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Project Framework defined
The Quality Management System
Project phases (stages) and gateways Criteria for moving from one stage to the next The Project Lifecycle Progressive Elaboration Role of the Project Manger Project Stakeholders defined
Organizational Models & Attributes
General Management Skills Review Questions and Answers
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Project managers operate within the project framework to coordinate all of the activities and to move the project toward completion. A project gains momentum by completing the project phases throughout the project lifecycle. The project lifecycle corresponds to the project management framework and provides several benefits:
Each phase results in some type of deliverable. Phase completion shows accomplishment and progression. Phase completion allows time for review to determine if the project should move forward. Phases allow projects to move forward in a progress manner.
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costs and resource requirements taper off dramatically. not at the end. but grow as the project progresses. Once the project moves into the final closing process. Risk and doubt decrease (or confidence levels increase) as the project moves closer to fulfilling the project vision. BND Tech Source . Generally. Cost and resource requirements are lower at the beginning of a project. projects fail at the beginning. the higher the risk of project termination. Projects are more likely to fail near their beginning—and more likely to succeed near the end of their lifecycle due to the nature of return on investments. The further the project is from completing.
Act Cycle is a basic principle of both Quality Management and Project Management. ACT PLAN Check DO BND Tech Source . Do.The Plan. Check.
BND Tech Source . QMS contributes the following to the project: It defines the Project Management Organisation and its relationship with other functions with in the company. The systems and procedures which project team members and mangers work to realise the project deliverables. The quality control and assurance of Project Deliverables.The Quality Management System (QMS) is an essential part of the framework for successful project delivery.
Phases. Stages. and Gateways BND Tech Source .
Project Lifecycle Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 BND Tech Source . The project manager will be accountable for the following at the end of each project phase: The performance of the project to date. Proof of deliverables in the project phase. The performance of the project team to date. Verification of deliverables in alignment with the project scope.
Project phases are also known as stage gates. the project may not be allowed to continue. the project may be terminated or sent through revisions to meet the predetermined metrics. Project Lifecycle Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Stage Gates Phase 4 BND Tech Source . In these cases. If the deliverables do not meet the metrics. the project is allowed to continue. The decision is based on a review of performance and deliverable review against a set of predefined metrics. If the deliverables meet the predefined metrics. Stage gates are used often in both manufacturing and product development as a decision point on whether a project should continue.
The end of a project phase. Security audits. The completion of a phase may also be known as a phase exit. such as: Sign-offs from the customer. A phase exit requires the project deliverables to meet some predetermined exit criteria. Exit criteria can include many different activities. Exit criteria are typically inspection-specific and are scheduled events in the project schedule. Performance metrics. BND Tech Source . Quality metrics. Regulatory inspections and audits.
such as: What work will be completed in each phase of the project? What resources. people. and facilities will be needed within each phase? What are the expected deliverables of each phase? What is the expected cost to complete a project phase? Which phases contain the highest amount of risk? BND Tech Source . equipment. Project Lifecycles are comprised of phases and move the project along. Project Lifecycles allow for the determination of several aspects about the project.
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Changes are easier and more likely at the early phases of the project lifecycle than at the completion. BND Tech Source . Changes at the beginning of the project generally cost less and have lower risk than changes at the end of a project.
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Progressive elaboration is the process of taking a project concept through to the project plan. BND Tech Source . Progressive elaboration is an iterative process designed to correctly and completely fulfill the project objectives. Progress elaboration is simply developing in steps and continuing by increments. Projects result in a unique product or service through progressive elaboration.
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including monies. BND Tech Source . and is ultimately responsible for the project’s success. Project sponsor The sponsor authorizes the project. Project customer The customer is the person or group that will utilize the project deliverable. This person or group ensures that the project manager has the necessary resources. to get the work done. The project sponsor is someone within the performing organization that has the power to authorize and sanction the project work.
Project team The project team is the collection of individuals that will. and oversee the project work. who work together to ensure the success of the project. Guides the team through the project phases to completion. The project team completes the project work. The project manager works with the project team to guide. Project manager The project manager is the person who: Is accountable for managing the project. BND Tech Source . schedule.
In some instances. BND Tech Source . the performing organization can be a supplier whose project team is completing the project work on behalf of that supplier or the customer. Performing organization The performing organization is the entity that employs the people responsible for completing the project work.
The Operational Layer asks.. The business layer asks. The Executive Layer sets the vision and strategy of the organization. Specifically. the Functional Management Layer is concerned with tactics to accomplish the vision and strategy as set by upper management. “What is the project purpose? What business processes are affected?” Vision & Strategy Answers “Why” Executive Tactics Answers “What” Functional Management Operations The Operational Layer of the pyramid supports the Executive and the Functional Management layers. This layer is concerned with the specifics of getting the work done. “How can the work be accomplished? Day to Day Answers “How” BND Tech Source . The Functional Management Layer asks. “Why is the project important to our organization? Our vision? Our strategy?” The Functional Management Layer of the pyramid must support the Executive Layer’s objectives.
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accounting. the project managers and project team members still answer to a functional manager. such as sales. and other departmental entities is a functional environment. A company that manages itself by projects may be called a projectized company. information technology. Organization Structure Functional Project Characteristics Project Manager’s Authority Resource Availability Who controls the Project budget Project Manager’s Role Project Management Administrative Staff Little or None Weak Matrix Limited Balanced Matrix Low to Moderate Strong Matrix Moderate to High Moderate to High Project Manager Full-Time High to Almost Total High to Almost Total Project Manager Full-Time Matrix Projectized Little or None Functional Manager Part-Time Limited Functional Manager Part-Time Low to Moderate Mixed Full-Time Part-Time Part-Time Part-Time Full-Time Full-Time BND Tech Source . However. A company that organizes itself by job activity. A matrix structure allows project managers some authority.
The organizational culture (the mindset) of a company can have a direct influence on the success of a project. Organizational culture includes: Purpose Values Organization policies and procedures Type of business Maturity of business BND Tech Source .
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The following are key General Management Skills: Communication Skills Meeting Management Skills Negotiation Skills Problem Solving Skills Political Savvy BND Tech Source .
Communication is a two-way street. Project Managers must be good communicators. This must be balanced with their time for other important responsibilities. Project Communication can be summed up as “who needs what information and when. promoting a clear. unambiguous exchange of information. it requires listening skills as well as speaking skills. BND Tech Source .” Project managers spend much of their time communicating with others.
Other variables include recipient feedbacks. Horizontal communications. BND Tech Source . Vertical communications. such as project team member to team member. Informal communications. such as the project manager to an external customer. which follow the organizational flow chart. Written and oral. such as e-mails and “hallway” meetings. surveys. checklists. such as director to director within the organizational flow chart. such as reports and presentations. Internal to the project. and confirmation of the sent message. Types of Communication: Listening and speaking. Formal communications. External to the project.
and formality of the message being sent should be in alignment with the audience and the content of the message. BND Tech Source . the media should be in alignment. tone. Style. Media selection: Based on the audience and the message being sent. For presentation of formal presentations. and handouts all influence the message being delivered. structure. visual aids. the presenter’s oral and body language.
Signatures of agreement of the meeting minutes is important. minutes. BND Tech Source . when questions are raised about who said what during a meeting. managed. and controlled all influence the message being delivered. Later in the project. Agendas. and order are mandatory for effective communications within a meeting. Meeting Management: Meetings are forms of communication. signed copies of meeting minutes will help clarify the answers. How the meeting is led.
and customers to reach a level of agreement acceptable to all parties involved in the negotiation process. Cost. and team members with highly specialized skills. Project scope. the project sponsor. Supplier terms and conditions. schedule. Project team member assignments and schedules. BND Tech Source . Changes to the project scope. Resource constraints. Technical approach. the project manager.In any project. travel issues. Negotiation proceedings typically center on: Priorities. and the project team will have to negotiate with stakeholders. Schedule. or budget. suppliers. such as facilities.
the project manager. BND Tech Source . Root cause analysis looks beyond the immediate symptoms to the cause of the symptoms—which then allows opportunities for solutions. Treating only the symptoms of a problem rather than its cause. or various stakeholders. allows the symptoms to spread and continue throughout the project lifecycle. Problem definition is the ability to discern between the cause and the effect of the problem. Solutions can be presented from suppliers. Active Problem Solving: The key to problem solving is problem definition and root cause. the project team.
politics can work in favor of a project. Politics can be used as leverage to align and direct people to the project goal. Politics within organizations are usually looked at with disdain. BND Tech Source . Project managers must understand all of the unspoken influences at work within an organization—as well as the formal channels that exist. However. Understanding the balance required between the implied and the explicit will allow the project manager to successfully take the project from launch to completion.
On an international project. the project manager must manage and lead the project team effectively to cover the following concerns: Language barriers Time zone differences Currency differences Regulations Laws Social influences Cultural influences BND Tech Source .
BND Tech Source . and gateways comprise the project lifecycle. Project managers operate within the project framework and QMS to coordinate all of the activities and to move the project toward completion. Phase completion shows accomplishment and progression. Project phases. The project lifecycle corresponds to the project management framework and provides several benefits: Each phase results in some type of deliverable. stages. Phase completion allows time for review to determine if the project should move forward. Phases allow the project to be progressively elaborated. A project gains momentum by completing project phases.
pass through progressive elaboration. the project constraints. and the project assumptions. Before projects can move into the implementation there must be a project plan. BND Tech Source . like project deliverables. The project manager and the stakeholders work together to determine the priorities of the project requirements. A project plan details what the project will accomplish and how it will be accomplished. Project plans.
Projects must operate with the organization structure. Organizational structures control how the project manager can obtain resources. and the participation of the project team. There are five organizational structures: Functional Weak matrix Balanced matrix Strong matrix Projectized BND Tech Source . the level of authority the project manager can expect.
BND Tech Source . It makes up the bones that support the project and provides strength and rigidity. The project management framework holds up the project and allows it to operate in the environment within which it was created. The project management framework is like the skeleton of any project.