(1). This allows a degree of selective discrimination to be achieved: c at level A: RCD time-delayed. G29: circuit supplying socket-outlets.4. I∆n 3A 1A 500 mA 300 mA 30 mA maximum resistance of the earth electrode (50 V) (25 V) 16 Ω 8Ω 50 Ω 25 Ω 100 Ω 50 Ω 166 Ω 83 Ω 1666 Ω 833 Ω The choice of sensitivity of the differential device is a function of the resistance RA of the earth electrode for the installation. Case where the exposed conductive parts of an appliance. fig. G27: distribution circuits. protection against electric shocks . c circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools(1). pleasure boats. c supply circuits to work-sites. c at level B: RCD instantaneous. implementation of the TT system G 4. or group of appliances.

implementation of the TT system (continued) G 4. fire-risk area fig. to which may be associated an auxiliary module. RCDs are mandatorily used at the origin of TT-earthed installations. c relays with separate toroidal (ring-type) current transformers. G30: fire-risk location. conforming to IEC 755. thereby ensuring the level of service continuity required. The sensitivity of the RCD must be i 500 mA. and mandatory in many countries. 1008.4. or in the event that a protective earth wire becomes broken) RCDs of high sensitivity (i 30 mA) will afford both protection against indirect-contact hazards. c domestic-type differential circuit breakers (RCCBs)* conforming to IEC 755.protection against electric shocks . G32: industrial-type CB with RCD module.2 types of RCD RCDs are commonly incorporated in the following components: c industrial-type moulded-case differential circuit breakers conforming to IEC 947-2 and its appendix B.1 protective measures (continued) in areas of high fire risk RCD protection at the circuit breaker controlling all supplies to the area at risk is necessary in some locations. DIN-rail circuit breaker with RCD module fig.2. c differential switches conforming to particular national standards. fig. *see NOTE concerning RCCBs at the end of Sub-clause 3. and sensitive earth-fault protection). The ensemble provides a comprehensive range of protective functions (isolation. including DIN-rail mounted units. Adaptable differential circuit breakers. G31: unearthed exposed conductive parts (A). short-circuit. and the additional protection against the dangers of direct-contact . 4. where their ability to discriminate with other RCDs allows selective tripping. the international standard for industrial differential circuit breakers is IEC 947-2 and its appendix B. overload. G14 . are available. and 1009 (RCBOs). protection when exposed conductive parts are not connected to earth (in the case of an existing installation where the location is dry and provision of an earthing connection is not possible.

devices for automatic disconnection in the event of an indirect-contact hazard occurring are installed together with additional protection against direct-contact hazards. protection against electric shocks . Such discrimination avoids the tripping of any circuit breaker. v at sub-distribution boards. in addition to sensitive differential earth-fault protection. The RCBO has a rated short-circuit breaking capability and is properly referred to as a circuit breaker. which are then protected individually or by groups. These units are designed for domestic and similar installations. viz: v at the main general distribution board. or by a combination of both methods.G15 . RCDs with separate toroidal current transformers are standardized in IEC 755. other than that immediately upstream of a fault position c with equipment currently available. RCBOs and CBRs RCCBs (Residual Current Circuit Breakers) These devices are more-accurately described in the French version of IEC 1008 as "interrupteurs" which is generally translated into English by "load-break switches". The Appendix is based on the relevant requirements of IEC 755. v at local general distribution boards. IEC 1008 and IEC 1009. As noted in sub-clause 7. RCBOs The "O" stands for "Overcurrent" which refers to the fact that. 4. IEC 1009 is the international reference standard.3 coordination of differential protective devices Discriminative-tripping coordination is achieved either by time-delay or by subdivision of circuits. differential switches are covered by particular national standards (NF C 61-140 for France). although assigned a rated making and breaking capacity. G33: domestic earth-fault differential circuit breakers. RCCBs. "Residual-current load-break switches" would be a more accurate description of a RCCB. fig. "Monobloc" type of earth-fault differential circuit breakers designed for the protection of socket-outlet circuits and final circuit protection. In addition to the adaptable industrial circuit breakers which comply to industrial and domestic standards. provide complete isolation when opened.G the international standards for domestic circuit breakers (RCBOs) is IEC 1009. fig. fig. v at socket outlets for individual appliance protection c in general. at distribution boards (and subdistribution boards. Note: Both RCCBs and RCBOs as standardized in IEC 1008 and 1009 respectively. G35: RCDs with separate toroidal current transformers. which covers the incorporation of residual-current protection into industrialtype LV circuit breakers. Differential switches (RCCBs) are used for the protection of distribution or sub-distribution boards. overcurrent protection is provided. which.3 a SCPD (ShortCircuit Protective Device) must always be series-connected with a RCCB. if existing) and on individual-appliance protection. Circuit breakers so equipped are referred to as CBRs. The incoming-supply circuit breaker can also have timedelayed characteristics (type S). CBRs Amendment 1 (1992) of the product standard IEC 947-Part 2: "Circuit Breakers" includes Appendix B. G34: differential switches (RCCBs). discrimination is possible at three or four different levels of distribution. is not designed to break short-circuit currents (the unique feature of a circuit breaker) so that the term RCCB can be misleading. there are ranges of "monobloc" differential circuit breakers intended for domestic and tertiary sector applications. RCDs with separate toroidal CTs can be used in association with circuit breakers or contactors.

300 mA and 1 A and the corresponding tripping times. c level D: RCD instantaneous.4.5 fig. c level B: RCD time-delayed (setting II).e. See also Chapter L Clause 3). etc.3 coordination of differential protective devices (continued) discrimination between RCDs Discrimination is achieved by exploiting the several levels of standardized sensitivity: 30 mA. c level B: RCD instantaneous. G16 . A RCD 300 mA type S B RCD 30 mA fig. G38: discrimination at 3 or 4 levels. A relay with separate toroidal CT 3 A delay time 500 ms discrimination at 3 or 4 levels Protection: c level A: RCD time-delayed (setting III). with high sensitivity on circuits supplying socket-outlets or appliances at high risk (washing machines. time-delayed) industrial (settings I and II) domestic S time delayed I RCD 30 mA general domestic and industrial setting 0 10 15 30 60 1000 500 600 current (mA) 10 100 500 1000 (A) 100 150 300 1 1. c level C: RCD time-delayed (setting I) or type S. time (ms) 10000 1000 500 300 250 200 150 130 100 60 40 II 300 mA selective RCDs (i. B RCCB 1 A delay time 250 ms C RCCB 300 mA delay time 50 ms or type S D RCCB 30 mA fig. implementation of the TT system (continued) G 4. G36: discrimination between RCDs. G37. 100 mA.protection against electric shocks . discrimination at 2 levels Protection: c level A: RCD time-delayed setting 1 (for industrial device) type S (for domestic device) for protection against indirect contacts. as shown below in figure G36.

showing the protection of distribution circuits in a TT-earthed system.G17 . 30 mA RCD 30 MCB + RCD mA remotelycontrolled actuator fig.G discriminative protection at three levels main circuit breaker HV/LV MERLIN GERIN differential relay with separate toroidal CT setting level ≤ 50/RA time-delay setting level II Rp Rn RA 3 2 1 N PE NS400 NS80H-MA MERLIN GERIN differential relay with separate CT discontactor N 1 2 3 PE instantaneous 300 mA T T Vigi compact NS100 setting level 300 mA MERLIN GERIN SM20 IN OUT M earth leakage current monitor MCB 300 mA type S timedelayed RCD RCD MCB discontactor distribution box M N Ph PE DPN Vigi 30 mA T TEST XC40 diff. protection against electric shocks . G39: typical 3-level installation. One motor is provided with specific protection.

connection must be made directly to the earth terminal of an appliance (see 3 in figure G40) before being looped to the neutral terminal of the appliance. earth faults should be cleared by overcurrent-protection devices. a TN-S scheme should be adopted within the installation). in principle. i. Note : This is not normally done for a single domestic installation. together with the use of tables of values for obtaining rapid results. c the method of composition. a short-circuit to earth will. and the isolation must be clearly visible. since inductive and/ or proximity effects can increase the effective impedance of the conductor. 5 2 5 PEN 1 3 PE N 4 2 5 imposed conditions Certain conditions must be observed.e. one earth electrode only is usually required at the service position. by fuses and circuit breakers. a means of isolation is required at the origin of the LV installation. always provide sufficient current to operate an overcurrent device. (2) for a substation in which the metering is at low-voltage. where the conductor i 6 mm2 for copper or 10 mm2 for aluminium. 4. or c the conductor will weld itself into a solid fault and provide adequate current to operate overcurrent devices. 1. the current which must pass in order to raise the potential of an exposed conductive part to 50 V or more is so high that one of two possibilities will occur: c either the fault path will blow itself clear. TN-C RpnA TN-C-S fig. and the extraneous conductive parts in the sub-station and installation. or where a cable is movable. but the amount of computation is not considered justifiable. etc. for each circuit. c the conventional method. with a corresponding reduction of short-circuit current). all be earthed to a common earthing system. based on the summation of all the impedances (positivephase-sequence only) around the fault loop. the exposed conductive parts of the substation and of the installation.5. Control and protective switchgear for the several TN arrangements will be: c 3-pole when the circuit includes a PEN conductor. based on an assumed voltage drop and the use of prepared tables. implementation of the TN system G 5. The source and supply mains impedances are much lower that those of the installation circuits. for TN systems. when the short-circuit current level at the near end of the loop is known. as listed below and illustrated in figure G40. G40: implementation of the TN system of earthing. the maximum permitted lengths of cable downstream of a controlling circuit breaker (or set of fuses) must be calculated. Three practical methods are: c the "method of impedances".e. based on the trigonometric addition of the system resistances and inductive reactances. (3) a PEN conductor must never be interrupted under any circumstances. Other simpler methods of adequate accuracy are preferred. ducts. 2. c the "method of composition". A rigorous analysis requires the use of phasesequence-component techniques applied to every circuit in turn. To ensure correct operation of overcurrent devices in the latter case. so that any restriction in the magnitude of earth-fault currents will be mainly caused by the installation conductors (long flexible leads to appliances greatly increase the "fault-loop" impedance.2 protection against indirect contact Three methods of calculation are commonly used: c the method of impedances. These methods are only reliable for the case in which the cables that make up the earthfault-current loop are in close proximity (to each other) and not separated by ferromagnetic materials. the PE conductor must not pass through ferro-magnetic conduit. c the "conventional method" of calculating the minimum levels of earth-fault currents. 5. G18 . which is an estimation of short-circuit current at the remote end of a loop.protection against electric shocks . a reasonably accurate assessment of short-circuit earthfault current levels must be determined at the design stage of a project. The foregoing list indicates the conditions to be respected in the implementation of a TN scheme for the protection against indirect contacts. while during the installation work certain rules must be fully respected. methods of determining levels of short-circuit current In TN-earthed systems. the neutral and protective conductors should be separated (i. 3. The principle is straightforward. c preferably 4-pole (3 phases + neutral) when the circuit includes a neutral with a separate PE conductor. 5.3). in the case of a PEN conductor (a neutral conductor which is also used as a protective conductor). especially since the zero-phase-sequence impedances are extremely difficult to determine with any resonable degree of accuracy in an average LV installation. earth electrodes should be provided at evenly-spaced points (as far as practical conditions allow) along the PE conductor. or be mounted on steel work. practically instantaneously. note (1) the TN scheme requires that the LV neutral of the HV/LV transformer. The most recent IEC recommendations for indirect-contact protection on TN earthing schemes only relates maximum allowable tripping times to the nominal system voltage (see table G13 in Sub-clause 3.1 preliminary conditions At the design stage. The reasoning behind these recommendations is that.

conventional method This method is generally considered to be sufficiently accurate to fix the upper limit of cable lengths.) included in the earth-fault loop circuit from which the short-circuit earth-fault current is calculated. or fuse. Principle: The principle bases the short-circuit current calculation on the assumption that the voltage at the origin of the circuit concerned (i.8 Uo Sph Lmax = ρ (1+m) Ia Example: B A PE Id L SPE C Sph fig. by means of the approximate formula: U Isc I= where U + Zsc Isc Isc = upstream short-circuit current I = end-of-loop short-circuit current U = nominal system phase voltage Zsc = impedance of loop Note: in this method the individual impedances are added arithmetically* as opposed to the previous "method of impedances" procedure. modern practice is to use software agreed by National Authorities. using the formula: 2 2 I =U/ (∑R) +(∑X) where (∑R)2 = (the sum of all resistances in the loop)2 and (∑X)2 = (the sum of all inductive reactances in the loop)2 and U = nominal system phase-to-neutral voltage The application of the method is not always easy. together with the circuit loop impedance. is assured. conductor lengths. This coefficient takes account of all voltage drops upstream of the point considered. In LV cables. in the specified time. such as ECODIAL 2 (Merlin Gerin). G41: calculation of L max. a national guide can supply typical values for estimation purposes. transformer.G19 . when all conductors of a 3-phase 4-wire circuit are in close proximity (which is the normal case). then operation of the relay. where: ρ (1+m) Ia Lmax = maximum length in metres Uo = phase volts = 230 V for a 230/400 V system ρ = resistivity at normal working temperature in ohm-mm2/metre = 22. method of impedances This method summates the positivesequence impedances of each item (cable. * This results in a calculated current value which is less than that which would actually flow. PE conductor. In many cases.8 Uo Sph Lmax = metres. an apparent increase in resistance.e. The 80% value is used. the resistance value R is increased as follows: core size (mm2) value of resistance S = 150 mm2 R+15% S = 185 mm2 R+20% S = 240 mm2 R+25% * causes proximity and skin effects. m = Sph / SPE Sph = cross-sectional area of the phase conductors of the circuit concerned in mm2 SPE = cross-sectional area of the protective conductor concerned in mm2 protection against electric shocks . at the point at which the circuit protective device is located) remains at 80% or more of the nominal phase to neutral voltage. for a TN-earthed system. etc. or Ia = the current which assures operation of the protective fuse concerned.e. using the conventional method. which include typical values. i. the maximum length of any circuit of a TN-earthed installation is: 0. the inductive reactance internal to* and between conductors is negligibly small compared to the cable resistance. National Authorities generally also publish Guides. etc. Above that size. This approximation is considered to be valid for cable sizes up to 120 mm2.C.G for calculations.5 10-3 for copper = 36 10-3 for aluminium Ia = trip current setting for the instantaneous operation of a circuit breaker. The maximum length of a circuit in a TNearthed installation is given by the formula: 0. method of composition This method permits the determination of the short-circuit current at the end of a loop from the known value of S. to compute the short-circuit current. If the overcurrent settings are based on this calculated value. and based on the method of impedances. because it supposes a knowledge of all parameter values and characteristics of the elements in the loop. at the sending end.

42 m=3 0. beyond which the ohmic resistance of the conductors will limit the magnitude of the short-circuit current to a level below that required to trip the circuit breaker (or to blow the fuse) protecting the circuit. and the conductor materials. * Based on tables given in the guide UTE C15-105. (1) For the definition of type B circuit breaker refer to chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. with sufficient rapidity to ensure safety against indirect contact.50 0. implementation of the TN system (continued) G 5. Circuits protected by Compact* or Multi 9* circuit breakers for industrial or domestic use SPH mm2 1. The tables take into account: c the type of protection: circuit breakers or fuses. applicable to TN systems.25 table G42: correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables G43 to G46 for TN systems.62 0.5. Circuits protected by general-purpose circuit-breakers nominal crosssectional area of conductors mm2 1.5 2. c type of earthing scheme (see fig.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 rated current (A) 1 2 3 4 1227 613 409 307 681 511 1090 818 6 204 341 545 818 8 10 153 123 256 204 409 327 613 491 1022 818 13 16 94 77 157 128 252 204 377 307 629 511 1006 818 20 25 61 49 102 82 164 131 245 196 409 327 654 523 1022 818 32 38 64 102 153 256 409 639 894 40 31 51 82 123 204 327 511 716 45 27 45 73 109 182 291 454 636 50 25 41 65 98 164 262 409 572 777 63 19 32 52 78 130 208 325 454 617 80 15 28 41 61 102 164 258 358 485 100 12 20 33 49 82 131 204 288 388 table G44: maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and rated currents for type B (1) circuit breakers.40 0. circuit 3P + N or P + N conductor material copper aluminium m = SPH/SPE (or PEN) m=1 m=2 1 0.protection against electric shocks . G20 .e.5 2. Equivalent tables for protection by Compact and Multi 9 circuit breakers (Merlin Gerin) are included in the relevant catalogues. C or D). tables The following tables.2 protection against indirect contact (continued) the following tables* give the length of circuit which must not be exceeded. c type of circuit breaker (i.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 instantaneous or short-time-delayed tripping current Im (amperes) 50 103 171 274 410 63 81 136 217 326 80 64 107 171 256 427 100 51 85 137 205 342 125 41 66 109 164 273 436 160 32 53 85 126 214 342 200 25 42 68 102 171 274 428 250 20 34 54 82 137 219 342 479 320 16 26 43 64 107 171 267 374 400 13 21 34 51 85 137 213 299 406 500 10 17 27 41 68 109 171 239 325 479 560 9 15 24 36 61 97 152 214 290 427 630 8 13 21 32 54 87 135 190 258 380 700 7 12 19 29 49 78 122 171 232 342 464 800 6 10 17 25 42 68 107 150 203 299 406 875 6 10 16 23 39 62 98 136 185 274 371 469 1000 1120 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 4000 5000 6300 8000 10000 12500 5 8 8 7 5 14 12 11 8 7 5 20 18 16 13 10 8 6 5 34 30 27 21 17 14 10 8 7 5 55 49 44 34 27 21 17 13 11 8 7 5 85 76 66 53 43 34 27 21 17 13 10 8 7 120 107 96 75 80 48 37 30 24 19 15 12 9 162 145 130 101 81 65 50 40 32 26 20 16 12 239 214 191 150 120 96 75 60 48 38 30 24 19 325 290 260 203 162 130 101 81 65 51 40 32 26 410 366 328 256 205 165 128 102 82 65 51 41 33 446 398 357 279 223 178 139 111 89 71 56 44 36 471 422 329 264 211 165 132 105 84 66 53 42 410 328 263 205 164 131 104 82 66 52 table G43: maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and instantaneous-tripping-current settings for general-purpose circuit breakers.31 m=4 0. in order that persons be protected against indirect contact hazards by protective devices. G47).67 0. The tables may be used for 230/400 V systems. c operating-current settings. c cross-sectional area of phase conductors and protective conductors. have been established according to the "conventional method" described above. the type of circuit. Correction factor m Table G42 indicates the correction factor to apply to the values given in tables G43 to G46 according to the ratio SPH/SPE. B. * Merlin Gerin products. The tables give maximum circuit lengths.2.

5 13 35 58 93 34 56 90 16 27 46 73 20 22 37 58 25 18 29 47 70 32 14 23 37 55 40 11 18 29 44 73 45 10 16 26 39 65 50 9 15 23 35 58 63 7 12 19 28 46 74 80 5 9 14 21 35 58 100 4 7 12 18 29 47 73 438 274 219 175 146 110 73 730 456 365 292 243 183 122 116 88 730 584 467 389 292 195 186 141 117 876 701 584 438 292 279 211 175 974 730 487 465 352 292 779 743 564 467 881 730 140 135 110 88 234 225 183 146 117 91 374 359 292 234 187 146 117 104 93 584 562 456 365 292 228 183 162 146 116 88 1022 818 786 639 511 409 319 258 227 204 162 123 102 867 692 558 432 347 308 277 220 174 139 table G46: maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit breakers of type D or MA Merlin Gerin (1).42 (table G42 for m = SPH/SPE = 2). RA 1 RA 2 a distant location fig.6 2 2.G21 . What is the maximum length of circuit.G SPH mm2 1.2. (1) For the definition of type C circuit breakers refer to chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 rated current (A) 1 2 3 4 6 613 307 204 153 102 1022 511 341 256 170 818 545 409 273 818 613 409 1022 681 8 77 128 204 307 511 818 10 13 61 47 102 79 164 126 245 189 409 315 654 503 1022 786 16 38 64 102 153 256 409 639 894 20 31 51 82 123 204 327 511 716 25 25 41 65 98 164 262 409 572 777 32 19 32 51 77 128 204 319 447 607 40 15 26 41 61 102 164 256 358 485 45 14 23 36 55 91 145 227 318 431 50 12 20 33 49 82 131 204 286 389 63 10 16 26 39 65 104 162 227 309 80 8 13 20 31 51 82 128 179 243 100 6 10 16 25 41 65 102 143 194 table G45: maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit breakers of type C (1). G47: separate earth electrode. Downstream of the RCD. protection against electric shocks . The sensitivity of the RCD must be adapted to the earth electrode resistance (RA2 in figure G47).5 2.2.5 2. to which must be applied a factor of 0.5 3 4 6 6. refer to Chapter J figure J5-3. Example: A 3-phase 4-wire (230/400 V) installation is TN-C earthed. and consists of an aluminium cored cable with 50 mm2 phase conductors and a neutral conductor (PEN) of 25 mm2. A circuit is protected by a circuit breaker rated at 63 A. SPH rated current (A) mm2 1 1. the earthing scheme must be TN-S. below which protection of persons against indirectcontact hazards is assured by the instantaneous magnetic tripping relay of the circuit breaker? Table G44 gives 617 metres. For typical use of an MA circuit breaker.3 8 70 53 10 44 73 12. The maximum length of circuit is therefore: 617 x 0. the exposed conductive parts of which are connected to an independent earth electrode.42 = 259 metres. (1) For the definition of type D circuit breakers refer to chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. particular case where one or more exposed conductive part(s) is (are) earthed to a separate earth electrode Protection must be provided against indirect contact by a RCD at the origin of any circuit supplying an appliance or group of appliances.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 1.

c circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools(1). c strongly recommended for circuits of socket outlets u 20 A (mandatory if they are expected to supply portable equipment for outdoor use). this requirement is mandatory for all socket-outlet circuits rated i 32 A. Protection by a RCD of sensitivity 500 mA at the origin of the circuit supplying the fire-risk location is mandatory in some countries. c in some countries. and travelling fairs(1). G49: fire-risk location. the TN-C scheme of earthing is often prohibited.protection against electric shocks . caravans. implementation of the TN system (continued) G 5. c socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations(1). This protection may be for individual circuits or for groups of circuits. and the TN-S arrangement must be adopted. G48: circuit supplying socket-outlets. fire-risk area fig. c supply circuits to work-sites.4 protection in high fire-risk locations In locations where the risk of fire is high. c socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings(1). pleasure boats.3 high-sensitivity RCDs IEC 364-4-471 strongly recommends the use of a RCD of high sensitivity (i 30 mA) in the following cases: c socket-outlet circuits for rated currents of i 32 A at any location(1). fig. G22 . 5. (1) these cases are treated in delail in Chapter L Clause 3.5.

Suggestion 3: increase the size of the PE or PEN conductors and/or the phase conductors. G52: improved equipotential bonding.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high When the earth-fault current is restricted due to an inevitably high fault-loop impedance.e. Where socket-outlets are involved. Suggestion 4: add supplementary equipotential conductors. be protected by HS (i 30 mA) RCDs. This will have a similar effect to that of suggestion 3. a reduction in the earthfault-loop resistance. generally one RCD for a number of socket outlets on a common circuit. It must be checked. that high transient currents such as the starting currents of motors will not cause nuisance trip-outs. Suggestion 2: install a RCD on the circuit. The effectiveness of this improvement may be checked by a resistance test between each exposed conductive part and the local main protective conductor. however. the following possibilities should be considered: Suggestion 1: install a circuit breaker which has an instantaneous magnetic tripping element with an operation level which is lower than the usual setting. PE or PEN 2 i Irm i 4In unusually long cable fig. bonding as shown in figure G52 is not allowed. G51: RCD protection on TN systems with high earth-fault-loop impedance. i. G50: a circuit breaker with low-set instantaneous magnetic trip. to reduce the loop impedance. while at the same time improving the existing touch-voltage protection measures.G23 . for example: 2In i Irm i 4In This affords protection for persons on circuits which are abnormally long. The device need not be highly-sensitive (HS) (several amps to a few tens of amps). the particular circuits must. fig. phases neutral PE TN-S phases PEN TN-C fig. and Suggestion 3 should be adopted. protection against electric shocks . so that the overcurrent protection cannot be relied upon to trip the circuit within the prescribed time. For TN-C installations.G 5. in any case.

G54: 3-phase 3-wire IT-earthed system. The system may therefore be allowed to function normally until it is convenient to isolate the faulty section for repair work. as shown in figure G58. The second fault results in a short-circuit through the earth and/or through PE bonding conductors. implementation of the IT system G The basic feature of the IT scheme of earthing is that. or by successive opening of circuits examples (MG) Cardew C impedance Zx Vigilohm TR22A or XM 200 Compact circuit breaker or RCD-MS Vigilohm system table G53: essential functions in IT schemes. all exposed conductive parts of an installation are connected via PE conductors to an earth electrode at the installation.1 preliminary conditions Preliminary conditions are summarized in table G53 and fig. or give rise to dangerous touch voltages. This means that the current through an earth fault will be measured in milli-amps. which must signal (audibly or visually) the occurrence of the first fault. G54. c a "first-fault" location routine by an efficient maintenance staff. In practice. In this scheme. minimum functions required protection against overvoltages at system frequency neutral earthing resistor (for impedance earthing variation) overall earth-fault monitor with alarm for first fault condition automatic fault clearance on second fault and protection of the neutral conductor against overcurrent location of first fault components and devices (1) voltage limiter (2) resistor (3) permanent insulation monitor PIM with alarm feature (4) four-pole circuit breakers (if the neutral is distributed) all 4 poles + trip (5) with device for fault-location on live system. the system can continue to function without interruption. c automatic high-speed tripping of appropriate circuit breakers must take place in the event of a "second fault" occurring before the first fault is repaired. or present a fire hazard. Fault location is greatly facilitated by automatic devices which are currently available. The second fault (by definition) is an earth fault affecting a different phase than that of the first fault or a neutral conductor*. Such a fault is referred to as a "first fault". the scheme requires certain specific measures for its satisfactory exploitation: c permanent monitoring of the insulation with respect to earth.000 ohms or more). * on systems where the neutral is distributed. 6. while the neutral point of the supply transformer is isolated from earth or connected to earth through a high resistance (commonly 1. which will not cause serious damage at the fault position. HV/LV 4 L1 L2 L3 N 4 2 1 3 5 4 fig. c a device for limiting the voltage which the neutral point of the supply transformer can attain with respect to earth.6.protection against electric shocks . G24 . in the event of a short-circuit to earth fault.

together with the fixed detectors XD301 (each supplied from a toroidal CT embracing the conductors of the circuit concerned) provide a system of automatic fault location on a live installation. current. for example). are manufactured by M. protection against electric shocks . (to reduce the effects of cable capacitance to negligible levels) applies a voltage between the neutral point of the supply transformer and earth. the level of insulation is indicated for each monitored circuit. The touch voltage with respect to earth is the product of this current and the resistance of the installation earth electrode and PE conductor (from the faulted component to the electrode). would give 12. ** The equipment and devices described to illustrate the principles of fault location. An alarm is given by the permanent earthfault monitoring. or of d. modern monitoring systems greatly facilitate first-fault location and repair. c fixed automatic fault location (fig. MERLIN GERIN XM100 toroidal CTs XM200 1 to 12 circuits XD301 XD301 XD312 XD301 fig. This value of voltage is clearly harmless and could amount to several volts only in the worst case (1. Moreover.2 protection against indirect contact first-fault condition The earth-fault current which flows under a first-fault condition is measured in milli-amps.c. G56) The monitoring relay XM200. G56: fixed automatic fault location. This voltage causes a small current to flow according to the insulation resistance to earth of the whole installation.5 V. plus that of any connected appliance.G25 . while the second level indicates a fault condition and gives an alarm. G55: non-automatic (manual) fault location. The generator may be fixed (example: XM200) or portable (example: XGR permitting the checking of dead circuits) and the receiver. G55).c. are portable. * On a 230/400 V 3-phase system. current. systems which generate transient d.G.c. Low-frequency instruments can be used on a. Certain versions can distinguish between resistive and capacitive components of the leakage current. Principle of earth-fault monitoring A generator of very low frequency a. components under fault conditions. together with the magnetic tongtype pick-up sensor. so that prevention of a first fault can be achieved. Modern developments permit the measurement of leakage-current evolution.000 Ω earthing resistor will pass 230 mA* and a poor installation earth-electrode of 50 ohms. MERLIN GERIN XM100 XM200 P12 P50 P100 ON/O FF XGR XRM fig.c. and two levels are checked: the first level warns of unusually low insulation resistance so that preventive measures may be taken. Examples of equipment and devices** c manual fault-location (fig.G 6.

implementation of the IT system (continued) G 6. separately. This value allows the detection of a reduction of the insulation quality. and records the chronological evolution of the insulation level of each circuit. c level settings Certain national standards recommend a first setting at 20% below the insulation level of the new installation. does not constitute a fault condition. through overcurrent protective devices of suitable short-circuit current rating. thereby deriving the true insulation resistance from the total permanent current leakage.threshold for short-circuit alarm: 300 mA. associated with toroidal CTs from several circuits. This situation. G57: automatic fault location and insulation-resistance data logging.2 protection against indirect contact (continued) c automatic monitoring. c supply Power supply to the PIM device should be taken from a highly reliable source. which is mainly due to leakage current over the damp surface of healthy insulation. G26 . the current passing through a PIM device during a short-circuit to earth is normally limited to a value < 30 mA. the installation remains de-energized.threshold for preventive maintenance: 0. during which the whole. as shown below in figure G57. The Vigilohm System also allows access to a printer and/or a PC which provides a global review of the insulation level of an entire installation. the two levels might be: v new installation insulation level: 100 kΩ v leakage current without danger: 500 mA (fire risk at > 500 mA) v indication levels set by the consumer: . c impedance of the PIM device In order to maintain the level of earth-fault within safe limits. provide the means for this automatic exploitation. and fault location. This means that a touch voltage of less than 50 V will occur in the installation as long as the installation earth-electrode resistance is less than 100 ohms. .8 x 100 = 80 kΩ . Notes: v following a long period of shutdown. and that fire risk of electrical origin is avoided. v the PIM device (XM) can measure the resistive and the capacitive current components of the leakage current to earth. humidity can reduce the general level of insulation resistance. The central monitor XM300C.protection against electric shocks By way of an example. Where the neutral point is earthed through an impedance. or part of. The detection level for earth-fault alarm will be set at a much lower level. and will improve rapidly as the normal temperature rise of current-carrying conductors reduces the surface humidity. together with the localization detectors XL308 and XL316. Implementation of permanent insulationmonitoring (PIM) devices c connection The PIM device is normally connected between the neutral (or articificial neutral) point of the power-supply transformer and its earth electrode. the total current passing through the PIM device and the impedance (in parallel with it) must be < 500 mA. MERLIN GERIN XM100 XM300 C MERLIN GERIN XL08 MERLIN GERIN XL16 897 678 XL308 XL316 fig. In practice. logging.6. necessitating preventive maintenance measures in a situation of incipient failure. this is generally directly from the installation being monitored.

and so the fault loop impedance is sufficiently low to ensure an adequate level of fault current. and.G27 . but with one faulty circuit switched out of service. or on a different circuit. is identical for both the IT and TN systems of earthing. The maximum circuit length is given by: 0. and tables are used based on this assumption. c the method of composition.8 Uo S1 Lm = metres 2 ρ (1+m) Ia (i. based on the vectorial summation of all the (positivephase-sequence) impedances around a faultcurrent loop. and the use of tables. 50% only of the length permitted for a TN scheme). since current magnitudes only are important for the protective devices concerned (i. in general. where I∆n is the nominal residual-current setting level. c method of composition. bonding all exposed conductive parts of an installation.8 Uo ex Sph L max = 2 ρ Ia (1+m) c for a 3-phase 4-wire scheme 0. which is an approximate estimation of short-circuit current Method of impedances This method as described in Sub-clause 5. which combines impedances arithmetically. Method of composition This method as described in Sub-clause 5. Three practical methods are: c the method of impedances.2. as already mentioned in Subclause 3. an RCD is recommended on each circuit of the installation. is a simplified method based on an assumed minimum voltage during fault. c for the case of a 3-phase 3-wire installation the second fault can only cause a phase/ phase short-circuit.G the case of a second fault A second earth fault on an IT system (unless occurring on the same conductor as the first fault) constitutes a phase-phase or phase-toneutral fault. overcurrent protective devices (fuses or circuit breakers) would normally operate to effect an automatic fault clearance.e. Where an IT system is resistance earthed. These methods are reliable only for the cases in which wiring and cables which make up the fault-current loop are in close proximity (to each other) and are not separated by ferromagnetic materials.5 x 10-3 ohms-mm2/m for copper = 36 x 10-3 ohms-mm2/m for aluminium Ia = overcurrent trip-setting level in amps or Ia = current in amps required to clear the fuse in the specified time m = Sph/SPE SPE = cross-sectional area of PE conductor in mm2 S1 = S neutral if the circuit includes a neutral conductor. at the remote end of a loop.5 I∆n to I∆n. in one trip-out only occurring (on the circuit with the lower trip-setting level).4. Uo is the value to use for computing the maximum cable length. to give direct readings of circuit lengths. Where circuit lengths are unavoidably long.8 Uo S1 L max = 2 ρ Ia (1+m) Conventional method The principle is the same for an IT system as that described in Sub-clause 5. c the conventional method. three methods of calculating shortcircuit current levels are commonly employed: c method of impedances. Tripping of residual current devices which satisfy IEC standards may occur at values of 0. Complex impedances are combined arithmetically in this method. reliable tripping on overcurrent may not be possible. when the level of short-circuit current at the near end of the loop is known. which takes account of complex representation of impedances. thereby leaving the system in a first-fault situation. is a conservatively approximate method. however.2 for a TN system.e. Note: in normal circumstances. the fault current path is through common PE conductors. the software Ecodial 2 (Merlin Gerin) is based on the "method of impedances". since protection is provided by RCDs of high sensitivity.8 e Uo Sph Lm = metres 2 ρ (1+m) Ia For the case of a 3-phase 4-wire installation the lowest value of fault current will occur if one of the faults is on a neutral conductor. in which the minimum value of voltage at the origin of a faulty circuit is assumed to be 80% of the nominal circuit voltage. so that the voltage to use in the formula for maximum circuit length is eUo. and especially if the appliances of a circuit are earthed separately (so that the fault current passes through two earth electrodes). 0. c conventional method. Reminder: there is no length limit for earth-fault protection on a TT scheme.2. while the second fault occurs at the remote end of an identical circuit. In this case. A reasonably accurate assessment of shortcircuit current levels must be carried out at the design stage of a project. This may result.2. and whether occurring on the same circuit as the first fault. The settings of overcurrent tripping relays and the ratings of fuses are the basic parameters that decide the maximum practical length of circuit that can be satisfactorily protected. as discussed in Sub-clause 5. the maximum length of an IT earthed circuit is: c for a 3-phase 3-wire scheme 0. however. or a first fault may cause an unwanted trip-out. In the preceding formulae: Lmax = longest circuit in metres Uo = phase-to-neutral voltage (230 V on a 230/400 V system) ρ = resistivity at normal operating temperature = 22. All cases are covered. to ensure protection by overcurrent devices. In this case. viz: the calculation of maximum circuit lengths which should not be exceeded downstream of a circuit breaker or fuses. It is clearly impossible to check circuit lengths for every feasible combination of two concurrent faults. protection against electric shocks . is identical for both the IT and TN systems of earthing. phase angles need not be determined) so that simplified conservatively approximate methods are normally used. if the overcurrent trip setting is based on the assumption that a first fault occurs at the remote end of the circuit concerned. care must be taken to ensure that the RCD is not too sensitive. A rigorous analysis is not necessary.

Tables The following tables have been established according to the "conventional method" described above. and differs from that for TN. However. 1-ph 2-wire) as well as conductor material. The 25 mm2 PE conductor is also aluminum. Example A 3-phase 3-wire 230/400 V installation is IT-earthed. the following tables* give the length of circuit which must not be exceeded. The tables give maximum circuit lengths. One of its circuits is protected by a circuit breaker rated at 63 A.36 (m = 2 for aluminium cable).34 0.36 0.21 m=3 0. circuit 3 phases conductor material m = S ph/SPE (or PEN) m=1 m=2 0. showing fault-current path for a double-fault condition. G28 .25 0.50 0. The maximum length is therefore 222 metres. to apply to the circuit lengths given in tables G43 to G46. for an IT-earthed system.2 (tables G43 to G46). for IT-earthed systems.57 0.43 0.33 0. c cross-sectional area of phase conductors and protective conductors. and consists of an aluminium-cored cable with 50 mm2 phase conductors. 3-ph 4-wire. to which must be applied a correction factor of 0. G58: calculation of Lmax.2 protection against indirect contact (continued) N N D PE C A B PE Id Id Id Id fig.6. beyond which the ohmic resistance of the conductors will limit the magnitude of the short-circuit current to a level below that required to trip the circuit breaker (or to blow the fuse) protecting the circuit. below which protection of persons against indirect-contact hazards is assured by the instantaneous magnetic tripping relay of the circuit breaker? Table G44 indicates 617 metres. c operating-current settings. c type of earthing scheme.protection against electric shocks .27 0.31 0. in order that persons be protected against indirect contact hazards by protective devices. The tables take into account: c the type of protection: circuit breakers or fuses. and of the type of circuit (3-ph 3-wire. implementation of the IT system (continued) G 6.21 0.16 m=4 0.20 0. c correction factor: table G59 indicates the correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables G43 to G46.86 0. is specific to the IT system.12 copper aluminium 3ph + N or 1ph + N copper aluminium table G59: correction factors. What is the maximum length of circuit. the table of correction factors (table G59) which takes into account the ratio Sph/SPE. * The tables are those shown in Sub-clause 5. with sufficient rapidity to ensure safety against indirect contact. when considering an IT system.54 0.

and travelling fairs(1). c supply circuits to work-sites. fig. G61: fire-risk location. c circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools(1). this requirement is mandatory for all socket-outlet circuits rated i 32 A. c socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations(1). c socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings(1).3 high-sensitivity RCDs IEC 364-4-471 strongly recommends the use of a RCD of high sensitivity (i 30 mA) in the following cases: c socket-outlet circuits for rated currents of i 32 A at any location(1). is mandatory in many countries.G29 .G 6. c strongly recommended for circuits of socket outlets u 20 A (mandatory if they are expected to supply portable equipment for outdoor use).4 in areas of high fire-risk RCD protection at the circuit breaker controlling all supplies to the area at risk. G60: circuit supplying socket-outlets. This protection may be for individual circuits or for groups of circuits. caravans. The sensitivity of the RCD must be i 500 mA. 6. fire-risk area fig. protection against electric shocks . (1) these cases are treated in delail in Chapter L Clause 3. pleasure boats. c in some countries.

it is found that the fault-current loop impedance of a circuit will be inevitably high. however.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high When. G64: improved equipotential bonding. so that the overcurrent protection cannot be relied upon to operate within the prescribed time. it will. TN-S fig. that high transient currents such as the starting currents of motors will not cause nuisance trip-outs. G63: RCD protection.e.protection against electric shocks . It must be checked. Suggestion 3: increase the size of the PE conductors and/or the phase conductors. since it must not operate for a first fault). If the circuit is supplying socket outlets. while at the same time improving the existing touch-voltage protection measures.6. PE or PEN 2In i Irm i 4In unusually long cable fig. implementation of the IT system (continued) G 6. This affords protection on circuits which are abnormally long. be protected by a high-sensitivity RCD (i 30 mA). The effectiveness of this improvement may be checked by a resistance test between each exposed conductive part and the local main protective conductor. Note: this is also the case when one (of two) earth faults occurs at the end of a long flexible lead. fig. For TN-C installations. to reduce the loop impedance. Suggestion 4: add supplementary equipotential conductors. G62: a circuit breaker with low-set instantaneous magnetic trip. a reduction in the earthfault-loop resistance. for example: 2In i Irm i 4 In. bonding as shown in figure G52 is not allowed. the following possibilities should be considered: Suggestion 1: instal a circuit breaker which has an instantaneous magnetic tripping element with an operation level which is lower than the usual setting. and Suggestion 3 should be adopted. during the design stage of the installation. phases neutral PE Suggestion 2: instal a RCD on the circuit of low sensitivity (several amps to a few tens of amps. for example. G30 . This will have a similar effect to that of suggestion 3. in any case. i.

in its coil. as well as transient overvoltages. and to the intrinsic capacitance between live conductors and earth.).5 µs 60% fig. due to the sudden rise of the two healthy phases to phase/phase voltage above earth. and zero e. On 3-phase systems the capacitive leakage current to earth would be zero if the conductors of all three phases had equal capacitance to earth. either or both of which can lead to unwanted tripping by RCDs. i1 i2 i3 S N Ø id fig. Fax terminal 0. and the difference gives rise to a magnetic flux in the core.m. Certain techniques have been developed to overcome these operational problems. permanent leakage current in a given installation can be estimated from the following values.5 µs/100 kHz current transient wave. 7.G31 . residual current differential devices (RCDs) G 7. The capacitive current to earth is sometimes increased significantly by filtering capacitors associated with electronic equipment (automation.0 mA IT* workstation 1 to 2 mA Printer (IT*) < 1 mA IT* terminal 1 to 2 mA Photocopier 0. informatics and computer-based systems.5 to 1. G66: standardized 0.2 application of RCDs earth-leakage currents exist which are not due to a fault.7. The sudden occurrence of a first-fault on an ITearthed system also causes transient earthleakage currents at high frequency. The current balance in the conductors passing through the magnetic core therefore no longer exists. G65: the principle of RCD operation. a condition that cannot be realized in practical installations.0. but will return to the source P N via the earth. in its coil. In the absence of moreprecise data. A magnetic core encompasses all the currentcarrying conductors of an electric circuit and the magnetic flux generated in the core will depend at every instant on the arithmetical sum of the currents.f. transient leakage currents The initial energization of the capacitances mentioned above gives rise to high-frequency transient currents of very short duration. the currents passing in one direction being considered as positive. etc. The resultant alternating flux in the core induces an e.5 to 1.1 description principle The essential features are shown diagrammatically in figure G65 below. or via protective conductors in a TN-earthed system. If the residual current exceeds the value required to operate the tripping device.f.m. The difference current is known as the "residual" current and the principle is referred to as the "differential current" principle. permanent earth leakage currents Every LV installation has a permanent leakage current to earth. while those passing in the opposite direction will be negative. The larger the installation the lower its insulation resistance and the greater its capacitance with consequently increased leakage current. In a normally healthy circuit (figure G65) i1 + i2 = 0 and there will be no flux in the magnetic core. An earth-fault current id will pass through the core to the fault. measured at 230 V 50 Hz.5 mA * Information Technology. which is mainly due to imperfect insulation. so that a current i3 flows in the tripping-device operating coil. 100% 90% 10 µs (f = 100 kHz) 10% t ca. similar to that shown in figure G66. and abstracted from "Bulletin de l'UTE" April 1992. protection against electric shocks . then the associated circuit breaker will trip.

eliminate the influence of all corresponding current transients.2/50 µs. etc. the levels shown in table G70 are complied with in design and manufacturing specifications*. etc. by sub-division of circuits. will.2/50 µs impulse 0. or again. current for the choice of the sensitivity of a RCD is: i mA* = 0. G32 . These overvoltages give rise to transient currents represented by a current impulse wave of the conventional 8/20 µs form. by Merlin Gerin. 0.9 0. particularly in the case of large installations and/or where filter circuits are present. For further details.3) of a duration less than 40 ms. RCDs type "S" or time-delay setting levels I or II (see figure G36) cover all transient leakage currents. G67: standardized voltage-impulse wave 1. the manufacturers must be consulted. residual current differential devices (RCDs) (continued) G 7. Since RCDs complying with IEC and many national standards may operate within the range 0. * Merlin Gerin products.5 I∆n . before a new stable state is reached. These sudden changes often cause large transient voltages and currents in system inductive and capacitive circuits. * for RCDs having I∆n < 10 mA this test is not required (IEC 1008-1). the equivalent leakage disturbance overvoltage transient current type of test 1. It is essential that RCDs be immune to possible malfunction from the effects of electromagnetic-surge disturbances.1 t 8 µs 20 µs fig.086 C at 60 Hz where C = capacity (in n F) of one phase to earth.5 U 1. the Technical publications nos. c permanent leakage currents downstream of a RCD must be studied. G68: standardized current-impulse wave 8/20 µs. switching. fig. Records have established that. the leakage current downstream of a RCD must not exceed 0. having a peak value of several tens of amperes (figure G68). The 5 kA peak test reflects this high-performance duty requirement. dry contacts).5 electromagnetic compatibility The high-frequency (or unidirectional impulse) transient overvoltages and currents mentioned above.2 application of RCDs (continued) influence of overvoltages Electrical power networks are subjected to overvoltages of various origins. may be consulted. on LV systems. and radiated electromagnetic waves (radio. fuse operation. The limitation of permanent leakage current to 0. in the case of an IT-earthed installation. such as the extension.7. and that they can be adequately represented by the conventional 1. overvoltages remain generally below 6 kV. in practice. Sub-clause 1.2/50 µs impulse wave (figure G67). together with other electromagnetic disturbance sources (contactor coils. For very particular cases. Note: Time-delayed RCDs are normally installed near the service position of installations. The transient currents flow to earth via the capacitances of the installation surge arresters or through an insulation failure.). atmospheric. U U max 0. relays. I 0.2 µs 50 µs t fig. or partial renovation of extended IT-earthed installations. If the capacitance values are known.5 I∆n. including those of lightning arresters (see installation layouts in Chapter L.5 µs/100 kHz impulse 8/20 µs impulse switching static electricity radiated waves repetitive transient bursts IEC 801-4 electrostatic discharges IEC 801-2 radiated electromagnetic fields IEC 801-3 required withstand quantity 6 kV peak 200 A peak* 200 A peak 60 A peak for 10 mA RCDs 5 kA peak for types "S" or time-delayed models (see note) 4 kV 8 kV 3 V/m table G70: electromagnetic compatibility withstand-level tests for RCDs. 3 i mA* = 230 V x 1009π x 10 C (n F) 10 i mA* = 0. to indicate proof against incorrect operation due to transients. G69: standardized symbol used in some countries. electrostatic discharges. or due to abrupt changes of system operating conditions (faults.protection against electric shocks .) are part of the increasingly important field of EMC (electromagnetic compatibility).072 C (n F) at 50 Hz implementation c every RCD installed must have a minimum level of immunity to unwanted tripping in conformity with the requirements of table G70. ignition systems. 120 and 149.072 C at 50 Hz i mA = 0.I∆n for a nominal rating of I∆n. In practice. where current surges of external origin are the most severe.25 I∆n.

000 could become 1/30. and using a sleeve.c.G direct current components Auxiliary d. and each case must be considered individually. components in the residual current.). and the proximity of ferrous material (steel enclosure.5 mm ø 80 3 c of length 2 x inside diameter of ring core ø 120 3 c completely surrounding the conductors and overlapping the circular core equally at both ends ø 200 2 These measures can be combined. Class B: operates on pure d. 3 classes are distinguished: Class AC: operates due to a.). and certain appliances include rectifiers (diodes.c. Because of its high permeability. and summarized in table G72. triacs. recommendations concerning the installation of RCDs with separate toroidal current transformers The detector of residual current is a closed magnetic circuit (usually circular) of very high magnetic permeability.c. where a 50 mm core would be large enough. G71. thyristors).c. any small deviation from perfect symmetry of the conductors encompassed by the core. In the event of an earth fault downstream of a rectifier. the ensemble constituting a toroidal (or ring-type) current transformer.e. measures diameter (mm) protection against electric shocks . table G72: means of reducing the ratio I∆n/Iph (max. component. chassis members.000. the fault current can include a d. The IEC classifies RCDs according to their ability to function correctly in the presence of d. circuits in an appliance. etc. etc. Class A: operates if residual current consists of uni-directional pulses.c. L L = twice the diameter of the magnetic ring core fig. Note: For general use Class AC RCDs are normally installed.) is generally less than 1/1.000.) to cause unwanted tripping of the RCD. Class A are available for specific requirements as a special variation of Class AC devices. Centralize the cables in the ring core Use an oversized magnetic ring core Insert a tubular magnetic screen. This limit can be increased substantially (i. sensitivity diminution factor careful centralizing of cables through the ring core 3 oversizing of the ring core ø 50 > ø 100 2 ø 80 > ø 200 2 ø 120 > ø 200 6 use of a steel or soft-iron shielding sleeve ø 50 4 c of wall thickness 0. Unless particular measures are taken. transformer energizing current surge. supplies for control and indication of electrical and mechanical equipment are common. the response can be desensitized) by adopting the measures shown in fig. at times of large load currents (motor-starting current. By carefully centralizing the cables in a ring core of 200 mm diameter. The risk depends on the level of insulation of the d. the ratio 1/1. the ratio of operating current I∆n to maximum phase current Iph (max.) can affect the balance of magnetic forces sufficiently.c.G33 . current only. G71: means of reducing the ratio I∆n/Iph (max. Problems of this kind generally concern industrial applications. on which is wound a coil of wire.

Coordination between the RCCB and the SCPDs is necessary. circuit breakers. G73 (a)). Coordination of circuit breakers and RCCBs. and downstream of a circuit breaker. electrodynamic withstand requirements Protection against short-circuits must be provided by an upstream SCPD (Short-Circuit Protective Device) but it is considered that where the RCCB is located in the same distribution box (complying with the appropriate standards) as the downstream circuit breakers (or fuses).3 choice of characteristics of a residual-current circuit breaker (RCCB .3. G34 . protected by circuit breakers. short-circuit (not applicable to aM fuses) upstream fuses gl (not applicable to aM fuses) 16 A 25 A 32 A 40 A 50 A 63 A 80 A 100 A downstream 2 p 25 A 100 100 100 RCCB 40 A 100 100 80 10 (1) 63 A 80 50 30 20 10 (1) 80 A 30 20 4 p 25 A 100 100 100 10 (1) 40 A 100 100 80 10 (1) 63 A 80 50 30 20 10 (1) 80 A 30 20 10 (1) table G74: typical manufacturers coordination table for RCCBs. (1) A 100 A fuse with several RCCBs downstream: the thermal withstand of the RCCBs is not certain. (a) (b) In1 In In In1 In2 In3 In4 fig. and manufacturers generally provide tables associating RCCBs and circuit breakers or fuses (see table G74). the rated current of both items will be the same. * Some national standards include a thermal withstand test at a current greater than In in order to ensure correct coordination of protection.e.) upstream circuit breaker type C60a C60N C60H C60L NC100H NC100L downstream 2 p 25 A 10 16 20 45 45 RCCB 40 A 10 16 20 40 45 63 A 16 20 30 5 45 80 A 5 4 p 25 A 5 8 10 25 22 40 A 5 8 10 25 22 63 A 8 10 15 5 22 Coordination of fuses and RCCBs.IEC 1008) rated current The rated current of a RCCB is chosen according to the maximum sustained load current it will carry.7. In u In1* (fig.protection against electric shocks . and fuses.max. the short-circuit protection afforded by these (outgoing-circuit) SCPDs is an adequate alternative. short-circuit current in kA (r. G73 (b). residual current differential devices (RCDs) (continued) G 7. i. c if the RCCB is located upstream of a group of circuits.max.s. as shown in fig. G73: residual current circuit breakers (RCCBs). estimated in accordance with the methods described in Chapter B Sub-clause 4. then the RCCB rated current will be given by In u ku x ks (In1 + In2 + In3 + In4).m. c if the RCCB is connected in series with.

etc.earthed installations are obligatorily protected at the origin by a RCD. and normal short-time overcurrents. methodology Following a preliminary analysis of the power requirements of the installation. the protective devices (circuit breakers or fuses) must: c protect the cabling and busbars for all levels of overcurrent.B. including multi-core and single-core cables and insulated wires drawn into conduits. e.1. or fuses I scb choice of C. for example: an excessively long acceleration period when starting a motor. as decribed in Chapter B Clause 4. particularly in TN. or fuses) In choice of protective device short-circuit MVA at the origin of the circuit short-circuit current Isc short-circuit current-breaking rating of C. etc. and the choice of its electrical protection table H1-1: logigram for the selection of cable size and protective-device rating for a given circuit. c not cause voltage drops likely to result in an inferior performance of certain loads. The cross-sectional areas of conductors are determined by the general method described in Sub-clause 1. through the intermediate stages to the final circuits. and that the protection of the circuit be likewise modified. thereby delaying automatic disconnection (it may be remembered that TT.2 of this Chapter.B.the switchgear . c ensure protection of persons against indirect contact hazards. starting at the origin of the installation. it must: c carry the permanent full load current. that all normal and abnormal operating constraints are satisfied. general H1 1. the protection of circuits . in order to ensure a safe and reliable installation.and IT.H1-1 . where the length of circuits may limit the magnitude of short-circuit currents.1 methodology and definitions component parts of an electric circuit and its protection are determined such. * the term "cabling" in this chapter.earthed systems. generally rated at 500 mA). up to and including short-circuit currents.g. covers all insulated conductors. Apart from this method some national standards may prescribe a minimum cross-sectional area to be observed for reasons of mechanical endurance. The cabling and its protection at each level must satisfy several conditions at the same time. Particular loads (as noted in Chapter J) require that the cable supplying them be oversized. kVA to be supplied upstream or downstream network maximum load current IB rated current of protective device (C. Moreover.B. or fuses conditions of installation cross-sectional area of conductors of the circuit verification of the maximum voltage drop verification of thermal withstand requirements IT or TN scheme verification of the maximum length of the circuit TT scheme determination of the cross-sectional area of the conductors confirmation of the cross-sectional area of the cabling. a study of cabling* and its electrical protection is undertaken.

H1-2: calculation of maximum load current IB. on several parameters: c constitution of the cable and cable-way (Cu or Alu conductors.the switchgear .69 IB = 290 x 0. and so on) the cumulative thermal effects of the overcurrents must be taken into account. overcurrents An overcurrent occurs each time the value of current exceeds the maximum load current IB for the load concerned. for example. this current corresponds to the rated kVA of the load. This current must be cut off with a rapidity that depends upon its magnitude. If either of these conditions persists however beyond a given period (depending on protective-relay settings or fuse ratings) the circuit will be automatically cut off. Both cables and thermaltype relays are affected.69 = 200 A sub-distribution board 80 A 60 A 100 A IB = 50 A normal load motor current 50 A M fig. main distribution board combined factors of simultaneity (or diversity) and utilization ks x ku = 0.g. and so on. c 2 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth. due to a number of small short-duration loads which occasionally occur co-incidentally. two types of overcurrent are distinguished: Overloads These overcurrents can occur in healthy electric circuits. ks and ku respectively.the protection of circuits . particularly where frequent starting is concerned (e. or not). as shown in figure H1-2. number of active conductors). if permanent damage to the cabling (and appliance if the overcurrent is due to a defective load component) is to be avoided. motorstarting loads. occur in normal operation. c ambient temperature. general (continued) H1 1. without reducing its normal life expectancy. lift motors. for a given crosssectional area of conductors. c 1 phase short-circuited to neutral (and/or to earth). c influence of neighbouring circuits. PVC or EPR etc.1. Short-circuit currents These currents result from the failure of insulation between live conductors or/and between live conductors and earth (on systems having low-impedance-earthed neutrals) in any combination. resistance-type spot welding. The current depends. viz: c 3 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth. c method of installation. or not). which takes account of the factors of simultaneity (diversity) and utilization. H1-2 . c at all upstream circuit levels this current corresponds to the kVA to be supplied. or other loads which take an initially-high current. Overcurrents of relatively short duration can however. insulation. In the case of motor-starting.1 methodology and definitions (continued) definitions Maximum load current: IB c at the final circuits level. Maximum permissible current: IZ This is the maximum value of current that the cabling for the circuit can carry indefinitely.

the maximum permissible current varies according to the environment.m. short-circuit breaking current of the circuit breaker.). Is: short-circuit current (A r. IZ1 is less than IZ2 (fig. be determined approximately by the formula: Is2 x t = k2 x S2 which shows that the allowable heat generated is proportional to the cross-sectional-area of the condutor squared. of insulated conductor (mm2). for a high ambient temperature (θa1 > θa2). for periods up to 5 seconds following short-circuit initiation. t maximum load current I2t cable characteristic temporary overload circuit-breaker tripping curve IB Ir Iz ISCB PdC I fig.e. the protection of circuits . IscB means rated 3-ph.s. i.the switchgear . S: c. a conventional overcurrent tripping level (see figure H1-6) similar to that of a 30 A circuit breaker. For instance. For a given insulated conductor. Note: Isc means 3-phase short-circuit current. The characteristics of insulated conductors when carrying short-circuit currents can. c acting to cut-off the current in a time shorter than that given by the I2t characteristic of the circuit cabling.2 overcurrent protection principles A protective device is provided at the origin of the circuit concerned. k: insulated conductor constant (values of k2 are given in table H1-54). t I2t cable characteristic temporary overload fuse curve IB t Ir cIz Iz 1 2 I fig. c but allowing the maximum load current IB to flow indefinitely. H1-5: I2t characteristic of an insulated conductor at two different ambient temperatures.H1-3 . H1-4: circuit protection by fuses.H1 1.a. H1-5). e. θ means "temperature". * both designations are commonly used in different standards. a 50 A nominal circuit breaker can be regulated to have a protective range. Where: t: duration of short-circuit current (seconds).s.g. Ir (or Irth)* means regulated "nominal" current level. H1-3: circuit protection by circuit breaker. θa1 > θa2 5s I2t = k2S2 Iz1 < Iz2 I fig.

IB i In i Iz I2 i 1. In pratice this arrangement is generally exploited in: c the association of circuit breakers/fuses.45 IZ which corresponds to zone "b" in figure H1-6. the overcurrent device protecting the circuit will operate correctly. A further factor k3 has been introduced (in the national standards from which these notes have been abstracted) such that I2 i 1. the short-circuit current breaking capacity of the fuse ISCF must exceed the level of 3-phase short-circuit current at the point of installation of the fuse(s). H1-4 . general (continued) H1 1.10 Moreover. associated cabling and appliances can withstand without damage. applications Protection by circuit breaker By virtue of its high level of precision the current I2 is always less than 1.21 In > 25 A k3 = 1. it is necessary to ensure that. and c the amount of energy allowed to pass through the upstream device is less than that which the downstream device and all m ax um im a lo d cu n rre t IB IB In zone a Iz I2 1. short-circuit current level at the point of CB installation. c the technique known as "cascading" in which the strong current-limiting performance of certain circuit breakers effectively reduces the severity of downstream short-circuits. This particular case is examined in Sub-clause 5. circuit cabling m u cu m rre pe nt rm Iz iss i bl e m ax i 1. another protective device which has the necessary short-circuit rating.45 Iz ISC ISCB zone c zone b fa g t ui atin irc r -c king t or a sh bre h nt p 3. c its 3-phase short-circuit fault-current breaking rating is greater than the 3-phase short-circuit current existing at its point of installation.45 IZ must also be taken into account. equal to k2 x In (k2 ranges from 1. i.45 Iz ISCB u ISC zone a zone b zone c general rules A protective device (circuit breaker or fuse) functions correctly if: c its nominal current or its setting current In is greater than the maximum load current IB but less than the maximum permissible current IZ for the circuit. 45 x Iz n its om re in gu al la cu te rr d en cu t rre In nt or Ir co nv en tri tio p na cu l o rre ve nt rc I2 urr en t fig. The "conventional" setting tripping time may be 1 hour or 2 hours according to local standards and the actual value selected for I2.3 practical values for a protection scheme The following methods are based on rules laid down in the IEC standards. For fuses. that I2 i 1. and are loads representative of the practices in many countries. rated short-circuit breaking current ISCB u ISC the 3-ph. where I2 is the fusing (meltinglevel) current.9) according to the particular fuse concerned. Protection by fuses The condition I2 i 1.6 to 1. the rated short-circuit current breaking capacity of the fuse ISCF u ISC the 3-ph.1.e. Association of different protective devices The use of protective devices which have fault-current ratings lower than the fault level existing at their point of installation are permitted by IEC and many national standards in the following conditions: c there exists upstream. short-circuit current level at the point of fuse installation. I2 is the current (denoted If) which will operate the fuse in the conventional time.45 Ir) so that the condition.45 IZ (as noted in the "general rules" above) will always be respected.urre -c ult protective device For fuses type gl: In i 10 A k3 = 1. c its tripping current I2 "conventional" setting is less than 1.45 IZ will be valid if In i IZ/k3. IB i In i IZ corresponding to zone "a" in figure H1-6.the protection of circuits . criteria for fuses: IB i In i IZ k3 and. This corresponds to zone "c" in figure H1-6. at a time of lowest value of short-circuit current.1. Possible combinations which have been tested in laboratories are indicated in certain manufacturers catalogues.31 10 A < In i 25 A k3 = 1. criteria for a circuit breaker: IB i In (or Ir) i Iz and. H1-6: current levels for determining circuit breaker or fuse characteristics.45 In (or 1.the switchgear . Particular case: if the circuit breaker itself does not protect against overloads.

A <3m P1 short-circuit sc protective device B s overload protective device3 B P2 B P3 case (1) case (2) case (3) circuits with no protection Either c the protective device P1 is calibrated to protect the cable S2 against overloads and short-circuits. P2 50 mm2 P P3 10 mm2 P4 25 mm2 possible alternative locations in certain circumstances The protective device may be placed part way along the circuit: c if AB is not in proximity to combustible material. v the secondary circuits of current transformers. Consider case (3) c the overload device (S) is located adjacent to the load. e.H1-5 . v circuits of large lifting electromagnets.g. general rule A protective device is necessary at the origin of each circuit where a reduction of permissible maximum current level occurs. Consider case (2) c the upstream device P1 protects the length AB against short-circuits in accordance with Sub-clause H1-5.5 mm2 S2: 1.H1 1.4 location of protective devices a protective device is. and the protection of the cabling is of secondary importance. the same length.1. c the cable route should be chosen so as to avoid close proximity to combustible materials. Protection against overload and short-circuits is identical to that for a single-cable circuit. This arrangement is convenient for motor circuits. by the introduction of supplementary protection.1. and of the same material. Three cases may be useful in practice. The device (S) constitutes the control (start/stop) and overload protection of the motor while (SC) is: either a circuit breaker (designed for motor protection) or fuses type aM. and c if no socket-outlets or branch connections are taken from AB. 1.5 cables in parallel Conductors of the same cross-sectional-area.the switchgear . required at the origin of each circuit. Consider case (1) in the diagram c AB i 3 metres. The maximum permissible current is the sum of the individual-core maximum currents. taking into account the mutual heating effects. the protection of circuits . v excitation circuits of rotating machines. The following precautions should be taken to avoid the risk of short-circuits on the paralleled cables: c additional protection against mechanical damage and against humidity.5 mm2 table H1-7: general rules and exceptions concerning the location of protective devices. c the short-circuit protection (SC) located at the origin of the circuit conforms with the principles of Sub-clause H1-5. P1: C60 calibre 15 A 2. can be connected in parallel. method of installation. etc. Or c where the breaking of a circuit constitutes a risk. and c AB has been installed to reduce to a practical minimum the risk of a short-circuit (wires in heavy steel conduit for example). in general. No circuit interruption can be tolerated.

This is followed by the same calculations carried out by the methods described in this guide.18% 3x (3 x 240) Following the one-line diagram of the system shown in figure H1-8 below. general (continued) H1 1. TR1 1000 kVA 5% 400 V 26. a reproduction of the results of a computer study for the circuit C1 and its circuit breaker Q1.1. 44 kA C1 8m . H1-6 .the switchgear .2 software (a Merlin Gerin product).the protection of circuits . and by the adoption of a 3-phase 3-wire IT-system at the main general distribution board from which the processing plant is supplied.000 kVA transformer.7% Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 C3 C4 3x (1 x 240) T1 315 kVA 400 V Q7 NS630N STR35SE 630 A B2 Q8 Q9 Q10 I1 I2 Q11 NS250N TMD 250 A Q12 NS160N TMD 160 A Q13 NS100N TMD 80 A fig. Q1 M16 N1 STR 38 1600 A B1 G1 500 kVA 721 A Q2 C801N STR35SE 800 A C2 15m . The remainder of the installation is isolated by a 315 kVA 400/400V transformer: the isolated network is a TT-earthed 3-phase 4-wire system.6 worked example of cable calculations installation scheme The installation is supplied through a 1. and C2 with associated circuit breaker Q2 are presented. The process requires a high degree of supply continuity and this is provided by the installation of a 500 kVA 400 V standby generator. H1-8: one-line diagram of the installation. These studies were carried out with ECODIAL 2.

2 General network characteristics earthing system neutral distributed voltage (V) frequency (Hz) Transformer TR 1 number of transformers upstream fault level (MVA) rating (kVA) short-circuit impedance voltage (%) remarks nominal current (A) resistance of transformer (mΩ) reactance of transformer (mΩ) running total of impedance RT (mΩ) running total of impedance XT (mΩ) 3-phase short-circuit current (kA) short-circuit power factor Cable C 1 maximum load current (A) type of insulation conductor material ambient temperature (°C) single-core or multi-core cable installation method number of circuits in close proximity (table H1-14) other coefficient number of phases selected cross-sectional area (mm2) protective conductor neutral conductor length (m) voltage drop ∆U (%) running total of impedance RT (mΩ) running total of impedance XT (mΩ) voltage drop ∆U total (%) 3-phase short-circuit current (kA) 1-phase-to-earth fault current (A) resistance of protective conductor RPE (mΩ) touch voltage (V) Circuit breaker Q 1 voltage (V) 3-ph short-circuit current upstream of the circuit breaker (kA) maximum load current (A) ambient temperature (°C) number of poles circuit breaker type tripping unit type rated current (A) Busbars B 1 maximum load current (A) number of phases number of bars per phase width (mm) thickness (mm) length (m) remarks impedance of busbars R (mΩ) impedance of busbars X (mΩ) voltage drop ∆U(%) running total of impedance RT (mΩ) running total of impedance XT (mΩ) voltage drop ∆U total (%) 3-ph short-circuit current (kA) IT N 400 50 input data 1 500 1000 5 output input data 1374 PRC Cu 30 UNI 13 1 1 1374 2.9 26.23 output 3 3 x 240 1 x 240 8 .43 9.55 2.the switchgear .55 .16 2.75 15 output input data 400 25.1 .53 9.53 the protection of circuits .34 24.H1-7 .11 .45 .18 25.13 8.44 .18 2.7 1374 40 3 M 16 N1 STR 38 1600 1374 3 1 125 5 3 .7 20334 .18 8.H1 calculations using software Ecodial 2.

The resistance and inductive reactance are respectively: 22. 433 I’z = = 528 A so that 1 x 0.the protection of circuits .67 21.2): 22.1.12 mΩ/metre was advised by the cable maker). which can be regulated.a. for a length of 8 metres (see H1-4.G).2 mΩ per phase.32 mΩ per phase 3 (0. Iz = 433 A The method of installation is characterized by the reference letter E. Table H1-17 indicates that the c. these cables will be laid on cable trays corresponding with reference F (see tables in Clause H1 2. general (continued) H1 1.5 x 8 R= = 0. Circuit C 1 must be suitable for a current of In = 1. 0.4 mΩ per phase 240 X = 0.42 Three single-core XLPE-insulated copper cables in parallel will be used for each phase.s.s. * Withdrawable.25 mΩ per phase 240 x 3 0.33 3.6 worked example of cable calculations (continued) Circuit breaker Q 2 voltage (V) 3-ph short-circuit current upstream of the circuit breaker (kA) maximum load current (A) ambient temperature (°C) number of poles circuit breaker type tripping unit type rated current (A) 3-phase fault current (A) protection against indirect contact assured upstream circuit breaker absolute discrimination Cable C 2 maximum load current (A) type of insulation conductor material ambient temperature (°C) single-core or multi-core cable installation method number of circuits in close proximity (table H1-14) other coefficient number of phases selected cross-sectional area (mm2) protective conductor neutral conductor length (m) voltage drop ∆U (%) running total of impedance RT (mΩ) running total of impedance XT (mΩ) voltage drop ∆U total (%) 3-phase short-circuit current (kA) 1-phase-to-earth fault current (A) resistance of protective conductor RPE (mΩ) touch voltage (V) input data 400 24.82 ( 3 three-phase groups in a single layer) K 3 = 1 (temperature 30 °C).2).000 = In = 1.82 K 3 = 1. of 240 mm2 is appropriate.1 Iz I’z = = 1.12 x 8 X= = 0.2.the switchgear .57 73 output output table H1-9: calculations carried out with ECODIAL software (M.53 433 40 3 NS630 N STR23SE 630 13221 M16 N1 STR38 input data 433 PRC Cu 30 UNI 13 1 1 3 1 x 240 1 x 70 15 . and the "K" correcting factors are: K1=1 K 2 = 0. K1xK2xK3 Each conductor will therefore carry 558 A.374 A applying H1.93 10.374 A per phase ex 0. CBs are generally mounted in drawers for maintenance purposes. If the circuit breaker is a withdrawable or unpluggable* type.82 x 1 a c.000 kVA transformer has a rated no-load voltage of 420 V.08 x 15 = 1.75 . The resistances and the inductive reactances for the three conductors in parallel are.18 13221 5.5 x 15 R= = 1. Dimensioning circuit C 2 Circuit C 2 supplies a 315 kVA 3-phase 400/400 V isolating transformer Ib = 315 = 433 A.a. the same calculations using the methods recommended in this guide Dimensioning circuit C 1 The HV/LV 1. Plug-in type CBs are generally moulded-case units.676 A.42 x e A multi-core XLPE cable laid on a cable tray (together with two other cables) in an ambient air temperature of 30 °C is proposed. which may be completely removed from the fixed-base sockets. H1-8 . The "K" correction factors are as follows: K1=1 K 2 = 0. one might choose: Iz = 1. is 240 mm2. The circuit breaker is regulated to 433 A.

e.e.36 V ∆U % = 100 x 1.61 show that.24 8. The length of 15 metres is therefore fully protected by "instantaneous" overcurrent devices. with the aid of manufacturers catalogues. for the protective earth (PE) conductor for circuit C1 will be: 26500 x √0.94 10.25 0. therefore. (The value in the denominator 630 x 11.2. a conductor of large c. 400 At the circuit terminals of the LV/LV transformer the percentage volt-drop ∆U % = 0.e.1 u = 47.19 %.2 shows the formula for calculating the short-circuit current Isc at a given point in the system.2 sub-total for Q2 3.25 + 240/70) x 630 x 11. isolating capability. the c.72 11. Dimensioning considerations for this conductor are given in Sub-clause 6. as noted in Chapter G Sub-clauses 6. features such as selectivity. For the circuit C2.40 1.60 and H1.1 u = 37. If the rated no-load voltage of the transformer is 420 V: 420 Isc = 2. The only indirect-contact requirement for this circuit. and found to be 21 kA.85 cable C 2 1. generally connects the tank of the HV/LV transformer to the earth electrode for the installation at a common earthing busbar in the main general distribution board. but the protection on the second faulty LV circuit must do so infallibly to ensure protection against the indirect contact danger. This value is equal to 10 In + 15 % (the highest positive manufacturing tolerance for the tripping device). is at the transformer tank.s. and so on. or is earthed through a high resistance (1-2 kΩ) so that an indirect-contact hazard can only exist if two earth faults occur concurrently. an indirect contact danger will exist at the transformer tank.a. or the formula given in Sub-clause G. For further details of magnetic tripping devices.772 3 = 26.21 V/A/km x 433 A x 0.6.25 in the denominator is a 25% increase in resistance for a 240 mm2 conductor. provided that it also satisfies the requirements for indirect-contact protection (i. 1.H1-9 .32 sub-total for Q1 2. tables G.H1 Calculation of short-circuit currents for the selection of circuit breakers Q 1 and Q2 *all values are to a 420 voltage base e circuits R* X* Z* components parts mΩ mΩ mΩ 500 kVA at the HV source network 0.e.13 busbars B1 0.77 = 0. each on a different phase (or on one phase and a neutral conductor). The inductive reactance of busbars B1 is estimated to be 0.3. conductor mentioned above. RCDs are often employed in such cases.42 table H1-10: example of short-circuit current evaluation. double insulation and no earthed exposed conductive parts.35 HV/LV transformer 2.29 it can be seen that: for C1 (3 x 240 mm2 per phase) 0.2 may be used for a 3-phase 3-wire circuit.374 A x 0. please refer to Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.2. Since a HV fault to earth at the transformer is also always possible.530 The factor 1.5 24. Tables H1.a.008 km ∆U = 3 = 0. For circuit C2. Voltage drop From table H1.75 9.050 0. withdrawal or unplugging facility and general ease of maintenance.3 to 6. The maximum permitted length of the circuit is given by: 0. and very often HV lightning arresters on the transformer are connected to earth through the P.75 mΩ .8 x 230 x 240 x ex 103 Lmax = 2 x 22. In such a case. must be considered. This means that if one (of the two) concurrent LV phase-to-earth faults should occur in the transformer. in accordance with Chapter G Sub-clause 5. as described.the switchgear .5 = Im i.7 mm2 176 In this case a 70 mm2 conductor may be adequate if the indirect-contact protection conditions are also satisfied.000 x √0. Protection against indirect-contact hazards Reminder: the LV neutral point of an IT-scheme transformer is isolated from earth. The protective conductor Thermal requirements.5.21 V/A/km x 1.59.E.5 x (1.a. In order to make the final choice. that its impedance is sufficiently low).5 kA at Q 1.15 x 5 = 0.E. conductors is too high.015 km = 1. the HV overcurrent protection for the transformer is unlikely to operate.E.34 %. Circuit C 1 will be of class 2 insulation i. 400 for C2 ∆U = 0.5 = 76.53 %.43 and G. is invariably selected for this section of the installation.2 Sub-clause H1-4. Isc* kA 26. The Isc at the location of Q 2 is computed as for Q 1.10 cable C 1 0.77 V ∆U % = 100 x 0. of its PE conductor should be: 21. except in particular circumstances i. where the resistance of P.542 + 8. when using the adiabatic method (IEC 724 (1984) Clause 2) the c. conductor in question. the current level at which the instantaneous short-circuit magnetic trip of the 630 A circuit breaker operates).s.6 21.77 9. Overcurrent protective devices must then be relied upon to cut-off the faulty circuits.6 mm2 176 a single 240 mm2 conductor dimensioned for other reasons mentioned later is therefore largely sufficient. the protection of circuits .54 8.36 = 0.s.its resistance being negligibly small.487 = 50 metres. The 240 mm2 P.

2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits the size of a phase conductor is given in tables which relate: c the code letter symbolizing the method of installation.g.the protection of circuits .1 general installation conditions for the conductors maximum load current IB IB rated current In of the protective device must be equal to or greater than the maximum load current IB determination of K factors and of the appropriate letter code In choice of maximum permissible current IZ for the circuit. 2. In this clause the following cases are considered: c unburied conductors. which covers the following influences: v installation method. threephase.the switchgear . of the letter code.2. v ambient temperature. depending on type of conductor and method of installation. The possible methods of types of conductor single-core wires and multi-core cables installation are numerous.a. and of the insulating sheath of the conductors (refer to tables H1-17 or H1-24) I 'Z S1 I 'Z S2 verification of other conditions that may be required-see figure H1. The procedure is as follows: c determine an appropriate code-letter reference which takes into account: v the type of circuit (single-phase. These tables distinguish unburied circuits from buried circuits. The first step is to determine the size of the phase conductors. or on supporting brackets c surface-mounted clear of the surface (e. H1-10 . The dimensioning of the neutral and protective conductors is explained in H1-6 and H1-7. determination of the code-letter reference The letter of reference (B to F) depends on the type of conductor used and its method of installation. perforated trays. and c the factor of influence K. letter code multi-core cables method of installation c under decorative moulding with or without a removable cover. but the most common of them have been grouped according to four classes of similar environmental conditions. by use of an equivalent current I'Z.1 * or slightly greater table H1-11: logigram for the determination of minimum conductor size for a circuit. v circuit grouping. which takes into account the influences of factor K (I'Z = IZ/K). as shown below in table H1-12. c buried conductors. surface or flush-mounting. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors H1 2.31 In if In 10 A* IZ = 1.10 In if In 25 A* I Z1 circuit breaker I Z = I n* I Z2 Determination of the size (c. etc. or under plaster c in underfloor cavity or behind false ceiling c in a trench.s.21 In if In 10 A* and In 25 A* IZ = 1. corresponding to a conductor size that the protective device is capable of protecting fuse IZ = 1.) of the conductors of the circuit capable of carrying IZ1 or IZ2. moulding or wainscoting c surface-mounted in contact with wall or ceiling c on non-perforated cable trays c cable ladders. The tables in this clause permit the determination of the size of phase conductors for a circuit of given current magnitude.) and v the kind of installation: and then c determine the factor K of the circuit considered. on cleats) c catenary cables B C E single-core cables F table H1-12: code-letter reference.

72 0.72 0.95 0.57 0.15 below. The values of these factors are given in tables H1.61 0.66 0.00 0.70 0.71 0. correction factor K1 Factor K1 is a measure of the influence of the method of installation.cables installed directly in thermal-insulation materials example K1 0.other cases 0.construction cavities and closed cables trenches C B. and is given by: K = K1 x K2 x K3 the three component factors depending on different features of the installation.73 0.41 0.80 0.85 0. the distance between two cables.75 0.80 0.H1 for circuits which are not buried.62 0.75 0. or on unperforated cables trays single layer 0.70 0.82 0. Correction factor K2 Factor K2 is a measure of the mutual influence of two circuits side-by-side in close proximity.60 0.54 0. Two circuits are considered to be in close proximity when L.78 on cable ladders.87 0.00 0.73 0.95 1 table H1-13: factor K1 according to method of circuit installation (for further examples refer to IEC 364-5-52 table 52H).38 or buried in the walls C single layer 1.78 0. or on vertical trays single layer 1.88 0.72 0.79 0.77 0. brackets. factor K2 is a measure of the mutual influence of two circuits side-by-side in close proximity.82 0. etc table H1-14: correction factor K2 for a group of conductors in a single layer the protection of circuits . factor k characteristizes the conditions of installation. code letter location of correction factor K2 cables in close number of circuits or multicore cables proximity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20 B.00 0.79 0.72 0.70 .95 0.68 0.45 0.70 on walls or floors.72 on horizontal perforated trays.90 .73 0.C embedded 1.H1-11 .00 0.61 on ceiling E. K2 and K3. is less than double the diameter of the larger of the two cables.77 .surface mounted on ceiling .13 to H1.conduits installed in thermalinsulation materials 0. It is obtained by multiplying three correction factors K1.50 0.65 0.79 0.the switchgear . code letter B installation details .multi-core cables 0.80 0.72 0.63 0. F .81 0.64 0. determination of the factor K The factor k summarizes the several features which characterize the conditions of installation. factor K1 is a measure of the influence of the method of installation.78 0.52 0. C. E.F single layer 1.

c three single-core cables (circuit no. Example: A 3-phase 3-core XLPE cable is laid on a perforated cable-tray in close proximity to three other circuits. ethylenepropylene-rubber (EPR) 10 1.76 60 0. circuit no.50 0. by which K2 must be multiplied. 3).93 0. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued) H1 2. c six single-core cables (circuit no.91 = 0.91 45 0.15 1. 2).93 0.91.87 0. H1-16: example in the determination of factors K1.82 55 0. 1). effectively 5 3-phase circuits to be considered.the protection of circuits . K1 given by table H1-13 = 1.12 1. The ambient temperature is 40 °C.17 1.22 1.96 40 0.07 1. Correction factor K3 Factor K3 is a measure of the influence of the temperature.12 20 1. K3 given by table H1-15 = 0. 2 and no.73 4 or 5 layers : 0.75 x 0.68.79 0.61 0. K2 given by table H1-14 = 0.87 50 0. as shown in figure H1-16. H1-12 .15 15 1.00 1. therefore.58 75 80 table H1-15: correction factor K3 for ambient temperatures other than 30 °C. ambient temperatures cross-linkedpolyethylene (XLPE) butyl. The code letter indicated in table H1-12 is E.71 0. K2 and K3.04 30 1. will have the following values : 2 layers : 0.08 25 1. K = K1 x K2 x K3 = 1 x 0. according to the type of insulation.75.07 1.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits (continued) When cables are installed in more than one layer a further factor. There are.71 65 0.80 3 layers : 0.58 0.00 35 0.71 0.00 1.65 70 0. the latter comprising 2 cables per phase.70.2.22 1.29 1.the switchgear . 3 are 3-phase circuits. 1 2 3 insulation elastomer (rubber) polyvinylchloride (PVC) θa = 40°C XLPE fig. factor K3 is a measure of the influence of the temperature according to the type of insulation.82 0. consisting of: c a 3-phase 3-core cable (circuit no.

a.5 18.s. derived from the code letter.5 21 24 25 27 30 31 33 36 2. 1. Values of I'z are given in table H1-17 below.5 c. together with corresponding cable sizes for different types of insulation and core material (copper or aluminium).).5 19.s.5 17.5 18. aluminium 4 22 25 26 28 31 33 35 38 4 alu (mm2) 6 28 32 33 36 39 43 45 49 6 (mm2) 10 39 44 46 49 54 59 62 67 10 16 53 59 61 66 73 79 84 91 16 25 70 73 78 83 90 98 101 108 121 25 35 86 90 96 103 112 122 126 135 150 35 50 104 110 117 125 136 149 154 164 184 50 70 133 140 150 160 174 192 198 211 237 70 95 161 170 183 195 211 235 241 257 289 95 120 186 197 212 226 245 273 280 300 337 120 150 227 245 261 283 316 324 346 389 150 185 259 280 298 323 363 371 397 447 185 240 305 330 352 382 430 439 470 530 240 300 351 381 406 440 497 508 543 613 300 400 526 600 663 740 400 500 610 694 770 856 500 630 711 808 899 996 630 table H1-17: case of an unburied circuit: determination of the minimum cable size (c.5 22 23 24 26 1.a. conductor material.a.5 c.a.s.5 21 23 25 26 28 2.H1-13 .H1 determination of the minimum cross-sectional area of a conductor The current Iz when divided by K gives a fictitious current I'z. insulation material and the fictitious current I'z.s.5 15.the switchgear . the protection of circuits .5 copper 4 28 32 34 36 40 42 45 49 4 (mm2) (mm2) 6 36 41 43 48 51 54 58 63 6 10 50 57 60 63 70 75 80 86 10 16 68 76 80 85 94 100 107 115 16 25 89 96 101 112 119 127 138 149 161 25 35 110 119 126 138 147 158 169 185 200 35 50 134 144 153 168 179 192 207 225 242 50 70 171 184 196 213 229 246 268 289 310 70 95 207 223 238 258 278 298 328 352 377 95 120 239 259 276 299 322 346 382 410 437 120 150 299 319 344 371 395 441 473 504 150 185 341 364 392 424 450 506 542 575 185 240 403 430 461 500 538 599 641 679 240 300 464 497 530 576 621 693 741 783 300 400 656 754 825 940 400 500 749 868 946 1083 500 630 855 1005 1088 1254 630 c. 2. insulation and number of conductors (2 or 3) rubber butyl or XLPE or EPR or PVC code B PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 B code letter C PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 C letter E PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 E F PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 F c.5 19.a.5 16. copper 2.s.

and is obtained from the following factors: K4 x K5 x K6 x K7 = K each of which depends on a particular feature of installation. will also be used to illustrate the way in which the minimum cross-sectional-area (c.65 0. Correction factor K4 Factor K4 is a measure of the influence of the method of installation. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued) H1 2. K5. multiply K5 by 0. 1 2 3 θa = 40°C XLPE fig. c fuses: In = 25 A v permissible current Iz = K3 In = 1. Determination of the cross-sectional areas A standard value of In nearest to.6 A 0.41 0. A code letter corresponding to a method of installation is not necessary.3 A v the fictitious current I'z = 30. The XLPE cable to be installed will carry 23 amps per phase.8 for 2 layers. Previous examples show that: c the appropriate code letter is E. H1-14 .a.54 0. For an aluminium conductor the corresponding values are 43 A and 6 mm2. location of correction factor K5 cables side-by-side number of circuits or of multicore cables in close proximity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20 buried 1.the switchgear . 0. When cables are laid in several layers.50 0.a. factor K4 measures the influence of the method of installation. Cables are in close proximity when the distance L separating them is less than double the diameter of the larger of the two cables concerned.21 x 25 = Iz = 30.) of conductors may be found.68 v the cross-sectional-areas.3 = 40. Two solutions are possible.7 for 4 layers or 5 layers.38 table H1-20: correction factor K5 for the grouping of several circuits in one layer. 2. or in decorative mouldings other cases 1 table H1-19: correction factor K4 related to the method of installation. K6 and K7.80 0. and is obtained by multiplying together correction factors K4. The values of these several factors are given in tables H1-19 to H1-22.s. c circuit breaker: In = 25 A v permissible current Iz = 25 A v fictitious current I'z = 25 = 36.73 for 3 layers. necessitates the establishement of a factor K.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits (continued) Example The example shown in figure H1-16 for determining the value of K.57 0. H1-18: example for the determination of minimum cable sizes.68. method of installation K4 placed in earthenware ducts. Correction factor K5 Factor K5 is a measure of the mutual influence of circuits placed side-by-side in close proximity. for buried circuits the value of factor K characteristizes the conditions of installation.8 conduits.s. by using the table H1-17. determination of factor K Factor K summarizes the global influence of different conditions of installation.3 determination of conductor size for buried circuits In the case of buried circuits the determination of minimum conductor sizes. of copper or aluminium conductors are (in this case) found to be the same as those noted above for a circuit-breaker-protected circuit. c the factor K = 0. of 4 mm2.00 0. factor K5 measures the mutual influence of circuits placed side-byside in close proximity. in 0.8 A 0.52 0.2. but higher than 23 A is required.70 0.the protection of circuits . one based on protection by a circuit breaker and the second on protection by fuses.45 0.8 A) is shown to require a copper conductor c. 0.68 v cross-sectional-area of conductors is found as follows: In the column PR3 corresponding to code letter E the value of 42 A (the nearest value greater than 36.60 0.

K6 and K7. factor K7 is a measure of the influence of the soil temperature. K5 from table H1.89 0.55 0.H1 factor K6 is a measure of the influence of the earth in which the cable is buried.95 0.6. nature of soil K6 very wet soil (saturated) 1.00 25 0. Example A single-phase 230 V circuit is included with four other loaded circuits in a buried conduit.05 1.84 0. K7 from table H1. The soil temperature is 20 °C.04 20 1. K = K4 x K5 x K6 x K7 = 0.0.63 0. Correction factor K6 This factor takes into account the nature and condition of the soil in which a cable (or cables) is (are) buried.21 wet soil 1.89 40 0. Correction factor K7 This factor takes into account the influence of soil temperature if it differs from 20 °C.21 = 1.13 damp soil 1.85 45 0.22 = 1.20 = 0.86 table H1-21: correction factor K6 for the nature of the soil.96 30 0.00 1.07 15 1. K4 from table H1-19 = 0. The conductors are PVC insulated and supply a 5 kW lighting load.H1-15 .76 55 0.10 1.the switchgear .0. the protection of circuits .71 0.8. notably its thermal conductivity.71 60 0.80 50 0. K6 from table H1.05 dry soil 1. soil temperature °C cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) 10 1.93 35 0. K5.65 table H1-22: correction factor K7 for soil temperatures different than 20 °C.77 0.48. θa = 20°C 5 kW 230 V insulation polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) fig. The circuit is protected by a circuit breaker.00 very dry soil (sunbaked) 0.45 0. H1-23: example for the determination of K4.

Maximum permanent current permitted Iz = 25 A (i. H1-16 .the protection of circuits .s. K5.a.000 IB = = 22 A 230 Selection of protection A circuit-breaker rated at 25 A would be appropriate.48 C.5 34 42 41 48 (mm2) 4 44 54 53 63 6 56 67 66 80 10 74 90 87 104 16 96 116 113 136 25 123 148 144 173 35 147 178 174 208 50 174 211 206 247 70 216 261 254 304 95 256 308 301 360 120 290 351 343 410 150 328 397 387 463 185 367 445 434 518 240 424 514 501 598 300 480 581 565 677 c.e.1 A K 0. type of insulation.2. K6 and K7 were determined. of circuit conductors In the column PVC. In the case where the circuit conductors are in aluminium. H1-25: example for determination of the minimum c. for which the factors K4.3 determination of conductor size for buried circuits (continued) determination of the smallest c. θa = 20°C 5 kW 230 V fig. a current of 54 A corresponds to a 4 mm2 copper conductor. and the factor K was found to be 0. the same fictitious current (52 A) would require the choice of 10 mm2 corresponding to a fictitious current value (for aluminium) of 68 A.a. 2 conductors. 10 57 68 67 80 aluminium 16 74 88 87 104 2 (mm ) 25 94 114 111 133 35 114 137 134 160 50 134 161 160 188 70 167 200 197 233 95 197 237 234 275 120 224 270 266 314 150 254 304 300 359 185 285 343 337 398 240 328 396 388 458 300 371 447 440 520 table H1-24: case of a buried circuit: minimum c.s.s. insulation and number of loaded conductors rubber or PVC Butyl. K Example This is a continuation of the previous example.s. or ethylene-propylene rubber EPR 3 conductors 2 conductors 3 conductors 2 conductors c. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued) H1 2.s.s.5 26 32 31 37 copper 2. for buried circuits Knowing Iz and K. of the circuit conductors. the corresponding crosssectional-areas are given in table H1-24 below. or cross-linked polyethylene XLPE.a.the switchgear . 1.a. in terms of type of conductor.a. (cross-sectional-area) of a conductor. Full load current 5.48. and value of fictitious current I'z (I'z = Iz ).a. the circuit-breaker rating In) Fictitious current Iz 25 I'z = = = 52.

voltage-drop calculations must take account of these changes. so that the heavy current loading (with possibly undesirable low-voltage effects on other equipment) will continue beyond the normal start-up period. as mentioned in Chapter B Sub-clause 4. lighting circuit. etc. From now on. If 8% voltage drop occurs at full-load current. v or accelerate very slowly. the protection of circuits . H1-27: maximum voltage drop.e. satisfactory motor performance requires a voltage within ± 5% of its rated nominal value in steady-state operation. c finally an 8% voltage drop represents a continuous (E2/R watts) of power loss. etc. distribution transformers will be manufactured with no-load ratios of 242/420 V. therefore. c they satisfy the essential operational requirements. which. the load terminal voltage is maintained within the limits required for correct performance.1 maximum voltage-drop limit Maximum allowable voltage-drop limits vary from one country to another. Similar (but inverse) problems will arise in countries which presently operate 240/415 V systems. to 237/410 V. while permitted. The value of 8%. The correct operation of an item of load (a motor. It is necessary therefore to dimension the circuit conductors such.) depends on the voltage at its terminals being maintained at a value close to its rated value. c starting current of a motor can be 5 to 7 times its full-load value (or even higher). determination of voltage drop H1 The impedance of circuit conductors is low but not negligible: when carrying load current there is a fall in voltage between the origin of the circuit and the load terminals. These voltage-drop limits refer to normal steady-state operating conditions and do not apply at times of motor starting.). This section deals with methods of determining voltage drops.H1-17 . HV consumer LV consumer 8%(1) 5%(1) load (1) between the LV supply point and the load fig. simultaneous switching (by chance) of several loads. In such conditions the motor will either: v stall (i. For these reasons it is recommended that the maximum value of 8% in steady operating conditions should not be reached on circuits which are sensitive to under-voltage problems. if the IEC 230/400 V standard is adopted by them. for example: c in general. etc. After several years of transition in the appliances industry. maximum voltage-drop between the service-connection point and the point of utilization lighting other uses (heating and power) a low-voltage service connection from a LV 3% 5% public power distribution network consumers HV/LV substation supplied from 6% 8% a public distribution HV system table H1-26: maximum voltage-drop limits. 3. then a drop of 40% or more will occur during start-up. can lead to problems for motor loads. c a fully-loaded "old" transformer and a "new" motor: risk of undervoltage at the motor. When voltage drops exceed the values shown in table H1-26 larger cables (wires) must be used to correct the condition. in order to check that: c they conform to the particular standards and regulations in force. The rated voltage of consumer appliances will evolve in the same time-scale.the switchgear . Typical values for LV installations are given below in table H1-26. c they can be tolerated by the load.3. remain stationary due to insufficient torque to overcome the load torque) with consequent over-heating and eventual trip-out. for continuous loads will be a significant waste of (metered) energy. Transformer manufacturers in these countries have recently increased the no-load secondary voltage of their distribution transformers accordingly. Important: In a number of countries the existing 220/380 V 3-phase systems are being uprated to operate eventually at nominal 230/400 V (the recommended IEC standard). Dangerous possible consequences for motors are: c a lightly-loaded "new" transformer and an "old" motor: risk of overvoltage on the motor. that at full-load current.3 (factor of simultaneity.

s.a. single-phase or 3-phase.15 0. with an adequate approximation.a.24 0.1 6.30 0.26 0.s.30 0.19 0. L is the length of cable in km.2 3.95 0.55 0. H1-18 .75 0.27 0.7 8 3.5 6.6 6.25 0. In the absence of any other information. circuit single phase: phase/phase single phase: phase/neutral balanced 3-phase: 3 phases (with or without neutral) table H1-28: voltage-drop formulae. Voltage drop in a cable is then given by: K x IB x L c. or lighting with a cos ϕ in the neighbourhood of unity. resistance and inductive reactance values are given by the manufacturer.2 1. The column motor power cos ϕ = 0.9 1. IB is the full-load current in amps.1 3.29 0.21 0. the phase-to-phase voltage drop per km of cable per ampere.4 4.the protection of circuits .08 Ω/km.36 1.21 lighting start-up cos ϕ = 0.86 0.42 0.s.35 10.2 0. which gives.7 2.35 20 9.4 9.41 0. in mm2) 2 36 Ω.35 v in normal service: cos ϕ = 0.5 Ω.s.31 0. determination of voltage drop (continued) H1 3.37 0.48 0.a.the switchgear . in terms of: c kinds of circuit use: motor circuits with cos ϕ close to 0.47 0.5 1.05 1 1.15 0.5 1.6 0.1 0.24 0.26 0.a.33 0. take X as being equal to 0.a.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Al 10 16 25 35 50 70 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 balanced three-phase circuit motor power normal service start-up cos ϕ = 0.5 4. For prefabricated pre-wired ducts and bustrunking. of 500 mm2.8 24 14.2 7.4 1. Vn: phase-to-neutral voltage.mm2/km R= for copper S (c.37 0.19 cos ϕ = 1 30 18 11.8 1.1 2.8.5 2.16 lighting cos ϕ = 1 25 15 9.4 12 5. c of the type of cable.16 0. X: inductive reactance of a conductor in Ω/km Note: X is negligible for conductors of c. voltage drop (∆ U) in volts ∆U = 2 IB (R cos ϕ + X sin ϕ) L ∆U = 2 IB (R cos ϕ + X sin ϕ) L ∆U = eIB (R cos ϕ + X sin ϕ) L in % 100 ∆U Un 100 ∆U Vn 100 ∆U Un simplified table Calculations may be avoided by using the table H1-29 below.mm /km R= for aluminium S (c.s.77 0.8 Un: phase-to-phase voltage.52 0.75 0.35" of table H1-29 may be used to compute the voltage drop occurring during the start-up period of a motor (see example (1) after the table H1-29).7 1.3 2.5 3.5 2.23 0.2 0.24 0.4 0.6 2.15 K is given by the table. in volts per ampere per km. less than 50 mm2.22 0.39 0.29 0.19 0. generally: c lighting: cos ϕ = 1 c motor power: v at start-up: cos ϕ = 0.18 0.5 2. If: IB: the full load current in amps L: length of the cable in kilometres R: resistance of the cable conductor in Ω/km 22.47 0.2 calculation of voltage drops in steady load conditions use of formulae The table below gives formulae commonly used to calculate voltage drop in a given circuit per kilometre of length.32 0.64 0. in mm2 single-phase circuit motor power normal service cos ϕ = 0.17 0.6 5.34 0.64 0.3.8 1.13 table H1-29: phase-to-phase voltage drop ∆U for a circuit.21 0.29 0. ϕ: phase angle between voltage and current in the circuit considered.8 cos ϕ = 0. in mm2) Note: R is negligible above a c.65 1 0.56 0.3 0. Cu 1.

s. What is the voltage drop at the end of the lighting circuits? Solution: c voltage drop in the 4-wire line: ∆U % = 100 ∆U/Un Table H1-29 shows 0. each of 2. 50 m / 70 mm2 Cu IB = 150 A 20 m / 2. H1-30: example 1.55 V/A/km. The voltage drop at the origin of the motor cable in normal circumstances (i. and each passing 20 A. It is assumed that the currents in the 70 mm2 line are balanced and that the three lighting circuits are all connected to it at the same point.s. Supposing that the infeed to the distribution board during motor starting is 900 + 500 = 1. 1000 A 400 V 50 m / 35 mm2 Cu IB = 100 A (500 A during start-up) fig. with the distribution board of figure H1-30 distributing a total of 1.02 = 7. ∆U line = 0.2 + 2.5 mm2 c.e.05 = 13 V Owing to the additional current taken by the motor when starting.e.125 V = 2.H1-19 .38 V phase to neutral. H1-31: example 2. What is the volt drop at the motor terminals: c in normal service? c during start-up? Solution: c voltage drop in normal service conditions: ∆U % = 100 ∆U/Un Table H1-29 shows 1 V/A/km so that: ∆U for the cable = 1 x 100 x 0.8 on normal permanent load. e c voltage drop in any one of the lighting single-phase circuits: ∆U for a single-phase circuit = 18 x 20 x 0. c 500 A (5 In) at a cos ϕ = 0.05 = 4.2 % 230 V This value is satisfactory. the volt drop at the distribution board will exceed 10 Volts. Example 2 A 3-phase 4-wire copper line of 70 mm2 c.52 x 500 x 0. copper 20 m long.2 V The total volt-drop is therefore 7.75 % 400 a value which is satisfactory during motor starting.the switchgear . among other loads.000 A) is 10 V phase-to-phase.6 V 9.75 % 400 This value is less than that authorized (8%) and is satisfactory.35 during start-up. being less than the maximum permitted voltage drop of 6%. The line supplies.05 = 5 V ∆U total = 10 + 5 = 15 V = i.5 mm2 Cu IB = 20 A fig.400 A then the volt-drop at the distribution board will increase approximately pro rata.e.125 V phase-to-phase which: 4.a. the protection of circuits . 15 x 100 = 3. 3 single-phase lighting circuits. c voltage drop during motor start-up: ∆U cable = 0.H1 examples: Example 1 (figure H1-30) A three-phase 35 mm2 copper cable 50 metres long supplies a 400 V motor taking: c 100 A at a cos ϕ = 0.e.38 = 9. 27 x 100 = 6. and a length of 50 m passes a current of 150 A.a.55 x 150 x 0. 10 x 1400 = 14 V 1000 ∆U distribution board = 14 V ∆U for the motor cable = 13 V ∆U total = 13 + 14 = 27 V i.6 V x 100 = 4. i.

9 tables H1-33: Isc at the LV terminals of 3-phase HV/LV transformers supplied from a HV system with a 3-phase fault level of 500 MVA.14 1.14 400 550 13.63 5.40 3. Typical values of Usc for distribution transformers are given in the table H1-32.5 10. and is certainly the simplest to calculate.1 800 1100 17. as shown in the following table (H1-33) since the HV system impedance is such that its fault level at the HV terminals of the transformer rarely exceeds 500 MVA.0 13. The choice of circuit breakers and incorporated protective devices against short-circuit fault currents is described in Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.4. so that: In x 100 Isc = where Usc P x 103 and: In = eU20 P = kVA rating of the transformer.8 2000 2749 40.5 1600 2199 33.1 52.the protection of circuits .9 49.2 21. Short-circuit currents occurring in a network supplied from an alternator and also in d. The simplified calculations and practical rules which follow give conservative results of sufficient accuracy. A level of 250 MVA.0 2500 3437 49. A knowledge of 3-phase symmetrical shortcircuit current values (Isc) at strategic points of an installation is necessary in order to dimension switchgear (fault current rating). or less.9 14.5 22.1. for installation design purposes.4 16.4 27.42 2.. Example: 400 kVA transformer.1 34. H1-34.8 33. Usc = short-circuit impedance voltage of the transformer in %.07 7. short-circuit current calculations H1 knowing the levels of 3-phase symmetrical short-circuit currents (Isc) at different points in an installation is an essential feature of its design.14 100 137 3. this type of fault is the most severe.3 transformer rating 50 to 630 800 to 2500 Usc in % type of transformer oil-immersed cast-resin 4% 6% 6% 6% table H1-32: typical values of Usc for different kVA ratings of transformers with HV windings i 20 kV. is more common.4.5 26.2 1250 1718 26. Isc1 Isc2 Isc3 Isc1 + Isc2 + Isc3 fig.41 5.7 7.28 160 220 5.71 1. Other factors which have not been taken into account are the impedance of the busbars and of the circuit breakers. The conservative fault-current value obtained however.04 500 687 16.5 22.5 8.71 1. transformer rated power (kVA) transformer current Ir (A) oil-immersed transformer Isc (kA) cast-resin transformer Isc (kA) 50 69 1. U20 = phase-to-phase secondary volts on open circuit.the switchgear .1 and 6. is sufficiently accurate for basic installation design purposes.8 11. in the large majority of cases.4 17. systems are dealt with in Chapter J Sub-clauses 1. the case of several transformers in parallel feeding a busbar The value of fault current on an outgoing circuit immediately downstream of the busbars (figure H1-34) can be estimated as the sum of the Isc from each transformer calculated separately.68 315 433 10.4 17. 242/420 V at no load Usc = 4% In = 400 x 103 = 550 A ÷ ex 420 550 x 100 Isc = = 13.93 9. 4.65 250 344 8. In = nominal current in amps Isc = short-circuit fault current in amps.9 17.4 43.1 34.75 kA 4 c in practice Isc is slightly less than that calculated by this method.4 21.2 13. or 250 MVA.1 11.1 short-circuit current at the secondary terminals of a HV/LV distribution transformer the case of one transformer c as a first approximation the impedance of the HV system is assumed to be negligibly small.9 1000 1375 21. H1-20 .28 2. Psc = 250 MVA Psc = 500 MVA Psc = 250 MVA Psc = 500 MVA 630 866 20. It is assumed that all transformers are supplied from the same HV network..63 3.c.38 8. Except in very unusual circumstances. protective devices (discriminative trip settings) and so on. cables (thermal withstand rating).4 43. In the following notes a 3-phase short-circuit of zero impedance (the so-called bolted short-circuit) fed through a typical HV/LV distribution transformer will be examined.1 52. in which case the values obtained from table H1-33 when added together will give a slightly higher fault-level value than would actually occur.0 40.45 3.4 27.49 5.

. expressed in kVA. and are related by the sides of a rightangled triangle. if. expessed in milli-ohms. the latter then being taken as the ohmic value for Za. Psc 250 MVA 500 MVA Uo (V) 420 420 Psc = HV 3-phase short-circuit fault level. method of calculating ZT Each component of an installation (HV network.15 Xa. Isc = 3-phase short-circuit current expressed in kA (r. comprising an element of resistance (R) and an inductive reactance (X). X and Z are expressed in ohms. Ra may be taken to be equal to 0. circuit breaker. R1 R2 X1 X2 or for reactances X3 = R1 + R2 X1 + X2 Combining two or more dissimilar circuits in parallel is (fortunately) seldom required in normal radial-type installation networks and will not be demonstrated in the main text. General methods for reducing impedances to a single equivalent impedance are given.106 0.353 table H1-36: the impedance of the HV network referred to the LV side of the HV/LV transformer. busbar. It may be noted that capacitive reactances are not important in short-circuit current calculations. as follows Uo2 Zs = where: Psc Zs = impedance of the HV voltage network. If more accurate calculations are necessary.s.H1-21 . however. expressed in volts. can.the switchgear . 250 MVA and 500 MVA. namely. The parameters R.s.2 3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within a LV installation In a 3-phase installation Isc at any point is given by: Isc = U20 (amps) eZT U20 = phase-to-phase voltage of the opencircuited secondary windings of the powersupply transformer(s). The impedance (Z) for the combined sections concerned is then calculated from ZT = RT 2 + XT 2 Any two sections of the network which are connected in parallel. and to calculate the R and X values for each. Table H1-36 gives values for Ra and Xa corresponding to the most common HV* short-circuit levels in public power-supply networks. likewise for the reactances. as shown in the impedance diagram of figure H1-35. predominantly both resistive (or both inductive) be combined to give a single equivalent resistance (or reactance) as follows: Let R1 and R2 be the two resistances connected in parallel. and so on. ZT = total impedance per phase of the installation upstream of the fault location (in ohms). * up to 36 kV Ra (mΩ) 0.). transformer. to give RT and XT.053 Xa (mΩ) 0. Where sections are connected in series in the network all the resistive elements in the section are added arithmetically. Uo = phase-to-phase no-load LV voltage.m. in Appendix H1. from which an equivalent impedance can be deduced.71 0. H1-35: impedance diagram. A formula which makes this deduction and at the same time converts the impedance to an equivalent value at LV is given. *Short-circuit MVA: eEL Isc where: EL = phase-to-phase nominal system voltage expressed in kV (r.) is characterized by its impedance Z. cable. The upstream (HV) resistance Ra is generally found to be negligible compared with the corresponding Xa. the protection of circuits . R3 = determination of the impedance of the HV network c network upstream of the HV/LV transformer (table H1-36) The 3-phase short-circuit fault level in kA or in MVA* is given by the power supply authority concerned. The method consists in dividing the network into convenient sections..).H1 4.m. then the equivalent resistance R3 wil be given by: Z X ϕ R fig.

8 8. of conductor in mm2.3 10. 4 or 5 In. and amounts to approximately 0. The resistance is not stable and its average value is low.5 6.8 11.1 141.9 21.9 13. this fault-current contribution may be ignored.5 100. For prefabricated bus-trunking and similar pre-wired ducting systems.6 63.3 6 0.4 16.2 6 0. and each running motor will initially feed current into the fault at a level approaching its own starting current. but at low voltage this resistance is sufficient to reduce the fault-current to some extent. Usc = the short-circuit impedance voltage of the transformer expressed in %.2 6 3. viewed from the LV terminals.0 13.6 2000 6 1.2 5. 3. S = c.3 104. Note: for circuit breaker fault-current makingduty however.1 6 4. for more precise calculation.5 16. For HV circuit breakers.4 6 8.2 630 4 2. and feed current into the fault. but 0. This phenomenon will effectively ease the current-breaking duty of a CB. 3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within a LV installation (continued) c transformers (table H1-37) The impedance Ztr of a transformer.a. particularly in the case of large motors and/or numerous smaller motors.4 315 4 6. a running motor will act (for a brief period) as a generator.4 10.9 59.3 8.4 6.e.2 26. In = nominal full-load current in amps. However.2 250 4 9.7 21. * and fuses c fault-arc resistance Short-circuit faults generally form an arc which has the properties of resistance. c busbars The resistance of busbars is generally negligible.6 400 4 5.2 4.2 transformer rated power oil-immersed transformer Usc Rtr Xtr Ztr cast-resin transformer Usc Rtr Xtr Ztr kVA % mΩ mΩ mΩ % mΩ mΩ mΩ 50 4 95. i.5 66. but affords no relief for its fault-current making duty. 36 mΩ.4 1600 6 1.6 14.0 44.5 70. * for 50 Hz systems.6 1250 6 1.096 mΩ/metre (for 60 Hz systems). Xtr = Ztr 2 − Rtr 2 For an approximate calculation Rtr may be ignored since X ≈ Z in standard distributiontype transformers. The transformer windings resistance Rtr can be derived from the total losses as follows: Pcu = 3 In2 Rtr so that Rtr = Pcu x 103 3 In2 in milli-ohms where Pcu = total losses in watts. Pn = rating of the transformer (in kVA).mm2/m for copper.3 22. In general.9 17. The motors concerned will be the 3-phase motors only. but with lowinertia high-speed LV CBs* the value given in the above formula is recommended.5 m In for m similar motors operating concurrently. the contribution from motors is often reduced to very low values at the instant of contact separation.6 6 1. For c. short-circuit current calculations (continued) H1 4. c circuit conductors The resistance of a conductor is given by the formula: ρx L Rc = where S ρ = the resistivity constant of the conductor material at the normal operating temperature being: 22.9 13. of less than 50 mm2 reactance may be ignored.6 4.s. no account can be taken of diminution of fault current contribution.15 mΩ per CB.8 table H1-37: resistance.the switchgear .8 160 4 16.18 mΩ/metre length at 60 Hz.mm2/m for aluminium.2. Experience has shown that a reduction of the order of 20% may be expected.1 5.9 10. 800 6 2.5 mΩ.7 6 6.2 6 2.1 6. In the absence of other information.1 100 4 37.5 6 1.3 10.6 20.2 41.s.7 41. so that the impedance is practically all reactive.15 mΩ/metre* length for LV busbars (doubling the spacing between the bars increases the reactance by about 10% only).5 6.4. The reactance value conventionally assumed is 0.5 8.8 5.6 6 1.9 12.6 33.3 8. c motors At the instant of short-circuit.5 In from each motor i. is given by the formula: U22O Usc Ztr = x milli-ohms where: Pn 100 U2 o = open-circuit secondary phase-tophase voltage expressed in volts.0 42.the protection of circuits .a. the manufacturer should be consulted.3 1000 6 2.2 6 10. single-phase-motor contribution being insignificant.3 2500 6 0.4 105.9 10.8 26.5 500 4 3. reactance and impedance values for typical distribution transformers with HV windings i 20 kV.1 4.6 13. c circuit breakers In LV circuits.1 6 18.5 6 33. Rtr = resistance of one phase of the transformer in milli-ohms (the LV and corresponding HV winding for one LV phase are included in this resistance value).9 4. Cable reactance values can be obtained from the manufacturers.2 5. the impedance of circuit breakers upstream of the fault location must be taken into account.08 mΩ/metre may be used (for 50 Hz systems) or 0.e.1 16.1 25.7 28.2 32. a value of 0. the total contribution can be estimated from the formula: Iscm = 3. H1-22 . and for that reason is frequently ignored. while the resistance is neglected.

(2) If there are several conductors in parallel per phase.5 x 100 100 m 95 95 mm2 copper = 23. then divide the resistance of one conductor by the number of conductors.75 Isc3 = 7. derived by the "method of composition" (mentioned in Chapter G Sub-clause 5.2 20.15 mΩ/pole XB = 0.15 mΩ/m circuit conductors (2) motors three-phase short-circuit current in kA M cables : Xc = 0.H1 recapitulation table system elements considered supply network table H1-33 transformer table H1-34 resistance R in milli-ohms Ra ≈ 0.523 12.24 kA final circuits table H1-39: example of short-circuit current calculations for a LV installation supplied at 400 V (nominal) from a 1.08 Rc = 22. Usc: short-circuit impedance voltage of the HV/LV transfomer (in %).68 =8 26. * a Merlin Gerin product (see Chapter B.35 10.15 circuit breaker busbars RB = 0 XB = 1.6 71.08 mΩ/m table H1-38: recapitulation table of impedances for different parts of a power-supply system. in which the use of a currentlimiting circuit breaker at the upstream position would allow all circuit breakers downstream of the limiter to have a shortcircuit-current rating much lower than would otherwise be necessary (see Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.2) give a rapid and sufficiently accurate value of short-circuit current at a point in a network. XT (mΩ) Isc = 3 420 2 2 RT + XT HV network 0. Methodology).3 x 103 watts single-core cables Xc = 0. Psc: 3-phase short-circuit power at HV terminals of the HV/LV transformers (in kVA).5). XT: total reactance (1) ρ = resistivity at normal temperature of conductors in service ρ = 22.40 Isc1 = 21.34 20 kV/420 V Pn = 1000 kVA Usc = 6% Pcu = 13.24 kA three-core cable Xc = 20 x 0.2 22.2 "motors" (often negligible at LV)) U2o Isc = 2 2 3 RT + XT Xa ≈ Za = reactance X in milli-ohms U22 0 Psc circuit breaker busbars Ztr 2 − Rtr 2 U2 Usc avec Ztr = 2 0 x Pn 100 XD = 0.5 x 5 5 m copper 4 240 4 x 240 mm2/phase = 0.353 Psc = 500 MVA transformer 2. knowing: c the value of short-circuit current upstream of the point considered c the length and composition of the circuit between the point at which the short-circuit current level is known. In such a case. it is possible to make a detailled calculation (see Sub-Clause 4.2 above) or to use a software package. R (mΩ) X (mΩ) RT (mΩ) RT : total resistance.12 = 0.3 kA main RD = 0 XD = 0. and the point at which the level is to be determined.08 x 5 2. U20: phase-to-phase no-load secondary voltage of HV/LV transformer (in volts). the protection of circuits . 4.523 11.053 0.35 Isc4 = 3.H1-23 .3 Isc at the receiving end of a feeder in terms of the Isc at its sending end The following tables. Clause 1. If more precise values are required. the possibility of using the cascading technique should be considered.08 Rc = 22. Pcu: 3-phase total losses of the HV/LV transformer (in watts).5 2.the switchgear .1 Rc = 22. moreover. It is then sufficient to select a circuit breaker with an appropriate short-circuit fault rating immediately above that indicated in the tables. The reactance remains practically unchanged. Pn: rating of the HV/LV transformer (in kVA).6 kA 10 m three-core cable Xc = 100 x 0.5 x 20 20 m 10 10 mm2 copper = 45 = 1.75 Isc2 = 18.000 kVA HV/LV transformer.5 milli-ohms x mm2/metre for copper ρ = 36 milli-ohms x mm2/metre for aluminium. such as Ecodial*.15 Xa R can therefore be neglected in comparison with X 3 Rtr = Pcu x 10 3In2 Rtr = is often negligible compared to Xtr for transformers > 100 kVA negligible negligible for S > 200 mm2 in the formula below: R = ρ L (1) S R = ρ L (1) S see Sub-clause 4.

8 1 1.5 3.5 6 1.5 11 14 17 22 28 55 110 140 170 220 280 2 x 185 2 2. of the intervening conductors.3 2.1 2.3 1.8 2.8 2 4 8 10 12 16 20 40 80 100 120 160 200 400 300 1.9 1 1.4 1.5 3 4 5 6.8 2 4.5 6.9 1 1.5 6.5 20 24 29 39 49 95 190 240 290 390 Isc upstream Isc downstream (in kA) (in Ka) 100 94 94 93 92 91 83 71 67 63 56 50 33 20 17 14 11 9 5 90 85 85 84 83 83 76 66 62 58 52 47 32 20 16 14 11 9 4.5 6.9 2.9 2.5 9 12 15 30 60 75 90 120 150 300 2 x 120 0.9 1.5 7.5 15 19 23 30 38 75 150 190 230 300 380 3 x 150 2.6 5 10 13 16 21 26 50 35 1.7 1.3 2.1 2.5 3.6 2.3 2.7 2 2.9 1.5 3 4 5 6.8 1 1.5 5 3.5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6.3 1.4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.4 2.4 2.5 9 12 14 18 23 46 50 1.5 60 58 58 57 57 57 54 48 46 44 41 38 27 18 15 13 10 8.5 30 30 29 29 29 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 19 14 12 11 9 7.5 1.5 10 14 17 34 25 1 1.8 1.1 2.5 8 7 6 4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9.5 6 7.6 1. divide the above lengths by e= 1.9 0.a.5 4.7 1.2 1.5 5.a.5 9 8.9 2.9 1.5 8 9.1 1.5 1.8 1.5 0.5 7.1 2.5 6.5 8.9 0.5 5 10 13 15 20 25 50 100 130 150 200 250 3 x 120 1.5 5 6.3 1.5 1 1.5 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 23 22 22 21 20 17 13 11 10 8.4.2 3 3.9 1 2 4 5 6 8 10 20 40 50 60 80 100 200 120 0.9 0.5 70 67 67 66 66 65 61 55 52 49 45 41 29 18 16 14 11 5 4.5 8 9.5 3.5 50 49 48 48 48 48 46 42 40 39 36 33 25 17 14 13 10 8.7 3 3.8 5.5 5 9.8 2. short-circuit current calculations (continued) H1 4.8 3.2 1.5 4.9 3.8 aluminium c.9 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4.5 8.5 13 10 0.2 1.5 4.5 6.3 2.6 2.5 0.1 2.5 4 8 16 21 25 33 41 80 160 210 250 330 410 3 x 185 2.1 2.5 13 16 0.5 11 21 27 32 40 55 110 70 1.1 2.9 1.4 1.5 10 13 25 50 65 75 100 130 250 150 0.5 10 13 17 33 35 0.8 1.9 2.5 12 14 19 24 48 95 120 140 190 240 3 x 150 1.5 6.the protection of circuits .3 2.6 3 2.6 2.5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.5 1.5 1.6 2.7 3 3.5 1.3 4.4 1.9 2.5 4.1 10 13 15 20 25 50 100 130 150 200 250 2 x 150 1.3 2. of length of circuit (in metres) phase conductors (in mm2) 1.9 2.5 2.the switchgear .7 2.5 13 16 20 26 33 65 130 160 200 260 330 3 x 120 2.8 1.7 3.7 3.4 1.2 2.5 4 5.6 2 2.8 1 1. Note: for a 3-phase system having 230 V between phases.5 6.9 3.5 8.6 3 6.6 3.1 1.1 2.5 9 18 23 28 37 46 90 95 1.5 4.5 7.1 2.3 2.732 copper 230 V / 400 V H1-24 .5 35 34 34 34 34 34 33 31 30 29 27 26 21 15 13 11 9 8 4.6 3 6.9 2.5 4 2.8 2.5 15 19 22 30 37 75 50 1.4 2.8 2 2.1 1.5 6 5.8 2.s.8 1.1 4 5. of length of circuit (in metres) 230 V / phase 400 V conductors (in mm2) 2.6 1.9 1.4 1.5 9.5 6.9 1 1.5 8 17 32 40 47 65 80 160 150 0.5 4 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 14 13 13 12 9.5 3.6 5 4 0.5 11 21 25 0.3 1.5 2.5 4 4.5 6.8 1.5 11 21 16 0.s.8 2 2.5 4.5 8.5 8 4.5 4 7.5 6.5 13 17 20 26 33 65 70 0.9 1 1.5 1. in a 230/400 V 3-phase system.6 5 10 13 15 21 26 50 100 130 150 210 260 3 x 185 1.5 2.7 2.8 1 1.5 5.7 5.9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1.5 15 19 23 30 38 75 150 190 230 300 380 table H1-40: Isc at a point downstream.7 3 4 4.5 5 5 4.6 2.1 1.3 1.4 1.5 17 34 43 50 70 85 170 185 0.5 12 15 19 24 49 95 120 150 190 240 2 x 120 1.9 1.5 4 7.3 2.5 4 4 4 3.3 2.1 2.2 1.7 3 4 5. in terms of a known upstream fault-current value and the length and c.3 1.7 3.5 7 4 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 19 18 18 17 17 14 11 10 9 7.6 3 4 1 1.5 5 7 8.8 2.4 1.7 3 6 12 15 18 24 30 60 120 150 180 240 300 3 x 240 2.5 7 9 10 14 17 35 70 85 100 140 170 2 x 185 1.8 1.4 1.6 5 6 0.9 3.5 4 8.2 1.5 3 6 7.5 13 16 32 65 80 95 130 160 320 240 1.5 9.6 3.5 7 8.1 4 5.2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2.a.7 3.5 13 25 32 38 50 65 130 120 0.4 5 9.1 1.9 1 2 4 5 6 8 10 20 40 50 60 80 100 240 240 0.9 2.5 15 30 37 44 60 75 150 95 0.3 Isc at the receiving end of a feeder in terms of the Isc at its sending end (continued) c.3 1.1 8 10 12 16 20 41 80 100 120 160 200 2 x 240 1.5 10 13 25 50 65 75 100 130 250 300 0.7 1.2 2.3 1.5 1.3 2.s.5 5 6.5 6.5 9.4 3 4 8 10 1.5 7 6.7 1.5 2.5 13 16 32 65 80 95 130 160 320 2 x 150 1 1.7 1.5 9.3 1.2 1.4 4.5 3.5 7 8 11 14 27 55 70 80 110 140 270 185 1 1.5 80 76 76 75 75 74 69 61 57 54 49 44 31 19 16 14 11 9 4.3 2.5 3 3.3 2.1 2.5 3 3 2.5 40 39 39 39 39 39 37 35 33 32 30 29 22 15 13 12 9.3 1.

The value of short-circuit current at the downstream end of the 11 metre circuit is given at the intersection of the vertical column in which the length is located.H1-25 . In consequence. the protection of circuits . and stop at a row in the middle section (of the 3 sections of the table) corresponding to the known fault-current level (or the nearest to it on the high side). and the horizontal row corresponding to the upstream Isc (or nearest to it on the high side).a.s.H1 Example: The network shown in figure H1-41 typifies a case for the application of table H1-40. of the conductor in the column for copper conductors (in this example the c. a DIN-rail-mounted circuit breaker rated at 63 A and Isc of 50 kA (such as a NC100LH unit*) can be used for the 55 A circuit in figure H1-41. This value in the example is seen to be 19 kA. 400 V Icc = 28 kA 50 mm2. A Compact* rated at 260 A with an Isc capacity of 25 kA (such as a NS160N unit*) can be used to protect the 160 A circuit. 4. Descend vertically the column in which the length is located. Select the c.s.4 short-circuit current supplied by an alternator or an inverter Please refer to Chapter J. The procedure for aluminium conductors is similar. but the vertical column must be ascended into the middle section of the table.a. * Merlin Gerin product. In this case 30 kA is the nearest to 28 kA on the high side. H1-41: determination of downstream short-circuit current level Isc using table H1-40. Search along the row corresponding to 50 mm2 for the length of conductor equal to that of the circuit concerned (or the nearest possible on the low side). is 50 mm2). Cu 11 m Icc = ? IB = 55 A IB = 160 A fig.the switchgear .

H1-26 . particular cases of short-circuit current H1 5. overload protective devices and separate short-circuit protective devices are used. In general. and is generally used on circuits of prefabricated bustrunking.the protection of circuits . aM fuses (no protection against overload) load-breaking contactor with thermal overload relay fig. from the overload threshold through the maximum rated short-circuit current-breaking capability of the device.5. the most common circuits using separate devices control and protect motors.the switchgear .1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current if a protective device in a circuit is intended only to protect against short-circuit faults. on LV circuits. it is essential that it will operate with certainty at the lowest possible level of short-circuit current that can occur on the circuit. H1-43: circuit protected by circuit breaker without thermal overload relay. circuit breaker with instantaneous magnetic short-circuit protective relay only load-breaking contactor with thermal overload relay fig. lighting rails. As shown in figures H1-42 and H1-43. H1-44: circuit breaker D provides protection against short-circuit faults as far as and including the load. examples of such arrangements Figures H1-42 to H1-44 show some common arrangements where overload and shortcircuit protections are effected by separate devices. circuit breaker D S1 S2 < S1 load with incorporated overload protection fig. however. a single protective device protects against all levels of current. In certain cases. H1-42: circuit protected by aM fuses. etc. Figure H1-44 constitutes a derogation in the basic protection rules.

t t= k2 S2 I2 Ia I fig.5 x 0. where: Zd = impedance of the fault loop Isc = short-circuit current (ph/ph) U = phase-to-phase nominal voltage.8 U = Isc Zd.8 x U x Sph 2 x ρ x Im practical method of calculating Lmax The limiting effect of the impedance of long circuit conductors on the value of short-circuit currents must be checked and the length of a circuit must be restricted accordingly. respectively (see Chapter G Sub-clauses 5. H1-47: protection by gl-type fuses. calculation of Lmax for a 3-phase 3-wire circuit The minimum short-circuit current will occur when two phase wires are short circuited at the remote end of the circuit. conditions to be respected The protective device must therefore satisfy the two following conditions: c its fault-current breaking rating > Isc the 3-phase short-circuit current at its point of installation. and Sph : c.the switchgear .earthed schemes for single and double earth faults. or fusion current c Ia < Isc (min) for protection by fuses.a.027 Ω. Two cases are considered below: 1. For cables i 120 mm2. c elimination of the minimum short-circuit current possible in the circuit.H1-27 . t t= k2 S2 I2 Im I fig.2 and 6. of a phase conductor in mm2 L = length in metres In order that the cable will not be damaged by heat Isc u Im 2L Im 0. H1-46: protection by aM-type fuses. with the limit curves of thermal constraint for a conductor shows that this condition is satisfied if: c Isc (min) > Im (instantaneous or short timedelay circuit-breaker trip setting current level). reactance may be neglected. See figure H1-45. so that 0. the voltage at the point of protection P is assumed to be 80% of the nominal voltage during a shortcircuit fault.2). where: K2 S2 tc = (tc < 5 seconds) Isc (min) Comparison of the tripping or fusing performance curve of protective devices. t t= k2 S2 I2 Ia I fig.8 U i f Using the "conventional method".018 = 0. L load P 0.926 Sph Lmax = Im * or for aluminium according to conductor material ** the high value for resistivity is due to the elevated temperature of the conductor when passing short-circuit current.s. in practice this means that the length of circuit downstream of the protective device must not exceed a calculated maximum length: Lmax = 0. c Isc (min) > Ia for protection by fuses.mm2/m**. H1-45: protection by circuit breaker. so that 2L Zd = ρ Sph the protection of circuits . where ρ = resistivity of copper* at the average temperature during a short-circuit. The method of calculating the maximum permitted length has already been demonstrated in TN.8 U Sph Lmax = 2 ρ Im with: U = 400 V ρ = 1.and IT. The value of the current Ia corresponds to the crossing point of the fuse curve and the cable thermal withstand curve (figures H1-46 and H1-47).H1 it is necessary that the protective device instantaneous-trip setting c Im < Isc (min) for protection by a circuit breaker. in a time tc compatible with the thermal constraints of the circuit conductors.8 U u ρ or Sph 0. 5. Im = magnetic trip current setting for the CB Lmax = maximum circuit length in metres.

s. c where Sn for the neutral conductor = Sph for the phase conductor Sph Lmax = 3.5 2. Refer to Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. 240 592 462 370 296 235 185 147 118 H1-28 .the switchgear . the resistance calculated for the conductors must be increased to account for the non-uniform current density in the conductor (due to "skin" and "proximity" effects. without neutral. protected by general-purpose circuit breakers.2 for details of regulation of circuit-breaker protective elements. The calculations are based on the foregoing methods. In other cases.2).a.2 Irm Irm = regulated short-circuit current trip setting. 120%). (nominal cross-sectional-area) of conductors (in mm2) level Im of the instantaneous magnetic tripping element (in A) 1. calculation of Lmax for a 3-phase 4-wire 230/400 V circuit The minimum Isc will occur when the shortcircuit is between a phase conductor and the neutral. At 60Hz the constant is 0. A calculation similar to that of example 1 above is required.e.s. with Im = 1. the lengths must be multiplied by 0.e.1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current (continued) 2.2 (i. without neutral) and c 1-phase 2-wire 400 V circuits. Irm is guaranteed to be within ± 20% of the regulated value.'s than those listed.62). particular cases of short-circuit current (continued) H1 5. tabulated values for Lmax Table H1-49 below gives maximum circuit lengths (Lmax) in metres.096 mΩ/metre. operating current c. but using the following formulae (for cable i 120 mm2 (1)). previously noted in Chapter G Sub-clause 5.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 50 148 246 394 63 117 195 313 470 80 92 154 246 370 100 74 123 197 296 493 125 59 99 158 237 395 160 46 77 123 185 308 494 200 37 62 99 148 247 395 250 30 49 79 118 197 316 494 320 23 38 62 92 154 247 386 400 18 31 49 74 123 197 308 432 500 15 25 39 59 99 158 247 345 494 560 13 22 35 53 88 141 220 308 441 630 12 19 31 47 78 125 196 274 392 700 11 18 28 42 70 113 176 247 353 494 800 9 15 25 37 61 98 154 215 308 432 875 8 14 22 34 56 90 141 197 282 395 1000 7 12 20 30 49 79 123 173 247 345 469 1120 6 11 17 26 44 70 110 154 220 308 419 1250 6 10 16 24 39 63 99 138 197 276 375 474 1600 7 12 18 31 49 77 108 154 216 293 370 532 2000 6 10 15 24 39 62 86 123 173 234 296 425 570 2500 8 12 20 31 49 69 99 138 188 237 340 438 3200 6 9 15 25 38 54 77 108 146 185 265 340 4000 7 12 20 31 43 62 86 117 148 212 273 5000 6 10 16 25 34 49 69 94 118 170 218 6300 8 12 20 27 39 55 74 94 134 175 8000 6 10 15 21 31 43 59 74 105 136 10000 8 12 17 25 35 47 59 85 109 12500 6 10 14 20 28 37 47 67 87 table H1-49: maximum circuit lengths in metres for copper conductors (for aluminium.421 Im c If Sn for the neutral conductor < Sph. Reactance may be taken as 0.a.the protection of circuits .a. Suitable values (taken from French standard NF 15-100) are as follows: 150 mm2 : R + 15% 185 mm2 : R + 20% 240 mm2 : R + 25% 300 mm2 : R + 30% where R is the value calculated from ρ 2L R= Sph For larger c.842 Sph Sph Lmax = where m = (1+m) Im Sn (1) for larger c. apply correction factors (given in table H1-53) to the lengths obtained. reactance values must be combined with those of resistance to give an impedance.s. hence the worst-case factor of 1.'s. then 6.08mΩ/metre for cables (at 50 Hz).5. for: c 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuits (i.

without neutral. European standards. again.a.) of conductors (in mm2) of circuit breakers (in A) 1.5 2. See also table H2-28 for tripping ranges.e.the switchgear . a range which covers the vast majority of domestic and similar installations. apply correction factors to the lengths indicated.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 6 105 176 283 423 706 1129 10 63 105 170 254 423 639 1058 13 48 81 130 195 325 521 814 1140 16 40 65 105 158 264 422 661 925 1255 20 32 52 84 126 211 337 528 740 1004 25 25 41 67 101 169 270 423 592 803 32 20 32 52 79 132 211 330 462 627 40 16 26 42 63 105 168 264 370 502 50 12 20 33 50 84 135 211 296 401 63 10 16 26 40 67 107 167 234 318 80 8 13 21 31 52 84 132 185 251 100 6 10 16 25 42 67 105 148 200 125 5 8 13 20 33 54 84 118 160 table H1-52: maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by D-type circuit breakers (Merlin Gerin).5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 6 296 494 790 10 178 296 474 711 13 137 228 385 547 912 16 111 185 296 444 741 20 89 148 237 356 593 948 25 71 119 190 284 474 759 32 56 93 148 222 370 593 926 40 44 74 119 178 296 474 741 50 36 59 95 142 237 379 593 830 63 28 47 75 113 188 301 470 658 854 80 22 37 59 89 148 237 370 519 704 100 18 30 47 71 119 190 296 415 563 125 14 24 38 57 95 152 237 331 450 table H1-50: maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by B-type circuit breakers.5 2.2 Irm as previously noted. are based on a range of 10-20 In. The calculations are carried out according to the method described above. and the above table H1-52 however.a. Categories B.H1 Tables H1-50 to H1-52 below give maximum circuit length (Lmax) in metres for: c 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuits (i.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 6 148 247 395 593 988 10 89 148 237 356 593 948 13 68 114 182 274 456 729 16 56 93 148 222 370 593 926 20 44 74 119 178 296 474 741 25 36 59 95 142 237 379 593 830 32 28 46 74 111 185 296 463 648 880 40 22 37 59 89 148 237 370 519 704 50 18 30 47 71 119 190 296 415 563 63 14 24 38 56 94 150 235 329 446 80 11 19 30 44 74 119 185 259 351 100 9 15 24 36 59 95 148 207 281 125 7 12 19 28 47 76 119 166 225 table H1-51: maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by C-type circuit breakers. without neutral) and c 1-phase 2-wire 400 V circuits. with Im = 1. IEC 898 is the relevant international standard for these circuit breakers. rated current cross-sectional-area (c.s.5 2. Note: IEC 898 provides for an upper shortcircuit-current tripping range of 10-50 In for type D circuit breakers. rated current cross-sectional-area (c. C and D differ only in the levels of short-circuit-current trip setting Im.s. These circuit breakers have fixed overload (thermal) tripping elements and fixed shortcircuit (magnetic) tripping elements.s. rated current cross-sectional-area (c. protected in both cases by domestic-type circuit breakers or with circuit breakers having similar tripping/current characteristics.) of conductors (in mm2) of circuit breakers (in A) 1. These factors are given in table H1-53.) of conductors (in mm2) of circuit breakers (in A) 1.a. In other cases. the protection of circuits .H1-29 .

a.58 0.s.a. the row Im = 2.2 = 2. i. In table H1-49. (1) 0.000 A crosses the column c. = 10 mm2 at the value for Lmax of 99 m.77 for the c.the protection of circuits . examples Example 1 In a 3-phase 3-wire installation the protection is provided by a 250 A industrial-type circuit breaker.58 = 57 metres. The cable c. a worst case of 600 A to be certain of tripping.5. the protection is provided by a circuit breaker with an instantaneous short-circuitcurrent trip setting of 500 A (± 20%). In table H1-49 the row Im = 500 A crosses the column c.the switchgear . in the worst case would require 2. i. Being a 230 V single-phase circuit. therefore.e. the instantaneous short-circuitcurrent trip setting of which.s.a. provided that its length does not exceed 296 metres. The circuit breaker will therefore protect the cable against short-circuit current. The circuit breaker protects the cable against short-circuit faults. H1-30 .a. This factor is seen to be 0.s. of the neutral conductor.e. = 10 mm2 and the conductor material is copper.e. The cable c.s.58.a.s.000 x 1. a correction factor from table H1-53 must be applied. with neutral) Sph =1 S neutral 1 0. = 120 mm2 at the value for Lmax of 296 m. provided that its length does not exceed 99 x 0. Example 2 In a single-phase 230 V (phase to neutral) system.000 A (accuracy of ± 20%).58 (phase and neutral) 230 V circuit table H1-53: correction factors to apply to lengths obtained from tables H1-49 to H1-52. is set at 2.39 (1) Sph =2 S neutral 1-phase 2-wire 0. = 120 mm2 and the conductor material is copper.400 A to trip. particular cases of short-circuit current (continued) H1 5.1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current (continued) circuit details 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuit 3-phase 4-wire 230/400 V circuit or 1 ph 2-wire 400V circuit (no neutral) or 2 ph 3-wire 230/400 V circuit (i.

7362 10 1. PVC XLPE copper aluminium copper k 115 76 143 k2 13225 5776 20449 1. For a period of 5 seconds or less. while the maximum "let-through" value by the circuit breaker.2656 3.0130 0.3181 0. The method of verification consists in checking that the thermal energy I2t per ohm of conductor material. allowed to pass by the protecting circuit-breaker (from manufacturers catalogues) is less than that permitted for the particular conductor (as given in table H1-55 below).0450 16 3. since in practice. S (in mm2) can be allowed to carry a current I amps.s.a. the relationship I2t = k2 S2 characterizes the time in seconds during which a conductor of c. are installed close to.s.8241 19.936 electrodynamic constraints For bus-trunking and other kinds of prefabricated pre-conductored channels. an assumption that simplifies the calculation and gives a pessimistic result. i. the protection of circuits .0500 50 29. thermal constraints When the duration of short-circuit current is brief (several tenths of a second up to five seconds maximum) all of the heat produced is assumed to remain in the conductor. etc. adequately protected by a C60N circuit breaker (Merlin Gerin)? The above table shows that the I2t value for the cable is 0.3272 x 106.2006 7. Tables of coordination ensuring adequate protection of their products are generally published by the manufacturers of such systems. except in cases where cables of small c.0297 0. limited by the circuit breaker or fuse.0199 0.0361 0.the switchgear .5776 2.0756 25.2350 25 8.0826 0.2079 0.4786 5.2620 5. causing its temperature to rise.3856 1.839 13. the main general distribution board.e.2116 0.094 x 106 ampere2-seconds. Example: Is a copper-cored XLPE cable of 4 mm2 c.8836 2. before its temperature reaches a level which would damage the surrounding insulation. The heating process is said to be adiabatic.H1 5.H1-31 .2 verification of the withstand capabilities of cables under short-circuit conditions in general verification of the thermal-withstand capability of a cable is not necessary.1414 0.a.5 0. or feeding directly from.1278 4 0.5 0. must be less than that for which the pre-conductored system is rated.3272 6 0.4761 0.6100 12. The cable is therefore adequately protected by the circuit breaker up to its full rated breaking capability. is considerably less.a.0552 0.5225 10. and is abstracted from the French standards NF C 15-100. The peak value of current. aluminium 94 8836 0. and amounts to 0.3225 0. as given in the manufacturer's catalogue.133 table H1-55: maximum allowable thermal stress for cables (expressed in amperes2 x seconds x 106).0924 0. it is necessary to verify that the electrodynamic withstand performance when carrying short-circuit currents is satisfactory. insulation conductor conductor copper (Cu) aluminium (Al) PVC 13225 5776 PR 20449 8836 table H1-54: value of the constant k2.0460 2. some heat would leave the conductor and pass into the insulation.7806 35 16. rails. a higher conductor temperature than that which would actually occur.032 46.s. S (mm2) The factor k2 is given in table H1-54 below.

1 connection and choice connection.). no PE conductor can be connected to the neutral conductor. c be protected against mechanical and chemical damage. c TN-C to TN-S transition The PE conductor for the installlation is connected to the PEN terminal or bar (figure H1-58) generally at the origin of the installation. connection PE conductors must: c not include any means of breaking the continuity of the circuit (such as a switch. with a looped connection from the earth terminal to the neutral terminal of the appliance (figure H1-57). etc. so that all rules governing PE conductors apply strictly to PEN conductors. PEN PE N fig. c TN-C scheme (the neutral and PE conductor are one and the same. since high values of earth-fault current are not needed to operate the RCD-type of protection used in TT installations. P.e. In IT and TN-earthed schemes it is strongly recommended that PE conductors should be installed in close proximity (i. The protective function of a PEN conductor has priority. PEN fig. H1-58: the TN-C-S scheme. PE conductors must be: c insulated and coloured yellow and green (stripes).the switchgear . These conductors conduct fault current due to insulation failure (between a phase conductor and an exposed conductive part) to the earthed neutral of the source. etc. c have an individual terminal on common earthing bars in distribution boards. IT and TN schemes The PE or PEN conductor. in the same conduits. A PEN conductor must always be connected directly to the earth terminal of an appliance. The main earthing terminal is connected to the earthing electrode (see Chapter F) by the earthing conductor (grounding electrode conductor in USA). This arrangement ensures the minimum possible inductive reactance in the earth-fault currentcarrying circuits. referred to as a PEN conductor). protective earthing conductors (PE) H1 6. H1-32 . in parallel. H1-56: a poor connection in a series arrangement will leave all downstream appliances unprotected.) as the live cables of the related circuit. PE correct PE incorrect fig. TT scheme The PE conductor need not necessarily be installed in close proximity to the live conductors of the corresponding circuit. choice and dimensioning of PE conductors (extracted from IEC standards and the French standard NF C 15-100) Protective (PE) conductors provide the bonding connection between all exposed and extraneous conductive parts of an installation. not in series. removable links. conductors are connected to the main earthing terminal of the installation. as previously noted. c connect exposed conductive parts individually to the main PE conductor. on the same cable tray. must be installed as close by as possible to the corresponding live conductors of the circuit and no ferro-magnetic material must be interposed between them. to create the main equipotential bonding system. H1-57: direct connection of the PEN conductor to the earth terminal of an appliance.the protection of circuits .e. Downstream of the point of separation.6. as shown in figure H1-56. i.E.

possible (4) table H1-59: choice of protective conductors (PE). c simplified This method is based on PE conductor sizes being related to those of the correspondingcircuit phase conductors. (6) These elements must be demountable only if other means have been provided to ensure uninterrupted continuity of protection. and so on… IT scheme strongly recommended TN scheme strongly recommended TT scheme correct conditions to be respected the PE conductor must be insulated to the same level as the phases c the PE conductor may be bare or insulated (2) c the electrical continuity must be assured by protection against deterioration by mechanical. (7) With the agreement of the appropriate water authorities. fault clearance is generally effected by overcurrent devices (fuses or circuit breakers) so that the impedance of the fault-current loop must be sufficiently low to assure positive protective device operation.s. This means that a current may be flowing through it at any time (in the absence of an earth fault). provided that the conditions mentioned in the last column are satisfied.the switchgear . gas pipes. in table H1-60 for: Sph i 16 mm2 SPE = Sph 16 < Sph i 35 mm2 SPE = 16 mm2 Sph > 35 mm2 SPE = Sph/2 c note: when. This table provides two methods of determining the appropriate c. therefore.'s compared to those of the corresponding-circuit phase conductors.H1-33 .s. the c.insulated conductors (e.a. assuming that the same conductor material is used in each case. and also for the conductor to the earth electrode. the metallic housing may be used as a PEN conductor. For this reason an insulated conductor is recommended for PEN operation. ducts. are: metal conduits*.g. NB: these elements must carry an indivual green/yellow striped visual indication. for TT installations. in parallel with the corresponding bar. chemical and electrochemical hazards c their conductance must be adequate possible (1) possible (1) (2) correct possible (3) possible (3) possible (4) PE possible (3) PEN (8) PE possible (3) PEN not recommended (2) (3) PE possible (4) PEN forbidden correct possible possible PE possible (4) possible PEN not recommended (2) (4) forbidden for use as PE conductors. while being economical and assuring protection of the conductor against overheating. and for dimensioning an earthing conductor*. The result is sometimes incompatible with the necessity in IT and TN schemes to minimize the impedance of the circuit earth-fault loop. (1) In schemes TN and IT. 15 to 100 mm long (or the letters PE at less than 15 cm from each extremity). The surest means of achieving a low loop impedance is to use a supplementary core in the same cable as the circuit conductors (or taking the same route as the circuit conductors). the protection of circuits . the installation earth electrode is beyond the zone of influence of the source earthing electrode. ladders. or other PE conductor in the housing. or in the same cable run independent of the phase conductors metallic housing of bus-trunking or of other prefabricated prewired ducting (5) external sheath of extruded. cable-armouring tapes* or wires*. (8) In the prefabricated pre-wired trunking and similar elements. Measurements on the completed installation are the only practical means of assuring adequate protection for persons. in a TT scheme. * forbidden in some countries only-universally allowed to be used for supplementary equipotential conductors. (4) Possible.s. for both PE or PEN conductors. trays. "pyrotenax" type systems) certain extraneous conductive elements (6) such as: c steel building structures c machine frames c water pipes (7) metallic cable ways. (5) It must allow the connection of other PE conductors. of the PE conductor can be limited to 25 mm2 (for copper) or 35 mm2 (for aluminium). * grounding electrode conductor.a.a. (2) The PEN conductor is a neutral conductor that is also used as a protective earth conductor. leads to small c. type of protective earthing conductor (PE) supplementary in the same conductor cable as the phases. This method is used in practice. The two methods are: c adiabatic (which corresponds with that described in IEC 724) This method.H1 types of materials Materials of the kinds mentioned below in table H1-59 can be used for PE conductors. 6. hot-water pipes.2 conductor dimensioning Table H1-60 below is based on the French national standard NF C 15-100 for LV installations. mineral. since the impedance of the earth-fault loop cannot be known at the design stage. trunking. conduits*. but not recomended. This stratagem minimizes the inductive reactance and therefore the impedance of the loop. (3) The manufacturer provides the necessary values of R and X components of the impedances (phase/PE. such as. Thus. to ensure positive operation by instantaneous overcurrent tripping devices. phase/PEN) to include in the calculation of the earth-fault loop impedance.

k values The data presented in table H1-61 are those most commonly needed for LV installation design. 25/mm Alu c without mechanical protection. Since a PEN conductor functions also as a neutral conductor.a.a. together with factor k values and the upper temperature limits for the different classes of insulation. the following minimum values must be respected: c 2. table H1-60: minimum c. (2) Refer to table H1-55 for the application of this formula.a.a. nature of insulation polyvinylchloride (PVC) final temperature (°C) insulated conductors not incoporated in cables or bare conductors in contact with cable jackets copper aluminium steel conductors of a multi-core-cable copper aluminium 160 initial temperature θ initial = 30 °C cross-linked-polyethylene (XLPE) ethylene-propylene-rubber (EPR) 250 initial temperature θ initial = 30 °C 143 95 52 initial temperature θ initial = 30 °C 115 76 176 116 64 initial temperature θ initial = 30 °C 143 94 table H1-61: k factor values for LV PE conductors. c.5 mm2 if the PE is mechanically protected c 4 mm2 if the PE is not mechanically protected. 16/mm2 Alu damage: S = I √t (2) SPEN = Sph/2 à Sph (3) with k 2 2 minimum 16/mm Cu. is less than the current permitted for the cable size selected. a PEN conductor is not allowed in a flexible cable. Minimum 16 mm2 for copper or galvanized steel. cannot.s. and c Imax likely to pass through the neutral in normal circumstances.s. be less than that necessary for the neutral. of phase conductors Sph (mm2) Cu simplified i 16 method 25. Moreover. as discuss in Subclause 7. its c. (3) According to the conditions prescribed in the introduction to this table. protection of the neutral conductor must be assured by the protective devices provided for phase-conductor protection (described in Sub-clause 7.s. Furthermore.s. This c.a. (1) When the PE conductor is separated from the circuit phase conductors.1 of this Chapter.6. minimum of 25 mm2 for bare copper and 50 mm2 for bare galvanized steel. and the temperature rise ranges.the protection of circuits .a. protective earthing conductors (PE) (continued) H1 6.the switchgear . of PEN conductor c the kVA rating of single-phase loads is less than 10% of the total kVA load. values of factor k to be used in the formulae (2) These values are identical in several national standards. correspond with those published in IEC 724 (1984).a. of earthing conductor between the installation earth electrode and the main earth terminal SPEN = Sph with minimum c when protected against mechanical 10/mm2 Cu. is equal to or larger than 10 mm2 (copper) or 16 mm2 (aluminium). cannot be less than that of the phase conductors unless: c. of PE conductor Alu i 16 25 35 > 35 SPE = Sph (1) SPE = 16 SPE = Sph/2 SPE = I √t (1) (2) k c.'s for PE conductors and earthing conductors (to the installation earth electrode).a.2 conductor dimensioning (continued) The neutral cannot be used as a PEN conductor unless its c.35 > 35 adiabatic any size method c.s. in any case.s.s. H1-34 . commonly used in national standards and complying with IEC 724.2 of this Chapter).s. but protected against corrosion by impermeable cable sheath. c without either of the above protections.

of PE conductors SPE (mm2) PE MGDB main earth bar for the LV installation fig. in seconds. is 6 mm2 (copper) or 10 mm2 (aluminium).5 s 0. of PE conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the MGDB. P (kVA) LV voltages 127/ 230/ 220 V 400 V i 63 i 100 100 160 125 200 160 250 200 315 250 400 315 500 400 630 500 800 630 1000 800 1250 conductor material copper t(s) aluminium t(s) c. must be at least a half of that of the protective conductor to which it is connected.2 s 0. etc.a. Equipotential conductors which are not incorporated in a cable.6 of this chapter (for circuit C1 of the system illustrated in fig. have a c. in terms of transformer ratings and fault-clearance times used in France.a.H1-35 .2 s 0.5 s 25 25 25 35 35 50 70 70 95 95 120 25 25 35 50 50 70 95 95 120 120 150 25 50 50 70 95 95 120 150 185 185 240 25 25 25 25 35 35 50 70 70 70 95 25 25 25 35 50 50 70 95 95 120 120 25 35 50 50 70 95 95 120 150 150 185 table H1-63: c.H1 6. Other important uses for supplementary equipotential conductors concern the reduction of the earth-fault-loop impedance.5 s 0. then use the 0.4 equipotential conductor The main equipotential conductor This conductor must. H1-62: PE conductor to the main earth bar in the MGDB. at least equal to a half of that of the largest PE conductor. in general. should be protected mechanically by conduits. If it connects two exposed conductive parts (M1 and M2 in figure H1-64) its c.a.5 mm2 for mechanically protected conductors . 4 mm2 for conductors not mechanically protected copper equivalent fig.5 s 25 25 25 25 35 50 50 70 70 95 95 25 25 35 35 50 70 70 95 120 120 150 25 35 50 70 70 95 120 150 150 185 185 conductors conductors PVC-insulated XLPE-insulated 0. of the conductors in mm2 according to: c the nominal rating of the HV/LV transformer(s) in kVA. c the kinds of insulation and conductor materials. Dimensioning of the phase and neutral conductors from the transformer is exemplified in Sub-clause 1.3 protective conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the main general distribution board (MGDB) these conductors must be dimensioned according to national practices. shown in figure H1-62.s.s. The kVA rating to consider is the sum of all (if more than one) transformers connected to the MGDB. Supplementary equipotential conductor This conductor allows an exposed conductive part which is remote from the nearest main equipotential conductor (PE conductor) to be connected to a local protective conductor. but in no case need exceed 25 mm2 (copper) or 35 mm2 (aluminium) while its minimum c.2 s 0. are indicated below in table H1-63. conductors bare 0. The conductors in question. ducting.s. In IT schemes.s. if an overvoltage protection device is installed (between the transformer neutral point and earth) the conductors for connection of the device should also be dimensioned in the same way as that described above for PE conductors. The table indicates the c.2 seconds columns. Its c.2 s 0. together with the PE conductor. girders.2 s 0.or IT-earthed installations. If the HV protection is by fuses.5 s 0.5 s 0. – between two exposed conductive parts. c the fault-current clearance time by the HV protective devices.a.the switchgear . Recommended conductor sizes for bare and insulated PE conductors from the transformer neutral point.a.s.a. wherever possible. H1-8). All phase and neutral conductors upstream of the main incoming circuit breaker controlling and protecting the MGDB are protected by devices at the HV side of the transformer.s. and in special locations with increased electrical risk (IEC 364-4-41 refers).2 s 0. particulary for indirect-contact protection schemes in TN. H1-64: supplementary equipotential conductors. the protection of circuits . if SPE1 i SPE2 if SLS = SPE1 SPE1 SLS SPE2 M1 M2 – between an exposed conductive part and a metallic structure S SLS = PE 2 SPE1 SLS metal structures (conduits.a. 6. …) M1 (*) with a minimum of 2.s. must be dimensioned accordingly. must be at least equal to that of the smaller of the two PE conductors (for M1 and M2).

apart from its current-carrying requirement. or v smaller. Circuit isolation It is considered to be good practice that every circuit be provided with the means for its isolation.the current likely to flow through the neutral in normal conditions is less than the permitted value Iz. c three-phase circuits of c. IT scheme In general. but in practice. a 3-phase 3-wire scheme is preferred. and the protection of the neutral conductor.2 protection of the neutral conductor Table H1-65 summarizes the several possible cases. the conditions described above for TT and TN-S schemes are applicable.s. the circuit breakers are omnipolar. Protection against electric shocks Table H1-65 takes into account the fact that protection against indirect-contact dangers depend either on 300 mA RCDs (TT system) or on circuit breakers (TN and IT systems). TN-C scheme The same conditions apply in theory as those mentioned above.s. > 16 mm2 copper or 25 mm2 aluminium: the c.s.7. of the neutral may be chosen to be: v equal to that of the phase conductors. however.e.a. in which the operation of one or more fuses provokes a mechanical trip-out of all poles of an associated series-connected load-break switch.a.s. The action is commonly caused by a strikerpin which is projected by means of an explosive cartridge (triggered by the blowing fuse) against the switch tripping mechanism. The table has been based on French national standards (NF C 15-100). The influence of triplen* harmonics must be given particular consideration. depend on several factors. This table can also be used for fuses able to emulate this omnipolar opening. it is not recommended to distribute the neutral conductor. as previously noted in Chapter F Sub-clause 2.the single-phase power of the circuit is less than 10% of the balanced 3-phase power of the circuit. of the neutral conductor must be equal to that of the phases.2.the protection of circuits .1 dimensioning the neutral conductor influence of the type of earthing system TT. Reclosing of the switch however. TN-S and IT schemes c single-phase circuits or those of c. i. i 16 mm2 (copper) 25 mm2 (aluminium): the c. on condition that: . c method of protection against indirectcontact hazards according to the methods described below. or: .e.. i. H1-36 . will open all poles. the neutral conductor H1 The c.s. When a 3-phase 4-wire installation is necesssary. The following points however. including the neutral pole. namely: c the type of earthing system. Circuit breaking Table H1-65 is based on circuit breakers.a. 7. of PEN conductor" column). must be possible only when the used cartridge has been replaced by a new one.2. should be considered when referring to the table. TT.the neutral conductor is protected against short-circuit. in accordance with the following Sub-clause H1-7. 7.the switchgear .s.a.a. or: .a. * the 3rd and multiples of the 3rd harmonic. TN. which in the event of a fault. etc. the neutral conductor must not be open-circuited under any circumstances since it constitutes a PE as well as a neutral conductor (see table H160 "c. The action can only be achieved with fuses in an indirect way.

the switchgear . (A) authorized for TT and TN schemes if a RCD is installed at the origin of the circuit or upstream of it. and which are protected against a second fault occurring elsewhere in the installation by a RCD of sensitivity i 15% of that of the calibration of the final circuit having the smallest c. viz: if the circuit breaker controlling a number of homogeneous (i.a. and if the normal service current is substantially less than the maximum permissible for the neutral conductor concerned. of neutral conductor Sph = c. Refer to example 2 for CB 5. (B) authorized for TT and TN schemes if the neutral conductor is protected against shortcircuits by protective arrangements made for the phases.a.H1 reminder: protection against indirect contact earthing systems TT by RCD TN-C provided by circuit breakers or fuses with Ia (fuses) or Im (CB) < Isc (min) TN-S according to the method of protection chosen IT provided by circuit breakers or fuses and one RCD at least for each group of appliances connected to an earth electrode (see figure G20) protected circuit 1-phase P-N phase/neutral (C) 1-phase phase/phase 2P (A) (A) 3-phase 3-wire 3P 3-phase 4-wire 3P-N Sn = Sph* (C) * Sn = c. the protection of circuits . of phase 3P-N Sn < Sph (B) (B) (C) table H1-65: table of protection schemes for neutral conductors in different earthing systems. of which the ratio of the extreme circuit ratings does not exceed 2.s.e.a.s. (C) authorized for IT schemes in certain conditions. and if no artificial neutral is distributed downstream of its location. thermal magnetic Symbol for overcurrent and short-circuit tripping devices. similar) final circuits.H1-37 .s.

Example 2: (fig. HS 300 mA NS160N 4-pole 4d 125 A 8 9 C60N 4-pole 4d 32 A 10 NS160N 3-pole 3d 125 A NS80HMA 12 11 contactor LC1 D63 thermal overload relay 3 x 16 mm2 NS160N 4-pole + MT100/160 3d 160 A diff.5 mm2 2 x 1. a 3-phase 4-wire system in which the neutral is not earthed). Circuit breaker 5 This arrangement corresponds with that described in (C) of table H1-65 concerning a circuit breaker connected directly to. BS 10 A 4 x 6 mm2 N PE PE 4 x 50 mm2 4 x 6 mm2 3 x 50 mm2 4 x 70 mm2 DPN 2 x 2. of the phase conductors.125 A 50 mm2 3 x 95 mm2 3-phase power 140 kVA 1-phase power 70 kVA 3-phase loads 1-phase loads fig. may however. This arrangement is not recommended. H1-67: example 2.a.1 x 120 mm2 (neutral) PE PIM compact NS250N 4-pole 3d 250 A 1d 125 A PE PE compact NS400N 4-pole 3d 250 A 1d 125 A 3 x 120 mm2 +1 x 70 mm2 3 x 185 mm2 +1 x 95 mm2 NS100N 3-pole 3d 100 A 4 3 x 35 mm2 6 PE 5 NS100N 4-pole 32 A 300 mA PE 7 C60N 4-pole 4d 32 A diff.s.5 mm2 DPN DPN 3d = 3 tripping units 4d = 4 tripping units diff. 2 single-core cables 120 mm2 per phase .a. Overcurrent tripping is provided on all outgoing CBs. BS = low-sensitivity differential tripping fig. the neutral conductor H1 7. the circuits protected by these CBs have a neutral conductor of 50% of the c.2 protection of the neutral conductor (continued) examples Example 1: (figure H1-66) 3-phase 4-wire circuit with 3 x 95 mm2 copper phase conductors and 1 x 50 mm2 copper neutral conductor. A 4-pole circuit breaker having 3 tripping devices is therefore suitable (1 device per phase). 2 and 3 As in example 1. 230 V and 400 V. A reduced neutral c.a. H1-66: example 1. 1-phase and neutral CBs) are supplied. be used. e. Three-phase power of load: 140 kVA.7. Single-phase power of load: 70 kVA (connected phase-neutral). It may be noted that circuit breaker 12 supplies a long lighting circuit.e. H1-67) An installation is IT-earthed with a distributed neutral (i. with tripping devices similar to those mentioned in example 1. the neutral and phase conductors of which have the same c. HS = high-sensitivity differential tripping diff.the protection of circuits . The operation of any one (or more) of these tripping units will trip all four poles of the circuit breaker. but the 4-pole incoming CB (no 5) has only the (300 mA) RCD protection (mentioned in (C) of table H1-65) the magnetic core of which embraces all 4 conductors. The circuit breakers will therefore be 4-pole units.s.250 A trip units 1 . The condition of single-phase power being < 10% of the 3-phase power delivered (Sub-clause 7. (protected by 2-pole.1 TT and TN-S schemes) is not satisfied in this case. A suitable circuit breaker for this purpose would be a 4-pole unit rated at 250 A with 3 trip units (1 for each phase) set at 250 A and 1 trip unit (for the neutral) set at 125 A.5 mm2 DPN 4 x 2.g. Circuit breaker 1. but it does provide two levels of voltage. since 70/140 = 50%. H1-38 .s. 400 kVA HV LV N 4-pole CB 3 . and controlling the busbars from which a number of similar final circuits. and in such a case. provided that it is correctly protected.the switchgear 30 kW 58 A outdoor lighting . The interposition of a LV/LV transformer in a 3-phase 3-wire IT scheme (as shown in figure H1-8) is a preferred method of obtaining the two levels of voltage.5 mm2 DPN 2 x 1. The installation is TT-earthed with RCD protection upstream. the neutral conductor may be earthed. particularly for small or medium-sized installations.

conductor*. neutral = c.15 allows for the guaranteed ± 15% tolerance of the instantaneous magnetic tripping element of the circuit breaker (i. phase. neutral = 50% c.s. the worst case. requiring the shortest Lmax).s.H1-39 .25 + 2) x Ia The 1.s. Circuit breaker 6 The protection of a circuit supplying socket outlets.e. must include a RCD of high sensitivity (generally of 30 mA). 3 and 7. the protection of circuits . Circuit breaker 9 Controls and protects an extensive lighting circuit. The total single-phase power of the load is less than 10% of the 3-phase power. Associated circuit breaker and contactor 8 This combination provides short-circuit protection (circuit breaker) and overload protection (thermal relays on contactor to suit motor characteristics).s. circuit 1) may be half that of the phase conductors of the circuit. A 4-pole circuit breaker with one tripping device per phase is therefore appropriate.5 (1.2 Section of the installation which is TN-S connected (PE conductor and neutral conductor separated at a point upstream) Circuit breaker 4 c.a.8 x 230 x 240 x 103 22. H1-68: example 3. t minimum pre-arcing time curve fuse-blown curve 4In x In fig.s. so that the c.a.a. while Ia = 630 x 4 x 1. and since the phase and neutral conductors have the same c.s.a. a 4-pole circuit breaker is suitable.a. 2. Circuit breaker 5 c. * Chapter G Sub-clause 5. For a 630 A CB.2). so that a tripping device for the neutral is required. Lmax = 208 metres.the switchgear .s. of the PEN conductor from the source (i. and 1 tripping device for the neutral (set at 80 A) is required. so that a tripping device for the neutral current is not necessary. as mentioned frequently in earlier Chapters.H1 Example 3: (figure H1-68) TN-C/TN-S installation Three-pole circuit breakers only must be used for nos.e.a. phase. while the contactor has three (one for each phase). regulated to trip instantaneously at a current level of 4 In L max = 0.25 factor in the denominator is a 25% increase in resistance for a 240 mm2 c. as noted in (B) of table H1-65. since no switchgear of any kind must be included in the combined protective and neutral conductor (PEN) associated with them. The circuit breaker has no thermal tripping devices. having 3 tripping devices (1 for each phase).15 where the factor 1. 1. The protection against indirect contact for this circuit (1) is provided by CB1 if the maximum length of the circuit is less than Lmax (see Chapter G Sub-clause 5. A 4-pole circuit breaker with 3 tripping devices (set at 160 A) for the phases.a.

The neutral contact opens after the phase contacts.) from the remainder of a system which is energized. The main functions of switchgear are: c electrical protection. for example. A distinction is made between the protection of: c the elements of the installation (cables.acceptable to. Thermal relays. breakers. etc. in the form of thermal-magnetic devices and/or residual-current-operated tripping devices (less-commonly. stalled rotor. as noted in chapter H1 sub-clause 1.e. Electrical protection at low voltage is (apart from fuses) normally incorporated in circuit electrical protection against overload currents short-circuit currents insulation failure isolation . are both deemed to satisfy the national standards of many countries.g motors. but not recommended by IEC). IEC 947-3) concerning clearance between contacts. all circuits of an LV installation shall have means to be isolated. and to separate the defective circuit from the rest of the installation.a gap or interposed insulating barrier between the open contacts. c the protection of persons against insulation failures (see chapter G). the protection of circuits . etc. The aim is to avoid or to limit the destructive or dangerous consequences of excessive (short-circuit) currents. control . According to the system of earthing for the installation (TN. These functions are summarized below in table H2-1. c it must conform to a recognized national or international standard (e. specially designed to match the particular characteristics of motors are used. due. strongly recommended (for reasons of greater safety and facility of operation). TT or IT) the protection will be provided by fuses or circuit breakers. c local or remote switching. The aim of isolation is to separate a circuit or apparatus. c it must be provided with a means of locking open with a key (e. or those due to overloading and insulation failure.1.emergency switching . c persons and animals. residual current devices. etc. c protection of appliances and apparatus being supplied (e. Protection in these cases is provided either by fuses or circuit breaker. National and international standards define the manner in which electric circuits of LV installations must be realized. c protection of persons in the event of insulation failure.switching off for mechanical maintenance table H2-1: basic functions of LV switchgear. residualvoltage-operated devices . In addition to those functions shown in table H2-1. 1. single-phasing. c the protection of electric motors (see chapter J clause 5) against overheating.the switchgear . it is preferred to provide a means of isolation at the origin of each circuit. and also: (1) the concurrent opening of all live conductors. Certain derogations to this rule are authorized in some national standards. the circuit to which the load is connected) originates. by means of a padlock) in order to avoid an unauthorized reclosure by inadvertence. in order to maintain an optimum continuity of service.). c under-voltage protection are provided by specific devices (lightning and various other types of voltage-surge arrester. c safe isolation from live parts. c electrical isolation of sections of an installation. if required. clearly visible. Such relays may. switchgear…). In practice.4. relays associated with: contactors.isolation clearly indicated by an authorized fail-proof mechanical indicator . 1. creepage distances. v against short-circuit currents due to complete failure of insulation between conductors of different phases or (in TN systems) between a phase and neutral (or PE) conductor.g. at the distribution board from which the final circuit (i. or otherwise made inoperative. is however. Shortcircuit protection is provided either by type aM fuses or by a circuit breaker from which the thermal (overload) protective element has been removed. or an item of plant (such as a motor. or the visible separation of contacts. wires. other functions. and with combined circuit breaker/isolators… and so on). c equipment and appliances supplied from the installation.emergency stopping . also protect the motor-circuit cable against overload. and closes before them (IEC 947-1). to long term overloading. including the neutral (except where the neutral is a PEN conductor) must be open (1).functional switching .H2-1 . while not always obligatory. In principle. in order that personnel may carry out work on the isolated part in perfect safety. c the protection of circuits (see chapter H1): v against overload. and the capabilities and limitations of the various switching devices which are collectively referred to as switchgear. namely: c over-voltage protection. An isolating device must fulfil the following requirements: c all poles of a circuit. remotelycontrolled circuit breakers.2 isolation a state of isolation clearly indicated by an approved "fail-proof" indicator.g. a condition of excessive current being drawn from a healthy (unfaulted) installation. c local or remote switching. etc. the basic functions of LV switchgear H2 the role of switchgear is that of: c electrical protection.1 electrical protection electrical protection assures: c protection of circuit elements against the thermal and mechanical stresses of short-circuit currents. overvoltage withstand capability. and/or permanent monitoring of the insulation resistance of the installation to earth.

in fact.000 impulse withstand peak voltage (kV) 5 kV 8 kV 10 kV Industrial LV switchgear which affords isolation when open is marked on the front face by the symbol .e. The main circuit breaker for the entire installation. the indicator cannot possibly indicate that it is in the open position. v voltage-surge withstand capability. Marking (of the circuits being controlled) must be clear and unambiguous.). 8 or 10 kV according to its service voltage. item of plant. c emergency switching. i. H2-4: symbols for circuit isolation capability incorporated in other switching devices.either visual. functional control This control relates to all switching operations in normal service conditions for energizing or de-energizing a part of a system or installation. The device must satisfy these conditions for altitudes up to 2. fig. as shown in table H2-2. for example). also referred to as a load-break isolating switch circuit breaker suitable for circuit isolation fig. on each outgoing way of all distribution and subdistribution boards. 1. by push-button on the switch or at a remote location (load-shedding and reconnection. according to requirements. Note.000 metres. the test values must be increased by 23% to take into account the effect of altitude.6.or mechanical. Switchgear intended for such duty must be installed at least: c at the origin of any installation.1.3 switchgear control switchgear-control functions allow system operating personnel to modify a loaded system at any moment. by means of an indicator solidly welded to the operating shaft of the device. with no deliberate delay). The operation of switchgear is an important part of power-system control. The isolating device. and include: c functional control (routine switching. leakage currents between the open contacts of each phase must not exceed: .0. . or an individual piece of equipment. etc.e.the switchgear . This symbol may be combined with those indicating other features where a device also performs other functions as shown in figure H2-4. a circuit breaker or switch-fuse) it is preferable to include a switch at each level of distribution.g. the basic functions of LV switchgear (continued) H2 1.0 mA at the end of its useful life.5 mA for a new device. v leakage currents. c maintenance operations on the power system. and those that provide protection are invariably omni-polar*. The manœuvre may be: c either manual (by means of an operating lever on the switch) or. having a peak value of 5. Consequently. open. The verification may be: . In broad terms "control" signifies any facility for safely modifying a load-carrying power system at all levels of an installation. table H2-2: peak value of impulse voltage according to normal service voltage of test specimen.2 isolation (continued) v verification that the contacts of the isolating device are. particularly where the switching device also constitutes the protection (e. if tests are carried out at sea level. In this case the construction of the device must be such that. service (nominal) voltage (V) 230/400 400/690 1. etc. H2-2 . These switches operate instantaneously (i. switch-disconnector*. H2-3: symbol for a disconnector* also commonly referred to as an isolator. when open must withstand a 1. .the protection of circuits . In this guide the terms "disconnector" and "isolator" have the same meaning. c electric. In order to provide the maximum flexibility and continuity of operation. c at the final load circuit or circuits (one switch may control several loads). across open contacts. * IEC 617-7 and 947-3. With the isolating device open. in the eventuality that the contacts become welded together in the closed position. as well as any circuit breakers used for change-over (from one source to another) must be omni-polar units. See standard IEC 947 and the Note immediately preceding table F-10. where the device is suitably designed to allow the contacts to be seen (some national standards impose this condition for an isolating device located at the origin of a LV installation supplied directly from a HV/LV transformer). * one break in each phase and (where appropriate) one break in the neutral (see table H1-65).2/50 µs impulse.

An emergency stop is intended to arrest a movement which has become dangerous. In the two cases: c the emergency control device or its means of operation (local or at remote location(s)) such as a large red mushroom-headed emergency-stop pushbutton must be recognizable and readily accessible. The shutdown is generally carried out at the functional switching device. switching-off for mechanical maintenance work This operation assures the stopping of a machine and its impossibility to be inadvertently restarted while mechanical maintenance work is being carried out on the driven machinery. dangerous (electric shock or fire). c a single action must result in a complete switching-off of all live conductors (1) (2). (2) In a TN schema the PEN conductor must never be opened. the protection of circuits .H2-3 . but in unmanned installations the re-energizing of the circuit can only be achieved by means of a key held by an authorized person. c a "break glass" emergency switching initiation device is authorized.H2 emergency switching emergency stop An emergency switching is intended to de-energize a live circuit which is. or could become. an emergency system of braking. It should be noted that in certain cases. in proximity to any position at which danger could arise or be seen. may require that the auxiliary supply to the braking-system circuits be maintained until final stoppage of the machinery. with the use of a suitable safety lock and warning notice at the switch mechanism.the switchgear . (1) Taking into account stalled motors. since it functions as a protective earthing wire as well as the system neutral conductor.

Interlocking with an upstream switch or circuit breaker is frequently used. IEC standard 947-3 defines: c the frequency of switch operation (600 close/open cycles per hour maximum).e. It is used to close and open loaded circuits under normal unfaulted circuit conditions. It does not consequently. successful closure against the electrodynamic forces of short-circuit current is assured. each of which is suitable for a different range of load power factors. overvoltage. This capability is normally more than adequate for longer periods of (lower-valued) operational overcurrents. c current making and breaking ratings for normal and infrequent situations. however. as shown in table H2-7. A disconnector is not designed to make or to break current* and no rated values for these functions are given in standards.the protection of circuits .1 elementary switching devices disconnector (or isolator) This switch is a manually-operated. provide any protection for the circuit it controls. the switchgear and fusegear H2 2. fig. i. be capable of withstanding the passage of short-circuit currents and is assigned a rated short-time withstand capability. Such switches are commonly referred to as "fault-make load-break" switches. Upstream protective devices are relied upon to clear the short-circuit fault. Standardized mechanical-endurance. unless otherwise agreed between user and manufacturer. c mechanical and electrical endurance (generally less than that of a contactor).the switchgear . lockable. It must. and leakage-current tests. Its characteristics are defined in IEC 947-3. H2-6: symbol for a load-breaking switch.e. a LV disconnector is essentially a deadsystem switching device to be operated with no voltage on either side of it. When closing a switch to energize a circuit there is always the possibility that an (unsuspected) short circuit exists on the circuit. fig. particularly when closing. must also be satisfied. load-breaking switch This control switch is generally operated manually (but is sometimes provided with electrical tripping for operator convenience) and is a non-automatic two-position device (open/closed). H2-4 . * i. For this reason. because of the possibility of an unsuspected short-circuit on the downstream side. H2-5: symbol for a disconnector (or isolator). such as those of motor-starting. IEC 947-3 also recognizes 3 categories of load-breaking switch.2. load-break switches are assigned a fault-current making rating. two-position device (open/closed) which provides safe isolation of a circuit when locked in the open position. generally for 1 second.

c.3 0. test current I (A) I i 01 500 1 500 < I i 3 000 3 000 < I i 4 500 4 500 < I i 6 000 6 000 < I i 10 000 10 000 < I i 20 000 20 000 < I i 50 000 50 000 < I power-factor (ms) 0.53 1.35 lagging. value of the a.m.H2-5 . fig. Auxiliary devices are available to provide: c remote indication of its state at any instant.the switchgear .2 table H2-8: factor "n" used for peak-to-rms value (IEC 947-part1).s. c time-delay functions. the protection of circuits .47 1. c to break a current of 8 In (= 800 A) at a power factor of 0.000 A) at a power factor of 0. reproduced below for reader convenience (table H2-8). H2-9: symbol for a bistable remotelyoperated switch (télérupteur).41 1. The switching of capacitors or of tungsten filament lamps shall be subject to agreement between manufacturer and user. including moderate overloads switching of motor loads or other highly inductive loads AC-23A AC-23B table H2-7: utilization categories of LV a.7 0. component.Part 1. where 12 In equals the r. etc.8 0.H2 nature of current alternating current utilization category frequent infrequent operation operation AC-20A AC-20B AC-21A AC-22A AC-21B AC-22B typical applications connecting and disconnecting under no-load conditions switching of resistive loads including moderate overloads switching of mixed resistive and inductive loads. c to withstand short-circuit currents (not less than 12 In) passing through it for 1 second. table J5-4.2 time-constant 5 5 5 5 5 10 15 15 n 1.42 1. switches according to IEC 947-3. Example: A 100 A load-break switch of category AC-23 (inductive load) must be able: c to make a current of 10 In (= 1. bistable switch (télérupteur) This device is extensively used in the control of lighting circuits where the depression of a pushbutton (at a remote control position) will open an already-closed switch or close an open switch in a bistable sequence.25 0.0 2.35 lagging.7 2.95 0.5 0. The utilization categories for such an equipment are dealt with in chapter J. c maintained-contact features. The utilization categories referred to in table H2-7 do not apply to an equipment normally used to start. c stage-lighting schemes. while the peak value (expressed in kA) is given by a factor "n" in table XVI of IEC 947. Category AC-23 includes occasional switching of individual motors.c. Typical applications are: c two-way switching on stairways of large buildings. accelerate and/or stop individual motors.1 2.9 0. c factory illumination.

control circuit power circuit fig. designed to cover starting. Fuses break a circuit by controlled melting of the fuse element when a current exceeds a given value for a corresponding period of time. two classes of LV cartridge fuse are very widely used: c for domestic and similar installations type gG c for industrial installations type gG. The large number of repetitive operating cycles is standardized in table VIII of IEC 947-4-1 by: c the operating duration: 8 hours. The discontactor is not the equivalent of a circuit breaker. which is possible when their characteristics are capable of withstanding the motor-starting current without deterioration. a contactor of category AC3 can be used for the starting and stopping of a cage motor. and may also be considered as an essential element in a motor controller. with cartridge types designated gG (general use). A more recent development has been the adoption by the IEC of a fuse-type gM for motor protection. The first value In denotes both the rated current of the fuse-link and the rated current of the fuseholder. intermittent. manufactured in the form of a cartridge for rated currents up to 100 A and designated type gG in IEC 269-3.1. Important: Some national standards use a gI (industrial) type fuse. the current/time relationship being presented in the form of a performance curve for each type of fuse. III and VI of IEC 269-1. fig. temporary of 3. For short-circuit protection therefore. c a rated current making and breaking performance according to the category of utilization concerned. Type gI fuses should never be used. These two ratings are separated by a letter which defines the applications. Standards define two classes of fuse: c those intended for domestic installations. c those for industrial use. 10. as noted in sub-clause 2. H2-10: symbol for a contactor. 30. uninterrupted. Contactors are designed to carry out numerous close/open cycles and are commonly controlled remotely by on-off pushbuttons. Example: A 150 A contactor of category AC3 must have a minimum current-breaking capability of 8 In (= 1. similar in all main essentails to type gG fuses.the protection of circuits .the switchgear . but at the present time the aM fuse in combination with a thermal overload relay is more-widely used. and short-circuit conditions. it is necessary to include either fuses or a circuit breaker in series with. 60 and 90 minutes. the second value Ich denotes the time-current characteristic of the fuse-link as defined by the gates in Tables II. For example: In M Ich denotes a fuse intended to be used for protection of motor circuits and having the characteristic G. c mechanical endurance (number of off-load manœuvres). Discontactors are used extensively for remote push-button control of lighting circuits. in domestic and similar installations. and gM and aM (for motor-circuits) in IEC 269-1 and 2. The first value In corresponds to the maximum continuous current for the whole fuse and the second value Ich corresponds to the G characteristic of the fuse link. the switchgear and fusegear (continued) H2 2..500 A) at a power factor (lagging) of 0. H2-6 . A gM fuse-link. c the start-stop cycles (1 to 1. For further details see note at the end of sub-clause 2. discontactor* A contactor equipped with a thermal-type relay for protection against overloading defines a "discontactor". which has a dual rating is characterized by two current values. c electrical endurance (number of on-load manœuvres).35. "combined switchgear elements". c utilization category: (for definition see table J5-4) for example. The main differences between domestic and industrial fuses are the nominal voltage and current levels (which require much larger physical dimensions) and their fault-current breaking capabilities. the discontactor contacts.2. since its short-circuit currentbreaking capability is limited to 8 or 10 In.200 A) and a minimum current-making rating of 10 In (= 1. etc. and upstream of. An aM fuse-link is characterized by one current value In and time-current characteristic as shown in figure H2-14. H2-11: symbol for fuses. gM or aM. fuses Fuses exist with and without "fuse-blown" mechanical indicators. however.200 cyles per hour). *This term is not defined in IEC publications but is commonly used in some countries.1 elementary switching devices (continued) contactor The contactor is a solenoid-operated switching device which is generally held closed by (a reduced) current through the closing solenoid (although various mechanically-latched types exist for specific duties).2. Type gG fuse-links are often used for the protection of motor circuits. This type of fuse is more popular in some countries than in others.

IEC 269-1 standardized tests require that a fuse-operating characteristic lies between the two limiting curves (shown in figure H2-12) for the particular fuse under test.6 In 1.e. Example: a 32 A fuse carrying a current of 1. t minimum pre-arcing time curve gM fuses require a separate overload relay.5 In 1.6 In 1. and fuses tested to IEC 269 must give operating curves which fall within the shaded area. no levels of conventional non-fusing and fusing currents are fixed. 52. H2-14: standardized zones of fusing for type aM fuses (all current ratings). fuse-blown curve Inf I2 I fig. according to their class.the switchgear .6 In (i.25 In 1. c class gG fuses These fuses provide protection against overloads and short-circuits. together with the foregoing notes on standard test requirements.5 In 1. as shown in figure H2-12 and in table H2-13. Note: the small "arrowheads" in the diagram indicate the current/time "gate" values for the different fuses to be tested (IEC 269).25 In 1. t minimum pre-arcing time curve fuse-blown curve 4In x In fig.1 In 1. c class aM (motor) fuses These fuses afford protection against shortcircuit currents only and must necessarily be associated with other switchgear (such as discontactors or circuit breakers) in order to ensure overload protection < 4 In.H2-7 .H2 fusing zones conventional currents The conditions of fusing (melting) of a fuse are defined by standards. 1h. a circuit breaker of similar current rating: v which passes 1.25 In these fuses have a poor performance in the low overload range. Conventional non-fusing and fusing currents are standardized. They are not therefore autonomous. 40 A) must not melt in less than one hour (table H2-13) v the conventional fusing current If (=I2 in fig. or less (25% overload for up to one hour in the worst case).e.6 In 1. Since aM fuses are not intended to protect against low values of overload current. in order to avoid the consequences of possible long term overloading (60% overload for up to one hour in the worst case). v the conventional non-fusing current Inf is the value of current that the fusible element can carry for a specified time without melting.05 In must not trip in less than one hour. v the two examples given above for a 32 A fuse. the protection of circuits .9 In 1. H2-12: zones of fusing and non-fusing for gG and gM fuses.H2-12) is the value of current which will cause melting of the fusible element before the expiration of the specified time. explain why class rated current* In (A) In i 4 A 4 < In < 16 A 16 < In i 63 A 63 < In i 160 A 160 < In i 400 A 400 < In conventional nonfusing current Inf 1.1. v it is therefore necessary to install a cable larger in ampacity than that normally required for a circuit. as described in the note at the end of sub-clause 2.25 In (i. The characteristic curves for testing these fuses are given for values of fault current exceeding approximately 4 In (see figure H2-14).25 In it must trip in one hour.6 In conventional time h 1 1 1 2 3 4 gG gM table H2-13: zones of fusing and non-fusing for LV types gG and gM class fuses (IEC 269-1 and 269-2-1). and must always be associated with another device which protects against overload. Example: a 32 A fuse carrying a current of 1. and v when passing 1. By way of comparison. conventional fusing current If I2 2. This means that two fuses which satisfy the test can have significantly different operating times at low levels of overloading. * Ich for gM fuses class aM fuses protect against short-circuit currents only.25 In 1.1 A) must melt in one hour or less (table H2-13).

This limitation of current reduces significantly the thermal and dynamic stresses which would otherwise occur. 2. R greatly predominates XL. H2-15). This means that the level of fault current may not attain values high enough to cause peakcurrent limitation. the steadystate operating current (In) of which may be in the 10-20 A range. I prospective fault-current peak rms value of the a. H2-15: current limitation by a fuse. can be as high as 2. the switchgear and fusegear (continued) H2 2.s. the fusible element of which corresponds to the current value Ich (ch = characteristic) which may be.c. 63 A. as previously mentioned. component of fault current for LV fuses. so that its time/ current characteristic is identical to that of a 63 A gG fuse.s.02s Tf: fuse pre-arc fusing time Ta: arcing time Ttc: total fault-clearance time fig.c.e. Without a current-limiting fuse the peak current could attain 50 kA (c) in this particular case.c.s. component) immediately following the instant of fault. fig.c. (IEC) 160A 20 100A (b) 10 (a) 5 50A nominal fuse ratings 2 peak current cut-off characteristic curves 1 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 a. component of prospective fault current (kA) r.the switchgear . H2-8 . so that the fault current never reaches its prospective peak value (fig. and shown in figure H2-15A).m. This is the IEC testing value. as shown below in figure H2-15A. a. H2-15A: limited peak current versus prospective r.s.s.m. prospective fault current (kA) peak 100 (c) 50 Reminder Short-circuit currents initially contain d. at lower distribution levels in an installation. in the above graph the 100 A fuse will begin to cut off the peak at a prospective fault current (r.1 elementary switching devices (continued) rated short-circuit breaking currents A characteristic of modern cartridge fuses is that.) of 2 kA (a).the protection of circuits . A gM type fuse is essentially a gG fuse. The peak-current-limitation effect occurs only when the prospective r. As already mentioned. components. maximum possible current peak characteristic i. This value (63 A) is selected to withstand the high starting currents of a motor.01s Tf Ta Ttc 0. a condition which corresponds with figure H2-15 above and with the "n" value corresponding to a power factor of 0. the magnitude and duration of which depend on the XL/R ratio of the faultcurrent loop.5Ir. owing to the rapidity of fusion in the case of high short-circuit current levels*.c. XL is small compared with R and so for final circuits I peak / I rms ~ 1.s.s. On the other hand.95 in table H2-8. The rated short-circuit breaking current of the fuse is therefore based on the r. thereby minimizing danger and damage at the fault position. component of fault current attains a certain level. transients (in this case) have an insignificant effect on the magnitude of the current peak. for example.c. and fault levels are generally low.5 (standardized by IEC.c. a current cut-off begins before the occurrence of the first major peak. Close to the source (HV/LV transformer) the relationship I peak / Irms (of a. The same fuse for a condition of 20 kA r. value of the a.41. For example. *for currents exceeding a certain level. values of the a.2.m. the d. as previously noted. component of the prospective fault current. prospective current will limit the peak current to 10 kA (b). component of the prospective fault current current peak limited by the fuse 0.m. depending on the fuse nominal current rating.m. At lower levels of distribution in an installation. No short-circuit current-making rating is assigned to fuses. Note on gM fuse ratings.c.m.m.005s t 0.

the protection of circuits . H2-16: symbol for an automatictripping switch-fuse. and is commonly associated with a thermal-type overcurrent relay for overload protection (for which the fuses alone may not be suitable). overload protection for the motor is not provided by the fuse. are reduced physical dimensions and slightly lower cost. but each has a gap in the centre which is bridged by the fuse cartridge. The first current rating In concerns the steady-load thermal performance of the fuselink. This is achieved by the use of fuses fitted with striker pins. and associated with a motor-overload type of thermal relay. since the heat dissipation required in normal service is related to the lower figures (10-20 A). v a fuse-switch consists of three switch blades each constituting a double-break per phase. fulfil all the requirements of the three basic functions. the terms "switch-fuse" and "fuse-switch" have specific meanings. viz: v a switch-fuse comprises a switch (generally 2 breaks per pole) on the upstream side of three fixed fuse-bases. These blades are not continuous throughout their length. therefore. If the switch is classified as AC22 or AC23. although suitable for shortcircuit protection. fig. H2-17 (a): symbol for a non-automatic switch-fuse. with a thermal overload relay.H2-9 . when compared with aM fuses. In M Ich). control and isolation. The only advantage offered by gM fuses. as shown in figures H2-17(a) and (b). viz: protection.H2 This means that a physically smaller fuse barrel and metallic parts can be used. and so a separate thermal-type relay is always necessary when using gM fuses. and in IEC 947-3.the switchgear . fig.2 combined switchgear elements Single units of switchgear do not. into which the fuse carriers are inserted (figure H2-17(a)). This type of combination is generally used for current levels exceeding 100 A. Some designs have only a single break per phase. A standard gM fuse.e. and a system of switch tripping springs and toggle mechanisms. is suitable for the control and protection of a motor circuit. It is evident that. 2. suitable for this situation would be designated 32M63 (i. i. H2-17 (b): symbol for a non-automatic fuse-switch. Where the installation of a circuit breaker is not appropriate (notably where the switching rate is high. over extended periods) combinations of units specifically designed for such a performance are employed. switch. while the second current rating (Ich) relates to its (short-time) starting-current performance. fig. In some countries. the ensemble. The most commonly-used combinations are described below: switch and fuse combinations Two cases are distinguished: c the type in which the operation of one (or more) fuse(s) causes the switch to open.e. in general. striker-pin fuses and overload relay. and: c the type in which a non-automatic switch is associated with a set of fuses in a common enclosure.

switch-disconnector + discontactor As previously mentioned.the switchgear .2. the switchgear and fusegear (continued) H2 2. to add fuses (generally of type aM) to perform this function. fig. fig. fuse . H2-18 (b): symbol for a fuse-switchdisconnector + discontactor. The protection of induction motors is considered in chapter J. while their principal use is in domestic and similar installations. c work on the circuit downstream of the discontactor (risk of remote closure of the discontactor). A fuse-switch-disconnector (evidently) requires no interlocking (figure H2-18 (b)).disconnector + discontactor fuse . The fuse-disconnector must be interlocked with the discontactor such that no opening or closing manœuvre of the fuse-disconnector is possible unless the discontactor is open (figure H2-18 (a)). To avoid confusion between the first group (i. The combination is used mainly for motorcontrol circuits. a discontactor does not provide protection against short-circuit faults. H2-18 (a): symbol for a fusedisconnector + discontactor. or for control and protection of a circuit supplying motors.e. circuit-breaker + contactor circuit-breaker + discontactor These combinations are used in remotelycontrolled distribution systems in which the rate of switching is high.2 combined switchgear elements (continued) The current range for these devices is limited to 100 A maximum at 400 V 3-phase. H2-10 . automatic tripping) and the second group. The switch must be of class AC22 or AC23 if the circuit supplies a motor. the term "switch-fuse" should be qualified by the adjectives "automatic" or "non-automatic". therefore. It is necessary. since the fusedisconnector has no load-switching capability. clause J5.the protection of circuits . where the disconnector or switch-disconnector allows safe operations such as: c the changing of fuse links (with the circuit isolated).

(1) Where cut-off of all active conductors is provided (2) It may be necessary to maintain supply to a braking system (3) If it is associated with a thermal relay (the combination is commonly referred to as a "discontactor") (4) In certain countries a disconnector with visible contacts is mandatory at the origin of a LV installation supplied directly from a HV/LV transformer (5) Certain items of switchgear are suitable for isolation duties (e. table H2-1) and the different components of switchgear (clause 2). Multifunction switchgear. choice of switchgear H2 3.3. TT table H2-19: functions fulfilled by different items of switchgear.the switchgear . initially more costly. from the rated current In to the fault-level rating Icu. Each circuit is considered one at a time. c conformity with all regulations and specifications concerning safe and reliable circuit performance. and a list is drawn up of the required protection functions and exploitation of the installation. c compatibility with upstream switchgear or taking into account its contribution.1 tabulated functional capabilities After having studied the basic functions of LV switchgear (clause 1. c compatibility among the individual items.g. with the aim of achieving: c satisfactory performance. among those mentioned in table H2-19 and summarized in table H2-1.2 switchgear selection Software is being used more and more in the field of optimal selection of switchgear. for operational reasons it may be necessary to stop the process in general at the incoming circuit to every distribution board at the supply point to each machine and/or on the machine concerned at the supply point to each machine origin of each circuit origin of each circuit origin of circuits where the earthing system is appropriate TN-S. clause 7. 3.H2-11 . reference is made to chapter H1. reduces installation costs and problems of installation or exploitation. IT. RCCBs according to IEC 1008) without being explicitly marked as such. table H1-65. table H2-19 summarizes the capabilities of the various components to perform the basic functions. It is often found that such switchgear provides the best solution. the protection of circuits . In order to determine the number of poles for an item of switchgear. switchgear item isolator (or disconnector) (4) switch (5) residual device (RCCB) (5) switchdisconnector contactor bistable-switch (telerupteur) fuse circuit breaker (5) circuit breaker disconnector (5) residual and overcurrent circuit breaker (RCBO) (5) point of installation (general principle) isolation control functional emergency switching emergency stop switching for (mechanical) mechanical maintenance electrical protection overload short-circuit differential c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c (1) c (1) c (1) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c c c c (1) c (1) c (1) c (1) c (1) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c c c c c c (3) c c c c c c c c c c origin of each circuit all points where. A number of switchgear combinations are studied and compared with each other against relevant criteria.

Corresponding European and many national standards are presently in the course of harmonization with the IEC standards. circuit breakers H2 the circuit breaker/disconnector fulfills all of the basic switchgear functions.the switchgear . Moreover. by means of auxiliary units. numerous other possibilities exist. or an equivalent national standard. Corresponding European standards are presently being developed. remote control… etc. for example: indication (on-off . For domestic and similar LV installations. provide a wide range of other functions. c 947-6: part 6: multiple function switching devices. These features make a circuit-breaker/ disconnector the basic unit of switchgear for any electrical installation. 4. c 947-5: part 5: control-circuit devices and switching elements. or are due to be: c 947-1: general rules. with which they will be in very close agreement. functions isolation control possible conditions c c c (with the possibility of a tripping coil for remote control) c c c c (with differential-current relay) c (with undervoltage-trip coil) c added or incorporated c (generally optional with an electronic tripping device) functional emergency switching switching-off for mechanical maintenance overload short-circuit insulation faulty undervoltage protection remote control indication and measurement table H2. or an equivalent national standard. undervoltage tripping. the appropriate standard is IEC 898.20: functions performed by a circuit-breaker/disconnector. switch-disconnectors and fuse combination units.tripped on fault). As shown in table H2-19 the circuit breaker/ disconnector is the only item of switchgear capable of simultaneously satisfying all the basic functions necessary in an electrical installation. standards For industrial LV installations the relevant IEC standards are. c 947-7: part 7: ancillary equipment.the protection of circuits . it can. Domestic-type circuit breakers should conform to IEC standard 898. c 947-3: part 3: switches.4. c 947-2: part 2: circuit breakers. by means of accessories. H2-12 . c 947-4: part 4: contactors and motorstarters.1 standards and descriptions industrial circuit breakers must conform with IEC 947-1 and 947-2 or other equivalent standards. disconnectors. while.

4 .H2 description Figure H2-21 shows schematically the principal parts of a LV circuit breaker and its four essential functions: 1 . viz.a trip-mechanism actuating device: c either: a thermal-magnetic device. 2 . 3 .the circuit-breaking components. some models can be adapted to provide sensitive detection (30 mA) of earth-leakage current with CB tripping. RCBOs. comprising the fixed and moving contacts and the arc-dividing chamber. fig. in which a thermally-operated bi-metal strip detects an overload condition.a space allocated to the several types of terminal currently used for the main powercircuit conductors. H2-21: principal parts of a circuit breaker. or: c an electronic relay operated from current transformers. This mechanism is also linked to the operation handle of the breaker. while other models (complying with IEC 1009) have this residual-current feature incorporated. H2-23: domestic-type circuit breaker as above (H2-22) plus protection against electric shocks by the addition of a modular block. one of which is installed on each phase. domestic circuit breakers conforming to IEC 898 and similar national standards perform the basic functions of: c isolation c protection against overcurrent. power circuit terminals contacts and arc-dividing chamber fool-proof mechanical indicator latching mechanism trip mechanism and protective devices fig. fig.the switchgear .. by the addition of a modular block.the latching mechanism which becomes unlatched by the tripping device on detection of abnormal current conditions. and. while an electromagnetic striker pin operates at current levels reached in short-circuit conditions.H2-13 . H2-22: domestic-type circuit breaker providing overcurrent protection and circuit isolation features. the protection of circuits . more recently. IEC 947-2 (appendix B) CBRs. as shown in figure H2-23.

H2-14 . * Merlin Gerin product. notably remote control and indication (on-off-fault).1 standards and descriptions (continued) apart from the above-mentioned functions further features can be associated with the basic circuit breaker by means of additional modules. 1 2 3 4 5 O-OFF O-OFF O-OFF O-OFF fig.4. moulded-case type industrial circuit breakers conforming to IEC 947-2 are now available. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. H2-24: "Multi 9" system* of LV modular switchgear components. H2-25: example of a modular (Compact NS*) industrial type of circuit breaker capable of numerous auxiliary functions. SDE SD OF1 OF2 OF2 SDE SD OF1 fig. as shown in figure H2-24.the protection of circuits . by means of associated adaptable blocks provide a similar range of auxiliary functions to those described above (figure H2-25). which.the switchgear .

Icn for domestic-type CBs).3. and marking the CB accordingly. corresponding to disturbed conditions. * Merlin Gerin products. have numerous built-in communication and electronic functions (figure H2-26). Derating a circuit breaker is achieved therefore. 4. the protection of circuits . The "Masterpact"* provides many automation features in its tripping module. The same circuit breaker can be used at higher values of ambient temperature however. Other values of voltage are also assigned to the circuit breaker. fitted with a specified overcurrent tripping relay. or again. c remote indication contacts. in normal (undisturbed) conditions. without exceeding the specified temperature limits of the currentcarrying parts. Iu being rated uninterrupted current. These circuit breakers are provided with means to adjust protective-device settings over a wide range.H2-15 . designed to withstand high temperatures. by reducing the trip-current setting of its overload relay. conforming to IEC 947-2. frame-size rating A circuit breaker which can be fitted with overcurrent tripping units of different currentlevel-setting ranges.H2 heavy-duty industrial circuit breakers of large current ratings. while complying with the specified temperature limit. Note: In for circuit breakers (in IEC 947-2) is equal to Iu for switchgear generally. is assigned a rating which corresponds with that of the highest current-level-setting tripping unit that can be fitted. allows circuit breakers (derated as described) to operate at 60 °C (or even at 70 °C) ambient. as noted in sub-clause 4.2 fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker the fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker are: c its rated voltage Ue c its rated current In c its tripping-current-level adjustment ranges for overload protection (Ir** or Irth**) and for short-circuit protection (Im)** c its short-circuit current breaking rating (Icu for industrial CBs.the switchgear . fig. rated operational voltage (Ue) This is the voltage at which the circuit breaker has been designed to operate. can carry indefinitely at an ambient temperature stated by the manufacturer. c load indication at the CB. the circuit breaker in an ambient temperature of 50 °C could carry only 117 A indefinitely. ** Current-level setting values which refer to the current-operated thermal and "instantaneous" magnetic tripping devices for over-load and short-circuit protection. only 109 A at 60 °C. Thus. if suitably "derated". and also with: c a 20 mA output loop. Example: A circuit breaker rated at In = 125 A for an ambient temperature of 40 °C will be equipped with a suitably calibrated overcurrent tripping relay (set at 125 A). rated current (In) This is the maximum value of current that a circuit breaker. The use of an electronic-type of tripping unit. H2-26: examples of heavy-duty industrial circuit breakers.

in order to adapt a circuit breaker to the requirements of the circuit it controls. e. adjustable 1.7 In That value must be greater than the maximum load current IB.9. exchangeable.standard setting: 5 to 10 In short-delay. IEC 898.low setting : 2 to 5 In .7 to 1. typically 0. domestic breakers IEC 898 modular industrial (2) circuit breakers industrial (2) circuit breakers IEC 947-2 Ir = In fixed Ir = In fixed adjustable: 0. H2-27: example of a 400 A circuit breaker equipped with a 320 A overload trip unit adjusted to 0. It also represents the maximum current that the circuit breaker can carry without tripping. or. IEC standards do not specify values. (1) 50 In in IEC 898. rated current of the tripping unit to suit the circumstances In adjustment range overload trip current setting to suit the circuit Ir circuit-breaker frame-size rating 224 A 288 A 320 A 400 A I fig.9.4. but less than the maximum current permitted in the circuit Iz (see chapter H1.the protection of circuits .the switchgear . 0.2 In < fixed < 4. i. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4.5 Ir i Im < 10Ir instantaneous (I) fixed I ≈ 12 to 15 In high setting circuit type D 10 In i Im < 20 In (1) high setting type D or K 10 In < fixed < 14 In table H2. Example (figure H2-27): a circuit breaker equipped with a 320 A overcurrent trip relay. short-circuit relay trip-current setting (Im) Short-circuit tripping relays (instantaneous or slightly time-delayed) are intended to trip the circuit breaker rapidly on the occurrence of high values of fault current. and to avoid the need to install over-sized cables. notably IEC 947-2.28: tripping-current ranges of overload and short-circuit protective devices for LV circuit breakers.8 In 7 In < fixed < 10 In fixed: Im ≈ 7 to 10 In adjustable: .2 fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker (continued) overload relay trip-current setting (Irth or Ir) Apart from small circuit breakers which are very easily replaced. the trip relays are generally adjustable. the adjustment range is greater.9 = 288 A Note: for circuit breakers equipped with non-adjustable overcurrent-trip relays. to give Ir = 288 A.7 In i Ir < In long delay 0. The above values are given only as being those in common use. industrial circuit breakers are equipped with removable. will have a trip-current setting: Ir = 320 x 0.g. sub-clause 1. Ir = In.4 In i Ir < In electronic short-circuit protection low setting standard setting type B type C 3 In i Im < 5 In 5 In i Im < 10 In low setting standard setting type B or Z type C 3. H2-16 .4 to 1 times In. set at 0.0 times In. (2) For industrial use. type of protective relay thermalmagnetic thermalmagnetic thermalmagnetic overload protection Ir = In For the latter circuit breakers there exists a wide variety of tripping devices which allow a user to adapt the protective performance of the circuit breaker to the particular requirements of a load. Moreover. which is considered to be unrealistically high by most European manufacturers (M-G = 10 to 14 In). Their tripping threshold Im is: c either fixed by standards for domestic type CBs. The thermal-trip relays are generally adjustable from 0. but when electronic devices are used for this duty. overcurrent-trip relays. c indicated by the manufacturer for industrialtype CBs according to related standards. The trip-current setting Ir or Irth (both designations are in common use) is the current above which the circuit breaker will trip.3).e.

In such a case it is referred to as a circuit breaker-disconnector and marked on its front face with the symbol All Multi 9.c.the switchgear .c. a zero power-factor circuit being (theoretically) the most onerous case. c following an open . Compact NS and Masterpact LV switchgear of Merlin Gerin manufacture is in this category. the greater the level of fault current (at a given voltage). H2-29: performance curve of a circuit breaker thermal-magnetic protective scheme. all power-system short-circuit fault currents are (more-or-less) at lagging power factors. Ir: overload (thermal or short-delay) relay trip-current setting. and standards are based on values commonly considered to be representative of the majority of power systems. In general. i.2).c. Icu 6 kA < Icu i 10 kA 10 kA < Icu i 20 kA 20 kA < Icu i 50 kA 50 kA i Icu cos ϕ 0.3.2 table H2-31: Icu related to power factor (cos ϕ) of fault-current circuit. the lower the power factor of the fault-current loop. Im: short-circuit (magnetic or long-delay) relay trip-current setting.25 0. i. When the current is in phase with the supply voltage (cos ϕ for the circuit = 1).s.s. (IEC 947-2). I: short-circuit instantaneous relay trip-current setting. Tests for proving the rated s. comprising a succession of manœuvres. isolating feature A circuit breaker is suitable for isolating a circuit if it fulfills all the conditions prescribed for a disconnector (at its rated voltage) in the relevant standard (see sub-clause 1. breaking capacities of CBs are governed by standards. the short-circuit current-breaking performance of a LV circuit breaker is related (approximately) to the cos ϕ of the fault-current loop. H2-30 : performance curve of a circuit breaker electronic protective scheme. In practice.m. PdC: breaking capacity. further tests are made to ensure that v the dielectric withstand capability. Breaking a current at low lagging* values of cos ϕ is considerably more difficult to achieve.5 0.c. The value of current quoted in the standards is the r. the protection of circuits .e. closing and opening on short-circuit. This rated value (Icu) for industrial CBs and (Icn) for domestic-type CBs is normally given in kA r. transient component (which is always present in the worst possible case of short-circuit) is assumed to be zero for calculating the standardized value. the d. value of the a.time delay . for example. have not been impaired by the test. v the disconnection (isolation) performance and v the correct operation of the overload protection. interruption of the current is easier than that at any other power factor. Table H2-31 below extracted from IEC 947-2 relates standardized values of cos ϕ to industrial circuit breakers according to their rated Icu. fig.H2-17 . component of the fault current. breaking capacity) and Ics (rated service s.3 0. Icu (rated ultimate s.c. close to generators or large transformers. c current and voltage phase displacement. breaking capacity) are defined in IEC 947-2 together with a table relating Ics with Icu for different categories of utilization A (instantaneous tripping) and B (time-delayed tripping) as discussed in subclause 4.m. rated short-circuit breaking capacity (Icu or Icn) The short-circuit current-breaking rating of a CB is the highest (prospective) value of current that the CB is capable of breaking without being damaged.H2 t (s) t (s) I(A) Ir Im PdC Ir Im I PdC I(A) fig. and include: c operating sequences.close/open sequence to test the Icu capacity of a CB.e. Standard values for this relationship have been established in some standards.

category (A or B) and rated short-time withstand current (Icw) As already briefly mentioned (sub-clause 4. clause 2. H2-32: category A circuit breaker.4.2) there are two categories of LV industrial switchgear. it is possible to delay the tripping of the CB. H2-18 . in order to discriminate with other circuit breakers on a time basis. are generally moulded-case type circuit breakers. without sustaining damage.e. Ue i Ui. in kV peak (of a prescribed form and polarity) the value of voltage which the equipment is capable of withstanding without failure. H2-33: category B circuit breaker.the switchgear . thermally and electrodynamically. t (s) I(A) Im I Icw PdC fig. for a period of time given by the manufacturer. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. For further details see chapter F. for which there is no deliberate delay in the operation of the "instantaneous" short-circuit magnetictripping device (figure H2-32). This is generally applied to large open-type circuit breakers and to certain heavy-duty moulded-case types. A and B. i.3 other characteristics of a circuit breaker Familiarity with the following less-important characteristics of LV circuit breakers is. The maximum value of rated operational voltage must never exceed that of the rated insulation voltage.the protection of circuits . however. and. under test conditions. often necessary when making a final choice. Icw is the maximum current that the B category CB can withstand. t (s) I(A) Im fig. where the fault-current level is lower than that of the short-time withstand current rating (Icw) of the CB (figure H2-23). rated insulation voltage (Ui) This is the value of voltage to which the dielectric tests voltage (generally greater than 2 Ui) and creepage distances are referred. c those of category B for which. according to IEC 947-2: c those of category A. rated impulse-withstand voltage (Uimp) This characteristic expresses.

H2
rated making capacity (Icm)
Icm is the highest instantaneous value of current that the circuit breaker can establish at rated voltage in specified conditions. In a.c. systems this instantaneous peak value is related to Icu (i.e. to the rated breaking current) by the factor k, which depends on the power factor (cos ϕ) of the short-circuit current loop (as shown in table H2-34). Example: a LV circuit breaker has a rated breaking capacity Icu of 100 kA r.m.s. Its rated making capacity Icm will be 100 x 2.2 = 220 kA peak. Icu 6 kA < Icu i 10 kA 10 kA < Icu i 20 kA 20 kA < Icu i 50 kA 50 kA i Icu cos ϕ 0.5 0.3 0.25 0.2 Icm = kIcu 1.7 x Icu 2 x Icu 2.1 x Icu 2.2 x Icu

table H2.34: relation between rated breaking capacity Icu and rated making capacity Icm at different power-factor values of short-circuit current, as standardized in IEC 947-2.

in a correctly designed installation, a circuit breaker is never required to operate at its maximum breaking current Icu. For this reason a new characteristic Ics has been introduced. It is expressed in IEC 947-2 as a percentage of Icu (25, 50, 75, 100%).

rated service short-circuit breaking capacity (Ics)
The rated breaking capacity (Icu) or (Icn) is the maximum fault-current a circuit breaker can successfully interrupt without being damaged. The probability of such a current occurring is extremely low, and in normal circumstances the fault-currents are considerably less than the rated breaking capacity (Icu) of the CB. On the other hand it is important that high currents (of low probability) be interrupted under good conditions, so that the CB is immediately available for reclosure, after the faulty circuit has been repaired. It is for these reasons that a new characteristic (Ics) has been created, expressed as a percentage of Icu, viz: 25, 50, 75, 100% for industrial circuit breakers. The standard test sequence is as follows: c O - CO - CO* (at Ics); c tests carried out following this sequence are intended to verify that the CB is in a good state and available for normal service. For domestic CBs, Ics = k Icn. The factor k values are given in IEC 898 table XIV. In Europe it is the industrial practice to use a k factor of 100% so that Ics = Icu.
Note: O represents an opening operation. CO represents a closing operation followed by an opening operation.

many designs of LV circuit breakers feature a short-circuit current limitation capability, whereby the current is reduced and prevented from reaching its (otherwise) maximum peak value (figure H2-35). The current-limitation performance of these CBs is presented in the form of graphs, typified by that shown in figure H2-36, diagram (a).

fault-current limitation
The fault-current limitation capacity of a CB concerns its ability, more or less effective, in preventing the passage of the maximum prospective fault-current, permitting only a limited amount of current to flow, as shown in figure H2-35. The current-limitation performance is given by the CB manufacturer in the form of curves (figure H2-36 diagrams (a) and (b)). c diagram (a) shows the limited peak value of current plotted against the r.m.s. value of the a.c. component of the prospective fault current ("prospective" fault-current refers to the fault-current which would flow if the CB had no current-limiting capability); c limitation of the current greatly reduces the thermal stresses (proportional I2t) and this is shown by the curve of diagram (b) of figure H2-36, again, versus the r.m.s. value of the a.c. component of the prospective fault current. LV circuit breakers for domestic and similar installations are classified in certain standards (notably European Standard EN 60 898). CBs belonging to a class (of
limited peak current (kA)
n rre cu d tics ite ris lim te n- rac no ha c t

current limiters) have standardized limiting I2t let-through characteristics defined by that class. In these cases, manufacturers do not normally provide characteristic performance curves.
Icc prospectice fault-current peak

prospectice fault-current

limited current peak limited current tc t

fig. H2-35: prospective and actual currents.
limited peak current (A2 x s) 4,5.105

22

2.105

(a)

prospective a.c. component (r.m.s.) 150

(b)

prospective a.c. component (r.m.s.) 150 kA

fig. H2-36: performance curves of a typical LV current-limiting circuit breaker.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-19

4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.3 other characteristics of a circuit breaker (continued)
current limitation reduces both thermal and electrodynamic stresses on all circuit elements through which the current passes, thereby prolonging the useful life of these elements. Furthermore, the limitation feature allows "cascading" techniques to be used (see 4.5) thereby significantly reducing design and installation costs.

the advantages of current limitation
The use of current-limiting CBs affords numerous advantages: c better conservation of installation networks: current-limiting CBs strongly attenuate all harmful effects associated with short-circuit currents; c reduction of thermal effects: conductors (and therefore insulation) heating is significantly reduced, so that the life of cables is correspondingly increased; c reduction of mechanical effects: forces due to electromagnetic repulsion are lower, with less risk of deformation and possible rupture, excessive burning of contacts, etc.; c reduction of electromagnetic-interference effects: less influence on measuring instruments and associated circuits, telecommunication systems, etc. These circuit breakers therefore contribute towards an improved exploitation of: c cables and wiring; c prefabricated cable-trunking systems; c switchgear, thereby reducing the ageing of the installation. Example: On a system having a prospective shortcircuit current of 150 kA r.m.s., a circuit breaker limits the peak current to less than 10% of the calculated prospective peak value, and the thermal effects to less than 1% of those calculated. Cascading of the several levels of distribution in an installation, downstream of a limiting CB, will also result in important economies. The technique of cascading, described in sub-clause 4.5 allows, in fact, substantial savings on switchgear (lower performance permissible downstream of the limiting CB(s)) enclosures, and design studies, of up to 20% (overall). Discriminative protection schemes and cascading are compatible, in the range Compact NS*, up to the full short-circuit breaking capacity of the switchgear.
* A Merlin Gerin product.

4.4 selection of a circuit breaker
the choice of a range of circuit breakers is determined by: the electrical characteristics of the installation, the environment, the loads and a need for remote control, together with the type of telecommunications system envisaged.

choice of a circuit breaker
The choice of a CB is made in terms of: c electrical characteristics of the installation for which the CB is destined; c its eventual environment: ambient temperature, in a kiosk or switchboard enclosure, climatic conditions, etc.; c short-circuit current breaking and making requirements; c operational specifications: discriminative tripping, requirements (or not) for remote control and indication and related auxiliary contacts, auxiliary tripping coils, connection into a local network (communication or control and indication) etc., c installation regulations; in particular: protection of persons; c load characteristics, such as motors, fluorescent lighting, LV/LV transformers, etc. Problems concerning specific loads are examined in chapter J. The following notes relate to the choice of a LV circuit breaker for use in distribution systems.

choice of rated current in terms of ambient temperature
The rated current of a circuit breaker is defined for operation at a given ambient temperature, in general: c 30 °C for domestic-type CBs; c 40 °C for industrial-type CBs. Performance of these CBs in a different ambient temperature depends principally on the technology of their tripping units.
ambient temperature

temperature of air surrounding the circuit breakers

ambient temperature

single CB in free air

circuit breakers installed in an enclosure

fig. H2-37: ambient temperature.

H2-20 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear

H2
circuit breakers with uncompensated thermal tripping units have a tripcurrent level that depends on the surrounding temperature.

uncompensated thermalmagnetic tripping units
Circuit breakers with uncompensated thermal tripping elements have a tripping-current level that depends on the surrounding temperature. If the CB is installed in an enclosure, or in a hot location (boiler room, etc.), the current required to trip the CB on overload will be sensibly reduced. When the temperature in which the CB is located exceeds its reference temperature, it will therefore be "derated". For this reason, CB manufacturers provide tables which indicate factors to apply at temperatures different to the CB reference temperature. It may be noted from typical examples of such tables (tables H2-38) that a lower temperature than the reference value produces an up-rating of the CB. Moreover, small modular-type CBs mounted in juxtaposition, as shown typically in figure H2-24, are usually mounted in a small closed metal case. In this situation, mutual heating, when passing normal load currents, generally requires them to be derated by a factor of 0.8.

C60a. C60H: curve C. C60N: curves B and C (reference temperature: 30 °C) rating (A) 20 °C 25 °C 30 °C 35 °C 40 °C 45 °C 50 °C 55 °C 1 1.05 1.02 1.00 0.98 0.95 0.93 0.90 0.88 2 2.08 2.04 2.00 1.96 1.92 1.88 1.84 1.80 3 3.18 3.09 3.00 2.91 2.82 2.70 2.61 2.49 4 4.24 4.12 4.00 3.88 3.76 3.64 3.52 3.36 6 6.24 6.12 6.00 5.88 5.76 5.64 5.52 5.40 10 10.6 10.3 10.0 9.70 9.30 9.00 8.60 8.20 16 16.8 16.5 16.0 15.5 15.2 14.7 14.2 13.8 20 21.0 20.6 20.0 19.4 19.0 18.4 17.8 17.4 25 26.2 25.7 25.0 24.2 23.7 23.0 22.2 21.5 32 33.5 32.9 32.0 31.4 30.4 29.8 28.4 28.2 40 42.0 41.2 40.0 38.8 38.0 36.8 35.6 34.4 50 52.5 51.5 50.0 48.5 47.4 45.5 44.0 42.5 63 66.2 64.9 63.0 61.1 58.0 56.7 54.2 51.7 NS250N/H/L (reference temperature: 40 °C) rating (A) 40 °C 45 °C TM160D 160 156 TM200D 200 195 TM250D 250 244 50 °C 152 190 238 55 °C 147 185 231

60 °C 0.85 1.74 2.37 3.24 5.30 7.80 13.5 16.8 20.7 27.5 33.2 40.5 49.2 60 °C 144 180 225

tables H2-38: examples of tables for the determination of derating/uprating factors to apply to CBs with uncompensated thermal tripping units, according to temperature. Example What rating (In) should be selected for a CB c protecting a circuit, the maximum load current of which is estimated to be 34 A; c installed side-by-side with other CBs in a closed distribution box; c in an ambient temperature of 50 °C. A circuit breaker rated at 40 A would be derated to 35.6 A in ambient air at 50 °C (see table H2-38). To allow for mutual heating in the enclosed space, however, the 0.8 factor noted above must be employed, so that, 35.6 x 0.8 = 28.5 A, which is not suitable for the 34 A load. A 50 A circuit breaker would therefore be selected, giving a (derated) current rating of 44 x 0.8 = 35.2 A.

compensated thermal-magnetic tripping units
These tripping units include a bi-metal compensating strip which allows the overload trip-current setting (Ir or Irth) to be adjusted, within a specified range, irrespective of the ambient temperature. For example: c in certain countries, the TT system is standard on LV distribution systems, and domestic (and similar) installations are protected at the service position by a circuit breaker provided by the supply authority. This CB, besides affording protection against indirect-contact hazard, will trip on overload; in this case, if the consumer exceeds the current level stated in his supply contract with the power authority. The circuit breaker (i 60 A) is compensated for a temperature range of - 5 °C to + 40 °C. c LV circuit breakers at ratings i 630 A are commonly equipped with compensated tripping units for this range (- 5 °C to + 40 °C).

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-21

4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.4 selection of a circuit breaker (continued)
general note concerning derating of circuit breakers
It is evident that a CB rated to carry a current In at its reference ambient temperature (30 °C) would overheat when carrying the same current at (say) 50 °C. Since LV CBs are provided with overcurrent protective devices which (if not compensated) will operate for lower levels of current in higher ambient temperatures, the CB is automatically derated by the overload tripping device, as shown in the tables H2-38. Where the thermal tripping units are temperature-compensated, the tripping current level may be set at any value between 0.7 to 1 x In in the ambient temperature range of - 5 °C to + 40 °C. The reference ambient temperature in this case is 40 °C (i.e. on which the rating In is based). For these compensated units, manufacturers' catalogues generally also give derated values of In for ambient temperatures above the compensated range, e.g. at + 50 °C and + 60 °C; typically, 95 A at + 50 °C and 90 A at + 60 °C, for a 100 A circuit breaker.

H2-22 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear

H2
electronic tripping units are highly stable in changing temperature levels.

electronic tripping units
An important advantage with electronic tripping units is their stable performance in changing temperature conditions. However, the switchgear itself often imposes operational limits in elevated temperatures, M25N/H/L circuit breaker A circuit breaker B
coeff. 1 2500

as mentioned in the general note above, so that manufacturers generally provide an operating chart relating the maximum values of permissible trip-current levels to the ambient temperature (figure H2-39). i 40 °C 2500 1 2500 1 45 °C 2500 1 2500 1 50 °C 2500 1 2500 1 55 °C 2450 0.98 2350 0.94 60 °C 2400 0.96 2200 0.88

In (A) maximum adjustment Ir In (A) maximum adjustement Ir

In (A)

circuit breaker A 0.96 2400 0.94 2350 circuit breaker B

0.88 2200 θ °C 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

fig. H2-39: derating of two circuit breakers having different characteristics, according to the temperature.

selection of an instantaneous, or short-time-delay, tripping threshold
Principal charasteristics of magnetic or shorttime-delay tripping units. Type classification according to IEC 898. See also table H2-28. type
t

tripping unit low setting type B

applications c sources producing low-short-circuit-current levels (standby generators) c long lengths of line or cable

I t

standard setting type C

c protection of circuits: general case

I t

high setting type D or K

c protection of circuits having high initial transient current levels (e.g. motors, transformers, resistive loads)

I
t

12 In type MA

c protection of motors in association with discontactors (contactors with overload protection)

I

table H2-40: different tripping units, instantaneous or short-time-delayed.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-23

4. circuit breakers (continued)

H2
4.4 selection of a circuit breaker (continued)
the installation of a LV circuit breaker requires that its short-circuit breaking capacity (or that of the CB together with an associated device) be equal to or exceeds the calculated prospective short-circuit current at its point of installation.

selection of a circuit breaker according to the short-circuit breaking capacity requirements
The installation of a circuit breaker in a LV installation must fulfil one of the two following conditions: c either have a rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icu (or Icn) which is equal to or exceeds the prospective short-circuit current calculated for its point of installation, or c if this is not the case, be associated with another device which is located upstream, and which has the required short-circuit breaking capacity. In the second case, the characteristics of the two devices must be co-ordinated such that the energy permitted to pass through the upstream device must not exceed that which the downstream device and all associated cables, wires and other components can withstand, without being damaged in any way. This technique is profitably employed in: c associations of fuses and circuit breakers; c associations of current-limiting circuit breakers and standard circuit breakers. The technique is known as "cascading" (see sub-clause 4.5 of this chapter).

the circuit breaker at the output of the smallest transformer must have a short-circuit capacity adequate for a fault current which is higher than that through any of the other transformer LV circuit breakers (fig. H2-42).

The selection of main and principal circuit breakers c a single transformer Table C-13 (in chapter C) gives the shortcircuit current level on the downstream side of a commonly-used type of HV/LV distribution transformer. If the transformer is located in a consumer's substation, certain national standards require a LV circuit breaker in which the open contacts are clearly visible*. Example (figure H2-41): What type of circuit breaker is suitable for the main circuit breaker of an installation supplied through a 250 kVA HV/LV (400 V) 3-phase transformer in a consumer's substation? In transformer = 360 A Isc (3-phase) = 8.9 kA. A 400 A CB with an adjustable tripping-unit range of 250 A-400 A and a short-circuit breaking capacity (Icu) of 35 kA* would be a suitable choice for this duty.
* A type Visucompact NS400N of Merlin Gerin manufacture is recommended for the case investigated.

250 kVA 20 kV/400 V

Visucompact NS400N

fig. H2-41: example of a transformer in a consumer's substation.

c several transformers in parallel (figure H2-42) v the circuit breakers CBP outgoing from the LV distribution board must each be capable of breaking the total fault current from all transformers connected to the busbars, viz: Isc1 + Isc2 + Isc3, v the circuit breakers CBM, each controlling the output of a transformer, must be capable of dealing with a maximum short-circuit current of (for example) Isc2 + Isc3 only, for a short-circuit located on the upstream side of CBM1. From these considerations, it will be seen that the circuit breaker of the smallest transformer will be subjected to the highest level of fault current in these circumstances, while the circuit breaker of the largest transformer will pass the lowest level of short-circuit current. v the ratings of CBMs must be chosen according to the kVA ratings of the associated transformers. Note: the essential conditions for the successful operation of 3-phase transformers in parallel may be summarized as follows: 1. the phase shift of the voltages, primary to secondary, must be the same in all units to be paralleled. 2. the open-circuit voltage ratios, primary to secondary, must be the same in all units. 3. the short-circuit impedance voltage (Zsc%) must be the same for all units. For example, a 750 kVA transformer with a Zsc = 6% will
H2-24 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear

HV Tr1 LV A1 B1 CBM A2 B2 CBP E

HV Tr2 LV CBM A3 B3 CBP

HV Tr3 LV CBM

fig. H2-42: transformers in parallel.

share the load correctly with a 1,000 kVA transformer having a Zsc of 6%, i.e. the transformers will be loaded automatically in proportion to their kVA ratings. For transformers having a ratio of kVA ratings exceeding 2, parallel operation is not recommended, since the resistance/ reactance ratios of each transformer will generally be different to the extent that the resulting circulating currrent may overload the smaller transformer.

H2
Table H2-43 indicates, for the most usual arrangement (2 or 3 transformers of equal kVA ratings) the maximum short-circuit currents to which main and principal CBs (CBM and CBP respectively, in figure H2-42) are subjected. The table is based on the following hypotheses: c the short-circuit 3-phase power on the HV side of the transformer is 500 MVA; c the transformers are standard 20/0.4 kV distribution-type units rated as listed; c the cables from each transformer to its LV circuit breaker comprise 5 metres of singlecore conductors; c between each incoming-circuit CBM and each outgoing-circuit CBP there is 1 metre of busbar; c the switchgear is installed in a floormounted enclosed switchboard, in an ambient-air temperature of 30 °C. Moreover, this table shows selected circuit breakers of M-G manufacture recommended for main and principal circuit breakers in each case. number and kVA ratings of 20/0.4 kV transformers 2 x 400 3 x 400 2 x 630 3 x 630 2 x 800 3 x 800 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 2 x 1600 3 x 1600 2 x 2000 3 x 2000 minimum S.C. breaking capacity of main CBs (Icu)* kA 14 27 22 43 24 48 27 54 31 62 36 72 39 77 main circuit breakers (CBM) total discrimination with out going-circuit breakers (CBP) M08 N1/C 801 N ST M08 N1/C 801 N ST M10N1/CM1250/C 1001 N M10H1/CM1250/C 1001 N M12N1/CM1250/C 1251 N M12H1/CM1250/C 1251 N M16N1/CM1600 M16H2/CM1600 M20N1/CM2000 M20H1/CM2000 M25N1/CM2500 M20H2/CM2500H M32H1/CM3200 M32H2/CM3200H minimum S.C. breaking cap. of principal CBs (Icu)* kA 27 40 42 64 48 71 54 80 60 91 70 105 75 112 rated current In of principal circuit breaker (CPB) 250 A NS 250 N NS 250 H NS 250 H NS 250 H NS 250 H NS 250 L NS 250 H NS 250 L NS 250 H NS 250 L NS 250 H NS 250 L NS 250 L NS 250 L

table H2-43: maximum values of short-circuit current to be interrupted by main and principal circuit breakers (CBM and CBP respectively), for several transformers in parallel.
* or Ics in countries where this alternative is practised.

Example: (figure H2-44) c circuit breaker selection for CBM duty: In for an 800 kVA transformer = 1.126 A (at 410 V, i.e. no-load voltage) Icu (minimum) = 48 kA (from table H2-43), the CBM indicated in the table is a Compact C1251 N (Icu = 50 kA) (by Merlin Gerin) or its equivalent; c circuit breaker selection for CBP duty: The s.c. breaking capacity (Icu) required for these circuit breakers is given in the table (H2-43) as 71 kA. A recommended choice for the three outgoing circuits 1, 2 and 3 would be current-limiting circuit breakers types NS 400 L, NS 100 L and NS 250 L respectively (by MG) or their equivalents. The Icu rating in each case = 150 kA. These circuit breakers provide the advantages of: v absolute discrimination with the upstream (CBM) breakers, v exploitation of the "cascading" technique, with its attendant economy for all downstream components.

3 Tr 800 kVA 20 kV/400V CBM

CBP1

CBP2

CBP3

400 A

100 A

200 A

fig H2-44: transformers in parallel.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-25

4 selection of a circuit breaker (continued) short-circuit fault-current levels at any point in an installation may be obtained from tables. v the length. or system changes upstream result in lowerlevel CB ratings being exceeded. on the upstream side.4. c two-pole circuit breakers (for phase and neutral) with one protected pole only These CBs are generally provided with an overcurrent protective device on the phase pole only. the value of 3-phase shortcircuit current can be determined rapidly for any point in the installation. it is necessary to use the method indicated in chapter H1 clause 4. except in particular circumstances on some IT systems. c insufficient short-circuit currentbreaking rating In low-voltage distribution systems it sometimes happens. cascading: a particular solution to problems of CBs insufficiently rated for S. knowing: v the value of short-circuit current at a point upstream of that intended for the CB concerned. c. allowing the principle of cascading (described in sub-clause 4. v solution 2: install a range of CBs having a higher rating. and may be used in TT. c detailed calculation of the short-circuit current level In order to calculate more precisely the shortcircuit current. especially in heavy-duty networks.a. or 25% of the 3-phase short-circuit current if it exceeds 10 kA. be capable of breaking on one pole (at the phase-to-phase voltage) the current of a double fault equal to 15% of the 3-phase short-circuit current at the point of its installation. v solution 3: associate current-limiting fuses (gG or aM) with the CBs concerned. except in certain IT installations where a double fault produces a current in the neutral which exceeds the short-circuit breaking rating of the CB. by convention. if that current is i 10 kA. however. however. H2-26 . when the short-circuit current-breaking capacity of a CB is slightly less than that derived from the table. This arrangement must..s.C.the switchgear . A circuit breaker rated for a short-circuit breaking capacity exceeding the tabulated value may then be selected.the fuse rating must be appropriate .no fuse in the neutral conductor. This solution is economically interesting only where one or two CBs are affected. breaking duty. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. In this case. In an IT scheme. notably. the following conditions must be respected: v condition (c) of table H1-65 for the protection of the neutral conductor against overcurrent in the case of a double fault.2. that the Isc calculated exceeds the Icu rating of the CBs available for installation. v protection against indirect contact: this protection is provided according to the rules for IT schemes. and the composition of the conductors between the two points. TN-S and IT schemes. respect the following rules: . Choice of outgoing-circuit CBs and final-circuit CBs c use of table H1-40 From this table. v solution 1: check whether or not appropriate CBs upstream of the CBs affected are of the current-limiting type.the protection of circuits . associating fuses with CBs avoids the need for a fuse in the neutral. v short-circuit current-breaking rating: A 2-pole phase-neutral CB must. the blowing of the neutral fuse must cause the CB to trip on all phases.5) to be applied. as described in chapter G sub-clause 6.

the current magnitude is (to some extent) self-regulating. laboratory tests are necessary to ensure that the conditions of exploitation required by national standards are met and compatible switchgear combinations must be provided by the manufacturer. the currentlimiter CB remains closed. the technique of "cascading" uses the properties of current-limiting circuit breakers to permit the installation of all downstream switchgear. The circuit breaker is easily able to break the resulting low value of current. the protection of circuits . particularly since the power factor of the fault-current loop is increased by the resistive impedance of the arcs. i. Failure of downstream CBs to trip will result in the tripping of the current-limiting CB.5 coordination between circuit breakers Preliminary note on the essential function of current limiting circuit breakers Low-voltage current-limiting CBs exploit the resistance of the short-circuit current arc in the CB to limit the value of current. The contact bar in the limiter module resets under the influence of its pressure springs when the flow of short-circuit current ceases. a current-limiting CB permits the use. Reduced physical size and lower performance requirements lead to substantial economies and to the simplification of installation work. for example. and close to the contact bar. on condition that the amount of energy "let through" by the limiting CB is less than that which all downstream CBs and components are able to withstand without damage. NS 160. the more the repulsive force on the bar and the greater the arc resistance as its path lengthens. the contact pressure of which is accurately maintained by springs. NS 250 and NS 400) is particularly interesting.H2-27 .e. so that users can confidently design a cascading scheme based on the combination of circuit breaker types recommended. such that when current is passed through the ensemble. A contact bar (per phase) in the module bridges two (specially-designed heavy-duty) contacts. during the starting of a large motor (where a low source impedance is highly desirable). table H2-45 indicates the possibilities of cascading circuit breaker types* C 60 and NC 100 when installed downstream of current-limiting CBs NS 250 N. it has no such effect at any other time. Such tests are carried out by manufacturers who provide the information in the form of tables. the electromagnetic force tends to move the contact bar to open its contacts. Other rigidly-fixed conductors are arranged in series with. after its brief time delay. By way of an example. The resistance of the arcs is comparable with system impedances at low voltage. i.e. the tripping of the limiting CB main contacts is briefly delayed. Conditions of exploitation Most national standards permit use of the cascading technique. of switchgear and circuit components having much lower short-circuit breaking capacities. cascading Definition of the cascading technique By limiting the peak value of short-circuit current passing through it. to allow downstream high-speed circuit breakers to clear the (limited) current. When used in a cascading scheme as described below. It may be noted that. An improved method of achieving currentlevel limitation is to associate a separate current-limiting module (in series) with a standard CB. H or L for a 230/400 V or 240/415 V 3-phase installation. which then passes through the arcs formed at each contact.the switchgear . the higher the current. thereby simplifying and reducing the cost of an installation. cables and other circuit components of significantly lower performance than would otherwise be necessary. in all circuits downstream of its location. This occurs at relatively low values of shortcircuit current. In practice this can only be verified for CBs by tests performed in a laboratory. and thermal and electromechanical withstand capabilities than would otherwise be the case. * Merlin Gerin products in general.H2 4. Furthermore. while a current-limiting circuit breaker has the effect on downstream circuits of (apparently) increasing the source impedance during short-circuit conditions. A new range of Compact* current-limiting circuit breakers with powerful limiting performances (namely: NS 100. so that the current is correspondingly restricted.

s. 150 NS250L 100 70 NS250H 36 NS250N 25 22 Short-circuit breaking capacity of the downstream CBs (benefiting from the cascading technique) kA r. c the use of lighter-duty switchgear and appliances. The result is: c simplified short-circuit current calculations. both A and B will trip (figure H2-48). Discrimination between circuit breakers A and B is absolute if the maximum value of shortcircuit-current on circuit B does not exceed the short-circuit trip setting of circuit breaker A. A more recent development is based on the principles of logic. For this maximum condition. H2-46: absolute and partial discrimination. with consequently lower cost. i. while all other protective devices remain unaffected (figure H2-46).5 coordination between circuit breakers (continued) Advantages of cascading The limitation of current benefits all downstream circuits that are controlled by the current-limiting CB concerned. or a combination of both. 150 NC100LH NC100LMA 100 NC100LS 70 NC100LS NC100L NC100LH NC100LMA 50 NC100L 40 C60L i 40 C60L i 40 30 C60H C60N C60N C60L C60H C60H C60L C60L (50 to 63) (50 to 63) NC100H NC100H 25 C60N NC100H 20 C60a C60a 15 C60a tables H2-45: example of cascading possibilities on a 230/400 V or 240/415 V 3-phase installation. B only will trip (figure H2-47).m.m. c simplification.e. a wider choice of downstream switchgear and appliances. Discrimination is partial if the maximum possible short-circuit current on circuit B exceeds the short-circuit trip-current setting of circuit breaker A. IscA A IscB B absolute discrimination IrB IccB Icc partial discrimination B only open A and B opens IrB Ic IccB Icc fig. since light-duty equipment is generally less voluminous. Short-circuit breaking capacity of the upstream (limiter) CBs kA r.the protection of circuits .s. discriminative tripping (selectivity) Discrimination is achieved by automatic protective devices if a fault condition. For this condition. c economy of space requirements. currentlimiting CBs can be installed at any point in an installation where the downstream circuits would otherwise be inadequately rated. or time-delays. i. H2-28 . A (patented) system by Merlin Gerin exploits the advantages of both current-limitation and discrimination. is cleared by the protective device located immediately upstream of the fault. and based on the principles of current levels. occurring at any point in the installation.the switchgear .4. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. The principle is not restrictive. discrimination may be absolute or partial.e.

H2-48: partial discrimination between CBs A and B. t conventional instantaneous magnetic-trip characteristic pressure operated magnetic-trip characteristic Irm B Irm A Isc table H2-49: summary of methods and components used in order to achieve discriminative tripping. as noted in the above examples. fig.H2-29 . This is achieved by using current-limiting CBs and initiating CB tripping by pressure-sensitive detectors in the arcing chambers of the CBs. The heated-air pressure level depends on the energy level of the arc. from downstream relays (lower settings) towards the source (higher settings). Discrimination is absolute if Isc B < Irm A (instantaneous). This method is implemented by adjusting the time-delayed tripping units. discrimination based on current levels. In the two-level arrangement shown. A t B A ∆t B Isc B I 3. such that downstream relays have the shortest operating times. with progressively longer delays towards the source. t B A Irm B Irm A Isc B I 2. as described in the following pages (figures H2-54 and H2-55).Irm A (instantaneous) standard (Compact type SA) * short-delay. H2-47: absolute discrimination between CBs A and B. discrimination based on a combination of methods 1 and 2.H2 t t B A B A Isc downstream of B Ir B Ir A Icc B Irm A I Ir B Ir A B only opens Irm A Isc B A and B open IscA I fig. This method is realized by setting successive relay tripping thresholds at stepped levels. the protection of circuits . this system provides absolute discrimination between two circuit breakers passing the same fault current. A mechanical time-delay added to a currentlevel scheme can improve the overall discrimination performance. upstream circuit breaker A is delayed sufficiently to ensure absolute discrimination with B (for example: Masterpact electronic). according to the particular conditions. discrimination based on stepped time delays. The upstream CB has two high-speed magnetic tripping thresholds: . t B A Isc B Irm A delayed Irm A instantaneo us I 4.the switchgear . 1.Irm A (delayed) or a SD* electronic timer . Discrimination is absolute or partial. discrimination based on arc-energy levels (Merlin Gerin patent) In the range of short-circuit currents.

Current-level discrimination Current-level discrimination is achieved with circuits breakers. as previously noted in 1.g.4. preferably limiters. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. This accounts for the curved characteristic shown for the standard circuit breaker A in figure H2-50. The delay is sufficient to ensure absolute discrimination with any downstream high-speed CB at any value of s. Example: circuit breaker A: Compact NS250 N fitted with a trip unit which includes a SD feature. Discrimination at several levels An example of a practical scheme with (MG) circuit breakers Masterpact (electronic protection devices). c the downstream circuit breaker is a current limiter. H2-50: downstream limiting circuit breaker B. These CBs can be equipped with adjustable timers which allow 4 time-step selections. Two circuit breakers A and B in series (i. These circuit breakers are fitted with trip units which include a non-adjustable mechanical short-time-delay feature. H2-30 . to ensure satisfactory performance of this arrangement. and stepped current-level settings of the instantaneous magnetic-trip elements. above.5 coordination between circuit breakers (continued) current-level discrimination is achieved with stepped current-level settings of the instantaneous magnetic-trip elements.e. Improvement in discriminative tripping can be obtained by using a current limiter in a downstream location. even those that are not classified as currentlimiters. for circuit breaker B. Application of these CBs is relatively simple and consists in delaying the instant of tripping of the several series-connected circuit breakers in a stepped time sequence. In this case discrimination is partial.000 A (an improvement over the limit of 2. The discrimination may be absolute or partial for a short-circuit fault downstream of B. discrimination based on time-delayed tripping uses CBs referred to as "selective" (in certain countries).000 A circuit breaker B: Compact NS100N Ir = 100 A The Merlin Gerin distribution catalogue indicates a discrimination limit of 3. Note: All LV breakers (considered here) have some inherent degree of current limitation. passing the same current) are discriminative if the current-breaking period of downstream breaker B is less than the non-tripping time of circuit breaker A. Careful calculation and testing is necessary. Absolute discrimination in this situation is practically impossible because Isc A z Isc B.500 A obtained when using a standard tripping unit). however. c CBs with adequate thermal and mechanical withstand capabilities at the elevated current levels and time delays envisaged. c the downstream circuit breaker is not a current-limiter. the limited level of peak current IB would operate the (suitably adjusted) magnetic trip unit of B.c. e. such as: c the delay corresponding to a given step is greater than the total current breaking time of the next lower step. magnetic trip set at 2. current up to Irms (figure H2-51).the switchgear . Time-based discrimination This technique requires: c the introduction of "timers" into the tripping mechanisms of CBs. c the upstream circuit breaker is highspeed with a short-delay (SD) feature. and limited to the Irm of the upstream circuit breaker. I peak A fault upstream of B fault downstream of B current limitation curve for circuit breaker (see note) B Isc I Isc prospective (rms) fig. For a short-circuit downstream of B. Ir = 250 A. t A B non tripping time of A current-breaking time for B only B open Ir B Isc B Isc I fig. H2-51: use of a "selective" circuit breaker upstream. so that both circuit breakers will generally trip in unison. t A (compact S) B only B opens A and B open Irm A Irm S delayed instantaneous I fig. c the delay corresponding to the first step is greater than the total current-breaking time of a high-speed CB (type Compact for example) or of fuses (figure H2-52). H2-52: discrimination by time delay. but would be insufficient to cause circuit breaker A to trip.the protection of circuits .

so that the electromagnetic forces due to a short-circuit downstream of CB (B) will cause the currentlimiting arcing contacts of both CBs to open simultaneously. H2-55: ratio of rated currents of CBs and of tripping units. thereby ensuring back-up protection in the event that B fails to clear the fault. This signal causes the tripping unit of A to be delayed. and so on… This system (patented by Merlin Gerin) also allows rapid localization of the fault. the protection of circuits . use the principle of arc-energy levels to obtain discrimination. The resulting current will therefore be significantly greater than that occurring for a short-circuit downstream of CB (B) (where the two arcs in series cause a very strong limitation. The intense heat of the current arc in each CB causes a rapid expansion of the air in the confined space of the arcing chambers. designed for this application. as previously described in this chapter.H2-31 A pilot wires B fig. Above a certain level of current. NS250N TM260D CB (A) CB (B) NS100N TM100D fig. H2-53: discrimination logic. thereby producing a correspondingly rapid pressure rise. Masterpact by MG) and interconnected with pilot wires. Discrimination is assured with this particular switchgear if: c the ratio of rated currents of the two CBs u 2. Operation principle Both CBs are current limiters. If a short-circuit occurs downstream of CB (A) but upstream of CB (B). to ensure discrimination. the larger the short-circuit current.the switchgear . recently-introduced circuit breakers such as Merlin Gerin type NS. c the ratio of the two trip-unit current ratings is > 1. Discrimination requires that the energy allowed to pass by the downstream CB (B) is less than that which will cause the upstream CB (A) to trip (fig. . Discrimination principle If both CBs include a pressure tripping device suitably regulated. circuit breaker A is set to trip instantaneously.5. which will be sufficient to operate its pressure-sensitive tripping unit (diagrams (b) and (c) of fig. The fault current will be very strongly limited by the resistance of the two series arcs. the faster the CB will trip. H2-54). H2-54 (a)). together with interconnecting pilot wires for data exchange between the CBs. unless the relay of circuit breaker B sends a signal to confirm that the fault is downstream of B. Limitation and discrimination by exploitation of arc energy The technique of "arc-energy discrimination" (Merlin Gerin patent) is applied on circuits having a short-circuit current level u 25 In and ensures absolute selectivity between two CBs carrying the same short-circuit current. using CBs equipped with electronic tripping units designed for the purpose (Compact.H2 discrimination schemes based on logic techniques are possible. With 2 levels A and B (figure H2-53). as shown (typically) in figure H2-55. the pressure rise can be reliably detected and used to initiate instantaneous tripping. For overcurrent conditions less than those of short-circuits i 25 In. must comply with limits stated in the text. then the arc resistance of CB (A) only will limit the current. As can be seen from figure H2-49 (4). H2-54).6. the conventional protection schemes are employed. as previously mentioned). H2-54: arc-energy discrimination principles. CB (A) Compact NS (a) CB (B) Compact NS Isc = 50 kA I Isc (prospective) CB (A) only CB (A) and CB (B) in series Isc (limited) t Pressure in arcing chamber CB (A) setting (b) (c) CB (B) setting t fig. The larger current through CB (A) will produce a correspondingly greater pressure. Discrimination logic This discrimination system requires CBs equipped with electronic tripping units. then absolute discrimination between two CBs of different current ratings can be achieved by setting CB (B) to trip at a lower pressure level than that of CB (A) (fig.

c transformer HL/LV: 1.7.7. The basic requirement is that a HV fuse will not operate for LV faults occurring downstream of the transformer LV circuit breaker. by following the advice of the fuse manufacturer. Where a transformer is controlled and protected on the high-voltage side by a circuit breaker.800 A (Ir).8 kA. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. H2-32 .4 kA I fig.LV circuit breaker: 10 metres single-core cables.and/ or VT. so that the tripping characteristic curve of the latter must be to the left of that of the HV fuse pre-arcing curve. c short-circuit level at HV terminals of transformer: 250 MVA.2. which energize a shunt-trip coil of the circuit breaker. A general policy for HV fuse/LV circuit breaker discrimination. Discrimination can be achieved. is mentioned in chapter C sub-clause 3. t (ms) 1000 200 100 CM 2000 set at 1800 A minimum pre-arcing curve for 63 A HV fuses (current referred to the secondary side of the transformer) 6 Ir 8 Ir 10 1 Ir 4 Ir 220 1 50 0.250 kVA 20/0. together with high-speed tripping for faults on the transformer. by using the methods described in chapter C sub-clause 3. adopted in some countries. H2-57: curves of HV fuses and LV circuit breaker. c cabling. c HV fuses: 63 A (table C 11). for further details. This requirement generally fixes the maximum settings for the LV circuit breaker protection: c maximum short-circuit current-level setting of the magnetic tripping element.the protection of circuits .2.4 kV. c a time-delay setting of step O or A. and Appendix C1.01 step C step B step A step 0 1800 A Ir 10 kA Isc maxi 31.the switchgear . H2-56: example. which is based on standardized manufacturing tolerance limits.2. c LV circuit breaker: Visucompact CM 2000 set at 1. See also Chapter C sub-clause 3. What is the maximum short-circuit trip current setting and its maximum time delay allowable? The curves of figure H2-57 show that discrimination is assured if the short-time delay tripping unit of the CB is set at: c a level i 6 Ir = 10. c maximum time-delay allowable for the short-circuit current tripping element.6 discrimination HV/LV in a consumer's substation In general the transformer in a consumer's substation is protected by HV fuses. 63 A full-load current 1760 A 3-phase short-circuit current level 31. suitably rated to match the transformer. in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC 787 and IEC 420. and illustrated in figure C-21.operated relays.4 kA 1250 kVA 20 kV / 400 V Visucompact CM 2000 set at 1800 A fig. it is usual to install separate CT.4. transformer .

The current continues to decrease during the ensuing “transient” interval which may last for 80 ms to 280 ms depending on the machine type. size.5 In to 4 In* (figure J1-2). compounded to maintain the terminal voltage sensibly constant. An interval of 10 ms to 20 ms following the instant of short-circuit is referred to as the “sub-transient” period.. automatic fire-protection equipment.) or: c because it concerns priority circuits. is to install a diesel-generator set connected. alarms and signalization. because safety systems are involved (emergency lighting. For example. from which the essential services are fed (figure J1-1). on the occurrence of a shortcircuit at the three phase terminals of an alternator.3 In instant of fault 10 to 20 ms 0.1 to 0. subtransient period transient period 0. decrement”. by overcoming the synchronous impedance of the machine as reactive current demand changes. In the (rare) case of manual control of the excitation. but is often close to In*. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator J a major difficulty encountered when an installation may be supplied from alternative sources (e. smoke dispersal fans.s.m.1 an alternator on short-circuit the establishment of short-circuit current (fig. J1-1: example of circuits supplied from a transformer or from an alternator. in the event that the public electricity supply fails: c either.. that of the generator being much higher than that of the transformer.m. in which the current decreases rapidly from its initial value. a HV/LV transformer or a LV generator) is the provision of electrical protection which operates satisfactorily on either source.s.3 In. Almost all modern generator sets have automatic voltage regulators. a further difficulty (from the electrical-protection point of view) is that during the period in which LV circuit breakers are normally intended to operate.3 s alternator with manual excitation control t fig. at a value which depends mainly on the type of excitation system. One of the current means of maintaining a supply to the so-called “essential” loads. J1-2: establishment of short-circuit current for a three-phase short circuit at the terminals of an alternator.c. etc. J1-2) Apart from the limited magnitude of fault current from a standby alternator. This results in an increase in the level of fault current during the transient period to give a steady fault current in the order of 2. G standby supply change-over switch non essential loads essential loads fig. value of current will immediately rise to a value of 3 In to 5 In*. Most industrial and large commercial electrical installations include certain important loads for which a power supply must be maintained. the value of short-circuit current changes drastically. The overall phenomenon is referred to as the “a. or the destruction of a machine tool.J1 . c automatic (see figure J1-2). in the event that other sources fail.5 seconds. the stoppage of which would entail a loss of production. and so on. such HV LV as certain equipment. particular supply sources and loads . to an emergency-power standby switchboard. 3 In alternator with automatic voltage regulator In 0. or more. the r. etc. The crux of the problem is the great difference in the source impedances. via a changeover switch. * depending on the characteristics of the particular machine. 1. The current will finally stabilize in about r. resulting in a corresponding difference in the magnitudes of fault currents. the synchronous impedance of the machine will reduce the short-circuit current to a value which can be as low as 0.1. viz: c manual.g.

the a. J2 . the alternator reactance will rapidly increase. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued) J 1. i. It can be seen from the constantly-changing value of r.1 (figure C-5). but.m.1 an alternator on short-circuit (continued) Figure J1-2 shows the r. The transient reactance is used when considering the breaking capacity of LV circuit breakers with an opening time that exceeds 20 ms. will be conservative. components of current are always present to some degree in at least two phases. in fact. and also for the electrodynamic stresses to be withstood by CBs and other components (such as busbars. respectively. x’o = 6% Pn and Un being.c. For the circuit breaker short-circuit making capacity. component in each phase simply increases the r. the actual currents will always be either equal to or higher than those calculated. This feature would appear to complicate still further the matter of electrical protection. Remark: from the instant at which the shortcircuit is established. the following representative values may be used: x”d = 20% . x’d = 30 % .c. The ohmic value X”d is therefore calculated as follows: x”d Un2 10-5 X”d (ohms) = Pn where: x”d is in % Un is in volts (phase/phase) Pn is in kVA c the % transient reactance x’d is given in ohms by: x'd Un2 10-5 X'd (ohms) = Pn c the % zero-phase-sequence reactance x’o is given in ohms by: x'o Un2 10-5 X'o (ohms) = Pn In the absence of more precise information. c the sub-transient reactance x”d is expressed in % by the manufacturer (analogous to the short-circuit impedance voltage of a transformer).m. i. * An explanation of the significance of the fixed reactance values and how they relate to a smooth variation of current is briefly described in Appendix J1. The further the point of short-circuit from the generator the lower the fault current.1. the d. components of current only. Furthermore.s.s. components disappear.e.c. unidirectional components. there is an inherent safety factor incorporated in the current-level calculation. This means that the currents calculated from the defined fixed values x"d and x'd (for breaking capacity) will always exceed those that will actually occur at the instant of circuit breaker contact separation.e.s. being maximum when the short-circuit occurs at the alternator terminals. Resistances are negligibly small compared to the reactances.c. Sub-clause 1.c. the d. decrement also becomes negligible when the network impedance to the fault position attains ohmic values which are high compared with the reactance values of the alternator (since the overall change in impedance is then relatively small). and the more rapidly the transient d. These calculations for the circuit breaker short-circuit breaking capacity are based on the symmetrical a. d. alternator impedance data Manufacturers furnish values of the several impedances mentioned below.c. on the assumption that no d. In practice. the rated 3-phase power (kVA) and the rated phase/phase voltage of the alternator (volts). cleated single-core cables. i.c. values already mentioned.e. components. values of current. etc.m. current that the effective reactance* changes constantly from a low value (sub-transient reactance) to a high value (synchronous reactance) in a smooth progression. The values discussed below are derived from test curves and correspond with current values measured at the instant of shortcircuit. components are crucial. transient components exist. as discussed in Chapter C.).c.c. no account is taken of the d. The sub-transient reactance is used when calculating the short-circuit current-breaking rating for LV circuit breakers which have opening times of 20 ms or less. as indicated below. so that calculations and trippingcurrent settings for protective devices based only on the a.particular supply sources and loads . and also for the thermal withstand capabilities of switchgear and other system components.

* for CBs with opening time exceeding 20 ms.J short-circuit current magnitude at the terminals of an alternator c the transient 3-phase short-circuit current at the terminals of an alternator is given by: Ig Isc = 100* where: x’d Ig: rated full-load current of the alternator x’d = transient reactance per phase of the alternator in %.2 kA ex 400 x 30 particular supply sources and loads . The difference will be even greater where (as is generally the case) the alternator rating is lower than that of the transformer. J1-3: example of an essential services switchboard supplied (in an emergency) from a standby alternator. c transformer supply 3-phase Isc = 21.J3 . c when these values are compared with those for a short-circuit at the LV terminals of 630 kVA 20 kV/400 V Usc = 4% a transformer of equal kVA rating. Example (figure J1 . 250 kVA 400 V X'd = 30% A non essential loads essential loads fig. the current from the alternator will be found to be of the order of 5 or 6 times less than that from the transformer.5 kA (see table C20 in Chapter C) c alternator supply 3-phase Isc = Ig x 100 = Pn x 100 x'd x'd eUn where: Pn is expressed in kVA Un is expressed in volts x’d is expressed in % Isc is expressed in kA 3-phase Isc = 250 x 100 = 1.3) What is the value of 3-phase short-circuit current at point A according to the origin of supply? Circuit impedances are negligible compared with those of the sources.

which depends on the following principle: short-circuit currents cause much lower system voltages than overload currents. J1-4. time (s) 1000 100 12 10 7 3 2 1 1. Suggestion 2 (for TN circuits). breaking capacity This parameter must always be calculated for the condition of supply from the transformer. breaking capacity and range of adjustable magnetic tripping unit) of the CBs protecting the circuits of essential loads must be defined as described below: Choice of s. with the advantage that discrimination with circuit protection schemes is absolute. one of which corresponds to that of fig. Instantaneous or short-time delay magneticrelay trip settings of the circuit breakers concerned must therefore be set to operate at minimum fault levels occurring at the extremity of the circuits they protect. c the second concerns protection of persons against electric shock from indirect contact.c.1 1. the curve shown in figure J1-4 is representative (see Note 1). An inverse-time/current overload relay is used having two operating curves.c. J4 .5 2 3 4 5 I/IG overload fig. For the basic protection requirements of an alternator. often provide a simpler solution as noted in 1. viz: overload protection. If the system voltage falls below a pre-set value. so that. Where the level of earth-fault current is not sufficient. Note 1. as indicated in Chapter G Sub-clause 6.particular supply sources and loads . Sensitive high-speed protection of an alternator against internal faults (i. Modern low-setting magnetic tripping units. Adjustment of magnetic tripping units In practice. the only circuit breakers concerned are those protecting the essential services circuits at the main general distribution board.2 1.e. are necessary on IT systems. J1-4. the relay is automatically switched to operate much faster and at lower current levels than those shown in fig. upstream of its CB) is always possible by using a pilot-wire and current-transformers differential scheme of protection. Two difficulties have to be overcome: c the first is the need for discrimination of circuit protection with the protection scheme for the alternator. The problem of discriminative overload protection (as noted above) remains.2 protection of essential services circuits supplied in emergencies from an alternator the difficulty is due to the small margin between the rated current and the short-circuit current of the alternator. Note 2. the protection against indirect-contact hazards can be provided by an appropriate use of RCDs. however. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued) J 1. in IT* or TN systems). however. to trip CBs on overcurrent. A widely-used solution to this problem is provided by a voltage-controlled overcurrent relay. J1-4: overload protection of an alternator.3 below. The characteristics (s.5. or other “normal” source. * Two concurrent earth faults on different phases or on one phase and on a neutral conductor.1.5 Suggestion 2 (for IT circuits) and Sub-clause 5. to create an indirect-contact hazard. when being supplied from the alternator. The operation of these relays must be assured. adequate fault currents are available from an alternator to ensure satisfactory protective-gear operation at these lower levels. whether the supply is from the alternator or from the transformer (see Note 2). and is effective when system voltage levels are normal. The protection of circuits from local distribution or sub-distribution boards is always calibrated at a much lower level than those at the main general distribution board. except in unusual cases. when the protection depends on the operation of overcurrent relays (for example. in IT* and TN systems.

2) B suband final circuits FBR > Isc with supply from transformer check the protection of persons against indirect-contact hazards. impedances can then be determined by the use of software.4.J 1. these CBs (or their equivalents) will always be necessary when the current rating of the CB is greater than one third of the alternator current rating and will. of the accuracy of the zerophase-sequence impedances. particular supply sources and loads . mainly because of the uncertainly. J1-5: the protection of essential services circuits. Switchgear manufacturers often furnish tables showing recommended combinations of circuit breakers for commonly-used standby-generator schemes. obviate the need for voltage-controlled overload relays. from the calculation of the fault-loop impedance Zs (by the sum of impedances method) is difficult. * Merlin Gerin products. Software packages for this purpose are available. Approximate methods for 3-phase and 1-phase short circuits are presented in Sub-clause 1. currently available commercially. such as Compact NS* with STR (magnetic-trip short time delay is adjustable from 1. types of suitable tripping units The choice of low-setting magnetic tripping units will generally be necessary.J5 .5 to 10 Ir) or circuit breakers Multi 9* curve B (tripping between 3 and 5 In).3 choice of tripping units the calculation of the minimum fault current (in IT or TN schemes) is complex. characteristics of protection for essential-services circuits type of circuit fault-breaking rating (FBR) dieselgenerator protection cabinet power-source changeover switch tripping unit adjustment main circuits FBR > Isc with supply from transformer Im or short-delay trip setting level < the minimum fault current at the far end of the circuit when supplied from the alternator (see Note 2 in Sub-clause 1. in most cases. calculation of the fault-current loop impedance (Zs) for IT and TN systems The determination of the minimum level of short-circuit current. In practice.2) Isc: 3-ph short-circuit current Im: magnetic-tripping-relay current setting loads fig. in a practical installation. When conductor routes are known in sufficient detail. particularly on IT and TN systems (see Note 2 in Sub-clause 1.

particular supply sources and loads . protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued) J 1.5 L S R X mΩ X'd 0. J6 .4 methods of approximate calculation An installation on (normal) 630 kVA transformer supply (figure J1-6) includes an essential-services distribution board which can also be supplied from a standby 400 kVA diesel-alternator set. item of plant alternator circuit total R mΩ Ra 22. in mm2 L = length in metres For the calculation of cable impedance.08 x L X Z mΩ Isc kA R2 + X 2 1. transformer 630 kVA 20 kV/400 V What circuit breakers should be installed on the out-going ways from the essentialservices board: c if the installation is TN-earthed? c if the installation is IT-earthed? alternator 400 kVA 400 V alternator and diesel protection equipment cabinet PE essential circuits main distribution board NS250N STR22SE 250 A IB = 220 A 100 m 120 mm2 PE : 70 mm2 non essential circuits NS160N TM400D IB = 92 A 70 m 35 mm2 PE : 35 mm2 sub-distribution board fig. S = c. Sub-clause 4. refer to Chapter H1. calculation of the minimum level of 3-phase short-circuit current Table J1-7 shows the procedure for an alternator together with one or several circuits.s.2.a.1. J1-6: example.05xVn R2 + X 2 table J1-7: procedure for the calculation of 3-phase short-circuit current.

89 mΩ 120 Xc = 0.05 Vn = 1.89 = 50.08 x 100 x 2 = 16 mΩ c application of the method of impedances.5 L (1 + m) Sph R X mΩ 2 X'd + Xo 3 0.06) x 1 = 88 mΩ 400 3 c circuit Rc = 22.75 = 18.) Z 0. so that the above value will normally be exceeded during the period required to trip the CB.2. transient current in at least two phases.m. Consider the 220 A circuit in figure J1-6 c alternator Ra = 0 2 Xa = (2 x 120 + 400 x 0.05 x 230 = 2.J Consider the 220 A circuit in figure J1-6 c alternator Ra = 0 2 2 X’d = Un x 0.892 + 1042 = 115.08 x L x 2 X Z mΩ Isc kA R2 + X 2 1.75)2 + (128)2 = 129.30 = 400 x 0.5 x 100 = 18.08 x 100 = 8 mΩ c application of the method of impedances as indicated in table J1-7.s. as for the previous example: R = Ra + Rc = 0 + 50.5 x 100 x (1 + 120 / 70) = 50.87 kA (r.8 mΩ and Isc1 (phase/neutral) = 1.09 kA.c.89 mΩ X = Xa + Xc = 88 + 16 = 104 mΩ The total impedance: Z = R2 + X 2 = 50.129 Note: In practice there will always be some measure of d. refer to Chapter H1.8 particular supply sources and loads . For the calculation of cable impedance.05 x 230 = 1.05xVn R2 + X 2 table J1-8: procedure for the calculation of 1-phase to neutral short-circuit current. Sub-clause 4.J7 .75 mΩ 120 Xc = 0.30 = 120 mΩ Pn 400 c circuit Rc = 22.4 mΩ Isc = 1. 115. R = Ra + Rc = 0 + 18.75 mΩ X = X’d + Xc = 120 + 8 = 128 mΩ total impedance per phase: Z = R2 + X 2 = (18. calculation of the minimum level of 1-phase to earth short-circuit fault current Table J1-8 shows the procedure for an alternator together with one or several circuits. item of plant alternator circuit total R mΩ Ra 22.

2 In 1. J8 . The setting of the protective relay must therefore be selected to a current level below that calculated.870/250 = 7.866 Isc (3-phase) 2 Z1 Z1 c In table J1-8 the calculated cable reactance assumes that X1 = X2 = X0 for the cable.5 Isc (phase to neutral) i. If the neutral is distributed. half the value of a phase-to-neutral short-circuit current. current occurs when a phase-to-earth fault and a neutral-to-earth fault occur concurrently.4 = 6.5 In would be appropriate.5 kA) would be appropriate. > 21.4 In. the minimum s. the maximum permissible setting would be 7. c IT scheme In this case the protection must operate for a second earth fault occurring before the first earth fault is cleared.5 In (the 1.c. is conventionally used to ensure positive relay operation. i.e. and a protective relay setting equal to 0.4 methods of approximate calculation (continued) maximum permissible setting of instantaneous or short-time delay tripping units c TN scheme Of the two fault conditions considered (3-phase and 1-phase/neutral) the 3-phase fault was found to give the lower short-circuit current. For the 220 A outgoing circuit the trip unit would be rated at 250 A and adjusted (in principle) to Isc/250.c.7 In 250 1. the minimum s.5 x 2.2 A tripping unit type TM250D* set at 6 In on a NS250N* circuit breaker (breaking capacity = 36 kA i.0 In would be satisfactory. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued) J 1.1.e.04 kA The 250 A tripping unit will be set at 1.e. the minimum s. current = 0.08 = 1.2 accounting for the ± 20 % manufacturing tolerance for tripping units). Note: The foregoing method is based on a simplified application of the following formulae: Œ Isc (3-phase) = V ph Z1  Isc (phase/phase) = eVph Z1+Z2 Ž Isc (phase/earth) = 3 Vph Z1+Z2+Z0 Where Z1 = positive phase-sequence impedance Z2 = negative phase-sequence impedance Z0 = zero phase-sequence impedance Simplifications: c Z1 is assumed to be equal to Z2 so that formula  becomes eVph = 0.866 Isc (Isc = the 3-phase s. as before) A STR22SE tripping unit. so that in formula z the total reactance = (X1 + X2 + X0) 1/3 = (3 X1) 1/3 = X1 * Merlin Gerin product. Owing to a ± 20 % manufacturing tolerance however. current relay setting = 0.particular supply sources and loads . A TM250D or a STR22SE tripping unit set at 2. If the neutral conductor is not distributed.87 = 0.5 x 0.c. v when the neutral is distributed. v for the case of a non-distributed neutral. concurrent earth faults on two different phases) which is equal to 0.2 factor covering manufacturing tolerance. set at 3.866 Vph or 0.e. 1.c. This condition (only) produces indirect-contact hazards on an IT system.040 x 1 250 1.2 = 3.2 (the factor 1. then the minimum short-circuit current for the system will be the phase-to-phase value (i. current).866 x 1.81 kA The tripping unit rated at 250 A will be set at 810 x 1 = 2.

portable power packs The use of hand-carried power packs by the general public is becoming more and more popular.1 to 1. generating sets Practical guides in certain national standards classify generator sets according to three categories.5 the protection of standby and mobile a. mobile sets These are used mainly to provide temporary supplies (on construction sites for example) where protection of persons against electric shock must be ensured by the use of RCDs with an operating threshold not exceeding 30 mA. double insulation).J 1. non-metallic conduit prividing supplementary insulation PE C32N 30 mA T Vigicompact NS100 TM63G 30 mA PE load circuits fig.c. c portable power packs (figure J1-10). particular supply sources and loads . J1-9: mobile generating set. viz: c permanent installations (as discussed in Sub-clauses 1.4). When the pack and associated appliances are not of Class II (i. 30 mA RCDs are required by most national standards. C60N 30 mA T fig.J9 .e. J1-10: portable power pack with RCD protection. c mobile sets (figure J1-9).

supply to the load. as shown in figure J2-2. while. source load sinusoidal a. and without interruption. a trickle charge from the rectifier maintains the battery fully charged. maintains the pollution-free a. to computer systems). supply network and the load. power supply from the distribution network would simply result in the battery automatically maintaining the output from the inverter with no discernable interruption.c. The two most commonlyused types are described below.c. On loss of the latter.and low-frequency parasites.c. industrial parasites. but totally unacceptable to sensitive electronic systems) of miniinterruptions of several milli-seconds. d.c.1 what is an inverter? An inverter produces an a. the switching of large electric motors (lifts. and is autonomous. power supply network rectifier charger battery inverter sensitive load fig. Apart from occasional loss of supply. which carries the normal load. output inverter fig. free from interference) from a d. or not. on loss of the a. within the capacity of its battery. source. an undistorted sine-wave. c on-line. the battery automatically. which affords a supply of electrical energy within strict tolerance limits.e. continuous “noise” from fluorescent-lamp circuits and (normally undetectable. On the return of normal power supply. When the tolerance limits are exceeded. the period of which depends on the battery capacity and load magnitude.2. Its main purpose (when associated with a rectifier which provides its input) is to afford a high-quality power supply to equipment for which the interference and disturbances of a normal power-supply system cannot be tolerated (e. changes over rapidly to the UPS unit (in less than 10 ms) the power then being supplied from the battery. regardless of the state of the a. J2-1: inverter function. the contactor changes back to its original condition. power supply network F sensitive load rectifier/ charger battery inverter filter fig.c. the rectifier supplies the load through the inverter. an elementary UPS system is formed. J2-3: on-line UPS system. J10 . By the addition of a storage battery at the input terminals of the inverter (and therefore across the output terminals of the associated rectifier). power supply.2 types of UPS system there are two main types of UPS system: c off-line. The total load passes through the system. An off-line type of UPS system (figure J2-2) is connected in parallel with a supply direct from the public distribution network. The most common use for such units is the supply to multi-workstation ITE (information technology equipment) installations. transient currents such as those for motorstarting and switching on of (cold) resistive loads. fluorescent lighting) are among the many causes of poor quality of supplies. including a total loss of supply. 2. its function is the inverse of that of a rectifier (figure J2-1). a. and has an autonomous capability. at the same time.c. J2-2: off-line UPS system. A loss of a. a.particular supply sources and loads .c. the disturbances take the form of more-or-less severe voltage dips. accidental faults (shortcircuits). In normal circumstances. This system is equally suitable for small loads (i 3 kVA) or large loads (up to several MVA). power supply network. high. freezing). In normal operation the filter improves the quality of the current while the voltage is maintained sensibly constant at its declared value by appropriate and automatic regulation within the filter unit. a contactor. c. and whether supply autonomy (automatic standby-supply on the loss of normal power supply) is specified. Power systems are subjected to many kinds of perturbation which adversely affect the quality of supply: atmospheric phenomena (lightning. Several types of UPS system exist according to the degree of protection against powernetwork “pollution” required. supply of high quality (i.g. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) J 2.c. the battery then recharges to its full capacity. These units are normally of low rating (i 3 kVA) but are capable of passing large An on-line type of UPS system (figure J2-3) is connected directly between the public a. such as cash registers.c.c.

the printer). i. Two outputs.c.000 VA.1.3 standards The international standard presently covering semi-conductor converters is IEC 146-4. Its principal functions are to: v filter out HF parasites. but without autonomy. include the following: c the filter-plug which is simply an a. plug for connecting or interconnecting loads. distribution network. Two further outputs. particular supply sources and loads .2.e.c. each with back-up from the UPS unit.000 VA.000 . v maintain a sensibly-constant voltage level. power network. power supply. for general office purposes. The slim-line UPS belongs to the class of off-line UPS schemes. and is installed immediately under the microprocessor. but which protect sensitive loads from certain disturbances commonly occurring on power distribution network. It is equally applicable to office or industrial systems which do not require a no-break standby supply. c the network (or mains) -supply conditioner is a complete system for providing an uncontaminated a.g. in decontamination of supplies and in UPS schemes. c the slim-line UPS has integral protection with autonomy for each micro-informatic stand-alone PC and its peripherals. which are filtered. up to ratings of 5. in order to reduce HF parasitic interference to acceptable levels.c.500 VA applications minimal protection c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c highly disturbed a. types of UPS units. v isolate (galvanically) the load from the a. supply other less-sensitive units (e. no provision against loss of supply from the a. supply the central processor and screen.J Other apparatus.000 VA 1.J11 . which has built-in HF (high-frequency) filters.c. conditioners and filters diagrams of principle filter plug mains-supply conditioner slim-line UPS off-line UPS F on-line UPS F disturbances considered type of network corrective disturbance measures HF parasites c variations of voltage regulation autonomy 10 to 30 mn (according to battery capacity) rated power i 250 VA c 300 .500 VA > 2. Its principal use is on micro-informatic stand-alone PCs rated at 250 to 1.c. not assuring a no-break performance. power systems and/or heavy loads c c c c all sensitive loads c c microinformatic stand-alone PC micro-informatic terminals table J2-4: examples of different possibilities and applications of inverters. 2.

2 to 2) to allow for future extensions. however. based on: v maximum value of actual estimated kVA demand. Instantaneous variations of load: these variations occur at times of energizing and de-energizing of one or more items of load. in order to avoid oversizing of the installation. Note: At first sight.30 mn . However. the circuit arrangement in figure J2-5 closely resembles that of the off-line UPS system (of figure J2-2). the power rating of a UPS unit must take account of the peak motorstarting currents. c 1. within close tolerance limits of magnitude and phase difference) thereby minimizing the disturbance in the event of “instantaneous” changeover from circuit 1 to circuit 2 operation. transformers. For an instantaneous change of load up to 100 % of the nominal rating of the UPS unit. (9) (8) mains 2 (5) UPS (4) C/S distribution board (6) mains 1 (2) (1) (3) (7) fig.25 In for 10 minutes. Note: in order to obtain satisfactory discrimination of protective devices for all types of load.15 . inverters manufactured by Merlin Gerin can safely withstand the following overloaded condition: c 1. rectifier/charger 3. in which the load is normally passing through circuit 1. inverter 2.particular supply sources and loads . for example.e. isolating transformer. c frequencies upstream (input) and downstream (output) of the UPS unit. energization of resistive loads. etc. of the possibility of future extensions to the installation. changeover switch 9. For example. In this arrangement. or fails for any reason. it may be necessary to adjust the power rating of the UPS system. UPS 1. c voltage levels upstream (input) and downstream (output) of the UPS unit. the load will then be supplied from the (reserve) circuit 2.several hours) 4.8 % of its rated value. batteries (usual periods of autonomy 10 . the voltage output of the inverter is always maintained in synchronism with the voltage of the powersupply network (i. Conditions will automatically return to normal if the overload.5 In for 1 minute. but closes automatically if the UPS system becomes overloaded. the output voltage generally remains between + 10 % and .e.). using an inverter. J12 . The static contactor is open in this situation.. c duration of autonomy required (i. The demand will be the sum of the apparent (VA) loads of individual items. 6. generally corrected by a factor (1. In such a case. v transitory current peaks (motor starting. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2. This action is the converse of that of the off-line scheme. if galvanic isolation from upstream circuits is necessary. it is an on-line system. power (VA) The rated power of the UPS unit must be sufficient to satisfy the steady load demand as well as loads of a transitory nature.2. and of the overload capability of the inverter and other UPS-unit components. J2-5: classical arrangement of a UPS on-line installation. outgoing ways 7. supply from the battery). transformer to match the upstream voltage to that of the consumer. c level of availability required. account should be taken of the overload capacity of the UPS components.4 choice of a UPS system The choice of a UPS system is determined mainly by the following parameters: c rated power. the CPU (central processing unit) and will amount to Pa. transformer for specific downstream-circuits voltage 8. In fact. is corrected.. static contactor (see “availability” below) 5.

In the usual case.9.2 = 192 kVA. availability A UPS system is generally provided with an alternative (unconditioned) emergency source. and the manufacturers are able to quote availability levels. particular supply sources and loads . The maximum steady-state power demand presently considered is therefore: P = 80 + 10 + 20 + 20 + 30 = 160 kVA. includes the 60 kVA peak current which is easily absorbed by the 1. Assumed operating constraints: circuit no. C/S P/2 P/2 P P/2 fig. J2-7: solution to the example. three UPS units each rated at P/2 to supply a load of P (figure J2-8) are also sometimes installed. relative to their own products and recommended layouts. With an additional 200 ms peak of (3 x 20) kVA the total amounts to 192 + 60 = 252 kVA.: 1 : 80 kVA 2 : 10 kVA 3 : 20 kVA 4 : 20 kVA 5 : 30 kVA fig.000 to 200.000 hours. 200 kVA. where the supply is doubled as noted above (mains 1 and mains 2 in figure J2-5) the MTBF obtained is in the range 70. depending on the availability of the second source. so that the rating of a suitable UPS unit would be 252 x 1/1.J13 . By way of example. J2-8: 3 UPS P/2 units providing a high level of availability of a power rated P. In all cases the kVA values cited have taken the load power factors into account. Possible future extensions to the installation are estimated to amount to 20% of the existing load. load circuits no. The peak kVA demand.g. see Sub-clause 2. Switching from one source to the other is achieved automatically by a static (solid state) contactor. a UPS alone has a MTBF (mean time between failures) of 50.g. Configurations having a higher redundancy. The remaining circuits require no such transitory peak currents.J Example of a power calculation Choice of a UPS unit suitable for the loads shown in figure J2-6. J2-6: example. represents a supplement (over the steady-state 20 kVA demand) of 3 x 20 kVA = 60 kVA.5 = 168 kVA for the nearest standard rating available above the calculated value. With allowance for extensions (of 20%) = 160 x 1.G) UPS system. The total of 252 kVA however.000 hours. For the choice of suitable protective devices.5 In overload capability of (a M. e. This operation will be carried out at least once a day. C/S 200 kVA fig. a situation which affords a relatively high level of availability. e. The calculation of their level of availability can be carried out by specialists. therefore. 4 will take a transitory current equal to 4 In for a period of 200 ms when initially energized.

e. for example.particular supply sources and loads . and finally to exercise remote control of UPS functions (figures J2-9 to J2-11). inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2. In fact. the “user”) has a centralized management technique facility which allows him to acquire data from the UPS unit(s) which are then stored and analysed. c supervise (manage) the installation: the consumer (i. J2-11: UPS units are readily integrated into centralized management systems. and indicates accordingly.g. Furthermore. Soft-Monitor on PC) which may be integrated into other systems of overall supervision (figure J2-10). who is then able to carry out operational manœuvres through remote-control channels. and the state of the UPS is presented on a mimic board or displayed on a screen. they can make use of specialized software for automatic checking and fault diagnosis (e. alarm for period of autonomy almost reached) to the computer it is supplying. UPS units can communicate with other equipments. These functions can be designed to ensure mechanical and electrical compatibility with other equipments: standard versions are now provided with dry contacts and current loops. transmits data (such as: condition normal. This evolution towards a general compatibility between diverse systems and related hardware requires the incorporation of new functions in the UPS systems. RS 422 or RS 485 can be incorporated on request. J14 . with anomalies indicated. certain advanced modules include modern cards with integral protocole (JBus for example). passing data concerning the state of the UPS components (static contactor open or closed. and so on. J2-9: UPS units can communicate with centralized system management terminals. fig. to the console of an operator.. Interconnection facilities according to the standards RS 232.g. The computer deduces the appropriate corrective action. fig.. J2-10: software (e. Soft-Monitor) allows remote checking and automatic fault diagnosis of the UPS system.) and receiving orders controlling its function.5 UPS systems and their environment UPS system components include the means to communicate with other equipments.2. fig. together with measured quantities. supply being maintained by the battery. notably with IT (information technology) systems. c permit remote control: the UPS transmits data concerning the state of UPS components. in order to: c optimize the protection scheme: the UPS.

J2-13: for large computer installations.J15 . the UPS cabinets are generally located in the computer room. UPS cabinets installed in an electrical services room. fig. UPS system installed in a computer room. particular supply sources and loads . J2-12: a UPS (slim-line) is easily accommodated under the computer of a stand-alone PC. location of UPS units fig. J2-14: large UPS systems are frequently located in an electrical services room. fig.J 2.6 putting into service and technology of UPS systems UPS unit for individual stand-alone PCs.

The batteries must be installed in dedicated battery rooms. For certain applications. For certain installations. Sub-clause 554 for France). complying with the relevant local standards and regulations.g. fig. A recommended air-change rate in cubic metres per hour can be calculated from the formula 0. open-type (i. NF C 15-100. battery location For any closed location housing batteries. and provide an autonomy of up to 30 minutes. the battery charger must be automatically switched off if the fan(s) of the system fail. nonsealed) cadmium-nickel batteries are preferred. respect the necessary constraints. there is no IEC equivalent recommendation. To date.particular supply sources and loads . provided that the particular conditions of charging and regulation. for any other reason. together with the characteristics of the battery. which usually require forcedair ventilation.6 putting into service and technology of UPS systems (continued) types of battery Two types of battery are associated with UPS systems. which relates the renewal rate of air to the size and charging rate of the battery (or batteries). or if the air-flow is stopped or reduced. most national standards impose a system of ventilation. In the case of forced ventilation. forced or natural. the batteries are generally located in specially designed battery rooms. so that consultation with the battery manufacturer may be advisable. Maintenance-free sealed units These batteries are used for systems rated at 250 kVA or less.e. the natural ventilation of its location is considered to be adequate. J16 .2. These constraints are defined in the national standards of some countries (e.05 NI where: N = number of cells in the battery I = maximum charging-current capability of the battery charger (in amperes). J2-15: a typical battery room. For UPS systems of large rating. Non-sealed batteries These batteries are generally lead-acid units and are used for all large installations. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2.

components of current. or not. i. and therefore on the existence.. TT/TT scheme The neutral of the inverter cannot be permanently connected to earth.c. if properly observed.c. c if there is no separation. if: v the battery and all d.J17 . is arranged to ensure the maximum possible continuity of supply.) that are sometimes generated by UPS systems. as described above.c. contactor C closes automatically to reconnect the neutral busbar of the LV distribution board to earth. The Technical Notes CT 129 of Merlin Gerin explain this subject in more detail. The downstream distribution board is supplied at 230/400 V. sufficiently. c if there is complete separation between the upstream and downstream sides of the UPS system. v in the case of a battery location remote from the UPS system. class II insulation standards are respected. D2 is a 4-pole circuit breaker which breaks the neutral conductor when it is open.. reduces the probability of a short-circuit fault or an accidental indirect contact occurring. as mentioned in Merlin Gerin Technical Notes CT 129. circuits of the UPS system c battery protection: most national standards and codes of practice. galvanic separation of the upstream and downstream circuits of the UPS system The measures taken to provide protection against electric shock depend on the earthing scheme. covering battery installations are based on stringent regulations. * Merlin Gerin product. differential circuit breakers Multi 9 curve B 30 mA)*.e. Other outgoing ways should be protected by RCDs of suitable sensitivity (in general 300 mA) which must discriminate with the protection afforded by D1 and 2 (figure J2-16). when D2 is open in figure J2-16. the earthing schemes upstream and downstream may be different (or identical).J 2. The sensitivity of the RCDs is selected according to the value of earthing resistance (electrode plus earth-wires). Manufacturers should be ready to provide all the necessary information. Protection of the d.7 earthing schemes general In the general case the UPS system is fed from two circuits (as shown typically in figure J2-16) each of which is protected separately. which. Mains 1 is a 3-phase 3-wire circuit connected to the UPS rectifier/charger input terminals. Where other values of voltage are required. the section from the downstream side of the battery circuit breaker and the junction of the rectifier output with the inverter input. Such will be the case. while mains 2 is a 3-phase 4-wire circuit connected to the upstream terminals of the static contactor. but only temporarily. an insulation monitoring scheme is strongly recommended. Protection of pollution-free output circuits Circuits supplying socket-outlets will be protected by RCDs of 30 mA (or less) sensitivity (for example. i. then the earthing scheme is evidently identical on both sides of the UPS system. It is recommended that the manufacturers of the UPS system be consulted concerning this aspect of their product. Note: Certain versions of RCD are designed to avoid malfunctioning under abnormal conditions (d. A suitable system of permanent surveillance injects a low-frequency test current (a XM 200* monitor. to consider that the circuit from the battery terminals to the controlling circuit breaker adequately assures the safety of persons. The neutral conductor is earthed at the HV/LV transformer. when D2 opens. circuits presents a risk. circuits are in the same cabinet as the other components of the UPS system. an equipotential location is created.c. adaptor transformers may be employed. c for the remainder of the installation: in particular. they are referred to as mains 1 and mains 2. General protection A RCD is installed at each outgoing way of the MGDB feeding the UPS system (D1 and D2 in figure J2-16) and discrimination between these RCDs and those on the outgoing ways of the DB downstream of the UPS system. particular supply sources and loads . of galvanic separation of the downstream circuits from the upstream circuits. and so. for example). where an insulation fault on the d.e.

particular supply sources and loads .2. is that the shortcircuit current from the inverter (which is the maximum it can pass before its internal protection operates) exceeds that of the tripping threshold of downstream overcurrent protection. The calculation of the impedance loop Zs however. c protection for the pollution-free output circuits will be by 30 mA RCDs for circuits supplying socket outlets.c. TN-C / TN-S scheme c the automatic cut-off of supply by indirectcontact hazard protection is achieved in this scheme by overcurrent relays. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2. and by circuit breakers of low short-circuit tripping settings. J18 . section of the UPS system is protected as previously described for the TT scheme. J2-16: TT/TT scheme. Circuit breakers with magnetic trip units of low-setting ranges are suitable for both TN-C and TN-S schemes.7 earthing schemes (continued) D1 D2 mains 2 UPS C/S LV distribution board RCD sockets 30mA outlet circuits RCD 30mA RCD mains 1 RCD C fig. J2-17: TN-C/TN-S scheme. c the d. previously mentioned. is not possible in this case. non essential circuits UPS mains 2 C/S RCD 30mA socket outlet circuits RCD 30mA LV distribution board mains 1 C fig. The basic rule to be observed. For TN-S installations (only) RCDs of medium sensitivity may also be used.

section of the system.c. particular supply sources and loads . CIC current-injection relays operating at very low frequency (type XM 200* for example) allow correct measurement of the impedance. circuits of the UPS system are protected as already described.c.c. are selected as indicated in Sub-clause 2.c. CIC1 mains 1 UPS C/S LV distribution board mains 2 CIC2 fig.J IT/IT scheme c insulation monitoring The CIC1 continuous insulation check relay at the origin of the installation (between the isolated neutral point of the HV/LV transformer and earth) is automatically replaced by the CIC2 at the output of the inverter. and the insulation monitoring relays. current-injection relays of type TR 22A*. part of the system will be detected by CIC1 and CIC2 but these relays will not operate because the impedance measurement made by them is not correct. In fact. In this case. v on the a. and is effected by installing a 2-winding transformer upstream of the static contactor. complete galvanic separation of the circuits upstream of the UPS system from those downstream Galvanic separation of the upstream and downstream circuits of the UPS system is sometimes required. and all items of load must be insulated to withstand phase-tophase voltage. sections. the capacitances present in the network (cables and filters on appliances) must be taken into account. c reminder of IT system constraints The design and operation of an IT system requires careful study and exploitation. current injection relay.7 for the IT/IT scheme. the CIC1. a fault on the d. the earthing schemes upstream and downstream of the separation can be different. J2-18: IT/IT scheme.J19 . if required.c. circuits of the UPS system The d. when mains 2 is out of service. CIC3 uses a very low frequency a. Protection of the d. In particular. type Vigilohm XM 200*. * a Merlin Gerin product. and CIC2 relays are d.c.c. c the choice of CIC v on the d. The advantages of IT operation can only be realized if an in-depth study is completed by clear and concise operating instructions. so that the type of earthing required for the downstream circuits can be created at the output transformer of the inverter.

2. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued)

J
2.8 choice of main-supply and circuit cables, and cables for the battery connection
self-contained UPS units of small power ratings are supplied for direct connection, by plugging into their input and output sockets.

ready-to-use UPS units
The UPS units for low-power applications such as individual PCs and micro-informatic installations are marketed as complete units in a metal enclosure, as shown typically in figure J2-19. All internal wiring is factory-installed and adapted to the characteristics of the components.

fig. J2-19: ready-to-use UPS unit.

in other cases, wiring and cables, for interconnection of the several elements of the UPS system, must be installed by the consumer’s contractor.

UPS systems requiring interconnection of constituent elements.
For larger UPS installations the battery is generally located at some distance from the inverter, and in the case of an off-line arrangement the static contactor and filters (if installed) require interconnection. The cable sizes selected depend on the current level at each interconnection, as indicated in figure J2-20, and described below.
Iu static contactor CS mains 2 Iu rectifier/ charger load inverter

I1

mains 1 Ib

battery capacity C10

fig. J2-20: currents to be considered for cable selection. Calculation of the currents I1 and Iu c current Iu is the maximum estimated utilization current of the load; c current I1 input to the rectifier/charger of the UPS system depends on: v the capacity of the battery (C10) and its charging rate, v the characteristics of the charger, v the output from the inverter; c the current Ib is the current in the battery cable. These current magnitudes are obtained from the manufacturers of the UPS equipment. Choice of cables In this application the basis of cable selection is the maximum voltage drop allowable for satisfactory performance of the load. Preferable values are for this application: c 3% for a.c. circuits; c 1% for d.c. circuits. Each of these parameters imposes a minimum c.s.a. of conductor. Calculation of the c.s.a. of conductors may be carried out as shown in Chapter H1 Clause 2. Merlin Gerin recommends cable sizes to be used with Maxipac and EPS 2000 systems (tables J2-22 to J2-24) in normal conditions, for cable lengths of less than 100 m (voltage drop < 3 %). Table J2-21 shows the voltage drop for d.c. circuit lengths of less than 100 m of copper cable. That for a.c. cables can be calculated as described in Chapter H1 Clause 3.

J20 - particular supply sources and loads

J
The voltage-drop values in % given in table J2-21 correspond to a nominal d.c. voltage of 324 V. For other voltage levels multiply the table values by a factor equal to the actual battery voltage divided by 324. c.s.a. In (A) mm2 100 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 600 800 1000 1250 25 5.1 35 3.6 4.5 50 2.6 3.2 4.0 70 1.9 2.3 2.9 3.6 95 1.3 1.6 2.2 2.7 3.3 120 1 1.3 1.6 2.2 2.7 3.4 150 0.8 1 1.2 1.6 2.2 2.7 3.4 185 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.8 3.4 4.3 240 0.5 0.6 0.8 1 1.3 1.6 2.1 2.6 3.3 4.2 5.3 300 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 1 1.3 1.6 2.1 2.7 3.4 4.2 5.3

table J2-21: voltage drop in % of 324 V d.c. for a copper-cored cable. nominal current (A) rated power circuit 1 with battery (1) I1 3-phase 400 V 1-phase 230 V I1 battery I1 battery I1 battery I1 battery floating on charge floating on charge 18 20 8.5 10.5 26 28 15 19 20 24 30 38 40 48 c.s.a. (mm2) of copper-cored cables of length < 100 m circuit 1 circuit 2 or load 3-phase 1-phase 1-phase 400 V 230 V 230 V 16 16 10 10 16 16 16 16

circuit 2 or load Iu 16 23 34 45.5 68 91

3.5 kVA 5 kVA 7.5 kVA 10 kVA 15 kVA 20 kVA

6 10 10 10 10

table J2-22: currents and c.s.a. of copper-cored cables feeding the rectifier, and supplying the load for UPS system Maxipac (cable lengths < 100 m). nominal current (A) rated power circuit 1 with battery 3-phase 400 V I1 floating recharging for standby period of: 10 mn 15 mn 30 mn 10 kVA 19 23 25 25 15 kVA 29 36 37 39 20 kVA 37 49 50 52 30 kVA 58 73 76 78 40 kVA 75 97 100 104 60 kVA 116 146 151 157 80 kVA 151 194 201 209 c.s.a. (mm2) of copper-cored cables of length < 100 m circuit 1 circuit 2 battery 3-phase or 400 V load 3-phase 400 V 10 10 16 25 35 50 70 10 10 10 16 25 35 50 10 10 16 25 35 70 95

circuit 2 or load 400 V Iu 15.2 22.8 30.4 45 60.8 91.2 121.6

battery

Ib

27 40.5 54 81 108 162 216

table J2-23: currents and c.s.a. of copper-cored cables feeding the rectifier, and supplying the load for UPS system EPS 2000 (cable lengths < 100 m). Battery cable data are also included.

particular supply sources and loads - J21

2. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued)

J
2.8 choice of main-supply and circuit cables, and cables for the battery connection (continued)
nominal current (A) rated power circuit 1 with battery 3-phase 400 V - I1 floating recharging for standby period of: 10 mn 15-30 mn 40 kVA 70 86 87.6 60 kVA 100 123 127 80 kVA 133 158 164 100 kVA 164 198 200 120 kVA 197 240 244 160 kVA 261 317 322 200 kVA 325 395 402 250 kVA 405 493 500 300 kVA 485 590 599 400 kVA 646 793 806 500 kVA 814 990 1005 600 kVA 967 1180 1200 800 kVA 1290 1648 1548 circuit 2 or load 3-phase 400 V Iu 60.5 91 121 151 182 243 304 360 456 608 760 912 1215 battery Ib

109 160 212 255 317 422 527 658 790 1050 1300 1561 2082

table J2-24: input, output and battery currents for UPS system EPS 5000 (Merlin Gerin). For a given power rating of a UPS system, these tables indicate the value of input current I1 to the rectifier/charger when the battery is on trickle charge (i.e. “floating”) as well as the load current Iu, together with the c.s.a. of corresponding input and output cables. The value of I1 when the battery is recharging (following a period in which the load has been temporarily supplied entirely from the battery) has no influence on the sizing of the cable, due to the short duration of the recharging cycle. The recharging current has to be taken into account however, to correctly determine the upstream protection requirements of circuit 1. Example: For a Maxipac UPS system rated at 7.5 kVA 3-phase 400 V, I1 = 15 A with the battery floating and Iu = 34 A (see table J2-22). The c.s.a. of the corresponding cables are: 10 mm2 for the (3-phase) input cable to the rectifier/charger, 16 mm2 for the (1-phase) output cable to the load.

fig. J2-25: examples of interconnections.

J22 - particular supply sources and loads

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2.9 choice of protection schemes
in the choice of protection schemes, it is necessary to take account of the characteristics particular to UPS systems.
In the choice of protection schemes, it is necessary to take account of the characteristics particular to UPS systems: the short-circuit current from a UPS system is always very limited, sometimes less than twice its rated current. Manufacturers carry out tests to ensure a satisfactory coordination between the characteristics of the UPS system and the protection afforded by associated CBs.

choice of circuit breaker ratings
The current ratings (In) of CBs D1, D2, D3 and Ddc (figure J2-26) must be chosen such, that: In u I1 for D1 (I1 including the battery recharging current) In u Iu for D2 In u Ide for Ddc The current rating (In) for each outgoing CB D3 depends on the current rating of the particular circuit. The currents I1 and Iu for UPS systems of Merlin Gerin manufacture, are given in tables J2-22 to J2-24. The currents Ib are given in the Merlin Gerin low-voltage distribution catalogue.

fault-current breaking capacity of the circuit breakers
Circuit breakers D1 and D2 These CBs must have a fault-current breaking rating equal to or exceeding the value calculated for its location in the network. The calculation is made conventionally, as previously indicated in Chapter H1, Sub-clauses 4.1 and 4.2, for example. Circuit breaker Ddc The short-circuit current breaking level for this CB is always low. In fact, the maximum shortcircuit current from a battery is always less than 20 times its ampere-hour capacity (battery capacities are indicated in the Merlin Gerin low-voltage distribution catalogue). Circuit breakers D3 The very low level of short-circuit current available from the UPS system, gives rise to particularities concerning the organization of discriminative tripping on the one hand, and protection against indirect-contact hazards in TN systems, on the other. c case 1: circuit configuration in which the static contactor is closed, but without any particular requirement concerning autonomy: the short-circuit current is supplied from the power network, so that the choice of CBs to ensure correct discrimination is determined by classical methods, previously covered in Chapter H2, Sub-clause 4.5; c case 2: circuit configuration without the static contactor or with delayed transfer to it, so that discrimination must be achieved by instantaneous or short time-delay overcurrent protection, operated by the limited shortcircuit current available from the UPS unit, before its internal overcurrent protection operates. For Merlin Gerin UPS units EPS 5000 or 2000* and Merlin Gerin circuit breakers, the following conditions must be complied with: In of a type B circuit breaker i In of UPS unit 2 * In the case of a Maxipac In of a type B circuit breaker i In of UPS unit 3

example
20 kV / 400 V CS power 630 kVA system Isc 22.1 kA network D2 I1 EPS 5000 of 200 kVA

D1

Ddc

Ib autonomy 10 mn D3

fig. J2-26: example. Selection of circuit breakers D1 and D2 Table J2-24 shows the values of normal-load currents through D1 and D2 respectively, viz: 395 A for I1 and 304 A for Iu. The short-circuit current-breaking rating of D1 and D2 at their points of installation must be, for such transformers u 22 kA. Circuit breakers type NS400N* (400 A at 40 °C - 36 kA) would be satisfactory; regulated for overload protection (by thermal tripping device) at Irth u 395A for D1 and u 304 A for D2.
* Merlin Gerin product.

particular supply sources and loads - J23

2. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued)

J
2.10 complementary equipments
transformers
A two-winding transformer included on the upstream side of the static contactor of circuit 2 (see figure J2-5) allows: c a change of voltage level when the power network voltage is different to that of the load; c a different arrangement for the neutral on the load-side winding, from that of the power network. Moreover, such a transformer: c reduces the short-circuit current level on the secondary, (i.e. load) side compared with that on the power network side, c prevents third harmonic currents (and multiples of them) which may be present on the secondary side from passing into the power-system network, providing that the primary winding is connected in delta.

anti-harmonic filter
The UPS system includes a battery charger which is controlled by commutated thyristors or transistors. The resulting regularlychopped current cycles “generate” harmonic components in the power-supply network. These indesirable components are filtered at the input of the rectifier and for most cases this reduces the harmonic current level sufficiently for all practical purposes. In certain specific cases however, notably in very large installations, an additional filter circuit may be necessary. For example, when: c the power rating of the UPS system is large relative to the HV/LV transformer supplying it; c the LV busbars supply loads which are particularly sensitive to harmonics; c a diesel (or gas-turbine, etc.) driven alternator is provided as a standby power supply. In such cases, the manufacturers of the UPS system should be consulted.

communications equipment
Communication with equipment associated with informatic systems (see Sub-clause 2.5) may entail the need for suitable facilities within the UPS systems. Such facilities may be incorporated in an original design, or added to existing systems on request.

fig. J2-27: a UPS installation with incorporated communication systems.

J24 - particular supply sources and loads

3. protection of LV/LV transformers

J
These transformers are generally in the range of several hundreds of VA to some hundreds of kVA and are frequently used for: c changing the (LV) voltage level for: v auxiliary supplies to control and indication circuits, v lighting circuits (230 V created when the primary system is 400 V 3-phase 3-wires), c changing the method of earthing for certain loads having a relatively high capacitive current to earth (informatic equipment) or resistive leakage current (electric ovens, industrial-heating processes, mass-cooking installations, etc.). LV/LV transformers are generally supplied with protective systems incorporated, and the manufacturers must be consulted for details. Overcurrent protection must, in any case, be provided on the primary side. The exploitation of these transformers requires a knowledge of their particular function, together with a number of points described below. Note: In the particular cases of LV/LV safety isolating transformers at extra-low voltage, an earthed metal screen between the primary and secondary windings is frequently required, according to circumstances, as recommended in European Standard EN 60742, and as discussed in detail in Sub-clause 3.5 of Chapter G.

3.1 transformer-energizing in-rush current
At the moment of energizing a transformer, high values of transient current (which includes a significant d.c. component) occur, and must be taken into account when considering protection schemes. The magnitude of the current peak depends on: c the value of voltage at the instant of energization, c the magnitude and polarity of magnetic flux (if any) existing in the core of the transformer, c characteristics of the load on the transformer. In distribution-type transformers, the first current peak can attain a value equal to 10 to 15 times the full-load r.m.s. current, but for small transformers (< 50 kVA) may reach values of 20 to 25 times the nominal full-load current. This transient current decreases rapidly, with a time constant θ (see figure J3-1) of the order of several milli-seconds to several tens of milli-seconds.
I Î first 10 to 25 In

In θ t

fig. J3-1: transformer-energizing in-rush current.

3.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer
The protective device on the supply circuit for a LV/LV transformer must avoid the possibility of incorrect operation due to the magnetizing in-rush current surge, noted above in 3.1. It is necessary to use therefore: c selective (i.e. slightly time-delayed) circuit breakers of the type Compact NS STR* (figure J3-2) or c circuit breakers having a very high magnetic-trip setting, of the types Compact NS or Multi 9* curve D (figure J3-3).
* Merlin Gerin.

t

50 to 70 ms

r.m.s. value of the first peak

instantaneous I trip

fig. J3-2: tripping characteristic of a Compact NS STR circuit breaker.
t

In r.m.s. value of the first peak

10In 20In

I

fig. J3-3: tripping characteristic of a circuit breaker according to standardized type D curve (for Merlin Gerin 10 to 14 In).

particular supply sources and loads - J25

3. protection of LV/LV transformers (continued)

J
3.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer (continued)
Example (figure J3-4) A 400 V 3-phase circuit is supplying a 125 kVA 400/230 V transformer (In = 180 A) for which the first in-rush current peak can reach 17 In, i.e. 17 x 180 A = 3,067 A. A Compact NS250 circuit breaker with Ir setting of 200 A would therefore be a suitable protective device. A particular case: overload protection installed at the secondary side of the transformer An advantage of overload protection located on the secondary side, is that the short-circuit protection on the primary side can be set at a high value, or alternatively a circuit breaker type MA* may be used. The primary-side short-circuit protection setting must, however, be sufficiently sensitive to ensure its operation in the event of a short-circuit occurring on the secondary side of the transformer (upstream of secondary protective devices).
* Motor-control circuit breaker, the short-circuit protective relay of which is immune to high transient-current peaks, as shown in figure J5-3.

NS250N tripping unit STR22SE (Ir = 200)

3 x 70 mm2 400/230 V 125 kVA

fig. J3-4: example. Note: The primary protection is sometimes provided by fuses, type a M. This practice has two disadvantages: c the fuses must be largely oversized (at least 4 times the nominal full-load rated current of the transformer); c in order to provide isolating facilities on the primary side, either a load-break switch or a contactor must be associated with the fuses.

3.3 typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers
3-phase kVA rating no-load losses (W) full-load losses (W) s.c. voltage (%) 1-phase kVA rating no-load losses (W) full-load losses (W) s.c. voltage (%) 5 100 250 4.5 8 105 400 5 6.3 110 320 4.5 10 115 530 5 8 130 390 4.5 12.5 120 635 5 10 150 500 5.5 16 140 730 4.5 12.5 160 600 5.5 20 150 865 4.5 16 170 840 5.5 20 270 800 5.5 25 310 1180 5.5 40 215 1400 5 31.5 350 1240 5 50 265 1900 5 40 350 1530 5 63 305 2000 4.5 50 410 1650 4.5 80 450 2450 5.5 63 460 2150 5 100 450 3950 5 80 520 2540 5 100 570 3700 5.5 125 680 3700 4.5 160 680 5900 5.5 200 790 5900 5 250 950 6500 5 315 1160 7400 4.5 400 1240 9300 6 500 1485 9400 6 630 1855 11400 5.5 800 2160 11400 5.5

25 31.5 175 200 1065 1200 4 4

125 160 525 635 3950 4335 5

table J3-5: typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers.

3.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above, using Merlin Gerin circuit breakers
3-phase transformers (400 V primary) P (kVA) In (A) Usc % 5 10 16 20 25 31.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 250 315 400 500 630 7 14 23 28 35 44 56 70 89 113 141 176 225 352 444 563 704 887 4.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5 5 4.5 5 5 5.5 4.5 5.5 5 4.5 6 6 5.5 circuit breakers type C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K NC100 D NC100 D NC100 D NC100 D NS100H/L NS160H/L NS160H/L NS250N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801NH/L C1001N/H/L C1001N/H/L C1251N/H trip-unit current rating (A)/type no. 20 32 63 63 80 80 80 100 MA100 STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR23SE STR22SE STR23SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE

table J3-6: protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings.
J26 - particular supply sources and loads

5 4 5 6.98 1.2 15. 1 1 1 2 3 6 10 10 16 20 32 40 50 63 63 80 100 STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR23SE STR22SE STR23SE STR23SE STR35SE STR35SE table J3-8: protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings.5 5.25 0. 1-phase transformers (400 V primary) P (kVA) In (A) Usc % 0.9 3 2.39 0.9 4.54 2.9 1.5 24 30 39 49 61 77 98 122 154 195 244 305 390 13 10.1 1.5 5.5 5.5 5 4.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 250 315 400 12 24 39 49 61 77 97 122 153 195 244 305 390 609 767 974 4.5 5.8 12.5 4 4 4 5 4.4 19.88 6.5 5 5 circuit breakers type C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K NC100 D NC100 D NS160H/L NS160H/L NS160H/L NS160H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400 NS630 C801N/H/L C801N/H/L trip-unit current rating (A)/type no.5 7.44 3.5 5.61 0.1 9.6 2 2.3 8 10 12.5 5 5 5.5 4.6 5 5 5 4.5 4.J 3-phase transformers (230 V primary) P (kVA) In (A) Usc % 5 10 16 20 25 31.5 6 circuit breakers type C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K NC100 D NC100 D NS100H/L NS100H/L NS100H/L NS100H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS630N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C1001N/H/L C1001N/H/L C1251N/H C1251N/H trip-unit current rating (A)/type no. particular supply sources and loads .2 4 2.5 5 5 4.5 7 5.24 0.5 5.63 1 1.1 0.5 16 20 25 31.J27 .5 4.4 0.16 0.5 9.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 0. 40 63 80 100 STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR23SE STR22SE STR23SE STR23SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE table J3-7: protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings.

4 0.1 0.particular supply sources and loads .1 27 34 42 53 68 84 105 133 169 211 266 338 422 528 675 13 10.9 21.5 16. 1 2 3 4 6 10 16 16 20 40 50 63 80 100 100 STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR23SE STR22SE STR23SE STR23SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE table J3-9: protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings.5 16 20 25 31.7 1.5 4.5 5.1 1.6 5 5 5 4.2 4 2.3.5 9.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 0.6 2 2.3 8 10 12.7 4.5 4 5 6.2 6.4 0. using Merlin Gerin circuit breakers (continued) 1-phase transformers (230 V primary) P (kVA) In (A) Usc % 0.7 2.5 5 5 circuit breakers type C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K NC100 D NC100 D NC100 D NS160H/L NS160H/L NS250N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS630N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C1001N/H/L trip-unit current rating (A)/type no.4 10.5 4 4 5 5 4. J28 .1 1.5 4.25 0. protection of LV/LV transformers (continued) J 3.63 1 1.9 1.9 3 2.16 0.8 8.5 7 5.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above.5 7.

v the installation must be an IT scheme. c emergency exit indications In areas accommodating more than 50 persons. together with familiarity with the rules for safety against fire hazards in establishments receiving the public. lighting circuits J the presence of adequate lighting contributes to the satety of persons. definitions Normal lighting refers to the installation designed for everyday use. emergency lighting must be adequate to allow any particular safety manœuvres provided in the premises to be carried out. 4. more than one device must be used). Standby lighting permits everyday activities to continue more or less normally. emergency lighting is intended to facilitate the evacuation of persons in case of fire or other panic-causing situations. A fault on a lighting distribution circuit must not affect any other circuit: v the discrimination of overcurrent-protection relays and of RCDs must be absolute. absolute discrimination between protective devices on the different circuits must be provided. Failure of the standby lighting system must automatically switch on the emergency lighting system. in emergency lighting circuits. when normal lighting systems may have failed. Sub-clause 4.e. particular supply sources and loads . as well as general lighting. emergency lighting These schemes include illuminated emergency exit signs and direction indications. normal lighting Regulations governing the minimum requirements for ERP (Establishments Receiving the Public) in most European countries. Standby lighting is intended to substitute normal lighting. luminous directional indications to the nearest emergency exits must be provided. independent of other supplementary systems. in the event that the normal lighting system fails.e. so that only the faulty circuit will be cut off. are as follows: c installations which illuminate areas accessible to the public must be controlled and protected independently from installations providing illumination to other areas.e. c loss of supply on a final lighting circuit (i. the provision of adequate illumination in the event of fire or other catastrophic circumstances is of great importance in reducing the likelihood of panic. and on the extent of the normal lighting failure. In fact. depending on the original design specification. The planning and realization of a lighting installation requires a sound understanding of the materials installed. i. Emergency lighting must ensure easy evacuation of persons from the premises concerned. c general emergency lighting General lighting is obligatory when an area can accommodate 100 persons or more (50 persons or more in areas below ground level). Furthermore. c protection by RCDs (residual current differential devices) must be divided amongst several devices (i. fuse blown or CB tripped) must not result in total loss of illumination in an area which is capable of accommodating more than 50 persons.7 describes different kinds of suitable power supplies. doubly-insulated.1 service continuity continuity of normal lighting service must be sufficient.J29 . and in permitting the necessary safety manœuvres to be carried out. or must be entirely class II.4. where the latter fails.

These disturbances are analysed in table J4-1 below.6) with the corresponding consumption of reactive energy. or the welding of contacts in a contactor. The two sets of equipment are connected in parallel. steady operation and extinction. No flicker or stroboscopic effects.2 lamps and accessories (luminaires) fluorescent tubes For normal operation a fluorescent tube requires a ballast and a starter (device for initiating the luminous discharge). by breaking the (electrode-preheating) current passing through the ballast. v to provide a pulse of high voltage at the end of the starting period to strike the initial arc. lighting circuits (continued) J 4. v to stabilize the current through the luminous column (hence the term “ballast”). which is generally metered. A B starter ballast starter switching-on disturbances c high current peak to charge capacitor. order of magnitude 10 In for 1 sec. its function is threefold. J30 . In practice. capacitor and the tube. c the ballast is an iron-cored inductor. the c. of the neutral conductor must equal that of the phase conductors.a. fluorescent lamp with HF ballast Advantages: Energy savings of the order of 25%. single-phase fluorescent lamp with its individual p. Rapid one-shot start. correction capacitor 1 2 3 c the starter is a switch. to nullify the flicker effect.particular supply sources and loads . engender disturbances during the periods of starting. The capacitor displaces the phase of the current through its tube. One of the tubes has a capacitor connected in series with its ballast.f. The discharge is then self-sustaining at normal voltage. The ballast.1-1. causes a high-voltage transient pulse to appear across the tube. The arrangement is known internationally as a “duo”-circuit luminaire. c same order of moderate overload at beginning of steady operating condition as for the single tube noted above. therefore. For this reason each fluorescent lamp is normally provided with its own power-factor-correction capacitor. no particular problems table J4-1: analysis of disturbances in fluorescent-lighting circuits.f. This causes an arc (in the form of a gaseous discharge) to be established through the tube. limit each circuit to 8 tubes per contactor. This arrangement is recommended for difficult cases. viz: v to limit the preheating current during the (brief) starting period. c can cause leakage to earth of HF current (at 30 kHz) via the phase conductor capacitances to earth. permanently connected in series with the tube.s.5 ms. which. c can generate a current peak at start. This can cause a CB to trip. The presence of the ballast means that the power-factor (cos ø) of the circuit is low (of the order 0. In this case. as well as correcting the overall p.5 In for 1 sec) according to type of starter.4. c moderate overload at the beginning of steady operating condition (1. c no high current peak as noted above. single-phase twin-tube fluorescent lamp with each tube having its own starter and series ballast. switching-off disturbances no particular problems steady-operating disturbances circulation of harmonic currents (sinusoidal currents at frequencies equal to whole-number multiples of 50 (or 60) Hz: c delta-connected lamps (see Appendix J2) (3-ph 3-wire 230 V system) 1 2 3 presence of 5th and 7th harmonics at very low level c star-connected lamps (3-ph 4-wire 400/230 V system) 1 2 3 N no particular problems presence of 3 rd harmonic currents in the neutral. which can reach 70 to 80% of the nominal phase current. A number of lamps on one circuit can result in peaks of 300-400 A for 0.

In general tables are available from manufacturers to assist in making a choice. Note: for circuits in which large peak currents occur (at times of switching on) and their magnitude is such that CB tripping is a possibility. 230 V 3-phase current rating In (A) 3 4 6 10 10 10 16 16 16 20 20 25 25 32 400 V 3-phase current rating In (A) 2 3 4 4 6 10 10 10 10 10 16 16 16 20 table J4-2: protective circuit breaker ratings for incandescent lamps and resistive-type heating circuits (see Note below). however.3 the circuit and its protection dimensions and protection of the conductors The maximum currents in the circuits can be estimated using the methods discussed in Chapter B. 4. even among a number of lighting circuits from a given distribution panel. the interior of distribution panels supplying lighting schemes are frequently at an elevated temperature. the cable size is chosen after the protective CB (with an instantaneous trip setting sufficient to remain closed during the current peaks) has been selected. Note: at room temperature the filament resistance of a 100 W 230 V incandescent lamp is approximately 34 ohms. the factor ks is generally near unity. The temperature within the distribution panel also influences the choice of the protective device (see Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. factor of simultaneity ks (diversity) A particular feature of large (e.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 230 V 1-phase current rating In (A) 6 10 10 16 16 20 20 25 25 32 32 40 50 50 The following tables allow direct selection of circuit breaker ratings for certain particular cases. power (kW) 1 1. See the Note following table J4-2.5 2 2. A similar (but generally less severe) transient current peak occurs when energizing any resistivetype heating appliance. an important consideration to be taken into account when selecting protective devices.J31 . i.4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker The rated current of a circuit breaker is generally chosen according to the rating of the circuit conductors it is protecting (in the particular circumstances in the Note of 4.5 3 3.e.5 4 4.3 above.J 4. Furthermore. there is no diversity. Consequently. particular supply sources and loads . the reverse procedure was found to be necessary). the filament resistance rises to 2302/100 = 529 ohms. c the power factor. factory) lighting circuits is that the whole load is “on” or “off”. The circuit conductor ratings are defined by the maximum steady load current of the circuit.4).g. Some milli-seconds after switching on. account must be taken of: c the nominal power rating of the lamp and the ballast. Accordingly. The initial current peak at the instant of switch closure is therefore practically 15 times its normal operating current.

or 3.86 U Pu x 1.particular supply sources and loads .pole CBs 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 225 112 69 112 56 34 32 281 140 87 140 70 43 40 351 175 109 175 87 54 50 443 221 137 221 110 68 63 562 281 174 281 140 87 80 703 351 218 351 175 109 100 127 64 40 64 32 20 32 162 81 50 81 40 25 40 203 101 63 101 50 31 50 255 127 79 127 63 39 63 324 162 100 162 81 50 80 406 203 126 203 101 63 100 Calculation for tubes with p.25 = factor for watts consumed by ballast. capacitor.25 where: C = current rating of C B.86 V Pu x 1. connected in star number of tubes per phase = 0. three-phase 3 wire system(230 V) phase/phase types de tube number of luminaires per phase luminaires rating (W) single-phase 18 4 8 12 24 40 64 81 101 with capacitor 36 2 4 6 12 20 32 40 50 58 1 2 3 7 12 20 25 31 duo circuit 2x18= 36 2 4 6 12 20 32 40 50 with 2x36= 72 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 capacitor 2x58= 116 0 1 1 3 6 10 12 15 current rating of 2. 0. connected in delta number of tubes per phase = 0.f.pole CBs 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 Calculation for tubes with p.3 -or 4. lighting circuits (continued) J 4. single-phase distribution 230 V three-phase distribution + N : 400 V phase/phase types de tube number of luminaires per phase luminaires rating (W) single-phase 18 7 14 21 42 70 112 140 175 with capacitor 36 3 7 10 21 35 56 70 87 58 2 4 6 13 21 34 43 54 duo circuit 2x18= 36 3 7 10 21 35 56 70 87 with 2x36= 72 1 3 5 10 17 28 35 43 capacitor 2x58= 116 1 2 3 6 10 17 21 27 current rating of 1-. mercury vapour fluorescent lamps P i 700 W 6A P i 1000 W 10 A P i 2000 W 16 A metal-halogen mercury-vapour lamps P 275 W 6A P 1000 W 10 A P 2000 W 16 A high-pressure sodium discharge lamps P 400 W 6A P 1000 W 10 A table J4-3: maximum limit of rated current per outgoing lighting circuit.4. Pu = nominal power rating of tube (W).8 C x 0. J32 .4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker (continued) The following table (J4-3) is valid for 230 V and 400 V installations.2-. 0. for high-pressure discharge lamps.8 = derating factor for high temperature in CB housing.f.86 = cos ø of circuit. 1.25 x e where: U = phase/phase voltage tables J4-4: current ratings of circuit breakers related to the number of fluorescent luminaires to be protected. V = phase/neutral voltage. capacitor. with or without individual power-factor correcting capacitors.8 C x 0.

i. remote-control mode function of corresponding switchgear and controlled equipment remote control remote control + overcurrent protection circuit breaker controlled by hard-wire system remote control + overcurrent protection + insulation monitoring and protection residual current circuit breaker controlled by hard-wire system local control devices centralized control devices Certain switching devices include control circuitry for operation at ELV (extra-lowvoltage. of which the remotely-controllable residual-current circuit breaker is the prototype. < 50 V or < 25 V according to requirements). particular supply sources and loads . thereby enlarging the scope and diversity of control schemes. The situation at the time of writing is summarized below in table J4-5.5 choice of control-switching devices The advent of switching devices which combine the functions of remote control and protection.J 4. these control circuits being insulated for 4. simplifies lighting-control circuits considerably.e. point-to-point remote control centralized remote control point-to-point and centralized remote control control signals over communications bus control signals over timemultiplexing channels bistable switch contactor “pilot” bistable switch remote controlled switch remotely controlled switch push-button switch push button stairway time-switch with automatic switch-off automatic photo-electric lighting-control switches movement detectors.000 V with respect to the power circuits. central clock relaying remotely controlled circuit breaker over communications bus remotely controlled static contactor/ circuit breaker combination residual current circuit breaker controlled over communications bus according to type table J4-5: types of remote control.J33 .

overload protection must be provided. However. secondary) circuit* may be deduced from these two secondary s.7 mΩ will therefore be: Rc (mΩ) x S (mm2) in metres = 9.particular supply sources and loads . U2/555. an arithmetic subtraction. currents. Circuit breaker type C trips if the primary current u Im1 = 10 In = 20 A.s. so that protection installed on the secondary side would be equally difficult to reach. then an increase in the c. of the conductors. If the length is insufficient.V2 = 12 .0313 .0. J4-6: example. the minimum value of short-circuit current exceeds by a suitable margin the short-circuit magnetic relay setting Im of the CB concerned. Example: The s. J34 . as shown. however. is recommended.2 m of circuit length in the above case. viz: 555 A and 383 A as follows: Rc = U2 .e. v in the case of fuses it is also necessary to ensure that the I2t energy let-through of the fuse(s) at minimum short-circuit current is well below the level of the thermal withstand capacity of the circuit conductors.3 m It is then necessary to check that this length is sufficient to reach the 12 V distribution board. The maximum length of the 12 V circuit based on 9.mm) 2 x 22. in principle.3 x 10/6 = 2. or type aM fuses). as (implied) in the example.a. overload protection is not necessary. proportional to the increased length required. because the source impedance (i.5 for a 6 mm2 copper cable = 1. It must therefore be verified that: v in the case of a CB. 2A LV ELV 230/12 V 400 VA Usc = 6% secondary circuit fig. current Isc2 at the secondary terminals of a single-phase LV/ELV transformer is equal to Us where Zs = Us2 x Usc % Zs Pn 100 Pn x 100 = 400 x 100 so that Isc2 = Us x Usc% 12 x 6 = 555 A which gives Isc1 = 29 A in the primary circuit. c if necessary. If the number of lamps on the circuit has been correctly chosen. greater than 9. will satisfy the constraint for maximum Rc. a conductor of 10 mm2 would allow 1. and to automatically provide a safety margin under all circumstances. lighting circuits (continued) J 4. c to ensure protection against short-circuits. for simplicity. For this reason the protection is commonly provided on the primary circuit.6 protection of ELV lighting circuits A LV/ELV transformer is often located in an inaccessible position.c. not resistive.7 milli-ohms.e.c. where the outgoing ways are protected with other devices.12 = 0. will be mainly reactive.7 x 6 2 x 22.0216 Im2 Isc2 383 555 = 9. for example. which corresponds to a secondary current of 20 x 230 = 383 A 12 The maximum resistance of the ELV (i. The protective device is therefore chosen: c to provide switching control (Multi 9 type C CB.4. Note: The true value of Rc permitted is.5 (µΩ.7 mΩ * from the transformer terminals to the ELV distribution board.

c the failure of one source. Type B The lamps are permanently supplied during the presence of the public. These circuits must be independent of any other circuits (1). or the circuits must be installed in protective cable chases. the characteristics of which also assure supplies to essential loads within one second (since the set is already running and supplying the emergency lighting) in the event of failure of the normal power supply. and for a period judged necessary to ensure the total evacuation of the premises concerned. either: c by a battery to which the lamps are permanently connected. on failure of normal lighting circuits (generally in non-emergency circumstances). or one equipment concerned with safety. the failure of one source must leave sufficient capacity in service to maintain supply to all safety systems. and which remain alight (for at least one hour). c by autonomous units which are normally supplied and permanently alight from the normal lighting supply. be supplied in normal conditions and. on the loss of normal supply. Minimum reserves of energy in the two systems of start-up must be maintained automatically. (1) Circuits for types A and B. and which is on permanent trickle charge from a normal lighting source. or. Central sources for emergency supplies may also be used to provide standby supplies. failure of standby lighting must automatically bring the emergency lighting system into operation. Type A The lamps are supplied permanently and totally during the presence of the public by a single central source (battery of storage cells. or by a system of compressed air. The following four classifications are typical. c autonomous units may be of the permanently-lit type or non-permanently-lit type. Standby lighting systems operate to maintain illumination. c the emergency-lighting batteries must be maintained on charge from the normal source by automatically regulated systems. following the failure of normal supply. Conduit boxes. or from the emergency-lighting supply. capable of assuring satisfactory performance for at least one hour in the event of fire. or. particular supply sources and loads . in less than 15 seconds. must leave all other sources and safety equipments unaffected. Type C The lamps may. c by a heat-engine-driven generator. The circuits for all emergency lamps must be independent of any other circuits (2). in the case of a central emergency power source. However. c the heat-engine-driven generator sets must be capable of automatically picking-up the full emergency lighting load from a standby (stationary) condition. provided that the following conditions are simultaneously fulfilled: c where there are several sources. if supplied.J35 . etc. The circuits for all emergency lamps must be independent of any other circuits (1). The battery is trickle-charged in normal circumstances. authorized for use in emergency-lighting schemes in the different areas. or a heat-engine-driven generator). classification of emergencylighting schemes Many countries have statutory regulations concerning safety in buildings and areas intended for public gatherings. c failures in the central emergency supply source must be detected at a sufficient number of points and adequately signalled to supervisory/maintenance personnel. may be fed from the normal lighting system. and fluorescent or incandescent lamps for exit and directionindicating signs. compatibility between emergency lighting sources and other parts of the installation Emergency-lighting sources must supply exclusively the circuits installed only for operation in emergency situations. Classification of such locations leads to the determination of suitable types of solutions. (2) Cable circuits of type C are not required to comply with the conditions of (1). with (in any case) a minimum of one hour. junction sleeves and so on must satisfy national standard heat tests. The engine start-up power is provided by a battery which is capable of six starting attempts. by virtue of a self-contained battery.7 supply sources for emergency lighting Supply sources for emergency-lighting systems must be capable of maintaining the supply to all lamps in the most unfavourable circumstances likely to occur. or may not. that ensure a minimum of capacity equal to the full emergency-lighting load for one hour.J 4. trunking. must also be fire-resistant. Type D This type of emergency lighting comprises hand-carried battery-powered (primary or secondary cells) at the disposal of service personnel or the public. with automatic load shedding of non-essential loads (if necessary). These units have fluorescent lamps for general emergency lighting. c any safety equipment must be arranged to receive supply from any source.

it is the overall cost of failure which must be considered. The protection of these motors is consequently a matter of great importance in numerous applications. v protection against overload. v cost of repairs to the motor. In economic terms. including: v isolating facility. v accident due to sticking (contact welding) of the controlling contactor. v speed controller. specific features of motor performance influence the powersupply circuits required for satisfactory operation. a penalty which is increasingly severe as the size of the motor. v multi-function relays. v manual local and/or remote control. v loss of production. etc. c preventive or limitative protection equipment.5. shows diverse motor-circuit configurations commonly used in LV distribution boards. Functions generally provided are: c basic protection. t I" = 8 to 12 In Id = 5 to 8 In In = nominal motor current td 1 to 10s 20 to 30 ms In Id I" I fig. induction) motor is robust and reliable. Loss of production is a further.e. c electronic control equipment. 95% of motors installed around the world are asynchronous. c the heavy start-up current means that motor overload protective devices must have operating characteristics which avoid tripping during the starting period. J5-1: direct-on-line starting-current characteristics of an induction motor. J36 . asynchronous motors J the asynchronous (i. 5. c for the motor: v motor windings burnt out due to stalled rotor. and can therefore be the cause of an important voltage drop. c for the driven machine and the process: v shaft couplings and axles. and evidently important factor.1 protective and control functions required functions to be provided generally include: c basic protective devices. such as: c heavy start-up current (see figure J5-1) which is highly reactive. It is. v electrocution due to insulation failure in the motor. therefore.particular supply sources and loads . Table J5-2 below. the safety of persons and goods. v manufacturing time delayed. damaged due to a stalled rotor. v protection against short-circuits. and difficulties of access to it increase. owing to the particular characteristics. c preventive or limitative protection by means of: v temperature sensors. c electronic controls consisting of: v progressive “soft-start” motor starter. or. The consequences of an incorrectly protected motor can include the following: c for persons: v asphyxiation due to the blockage of motor ventilation. v permanent insulation-resistance monitor or RCD (residual-current differential device). and very widely used. and reliability and availability levels which must influence the choice of protective equipment. v cost of dismantling and reinstating or replacement of motor. specific to motors. A motor power-supply circuit presents certain constraints not normally encountered in other (common) distribution circuits. c number and frequency of start-up operations are generally high.

connected to associated relays. short circuit or overload c low installation costs c no maintenance c high degree of safety and reliability c suitable for systems having high fault levels c long electrical life progressive “soft-start” starter device c limitation v current peaks I v voltage drops U v mechanical constraints during start-up period c thermal protection is incorporated thermal sensors Protection against abnormal heating of the motor by thermistance-type sensors in the motor windings. speed controller c from 2 to 130 % of nominal speed c thermal protection is incorporated c possibility of communication facilities preventive or limitative protection devices table J5-2: commonly-used types of LV motor-supply circuits. absence or inversion of phase voltages c earth fault or excessive earth-leakage current c motor running on no-load. motor blocked during start-up c pre-alarm overheating indication permanent insulation-to-earth monitor and RCD (residual-current differential relay) Protection against earth-leakage current and short-circuits to earth. or stalled-rotor condition c imbalance.e.J37 .J basic protection fuse-disconnector + discontactor (using thermal relay) circuit breaker* motor circuit + discontactor breaker* + contactor (using thermal relay) contactor circuit breaker* ACPA standards disconnection (or isolation) manual control remote control short-circuit protection * circuit breaker includes disconnector capability overload protection c large power range c allow all types of starting schemes c a well-proven method c suitable for systems having high fault levels refer also to Chapter H2. multi-function relays Direct and indirect thermal protection against: c the starting period excessively long. Signalled indication of need for motor maintenance or replacement. Sub-clause 2-2 electronic controls c large power range c method is simple c avoids need to stock and compact for fuse cartridges low-power motors c disconnection is visible in certain cases c identification of the reason for tripping i. particular supply sources and loads .

cable thermal-withstand limit limit of thermalrelay constraint short-circuit tripping characteristic of the circuit breaker (type MA) In Is I" Imagn. The kind of co-ordination required depends on the necessary degree of service continuity and on safety levels. c full-load current switching possibility (by c etc. * The association of an overload relay and a contactor is referred to as a “discontactor” in some countries. so that the current is stock (of different sizes). e. two or three devices. Advantages c interlocking. circuit breaker only l CB plus contactor (see Note) short-circuit-current breaking capacities 20 to 30 ms fig. installation work. 5. 947-4-1. c protection specific to the particular motor (but at least thermal relay overcurrent protection). asynchronous motors (continued) J 5. When these functions are performed by several devices. 30 A). none of the devices involved must be damaged. c possibility of adding RCD: c additional complementary devices v an RCD of 500 mA sensitivity practically sometimes required on a motor circuit are eliminates fire risk due to leakage current.3 basic protection schemes: circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay functions to be implemented are: c control (start/stop). This combination of devices facilitates c diverse remote indications. c isolation (safety during maintenance). the association of a circuit breaker incorporating an instantaneous magnetic trip for shortcircuit protection and a contactor with a thermal overload relay* provides many advantages. These standards are being adopted (often without any changes) by a number of countries.g. J38 . 947-3.g. c specific protection as noted in Sub-clause 5. limited by the cable and the wiring of the c better continuity performance: a motor starter (e.g. v protection against destruction of the motor c tripping of all three phases is assured (short-circuiting of laminations) by the early (thereby avoiding the possibility of “singledetection of earth-fault currents (300 mA to phasing”).particular supply sources and loads . The control and protection of a motor can be provided by one. CB) in the event of contactor failure. t circuit breaker magnetic relay contactor thermal relay câble motor (nominal current In) ts 1 to 10 s end of start-up period range 1. the direct-acting trip coil of the circuit can be re-energized immediately CB). as well as operation and c better protection for the starter for shortmaintenance. replaceable arcing contacts in certain contactors. contact welding. J5-3: tripping characteristics of a circuit breaker (type MA)** and thermal-relay / contactor (1) combination. the CB avoids the need to replace blown In the majority of cases short-circuit faults fuses and the necessity of maintaining a occur at the motor..05 .2 standards The international standards covering materials discussed in this Sub-clause are: IEC 947-2. c protection against short-circuits. following the elimination of a fault. which share the required functions of: c control (start/stop). by: circuit currents up to about 30 In (see c the reduction of the maintenance work load: figure J5-3). co-ordination between them is essential. as national standards. c disconnection (isolation) for safety of personnel during maintenance work.. etc. except items for which minor damage is normal in the particular circumstances.20 In characteristics of thermal relay among the many possible methods of protecting a motor.5.1 Where several different devices are used to provide protection. easily accommodated. c short-circuit protection.1. In the case of an electrical fault of any kind. after a given number of service operations. coordination between them is necessary. and 947-6-2. and so on. e. ** Merlin Gerin.

c standard test values for expected life duration on load. v volume and cost of switchgear reduced. The following table gives some typical examples of the utilization categories covered. c type 2: v continuity of service imperative. current-breaking capacity above that of the CB alone. standardization of the association of circuit breakers/ discontactors Categories of contactor The standard IEC 947-4 gives utilization categories which considerably facilitate the choice of a suitable contactor for a given service duty. inching table J5-4: utilization categories for contactors (IEC 947-4).J39 . Conclusion The association circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay(1) for the control and protection of motor circuits is eminently appropriate where: c the maintenance service for an installation is reduced. v no maintenance service. which is generally the case in tertiary and small-and medium-sized industrial enterprises. particular supply sources and loads . a type of coordination is given. the contacts of some contactors may be momentarily forced open by electro-magnetic repulsion. which must never present a danger to personnel. IEC 947-4-1 defines two types of coordination. which set maximum allowable limits of deterioration of switchgear. according to its utilization. v continuity of service not demanded. The combination effectively increases the s. according to the state of the constituant parts following a circuit breaker trip out on fault.c. and must be chosen to satisfy (optimally) the needs of the user and the cost of installation. or provided by replacement of motor-starter drawer. c type 1: v qualified maintenance service. Types of co-ordination For each association of devices. those of the CB and those of the contactor) are acting in series. so that two sets of contacts (i.95 (heating. plugging. distribution) Starting and switching off of slip-ring motors Cage motors: starting. v specifications stipulating this type of coordination. or the opening of a contactor on overload. utilization category AC-1 AC-2 AC-3 AC-4 application characteristics Non-inductive (or slightly inductive) loads: cos ø u 0. c type 2: burning.e. c there is an operational requirement for a load-breaking facility in the event of contact welding of the contactor. The utilization categories advise on: c a range of functions for which the contactor may be adapted. c the job specification calls for complementary functions. c its current breaking and making capabilities.J Note: When short-circuit currents are very high. and the risk of welding of the contacts of the contactor are the only risks allowed. and switching off motors during running Cage motors: starting. c type 1: deterioration of the contactor and/or of its relay is acceptable under 2 conditions: v no risk for the operator. (1) a contactor in association with a thermal relay is commonly referred to as a discontactor. v all elements other than the contactor and its relay must remain undamaged. type 1 and type 2. Which type to choose? The type of co-ordination to adopt depends on the parameters of exploitation.

c the short-circuit current breaking rating of the contactor must be greater than the regulated threshold of the CB magnetic trip relay.particular supply sources and loads . the setting of the magnetic relay (as seen from figure J5-5). J5-5: the thermal-withstand limit of the thermal relay must be to the right of the CB magnetic-trip characteristic. c or. J5-7: circuit breaker and contactor separately mounted. The combination can therefore be used on a circuit for which the prospective short-circuit current level exceeds the rated s. c a reliable performance of the contactor and its thermal relay when passing short-circuit current. or slightly less than.g.5. This feature very often presents a significant economic advantage. the s. it is not possible to predict the s. current-breaking capability of a CB + contactor combination. since it (the contactor) must be capable of breaking a current which has a value equal to. M fig. i. and to establish the s. current-breaking capacity which must be compared to the prospective short-circuit current is: c either. J40 . In figure J5-5 the thermal relay is protected if its limit boundary for thermal withstand is placed to the right of the CB magnetic trip characteristic curve. Tables are published by Merlin Gerin giving this information in their “LV Distribution” catalogue. I fig. * Motor Control Centre.3 basic protection schemes: circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay (continued) key points in the successful association of a circuit breaker and a discontactor t Compact NS type MA 2 1 CB magnetic-trip performance curve 2 thermal-relay characteristic 3 thermal-withstand limit of the thermal relay 1 3 Isc ext. short-circuit current-breaking capacity of a combination circuit breaker + contactor In the studies. Standards define precisely all the elements which must be taken into account to realize a correct co-ordination of type 2: c absolute compatibility between the thermal relay of the discontactor and the magnetic trip of the circuit breaker. Laboratory tests and calculations by manufacturers are necessary to determine which type of CB to associate with which contactor. co-ordination is provided in the design.c. for the case where the contactor is separated from the CB (so that a short-circuit is possible on the intervening circuit). For such a case. A short-circuit downstream of the combination will be limited to some extent by the impedances of the contactor (see previous Note) and the thermal relay. no excessive deterioration of either device and no welding of contactor contacts.c.c. asynchronous motors (continued) J 5. in the same drawer or compartment of a MCC*). M fig. current-breaking capacity of the circuit breaker. if these devices are physically close together (e.c. In the case of a motor-control circuit breaker incorporating both magnetic and thermal devices. breaking capacity of the combination. with intervening circuit conductors. that of the CB only. that of the CB + contactor combination.e. J5-6: circuit breaker and contactor mounted in juxtaposition. IEC 947-4-1 requires the rating of the circuit breaker to be equal to or greater than the prospective short-circuit current at its point of installation.

J5-9: multi-function protection. c running on no-load. J5-8: overheating protection by thermal sensors. inverse rotation. type LT8 above. cooling-air ducts. c multifunction protections. the signal being processed by an associated control device acting to trip the circuit breaker (figure J5-8). particular supply sources and loads . c earth fault (by RCD). or starting-up period too long. c insulation-failure detection devices on running. in order to avoid possible tripping due to the first current peak during start-up. The thermal sensors are generally embedded in the stator windings (for LV motors). c rotor stalled. fig. c possibility of communication via communication buses. associated with a number of sensors and indication modules. c efficient surveillance of all motor-operating schedules. high-performance and permanent monitoring/control function.J choice of instantaneous magnetic-trip relay for the circuit breaker The operating threshold must never be less than 12 In for this relay.). blocked rotor on start-up. 5. multi-function motor-protection relay The multi-function relay. c phase current imbalance. such as: c thermal overload.4 preventive or limitative protection preventive or limitative protection devices detect signs of impending failure. thermal sensors Thermal sensors are used to detect abnormal temperature rise in the motor by direct measurement. provides protection for motors. bearings. This current peak can vary from 8 In to 11 or 12 In. typified by the Telemecanique relay. c alarm and control indications. so that action can be taken (automatically or by operator intervention) to avoid or limit the otherwise inevitable consequences. providing a reliable. c overheating. fig. The main protection devices of this type for motor are: c thermal sensors in the motor (windings. loss of one phase. The advantages of this relay are essentially: c a comprehensive protection.J41 . or stationary motor. etc.

c insulation of d. RH328A MERLIN GERIN fig. sensitivity: 5 % In). excessive humidity.4 preventive or limitative protection (continued) preventive protection of stationary motors This protection concerns the monitoring of the level of insulation resistance of a stationary motor.03 to 250 A). etc. Example: a vigilohm SM 20 (Merlin Gerin) relay monitors the insulation of a motor. Some versions of RCDs. This type of protection is indispensable for essential-services and emergency-systems motors. and so on).5. J42 . c automatic operation if the circuit from the current transformer to the relay is broken. c possibility of discriminative tripping or to take account of particular operational requirements. J5-10: preventive protection of stationary motors.c. thereby avoiding the undesirable consequences of insulation failure during operation. c protected against false operation. especially when installed in humid and/or dusty locations. SM20 MERLIN GERIN SM20 IN OUT fig. c to reduce considerably the risk of fire due to earth-leakage currents (sensitivity i 500 mA). provide the following possibilities: c to avoid the destruction of a motor (by perforation and short-circuiting of the laminations of the stator) caused by an eventual arcing fault to earth. Furthermore. specially designed for such applications. A typical RCD for such duties is type RH328A relay (Merlin Gerin) which provides: c 32 sensitivities (0. according to the size of the motor (approx. by virtue of 8 possible timedelays (instantaneous to 1 s. such as: c for motors used on emergency systems for example: failure to start or to perform correctly. c in manufacturing: loss of production. J5-11: example using relay RH328A. Such protection avoids the destruction of a motor by short-circuit to earth during start-up (one of the most frequently-occurring incidents) by giving a warning in advance that maintenance work is necessary to restore the motor to a satisfactory operational condition. Irrigation pumps for seasonal operation. This protection can detect incipient fault conditions by operating at leakage currents in the range of 300 mA to 30 A. Examples of application (figure J5-10) Fire-protection system “sprinkler” pumps. circuit components: class A. contamination. this relay can prevent any attempt to start the motor.particular supply sources and loads . asynchronous motors (continued) J 5.). and signals audibly and visually any abnormal reduction of the insulation resistance level. limitative protection Residual current differential protective devices (RCDs) can be very sensitive and detect low values of leakage current which occur when the insulation to earth of an installation deteriorates (by physical damage. if necessary. Instantaneous tripping by the RCD will greatly limit the extent of damage at the fault location.

or.1 x 0.5 maximum rating of motors installed for consumers supplied at LV The disturbances caused on LV distribution networks during the start-up of large DOL (direct-on-line) a.5 times the load torque. typical values of maximum allowable starting type of motor single.92 = 1. For distribution networks in many countries.1 times that of the load torque. Other (but generally more costly) alternative starting arrangements exist. c for a voltage drop of 10% during start-up.e. the motor torque would be 2.5 11 22 other methods of starting (kW) 11 22 45 dwellings others overhead line network underground cable network 1. for extreme cases. However. which reduce the large starting currents of DOL motors to acceptable levels. type of motor singleor three-phase location single-phase 230 V (kW) three-phase 400 V direct-on-line starting at full load (kW) 5. 5. Since. so that the motorstarting time would be longer than normal. on the short-circuit fault level at the point concerned. The higher the fault level. and the method of correction in Chapter E Clause 7.6 reactive-energy compensation (power-factor correction) The effect of power factor correction on the amount of current supplied to a motor is indicated in table B4 in Chapter B Sub-clause 3-1. the starting current is much greater than the full-load current of the motor.location or three-phase single phase three phase dwellings others dwellings others currents for DOL motors are shown below in table J5-12. “soft start” electronic devices. the “stronger” the system and the lower the disturbance (principally volt-drop) experienced by neighbouring consumers. so that most power-supply authorities have strict rules intended to limit such disturbances to tolerable levels. a maximum allowable voltage drop of 10% Un is recommended during the start-up of a motor.c.J43 . Example: c with 400 V maintained at the terminals of a motor. it is always advisable to secure the agreement of the power supplier before acquiring the motors for a new project. i. motors can occasion considerable nuisance to neighbouring consumers. Corresponding maximum power ratings of the same motors are shown in table J5-13.4 3 5. The importance of limiting voltage drop at the motor during start-up In order that a motor starts and accelerates to its normal speed in the appropriate time. c for a voltage drop of 15% during start-up. for example. The amount of disturbance created by a given motor depends on the “strength” of the network. maximum starting current (A) overheadundergroundline network cable network 45 45 100 200 60 60 125 250 table J5-12: maximum permitted values of starting current for direct-on-line LV motors (230/400 V).852 = 1. it is largely inductive. In general. in failure to start. even in areas supplied by one power authority only. moreover.1 x 0. its torque would be 2. These two factors are both very unfavourable to the maintenance of voltage at the motor.J voltage drop at the terminals of a motor during starting must never exceed 10% of rated voltage Un. the torque of the motor must exceed the load torque by at least 70%. 5. particular supply sources and loads . the motor torque would be 2.5 table J5-13: maximum permitted power ratings for LV direct-on-line-starting motors. and the motor would accelerate to its rated speed normally. “weak” areas of the network exist as well as “strong” areas. star-delta starters. slip-ring motors.7 times the load torque. etc. Failure to provide sufficient voltage will reduce the motor torque significantly (motor torque is proportional to U2) and will result either in an excessively long starting time.

J6-1: battery of storage cells. as a function of its ampere-hour capacity) When Ri is not known. an approximate formula may be used. system of voltage Un. J6-2: direct-current generator.5 milli-ohm/cell so that Ri = 110 x 0.032 G = Icc fig.9 kA 0. In the absence of precise data. there are differences in: c the calculations for short-circuit currents. Example: What is the short-circuit current level at the terminals of a battery with the following characteristics: c 500 Ah capacity. c fully-charged open-circuit voltage 240 V (110 cells at 2.6. Isc fig. the following approximate formula may be used: Isc = kC where C = the rated ampere-hour capacity of the battery. since the techniques employed for the interruption of direct current differ in practice from those used for alternating current.1 Un. and. 230 V. J44 .4 kA 55 The short-circuit currents are seen to be (relatively) low. when the internal resistance of the battery is unknown. they will each (initially) contribute a current of approximately 6 In (i. will give a terminal short-circuit current of 230 x 1. 3 and Isc = 240 x 10 = 4. installations Although the basic design principles in each case are similar.032 ohm. Vg may be taken as 1. c internal resistance is 0.c. c the choice of protective equipment.particular supply sources and loads .1 short-circuit currents in order to calculate the maximum short-circuit current from a battery of storage cells.2 V/cell). Where motors are included in the system. 6.c.e.5 = 55 mΩ for the battery. c autonomy 1/2 hour. battery of storage cells (or accumulators) For a short-circuit at its output terminals. then: Isc = Vg / Ri. direct-current generator If Vg is the open-circuit voltage of the generator and Ri its internal resistance.1 = 7. Isc at any point in an installation V Ri + Rl Where Ri is as previously defined. protection of direct-current installations J differences between a.c. and k is a coefficent close to 10 (and in any case is less than 20). generator rated at 200 kW. and having an internal resistance of 0. V is either Vb or Vg as previously defined. c discharge rate 300 A.c. a battery will pass a current according to Ohm’s law equal to Isc = Vb/Ri where: Vb = open circuit voltage of the fullycharged battery Ri = the internal resistance of the battery (this value is normally obtained from the manufacturer of the battery. Rl is the sum of the resistances of the faultcurrent loop conductors. In this case Isc = + - fig. six times the nominal full-load current of the motor) so that: V Isc = + 6 (In mot) Ri + Rl where In mot is the sum of the full-load currents of all running motors at the instant of short-circuit. and for a d. J6-3: short-circuit at any point of an installation. Example: A d. and in any case is always less than 20. and d. namely: Isc = kC where C is the ampere-hour rating of the battery and k is a coefficient close to 10.

c. A pole of a circuit breaker may be made up of modules. The pole may therefore consist of one module or (particularly in d. particular supply sources and loads . current-breaking capacity.) case 3 there is no short-circuit in this case poles (a) and (b) must break the maximum Isc at U volts as for fault A the most unfavourable case case of a circuit breaker A=B=C see Note below the table provide in the CB pole for each conductor the number of contacts necessary to break Isc (max. as mentioned in the table below.c. Table J6-5 below gives characteristics (current ratings. Note: In the following text the word “pole” has two meanings. The table below provides the means for determining these voltages. voltage at their terminals when breaking short-circuit currents.c.J45 . In the case of circuit breakers. c the time constant of the fault current (L/R in milli-seconds) at the point of installation of the CB. Provide an additional pole for inserting in the earthed polarity conductor. Note: each pole is equally stressed for faults at A. Referring to a switch or circuit breaker. currentbreaking capacity).3 choice of protective device for each type of possible insulation failure. and in the following text. the protective devices against short-circuits must be adequately rated for the voltage levels noted in table J6-4 above. 2.2 characteristics of faults due to insulation failure. viz: 1. this voltage dictates the number of circuit-breaking contacts that must be connected in series for each pole of a circuit breaker. c the rated current required. Referring to a d.c. since maximum Isc must be broken with U/2 across the CB pole(s) in each case. for example: a pole of a circuit breaker makes or breaks the current in one conductor. and the number of series-connected contacts per pole required for a given system voltage) for circuit breakers made by Merlin Gerin. system earthing.) at the voltage U/2. 6. circuits) several seriesconnected modules. to permit circuit isolation (figure J6-6). fault B fault C case 2 pole (a) must break maximum Isc* at U/2 volts poles (a) and (b) must break the maximum Isc at U volts as for fault A but concerning pole (b)* * U/2 divided by Ri/2 = Isc (max. The choice of protective device depends on: c the voltage appearing across the currentbreaking element. each of which contains a contact.c.J 6. types of network system earthing one pole earthed at the source i + source with mid-point earthing i + unearthed system source is not earthed i + earthing schemes and various fault conditions a R B b C A – a R B b C A – a R B b C A U – U/2 + U/2 U analysis of each fault fault A case 1 pole (a) must break maximum Isc at U volts poles (a) and (b) must break the maximum Isc at U volts there is no short-circuit current in this case fault A all the contacts participating in current interruption are series connected in the positiveconductor (or the negative conductor if the positive pole of the source is earthed). c the short-circuit current level at its point of installation (in order to specify its s. for example: the positive pole or the negative pole of a battery or generator. s. source. Voltage stresses across opening contacts are reduced by the technique of connecting a number of contacts in series per pole. fault B (or faults A and C simultaneously) provide the number of contacts necessary for breaking the current indicated in the CB pole of each conductor. table J6-4: characteristics of protective switchgear according to type of d. and of protective switchgear Devices for circuit interruption are sensitive to the level of d. to attain the levels indicated in table J6-4.c. B or C. which depend on the source voltage and on the method of earthing the source.

c. For example.42 50 (3p) 50 (2p) 85 (2p) 100 (2p) 50 (2p) 85 (2p) 100 (2p) 50 (2p) 85 (2p) 100 (2p) 85 (2p) 85 (2p) 50 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 25 (3p) 50 (4p) 50 (4p50 (4p) 50 (4p) 50 (4p) 50 (4p) tripping units MP1/MP2/MP3 special for direct current table J6-5: choice of d.e. but the operating levels marked on each unit correspond to r.42 1. J46 . effectively triple the speed of contact separation.42 = 1.particular supply sources and loads . circuit of a 250 V system. then the setting required will be 800 x 1. i.38 1.c. circuit breaker should trip at 800 A or more the coefficient given in table J6-5 is 1. Preferred practice is to (also) include a contact in the negative conductor of the outgoing circuit. * These tripping units may be used on a. Note: three contacts in series.s. It will be seen in the 250 V column that 4 contacts will break 20 kA at that voltage (case B of table J6-4). Table J6-4 shows that each pole will be subject to a recovery voltage of U/2. provide an external relay (if necessary) coefficient for uprating the instantaneous magnetic tripping units* special DC 1. Table J6-4 shows that the full system voltage will appear across the contacts of the positive pole.c. Example 2 Choice of protection for a 100 A outgoing d. + 250 V = - NC100 H 4-pole 100 A load fig. of which the midpoint is earthed.38 1. The Isc = 15 kA.4 examples Example 1 Choice of protection for an 80 A outgoing d. circuit breakers manufactured by Merlin Gerin.42 1. Isc = 15 kA. if it is required that the d.42 1. which open in unison.c. Table J6-5 indicates that circuit breaker NC100H (30 kA 2 contacts/pole 125 V) is an appropriate choice.6. Table J6-5 indicates that circuit breaker NC100H (30 kA 2 contacts/pole 125 V) is suitable for cases A and C. current.c.m. circuit breaker the setting must be changed according to the co-efficient in table J6-5. of which the negative pole is earthed. When used on a d.136 A.42.c. J6-6: example.c. circuit of a 125 V system. 125 V for all types of s. circuit breakers.015 seconds (the number of series-connected contacts per pole is shown in brackets) 24/48 V 125 V 250 V C32HDC 1 to 40 20 (1p) 10 (1p) 20 (2p) 10 (2p) C60a 10 to 40 10 (1p) 10 (2p) 20 (3p) 25 (4p) C60N 6 to 63 15 (1p) 20 (2p) 30 (3p) 40 (4p) C60H 1 to 63 20 (1p) 25 (2p) 40 (3p) 50 (4p) C60L 1 to 63 25 (1p) 30 (2p) 50 (3p) 60 (4p) NC100H 50 to 100 20 (1p) 30 (2p) 40 (3p) 20 (4p) NC100LH 10 to 63 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1 p) NS100N 16 to 100 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1p) NC100H 16 to 100 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) NS100L 16 to 100 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (1p) NS160N 40 to 160 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1p) NS160H 40 to 160 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) NS160L 40 to 160 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (1p) NS250N 40 to 250 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1p) NS250H 40 to 250 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) NS250L 40 to 250 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (1p) NS400H MP1/MP2-400 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) NS630H MP1/MP2/MP3-630 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) C1251N-DC P21/P41-1250 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (2p) M10-DC 1000 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) M20-DC 2000 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) M40-DC 4000 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) M60-DC 6000 100 (4p) 100 (4p) 100 (4p) M80-DC 8000 100 (4p) 100 (4p) 100 (4p) ratings (A) thermal overload protection 500 V 750 V 1000 V special DC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC no thermal relay.38 1. as shown in figure J6-6. J6-7: example. + 125 V = - NC100 H 3-pole 80 A load fig. 6.38 1. values. 2 contacts in the positive and 2 contacts in the negative pole of the CB.c. This technique is often necessary for successfully breaking d.e. protection of direct-current installations (continued) J 6.3 choice of protective device (continued) type sc current-breaking capacity kA for L/R i 0.c. i. fault.c. or d. to provide isolation (for maintenance work on the load circuit for example). a.

As for the a. c principles of the IT scheme for case 3 in Sub-clause 6. v the presence of two concurrent faults to earth (one on each polarity) constitutes a short-circuit. systems.J47 .2. It is then sufficient to check that.4. RCDs are not applicable to d. Sub-clause 3.2. the conventional voltage limits and the automatic disconnection times for safety of persons are different (see tables G8 and G9 of Chapter G. However. Sub-clause 3.c.J 6. + - U fixed + - U variable ou fixed TR5A XM200 fig. circuits. it is sufficient to verify that the current magnitude exceeds that necessary to operate the magnetic (or short-time delay) circuit breaker tripping units. c automatic tripping is achieved in the timeperiod specified. The checking methods are identical to those recommended for an a.1): c all exposed conductive parts are interconnected and earthed. v the insulation level of the installation must be under permanent surveillance and any failure must be immediately indicated and alarmed: this can be achieved by the installation of a suitable monitoring relay as shown in Chapter G. network. J6-8: insulation (to earth) monitors for an IT direct-current installation. which will be cleared by overcurrent protection.c. particular supply sources and loads . systems.c.c.5 protection of persons The rules for protection are the same as those already covered for a. so that in practice: c the principles of the TN scheme are used for cases 1 and 2 of Sub-clause 6. in the case of a shortcircuit. the current magnitudes will be sufficient to trip the instantaneous magnetic relays.

the flux follows the exponential law of natural decay.e. or in damper windings (see note 1) of salient-pole alternators. this accounts for the suffix "d" of reactance values. component of armature current versus time. The large stator currents are (practically) entirely inductive. Appendix J1 . c b i 0 a t fig. thereby reducing the e. A similar. mentioned above however.m. transient in the phase concerned.c. no currents will be induced in the damper windings. * unless. Suffix "q" is used for quadrature quantities. ia x''d = the sub-transient reactance Vo/i'' x'd = the transient reactance Vo/i' xd = the synchronous reactance Vo/i Vo = peak rated voltage of the alternator fig.e. current decrement would be similar to that of curve b in figure AJ1-1. i. a stable state is reached. gives rise to the sub-transient component of current (curve C). The reduction of fault current therefore is caused by a diminution of the generated e. Their purpose is to help to maintain synchronous stability of the alternator. the result of which is the principal factor in the "a. by an increase in impedance of the machine (that is why the term "effective reactance" was used in Chapter J Sub-clause 1. The definitions of alternator reactance values are based on such "symmetrical" curves. The reduction of current magnitude from its initial value occurs in the following way.c.c. AJ1-2: a. ** the sub-transient reactance.c.c. excited (at a fixed level) to produce nominal rated voltage.c. the induced currents oppose the change). The gradual predominance of the stator m.e. produced by them acts in direct opposition to that of the excitation current in the rotor winding.e. by chance. in which a short-circuit is applied instantaneously to all three terminals of a machine at no load. in which the (greatly reduced) rotor flux produces just enough voltage to maintain the stator current at the level of equilibrium between the three quantities. but much smaller effect occurs due to eddy currents in the surface of solid unlaminated rotors of turbo-alternators. if a difference in the speed of rotation occurs. i. during a short-circuit. current decrement" shown in figure AJ1-1. depends on the overall effect of rotor and stator time constants. The effect is analogous to that of the closed circuit of the rotor-excitation winding described above (i. which is defined later. current.f. If. The effect is cumulative. Note 1: Damper windings are made up of heavy gauge copper bars embedded in the pole faces of salient-pole rotors.7. opposes the establishment of a reduced level of magnetic flux.c. and subtransient and transient reactances. now reduces the rotor flux at a slower rate.m. but having a very much shorter time constant.1 . In that case. viz.1). AJ1-1: short-circuit current of one phase of a 3-phase alternator with the d. the direct-axis component system only is required. The curve shown below in figure AJ1-1 is the current trace. due to armature reaction. and not. the voltage of a phase happens to be maximum at the instant of short-circuit. two component axes "direct" and "quadrature" are defined. and consequently reducing the magnitude of the fault current. from which the d. component. stator) windings. transient is shown). the so-called transient-current envelope. so that the synchronously rotating m. current decrement is therefore composed of the sum of two exponentially-decaying quantities. i" Vo/x"d Vo/x'd i' i t Vo/xd substransient period transient period steady state ia enveloppe of the current. as shown in figure AJ1-2. in fact. is very nearly equal to the leakage reactance. For advanced analytical studies of alternators. are derived for each component system. viz. The overall a. the envelope of the a.f. generated in the stator windings. there were no eddy currents induced in the unlaminated face of round-rotor alternators. the current reduction requires a certain time. as the rotor flux begins to diminish.f. At the instant of short-circuit. in effect. there will be no d. the sub-transient and the transient components. the only impedance limiting the magnitude of current is principally** the inherent leakage reactance of the armature (i.c.m. shown in figure AJ1-2. generally of the order of 10%-15%. and the reason for this is that. component has been eliminated. increases the excitation current.f. flux and voltage.m. With the rotor turning at the same speed as that of the m. of a recording made during the testing of a 3-phase 230 V 50 kVA machine. to form a squirrel-cage "winding" similar to that of an induction motor. then currents induced in the damper windings will be in a direction that produces a torque which acts to slow (an overspeeding rotor) or to accelerate (an underspeeding rotor). Eventually. i. in a short-circuited alternator (no d. short-circuit characteristics of an alternator J The characteristics of a 3-phase alternator under short-circuit conditions are obtained from oscillogram traces recorded during tests.f. The resulting currents in all three phases will normally* include a d. and the reduced fault current. component eliminated.m. In the simple studies needed for 3-phase symmetrical fault levels and for circuitbreaker performance based on such faults. The result is that the rotor flux starts to reduce. in turn. due to loss of synchronism. etc.e. As shown in figure AJ1-1.c. its reduction rate at any instant depending on the magnitude of the quantity causing the phenomenon. the change of flux induces a current in the closed rotor circuit in the direction which. due to the stator currents. The presence of either of the two features. and so on. which reduces exponentially to zero after (commonly) some tens of cycles.

These components give rise to additional electro-dynamic and thermal stresses in the machine itself. as the symmetrical envelope has about the current zero axis. the d. as defined in figure AJ1-2. AJ1-3: a fully-offset asymmetrical transient fault-current trace. xd is generally denoted by Xs and is referred to as "synchronous reactance". all 3-phases of short-circuit current will include a d. In the current trace of figure AJ1-2.c. currents. i.e. and are illustrated in figure C5. fig. Moreover.c. stator phase current d. it is simpler to use the projected peak values of current.Appendix J1 . component time instant of short circuit The current envelope of an asymmetrical transient has the same dimensions about the d. The worst condition is that of a phase in which the d. and in circuitbreakers protecting a faulted circuit. transient curve.s.c. A typical test trace of this condition is shown in figure AJ1-3.s.m.J The reactances are generally defined as r.1 of Chapter C. however. The consequence of asymmetrical transient fault currents and the standardized relationship between the symmetrical and asymmetrical quantities for circuit breaker performance ratings are given in Sub-clause 1. asymmetrical currents As previously noted.c. in general.c. transient value at zero time (the instant of fault) is equal to the peak value of current given by Vo/xd''. component is the maximum possible. instead of Vo. so that Vo must be the rated peak voltage of the machine. voltages divided by r. Note 2: in the definition of "i" some authors use the actual voltage measured during the test. 2 .m. component.

on the principles discussed in Chapter F.1. domestic and similar premises and special locations . TN or IT scheme of earthing is adopted. However. and Chapter G.s. are supplied from a socket. Clause 4. as treated in detail in Chapter G. Sub-clause 5.a. RCDs are essential for TT. the power distribution authority connects the LV neutral point of its HV/LV distribution transformer to earth. all Clauses. domestic and similar premises L Electrical installations for inhabited premises need a high standard of safety and reliability.and IT-earthed installations. See also Clause 3 concerning special installations. RCDs are strongly recommended on TN installations.1. The protection of persons against electric shock therefore depends. as being the only sure means of protection against shock when very long flexible leads of small c.L1 . * for TN-C and TN-S schemes refer to Chapter G. either directly to an electrode at the premises (TT or IT schemes) or by means of the neutral conductor (TN schemes)*. in such cases. but high-spe