Preliminary Exercises & Etudes In Contemporary Techniquesfor Saxophone

By Ronald l. Caravan
Introduction
The tonal resources of woodwind instruments have been greatly expanded in recent years. Among the numerous unconventional techniques called for in contemporary music are multiphonics (production of more than one audible tone simultaneously), quarter tones, timbre variation, glissando, portamento, vibrato manipulation, non-traditional methods of attack and release, percussive effects, vocal sounds, and air sounds. Once the peculairities of a few experimenters and jazz musicians, many unconventional sounds have, during the second half of the twentieth century, become accepted as viable material for contemporary serious musical composition. The purpose of the present volume is to provide material which may assist the saxophonist in developing flexibility with some of the non-traditional techniques often required in the performance of contemporary music. The exercises and etudes contained here deal principally with three techniques which generally involve unconventional fingerings-variation of timbre, quarter-tone production, and the performance of multiple sonorities, or multiphonics. Fingering diagrams are included throughout this study material to guide the saxophonist in his execution of the various sounds as they occur in the notation, as is generally the case with most contemporary music utilizing such techniques. A key to the fingering diagrams .. which are designed to be as practical and immediately communicative to the performer as possible, is providea below. The material in this volume is divided into three basic sections. The first deals with timbre variation, the second with quarter tones, and the third with multi phonics. There is no set, prescribed manner as to how one should proceed through the book; one might work out of all three sections simultaneously, or go from the beginning to the end in order. In the event one would choose to do the latter, the effectiveness of this course might be enhanced by the fact that the first section (timbre variation) cohtains primarily a technical challenge (i.e., getting used to reading the fingering diagrams at sight), the second (quarter tones) adds more of an aural challenge, and the third (multiphonics) additionally introduces a much greater challenge to the performer's tone-production flexibility. For the fairly advanced student who possesses good basic playing habits, the material in this volume may be able to serve as appropriate introduction to the unconventional sounds involved. In my own teaching experience. utilizing many of these exercises and etudes in this way, I have even had students utilize some of the etudes as performance material at the studio-recital level, in what has often been a good introductory experience for them in performing with sounds which are generally quite new to them. There is an important warning which I feel must be rendered to the student saxophonist who may be approaching unconventional techniques such as these, perhaps for the first time. I suggest that material such as this IS not something to be dealing with unless there already exists, presumably through more traditional studies and disciplines, a reasonable degree of solidification of basic saxophone tone production and technique. Particularly with regard to the study' of multiphonics, these unconventional sounds often involve significant and complex deviations from normal tone-production habits-potentially healthy deviations if built on a well-established, disciplined technique, and potentially unhealthy deviations if added to an unsolidified, inconsistent tone production. The student who is undergoing or has yet to undergo a solidification with basic aspects such as proper breathing and the abdominal support, embouchure, or light staccato tonguing, may be well advised to delay studies in unconventional sounds until a later time.

About the Author
Ronald L. Caravan (b.I946), a performer of both the Clarinet and the saxophone, received degrees of Master of Arts in music theory and Doctor of Musical Arts In music education from the Eastman School of Music, Rochester, N,Y., U.S.A. He also earned the Performer's Certificate from that institution. His doctoral dissertation, Extensions of Technique for Clarinet and Saxop.hone. II. widely recognized source on performance, pedagogy, and composition of unconventional sound resources for these mstrum.ents. Among Dr. Caravan's other works utilizing extended techniques for saxophone are Sketch for Alto Saxophone (Seesaw MUSIC Corp.) , Monologu~ for alto saxophone (Ethos Publications), Lament for an Unknown Infant Victim of War for Saxophone .~~rtet and Gr~nd PIanos (Ethos Publications), and Paradigms I (Dorn Productions), a graded set of 10 compositions utlhzmg unconventional sounds.

COPYRIGHT

©

1980 BY DoRN PRODUCTIONS
PRINTED IN USA

All RIGHTS RESERVED- INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT SECURED

CONTENTS
A Selected List of Extensions of Technique •.••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••...••.•.••.•...•..•.•.•. 1 Timbre Variation.-. • . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . • . . . . . • • . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . • • • . . . . 2 Etudes on Timbre Variation •.••••.••.•.. '..•.....•................•................. '....•........ 3 Qua.rter Tones •.•....•....•.••.•.... _ '.....•......• QuarteI-- Tone Fingerings .•••••••....•..•...••••••••••..••.••••.••••..••..•...••.....•..•.•••••• Quarter-Tone Etudes '.••..........••..
Ii •• '•••••

9 10 12 18 19 19 22 23 26 30
31

Multiphonics •••••..••••.•••••••••••••.•••••.••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••.•.••..•• Use of Conventional Fingerings with Distorted Tone Production ••••••.•••.•••.•.•.•.••••••• · '. P re Iimmary E xerclSes •.•.•.•.•.•••.•...•..•.••.••...•••.•••..•..........•..........•.... Use of Special Fingerings ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.••.••.•••...••.••.•.......• Preliminary Exercises .•..••......••..•.•••......•..••..•..••.................•.......... Preliminary Exercises Linking Multiphonics and Single Tones •••••••.••.••••••••••••••••••• Singing While Playing ...•...••..••••..•..•.•.••.••••••••••••..•.........•............•... . Pr eIimi m1D8ry E xerclSes ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• . Multiphooic Etudes, •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••.
'••••••••••••

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34

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Guide to Fingering Diagrams
Key. and Open Holes on Instrument Diagramed

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- Hal. closed or key depr... ed with an approprlat. finger.

( ) - Optional for consld.ratlons of tuning or tlmbr•. I( - Us. normal or regular flng.rlng .

................•......

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-1A Selected List of Extensions of Technique for Saxophone

I. Timbre Variation. A. Changing timbre while sustaining or repeating a pitch. B. Changing timbre of successive pitches. C. Timbre trills. II. Quarter Tones. III. Multiphonics. A. Use of conventional fingerings with distorted tone production. B. Use of special fingerings. 1. Isolated and combined multiphonics. 2. Multiple sonorities linked to single tones. 3. Multiphonic trills. C. Use of the voice. IV. Vibrato Manipulation. A. Variation of rate. B. Variation of width. V. Glissando. (Rapid chromatic or possibly diatonic movement) VI. Portamento. (Sliding movement) VII. Variation in Articulation. A. Flutter tonguing. B. Slap tonguing. C. Smorzato. (Attact & decay with embouchure pressure; no tonguing) D. Reverse envelope of attack and decay. E. Glissando attack and release. (Or portamento) VIII. Percussive Effects. A. Key clicks. B. Key Pops (Key slaps). C. Hand pops. IX. Air Sounds. X. Vocal Sounds. XI. Mouthpiece Alone. XII. Lip Buzz.

An Important

Note Concerning the Fingerings in this Book-

All of the fingerings contained in this volume for timbre variation, quarter tones, and multi phonics have been derived and thoroughly tested utilizing the E-flat alto saxophone. This does not preclude the possibility of using other sizes of saxophones, such as soprano or tenor, in these study materials, but in many cases fingering adjustments may be necessary for tuning purposes in the timbre-variation and quarter-tone fingerings; some of the multiphonic fingerings may not respond well at all on saxophones other than the alto. It is also noteworthy that the actual pitch content of the multiphonics will often differ from one performer and/or instrument to another.

·2·

Timbre Variation
The issue of timbre, or tone quality, as a parameter which can be predictably manipulated by the performer suggests a wide range of manifestations. The development of a performer's characteristic tone quality is itself, in the final analysis, the development of his ability to achieve and consistently manifest his tonal concepts throughout the pitch and dynamic ranges of the instrument. But, of course, this tone quality is not a single timbre resulting from a fixed pattern of harmonics (overtones) throughout the range of the instrument. The harmonic spectrum, and hence the timbre, changes with every pitch and dynamic nuance which is played. (Other elements which enter into the acousticaUy complex issue of timbre are formants, phase, noise elements, presence of inharmonic partials, transients, and radiation properties of the instruments. AdditionaUy, there are moment-to-moment changes in the balance of harmonics in a humanly-produced sustained tone.) For aU of the variables involved in the tone-production processes of the individual saxophonist t.e.g., embouchure components, tongue positions, air pressure), an effectively consistent tone quality is generally achieved by the more mature player (the frustrations of different reeds, mouthpieces, and even instruments notwithstanding!). However, it would be futile to attempt to define precisely the exact effects of these variables, with their complex interactions, in even one player, not to mention from one player to the next. The fact emerges that the most effective and most easily standardized method of achieving a variety of tone colors on a particular pitch on the saxophone is to employ several fingering combinations, in addition to the most conventional one, which produce different harmonic spectra from one to the other and hence, varied timbres. Using alternate fmgerings is the most predictable method of varying tone color on the saxophone since the different resonances inside the instrument which result are more predictable than the human components which enter into the tone-production process. The Etude. on Timbre Variation which foUow exploit some of the possibilities for tone-color variation through the use of various fingering alternattves. 'Many of the alternate fingerings employed may seem awkward at flrst,but the performer should experience no difficulty once he is used to adjusting his fingers to the unconventional patterns involved. It will probably be necessary for the saxophonist to focus his eyes more on the fingering diagrams than on the music notation in the course of playing, at least in the early stages. With regard to changes in embouchure, oral cavity, or air speed components in the course of performing tone-color variations with alternate fingerings, there are at least two circumstances when tone-production adjustments might be appropriate. First, some of the unconventional fingerings will result in minute pitch variations as weU as tone-color changes; by careful "favoring," the performer might be able to minimize pitch fluctuation in a succession of timbre changes involving different fingerings. A second and more subtle consideration is that of utillzing one's tone-production flexibility to complement the tendency of a given alternate fingering. For example, a slight amount of supportive tone-production adjustment added to a succession of fingerings on a constant pitch going from "dark" to "bright" can enhance the effect of the overaU gesture. With the pot!ISibility predictable timbre variations through the use of alternate fingerings, the potential also of exists for producing trilIs between two different tone qualities (where the fingerings employed lire plausible for rapid alternation). Timbre trills are utilized in the fourth and sixth of the etudes which foUow; the graphic undulating line above the staff indicates relative trill speed.

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" and so forth." "focusing. since the standard key mechanism was not made to produce intervals smaller than a semi tone. However. While the entire semi tonal chromatic scale can generally be played on the saxophone Without the use of any cross fingerings. few quarter tones are available which do not reqwre them..b~ty ~ill be necessary for accura~ quarter-tone playing. Although playing quarter tones should not place many additional technical demands on saxophonists. by means of tone-production adjustments (e. Generally.j l . the production of quarter tones on the saxophone will generally involve using numerous "cross fingerings. s. there are certain aspects which deserve particular attention. [The term "cross fingering" describes that situation in which there are one or more closed holes below an open hole (which for all practical purposes terminates the tube length) and then additional open holes below that (e. The performer. One must be able to hear and imagine the interval of a quarter tone accurately enough to be able to adjust the tone production for intonation purposes. with the manifestation of these adjustments taking on such descriptions as "lipping. low F-sharp on the saxophone. • ." "voicing. N1 excellent course of practice for the purpose of familianty IS for the performer to play ISOlated quarter-tone intervals or successions of adjacent quarter tones for a while. ton~e position).that compared with hearing in the traditional semitonal chromatic system. quarter-tone intervals can be played on the instrument through the use of special fingerings to produce the pitches between the conventional tones of the chromatic scale.) The fundam-:ntal cha~~"e is. Since cross fingerings affect the resonances in the air column in such a way as to reduce the harmonic content of the pitch being sounded (or otherwise distort the spectrum compared with the non-cross fingerings).g. subsequently turning to other melodic progressions involving quart"'r t ." some of which can be quite complicated from an acoustical as well as mechanical standpoint.• c· • • • • • • (T). (This may be conceptualized very differently among different players. or "fork" fingering. The most important consideration is the refinement of the ~I"former's interval discrimination. the practical result is that the quarter-tone fingerings produce 'darker" or "duller" tone qualities. c· • • • • • c· Quarter Tones Without making structural adjustments to the conventional saxophone key mechanism. The quarter-tone fingerings are no different from conventional fingerings in respect to this. c..·9· • o • • • ~ o (+RH) TOO o •o • •• •• •• TOll • • • o • ft· r 1-~~r~ r _~_::::-::::::::::=--_II c.g. can minimize these tone-color disparities to some extent in the context of a given melodic line. a greater degree of pitch sen~n. . The player will have to be prepared to temper pitch frequently. But It should be realized that some timbre deviation m passages involving quarter tones is simply characteristic of the instrument. wide timbre differences may occur between the quarter-tone fin"erings and the conventional fingerings.. not employing the chromatic. embouchure.

" . Hence..> 0 ~.... While an activity as basic as simply playing ascending and descending quarter-tone scales can be very profitable.. C'• ... 0 0 • ..Tone ~ Accldentals Enharmonics j IJ . will have no trouble adjusting to this system. to utilize just the quarter-tone fingerings to play more conventional chromatic or diatonic successions or patterns... the conventional sharp symbol (*) is assumed and each vertical line is taken to represent one quarter of a tone. • H/4 ~... 0 .. " . and"".....j J oJ '14 sharp '14 sharp h~J J II % ~ flat flat .... • 0 0 ij - • • •• .~..! • • $ ... the use of the filled-in.• •• ~.~. from an aural as well as tone-production standpoint.. This is perhaps best evidenced when a succession of adjacent quarter tones is played for a few moments followed immediately by the playing of a semitone.. For the notation of quarter tones in flats. Quarter... Among other things.. which involves four verticals... the quarter-tone fingering chart which precedes the quarter-tone etudes is provided primarily as a raw material from which the creative saxophonist might fashion his own preliminary exercises. The musician...........• • .... Since the conventional symbol for a double flat isl1~.a~ o . it is logical that the flat symbols for the quarter-tone intervals be".... This further relates to a conventional...... or white flat) draws its relationship from the conventional use of a black note head to represent a quarter note and a white note head for a half note. and the threequarters sharp is notated as".. A final note of introduction is given in regard to the accidentals employed in this volume for quarter tones.~...(G') 0 0 0 I • • .. • • ! • i (ft) • CO • • • ..... For the notation of sharps in quarter-tone increments. ~ lie ~ . ~~ C Quarter-Tone Fingerings for Saxophone q• ............ The half step will probably seem larger than it ever has at that point I In order to facilitate this type of activity.. the quarter sharp is represented by.: <.J............ or half of a semi tone (open. 0 0 0 0 • • 0 i!!. already conditioned to the idea that the filled-in symbol is half the value of the open one. ..... or black flat (") to represent a quarter tone.... It might be quite profitable...... the effect of psychological conditioning will soon become apparent...... not all such preliminary exercises with the new quarter-tone fingerings necessarily need to involve quarter-tone intervals. but less-frequently used double sharp..·10· as the etudes provided in this section.08 #- M~o • • • • • • • • ....

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MI~h1pn. UnpubUshed D. Saxophone. * This can be executed by the performer uWizing a maximum of tone-production distortion (e. Box 1307. *For IIOIne basic Introductory 8COU11ticalinformation on multiphonics. often requiring a minimum of tone-production adjustment. it is this type of sound rather than the simultaneous use of the instrument and the voice which is usually thought of aSlpuitiphonic production. see: Ronald L. • T. The other basic source for the simultaneous production of more than one tone does not lie in in another tone generator (i. • .1I5-12O. or by utilizing special unconventional fingerings which tend to nee these more complex resonances. 75-578..·11· ~p T(. 0-.)fl!i'Celo o o o o o F eO T. • T.M. 48106." "multiple sounds. traditional slDgle-tone fingerings. ~-~ 0' Multiphonics Among the numerous unconventional sound resources which began to appear in saxollhone literature during the aecond half of the twentieth century. • • o 0-. dissertation. 0 0 0-. 0 • T. . perhaps the most fascinating and acoustically intriguing is the slmulIaneous production of more than one audible tone.) The text and preliminary exercises which precede the etudes in this section are divided into three areas. One technique is to combine conventional saxophone tone production with vocal tones produced slmultaneously b~the rformer. but in altering the resonance of the air column inside the instrument so t two or more tones are rendered rather than just one. The first section deals with the production of multiple sounds through the use of conventional single-tone fingerings with distorted tone production. it provides very advantageous study material because of the Oexibility with tone production which the performer must attain to gain even minimal results. Ann Arbor.. Ealltman School at Music Multiple SonorIties. embouchure.g. 0 0-.e." pp." Aside from equipment modification. and the third provides an introduction and study material in singing while playing. • • T. The composite sounds resulting from this sort of production have been referred to as "multiple sonorities. 0-.!. Although this is generally a more difficult method of multiphonic production compared with utillzing special multiphonic fingerings." or "multiphonies.O.A. (In general usage. the voice). 0 0 0 0 • 0-. Caravan. there are two basic ways of achieving multiple sounds with the saxophone. (Available through University Mlcrofibna. air speed) on fingerings as unlik~ normal. oral cavity. The second section deals with multiple sounds using special fingerings. Extensions of Technique for Clarinet and at the University at Rochester 1!r14Chapter II "Acoustical Properties at P.) Nd. 0 0 0-.

the etudes which complete this section utilize special muitiphonic fingerings exclusively . fifth partial fingerings... .. 0 0 • • • . what basically happens is that the performer's distorted tone production affects the resonances in the instrument in such a manner than the open register key acts as a tubelength determinant (causing the fundamental-register "undertone") at the same time that it acts as a register vent (causing the upper partial or partials). 0 0 • • • 1'(' w: T. Exercises tones with octave key depressed..Use of Conventional Fingerings with Distorted Tone Production In producing multiple sounds from conventional single-tone fingerings... • • • 0 0 t(: T....~ Preliminary 1. 0 0 0 : -G* IN ...... and so on (altissimo range). • T..e normal or regular fingering] . ..... •• •• • • 0 0 0 0 • • • 0 0 0 (Continue with these fingerings) ... T... T.U... Often.. one or more higher tones (Le..... fourth. the saxophonist is provided with a framework for practicing the production of fundamental-register tones with the register key depressed as well as the simultaneous production of fundamental and second-partial tones... In the preliminary exercises which follow. • • 0 0 0 rr: T..... T..... Fundamental-register .·19· Multiphonics- I.. These exercises can easily be expanded to include other parts of the secondpartial register as well as third.. 0 0 • • • 0 . probably the most frequently employed as well as most approachable procedure is for the saxophonist to use a fingering for an upper-register (second partial) tone and cause it to produce a fundamental as well as a second-partial tone... These preliminary exercises constitute the only material in this volume where multiphonics are derived from normal single-tone fingerings..... T.... .... higher than the second-register tone associated with the fingering) are also heard as part of the composite sonority. .. From an acoustical standpoint..G~ 0 0 0 ror.

. • o o . I T...----• . o p ppptJ ~rJj I EJj . T.--. Slurring from second to fundamental register with octave key depressed._o ~ 0 0 0 tr.iF. • • 0 0 _----0 N: T... • 0 0 0 0 • T.~rJ f'J '~F*J· f'J . • T.·20· 2... Slurring from fundamental to second register with octave key depressed. T.--o T. •• • • .. • o ----- • --------o o • o T..-• o ~..) r) I r1j @~ II (Continue with these fingerings) . 0 0 0 :6.-o • • o T• • • o o o .---•• . .. • • .. • --------- • • o o T..Gt-------o 3. • • .fmlle I~E?j o o o • • .

Introduction of fundamental and second register tones simultaneously. ~-------0 0 • • T.. 0 0 0 • GJ. p~ I~ li~'~~T~ i~1 ~sz_ =r:": T. • • 0-------0 0 T.·21· 'f..:t-emf ppp simile 4.~~E li~~I ~ I~ /. --------0 0 • • • T.-• tEl ___ _ (Continue with these fingerings) t[ II .

and air speed. On saxophone. as well as that of undertaking such activities as overtone exerclaes. or overtone exercises. It is the flow of the air Itream which m .·22· Multlphonlcs- 11. it is probably best to use tones around C just above the staff or higher. the most easily produced. The performer must be able to affect the result by manipulating the air stream in various ways just before it enters the instrument. In approaching flexibility activities such as these. perhaps the most important consideration of all is that of developing the aural flexibility.. and most manageable multiphonics for saxophone are those which are produced by means of unconventional fingering configurations which seem to encourage Ute peculiar balance of resonances in the air column which result in more than one audible tone. sounding as many of the overtones as can be achieved. depending on how efficiently the fingering patterns affect the air column. with no change of fingering. (The third-partial F will probably be attained most easily. the necessary tongue position has probably been achieved and a widened flexibility has already begun. . embouchure. for saxophonists inexperienced at producing multiple sounds. A related activity aimed toward helping to develop the same flexibility would be to use the mouthpiece alone (or poIIibly the mouthpiece and barrel alone) and practice producing a portamento or even a scale. As important al the physical flexibillties may be. Multiphonics produced with special fingerings usually require less deviation from normal playing technique. and/or air speed will probably be necessary. While success with multiphonics wtllin p-eat part depend on how flexible the performer can be in his approach to blowing the instrument. t be affected. OftP. and this is done mainly in the oral cavity. utilizing a specific multiphonic fingering may not necessarily lead to immediate success. or fundamental register and then. it is important that the performer possess an adequate flexibility with the tone-production processes. then release Ute register key and sustain a decrescendo. with no change in fingering. some degree of adjustment in tongue position.n. However. For multiphonic production. third-partial F. but there should be little if any conscious emphasis of this. As in the production of single tones. most dependable. This involves sustaining a tone and then. a good starting point is probably the lowest B-flat. A second-partial B-flat. He must gain the capacity to suhJ~ntially manipulate the embouchure. In addressing the Issue of multiphonic production. bending it down in pitch u far u possible. This factor of aural imagery cannot be overemphasized. When this can be executed successfully without having the tone change partials at some point in Ute long decrescendo.. it is important to realize that the key factor is oral-cavity manipulation u determined by varying the tongue position. Slight embouchure variations will doubtlessly enter into procedures such u these. . a valuable prdcedure can be the practicing of harmonic. tongue position) which Ute saxo~honist has experienced the least. U one experiences initial difficulty producing the overtones after the fundamental. He must be able to imagine the lOUDd-viaualize it-actually bear it in his mind before attempting to produce it. and the extent and nature of these adjustments is likely to vary substantially among different multiphonic fingerings.e. Among various activities one might use in working toward greater flexibility WIUttongue position. For the saxophonist. and perhaps fourth-partial B-flat would be the overtones to aim toward producing initially. perhaps a productive approach would be to play the third-partial tone with the normal fingering. the performer who does not possess a clear aural concept of the sound which he aeeks to produce hal a much lower potential for success in his endeavors. Another activity which can be very profitable for achieving and exercising a greater tongue-position flexibility Is that of tone bending.Use of Special Fingerings Generally. it is the aspect of oral-cavity manipulation (i. Typically this involves sounding a pitch in the lowest. In approaching the production of multiphonics (as well as numerous other unconventional techniques). while a particular fingering may enhance the possibility that a specific sound will result.)· Use a breath attack rather than attempting to tongue or slur from the fundamental register. this in and of itself is not totally adequate for the production of that exact sound. tongue position. this finely sensitized tone production presupposes the existence of a clear mental image of what is to be played in advance of the actual execution.

• • ~ • • .-• • 0' • • c· • T.~ c· c· • • • 0 0 • • • . T.9 N": • • • • c· 0 tr. 0 T.. . (f~ /f1E ' ff~ . Approaching multiphonics from fundamental-register tones.Preliminary Exercises 1. • •• 0 I •• • e!'. Use normal or regular fingering] . I tf. . Approaching multiphonics from second-register tones. • • . )k --\ l1a tr. • . • • • •• r-r.-- 2. /~ Ii: \g)k..-./- \ • • • fiel' • • • CO • • • fii N: IN ..·23· Use of Special Multiphonic Fingerings .. c· 0 ~.-~ N: \ ('. ~.

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-. and occasionally the performer is even called upon to coordinate the produetton of tones of the instrument with specific tones produced by the voice.Singing while Playing By producing tones with the voice in combination with normal playing on the saxophone. whether intended for the instrument or the voice. Since he hears in part through bone conduction while he is playing.1U- Multlphonlcs- III. In performing two melodies simultaneously in this manner. or perhaps vocal manipulations (including portamento) while the saxophonoe holds a constant pedal. (The demand on the air stream is substantial. . it may be necessary or simply beneficial for the saxophonist to tralllpOle the exercises and etudes entirely in order to accomodate his or her particular voice. the most common difficulty is keeping the sung part loud enough and/or the played part soft enough to auure appropriate balance. listening to a playback of himself might be most revealing. Because of individual differences in vocal range and tessitura. all of the pitcbel. ConcerDlDg the notation of the preliminary exercises as well as the "duet" sections in the etude section. Typically.I" The exercises which follow are intended to assist the saxophonist's earliest efforts in attempting to coordinate the voice and playing the instrument. The simultaneous production of tones in this manner is often difficult for the saxophonist who has done little or no experimenting with this technique. Once the performer has achieved some initial success in coordinating the voice with his instrumental production.. attention should be directed toward careful balancing of the two sources. Singing while playing has been utilized extensively over the years by woodwind performers in the jazz idiom where a "growling tone. the more difficult this technique will be due to the greater volume of air required.l2. transposition) or create similar ones of his own.ed saxophone used. and correct breathing habits are essential." or "buzz tone" is often produced by singing an unspecified pitch while performing a melodic line on the instrument. Composers of music other than jazz bave made use of this type of sound in the recent past. To expand material for practice beyond the exercises provided here. Regarding the balancing of two parts. the most difficult hurdle is getting used to the feel of singing and blowing into the instrument at the same time. a succession of harmonic intervals where the voice holds a pedal tone against moving saxophone tones.) ·Probably the larger . harmonic intervals as well as simultaneoous melodic lines can be performed. are transposed and written in the treble clef.g. Even prior to attempting these examples. the saxophonist might find it beneficial to improvise some vocal-coordination exercises such as producing isolated harmonic intervals. (Use of different sizes of aaxophoDee is another way of effecting upward or downward transposition. it might be advisable for ~e aaxopboojst to employ the aid of a tape recorder in practiCing. the saxophonist could vary these examples in different ways te. .

tune each interval)._f r . II 2.·31· Use. Scale in Parallel Alternate Porta Thirds.of the Voice while Playing . Matching Pitches. 3. '--!.Preliminary Exercises 1.:::::::""~-----n. :jt:==:::z:~-----r. Scale with Pedal (slowly.-t--t-+-+-"'-+--+-t----'-:.

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