EARLY GREEK PHILOSOPHY

JOHN BURNET

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INTRODUCTION

I. THE COSMOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF EARLY GREEK PHILOSOPHY
It was not till the traditional view of the world and the customary rules of life had broken down, that the Greeks began to feel the needs which philosophies of nature and of conduct seek to satisfy. Nor were those needs felt all at once. The ancestral maxims of conduct were not seriously questioned till the old view of nature had passed away; and, for this reason, the earliest philosophers busied themselves mainly with speculations about the world around them. In due season, Logic was called into being to meet a fresh want. The pursuit of cosmological inquiry had brought to light a wide divergence between science and common sense, which was itself a problem that demanded solution, and moreover constrained philosophers to study the means of defending their paradoxes against the prejudices of the unscientific. Later still, the prevailing interest in logical matters raised the question of the origin and validity of knowledge; while, about the same time, the breakdown of traditional morality gave rise to Ethics. The period which precedes the rise of Logic and Ethics has thus a distinctive character of its own, and may fitly be treated apart.

II. THE TRADITIONAL VIEW OF THE WORLD
It must, however, be remembered that the world was already very old when science and philosophy began. In particular, the Aegean Sea had been the seat of a high civilization from the Neolithic age onwards, a civilization as ancient as that of Egypt or of Babylon, and superior to either in most things that matter. It is becoming clearer every day that the Greek civilization of later days was mainly the revival and continuation of this, though it no doubt received certain new and important elements from the less civilized northern peoples who for a time arrested its development. The original Mediterranean population must have far outnumbered the intruders, and must have assimilated and absorbed them in a few generations, except in a state like Sparta, which deliberately set itself to resist the process. At any rate, it is to the older race we owe Greek Art and Greek Science. It is a remarkable fact that every one of the men whose work we are about to study was an Ionian, except Empedocles of Acragas, and this exception is perhaps more apparent than real. Acragas was founded from the Rhodian colony of Gela, its oikistês was himself a Rhodian, and Rhodes, though officially Dorian, had been a center of the early Aegean civilization. We may fairly assume that the emigrants belonged mainly to the older population rather than to the new Dorian aristocracy. Pythagoras founded his society in the Achaean city of Croton, but he himself was an Ionian from Samos. This being so, we must be prepared to find that the Greeks of historical times who first tried to understand the world were not at all in the position of men setting out on a hitherto untrodden path. The remains of Aegean art prove that there must have been a tolerably consistent view of the world in existence already, though we cannot hope to recover it in detail till the records are deciphered. The ceremony represented on the sarcophagus of Hagia Triada implies some quite definite view as to the state of the dead, and we may be sure that the Aegean people were as capable of developing theological speculation as were the Egyptians and Babylonians. We shall expect to find traces of this in later days, and it may be said at once that things like the fragments of Pherecydes of Syros are inex2

however. above all. It is 3 . It was probably due to the Achaeans that the Greeks never had a priestly class. not buried. in close connection with the solitary instance of human sacrifice in Homer. so far as we can see. Such things. that of the Achaean princes for whom Homer sang. It could not become oppressive to them as the old Aegean religion might very possibly have done. and it was chiefly in that form it appealed to them. though it naturally emerges here and there. On the other hand. That is the Age of the Heroes. vestiges of the early beliefs and practices. to be sure. the ghost of Patroclus. and there was a seed of life in the sea civilization which was somehow lacking in that of the great rivers. too. the age Homer sang of. the traditional view of the world was already discredited at a comparatively early date." This means that he was conscious of the difference between the Homeric spirit and his own. The Egyptians may have borrowed from Crete as readily as the Cretans from Egypt. by checking the growth of a superstition like that which ultimately stifled Egypt and Babylon. at least in a certain society. the worship of Apollo seems to have been brought from the North by the Achaeans. There is also the Nekyia in the Eleventh Book of the Odyssey. and these are told quite seriously. derived mainly from that source. On the other hand. In the Iliad we have. but we know too. The old lightheartedness is gone. Hesiod knows. we seem to be in another world. and that may well have had something to do with the rise of free science among them. and far better than that which followed it.plicable except as survivals of some such speculation. of course. HESIOD When we come to Hesiod. Ghosts play hardly any part. are rare. the Age of Iron. He also feels that he is singing for another class. In describing the Ages of the World. it is for the courts of Achaean princes he sings. and indeed what has been called the Olympian religion was. The dead heroes are burned. that he belongs to a later and a sadder time than Homer. That there was once a real danger of this is suggested by certain features in the Aegean remains. the artistic form it assumed bears the stamp of Mediterranean peoples. III. The gods have become frankly human. It was better than the Bronze Age which came before it. Though he doubtless belonged to the older race himself and used its language. There are. though no doubt these early civilizations all influenced one another. in which Hesiod lives. We hear stories of the gods which are not only irrational but repulsive. to utter what is true. and the gods and heroes he celebrates are mostly Achaean. It has often been noted that Homer never speaks of the primitive custom of purification for homicide. when we will. he inserts a fifth age between those of Bronze and Iron. as the kings of the older race were. IV. There is no ground for supposing that this was borrowed from Egypt. That is why we find so few traces of the traditional view of the world in the epic. but they are exceptional. it is clear that the northern invaders must have assisted the free development of the Greek genius by breaking up the powerful monarchies of earlier days and. and we may fairly infer that. and everything primitive is kept out of sight. Hesiod makes the Muses say: "We know how to tell many false things that are like the truth. HOMER We see the working of these influences clearly in Homer. and it is important to tell the truth about the gods. Still.

The other figure. Primitive man does not feel called on to form an idea of the very beginning of all things. They seem to belong. and system is fatal to so wayward a thing as mythology. and he became a pioneer in spite of himself. was doubtless intended to explain the impulse to production which gave rise to the whole process. he only mentions the two great cosmogonical figures." The romance and splendor of the Achaean Middle Ages meant nothing to the common people.to shepherds and husbandman of the older race he addresses himself. and we know something of the systems of Epimenides. Chaos and Eros. His Theogony is at the same time a Cosmogony.C. so it was natural for their first spokesman to assume it in his poems. as its etymology indicates. but rather. That is why we find in Hesiod these old savage tales. We have records of great activity in the production of cosmogonies during the whole of the sixth century B. which Homer disdained. and distributed among them their offices and arts. That is what Aristotle has in view when he distinguishes the "theologians" from those who were half theologians and half phi4 . which poetry had substituted for the older objects of worship. Hesiod could not help being affected by the new spirit. and he really did more than anyone to hasten that decay of the old ideas which he was seeking to arrest. Yet it would be wrong to see in the Theogony a mere revival of the old superstition. the gods of whom he sings are for the most part those of the Achaeans. and this was quite as much the doing of Hesiod as of Homer. We may be sure that this is not primitive. he takes for granted that there was something to begin with. and that is the secret of the religious revival we shall have to consider later. V. and it is perfectly true. to an older stratum of speculation. Herodotus tells us that it was Homer and Hesiod who made a theogony for the Hellenes. Pherecydes. It is not a formless mixture.. Moreover. This introduces an element of contradiction into the system from first to last. who gave the gods their names. The conception of Chaos represents a distinct effort to picture the beginning of things. and the Achaean princes for whom Homer sang have become remote persons who give "crooked dooms. the yawning gulf or gap where nothing is as yet. At any rate. and Acusilaus. in fact. and does not really bring them into connection with his system. but in Hesiod they are blurred and confused. Such gods were incapable of satisfying the needs of the people. The Theogony is an attempt to reduce all the stories about the gods into a single system. If there were speculations of this kind even before Hesiod. The Olympian pantheon took the place of the older gods in men's minds. The feature common to all these systems is the attempt to get behind the Gap. COSMOGONY Nor is it only in this way that Hesiod shows himself a child of his time. though the spirit in which Hesiod treats his theme is that of the older race. though it would seem that here he was following the older tradition rather than working out a thought of his own. The primitive view of the world had never really died out among them. The ordinary man would hardly recognize his gods in the humanized figures. and to put Kronos or Zeus in the first place. detached from all local associations. that of Eros. we need have no hesitation in believing that the earliest Orphic cosmogony goes back to that century too. These are clearly speculative ideas. The rudiments of what grew into Ionic science and history are to be found in his poems.

are the outstanding features of the world as they saw it. that this process is the very reverse of scientific. They were in search of something more primary than the opposites. that the generations of men fall like the leaves of the forest. It is obvious. as we can see from their literature. so we have nothing to do with the cosmogonists in our present inquiry. GENERAL CHARACTERISTCS OF GREEK COSMOLOGY The Ionians. summer and winter. VI. The later word kosmos is based on this notion too. however. except so far as they can be shown to have influenced the course of more sober investigations. on the other pair. and might be carried on indefinitely. That this was really the spirit in which they entered on their quest is shown by the fact that they spoke of this something as "ageless" and "deathless. were deeply impressed by the transitoriness of things. They felt that these must somehow have a common ground. but the world around him at first seemed lawless. the cold and the wet. from that point of view the early cosmologists regard the world." If. The earliest cosmologists could find no satisfaction in the view of the world as a perpetual contest between opposites. and the cycle of growth and decay is a far more striking phenomenon in Aegean lands than in the North. We find Mimnermus of Colophon preoccupied with the sadness of the coming of old age. in fact. a fundamental pessimism in their outlook on life. wet and dry. That is the true meaning of Ionian "Monism. while at a later date the lament of Simonides. as is sometimes held. There is. touches a chord that Homer had already struck." VII. something which persisted through all change. and next the ordered constitution of a state. The opposition of day and night.losophers. Man lived in a charmed circle of social law and custom. such as is natural to an overcivilized age with no very definite religious convictions. with their suggestive parallelism in sleep and waking. and who put what was best in the beginning. birth and death. however. their real interest had been in the process of growth and becoming. Now this sentiment always finds its best illustrations in the changes of the seasons. from which they had issued and to which they must return once more. PHUSIS 5 . they would hardly have applied epithets so charged with poetical emotion and association to what is alone permanent in a world of change and decay. That. It meant originally the discipline of an army. and takes still more clearly the form of a war of opposites. was not enough. for in early days the regularity and constancy of human life was far more clearly realized than the uniformity of nature. hot and cold. It is. and ceased to exist in one form only to reappear in another. The changes of the seasons are plainly brought about by the encroachments of one pair of opposites. which in their turn encroach on the other pair. accordingly. This process was naturally described in terms borrowed from human society. That is why the encroachment of one opposite on another was spoken of as injustice (adikia) and the due observance of a balance between them as justice (dikê). the hot and the dry.

he uses the very epithets "ageless and deathless" which Anaximander had applied to the one primary substance. while the Atomists believed in an infinite number. It is. is in this sense purely Aristotelian. and that he associates them with the term phusis.C. in the main. the name phusis was given to the everlasting something of which the world was made. VIII. But Plato never uses the term in this connection. we can understand at once why the Ionians called science Peri phuseôs historiê. MOTION AND REST 6 . and it does not occur once in the genuine fragments of the early philosophers. a meaning which easily passes into that of its "make-up. to which they also applied the term. significant that." its general character or constitution. The term archê. Those early cosmologists who were seeking for an "undying and ageless" something. in the fifth century B. under the influence of Eleatic criticism. all' athanatou kathorôn phuseôs kosmon agêrô. whereas the astronomical and other theories are. each with a phusis of its own. The chief interest of all is the quest for what is abiding in the flux of things. The passage is so important for our present purpose that I quote it in full: olbios hostis tês historias esche mathêsiv mête politôn epi pêmosunas mêt' eis adikous praxeis hormôn. peculiar to the individual thinkers. It is very natural that it should have been adopted by Theophrastus and later writers. Empedocles held there were four such primitive stuffs.Now. When that was given up. for they all start from the well-known passage of the Physics in which Aristotle classifies his predecessors according as they postulated one or more archai. This fragment is clear evidence that. We shall see that the growing thought which may be traced through the successive representatives of any school is always that which concerns the primary substance. which would be very strange on the assumption that they employed it. in a fragment which portrays the blessedness of a life devoted to scientific research (historia).. Now. Its original meaning appears to be the "stuff" of which anything is made. if this is so. That is quite in accordance with the history of the word. so far as we can make it out. tis te sunestê kai hopêi kai hopôs tois toioutois oudepot' aischrôn ergôn meletêma prosizei. and there are sufficient traces of its influence on him. Ionian science was introduced into Athens by Anaxagoras about the time Euripides was born. the old word was still used. which is often used in our authorities. therefore. would naturally express the idea by saying there was "one phusis" of all things.

but already in Homer that has ceased to be its only signification. since it is what brought the world into being. and it is unlikely that the origin of motion was discussed till its possibility had been denied. That explains the secular character of the earliest Ionian philosophy. Hesiod's Theogony is the best evidence of the change. The Pythagorean doctrine. were bound to show how it originated. In its religious sense the word "god" always means first and foremost an object of worship. and there was no traditional background there at all. but the case of Ionia was different. It is clear that many of the gods mentioned there were never worshiped by any one. but is misleading in so far as it suggests deliberate rejection of a doctrine not yet formulated. be identified with the diurnal revolution of the heavens. In the islands of the Aegean it was otherwise. and it is of the first importance to realize it. In early times. IX. It is therefore quite wrong to look for the origins of Ionian science in mythological ideas of any kind. or even of human passions. then. as meaning no more than that the early thinkers did not feel the need of assigning an origin for motion. but Ionia proper was a country without a past. and we shall see reason for believing that the Atomists ascribed a motion of that kind to the atoms. or with any other purely mundane motion. We must not be misled by the use of the word theos in the remains that have come down to us. that was done by Parmenides. as expounded in Plato's Timaeus. No doubt there were many vestiges of the older beliefs and practices in those parts of Greece which had not come under the rule of the Northerners. it is not movement but rest that has to be accounted for. It is not at all likely that the Ionians said anything about the eternity of motion in their writings. but that is probably their own way of putting the thing. THE SECULAR CHARACTER OF IONIAN SCIENCE In all this. then. not to attribute any regular or well-defined motion to the primary substance of the early cosmologists at this stage. which had been closed to them by the Hittites. A more important question is the nature of this motion. This non-religious use of the word "god" is characteristic of the whole period we are dealing with. but that means no more and no less than the use of the divine epithets "ageless" and "deathless" to which we have referred already. accepting the fact of motion. and accordingly his successors. No one who does so will fall into the error of deriving science from mythology. is that the original motion was irregular and disorderly. It is safer. 7 . The eternity of motion is an inference. It is quite true that the Ionians applied it to the "primary substance" and to the world or worlds. It was only after the coming of the Achaeans that the Greeks were able to establish their settlements on the coast of Asia Minor. as it has been by many writers. It cannot. and we shall see presently how they reasserted themselves in the Orphic and other mysteries.According to Aristotle and his followers. there is no trace of theological speculation. and that the Olympian polytheism never had a firm hold on the Ionian mind. It is clear that it must have existed before the beginning of the world. and some of them are mere personifications of natural phenomena. As we shall see. which is substantially correct. We have seen that there had been a complete break with the early Aegean religion. I understand Aristotle's statement. the early cosmologists believed also in an "eternal motion" (aidios kinêsis). therefore.

but Greek science began by rejecting it. and we may be sure that the Egyptian allegorists were even more arbitrary. It does not come from modern researches into the beliefs of ancient peoples. who had a great respect for the Egyptians on other grounds. Of course no one nowadays would rest the case for the Oriental origin of Greek philosophy on the evidence of Clement or Eusebius. and certain ideas derived from the Praeparatio Evangelica continued for long to color accepted views. had he heard of it. while primitive religion regards the heavenly bodies and the heavens themselves as divine. Much that has been regarded as Oriental may just as well be native. It is a common idea even now that the Greeks in some way derived their philosophy from Egypt and Babylon. if he had known of an Egyptian philosophy. Aristotle revived the distinction at a later date. from the fact that. is first interpreted according to the ideas of later Greek philosophy. It is important to realize the true origin of this prejudice against the originality of the Greeks. "What is Plato but Moses speaking Attic?" Clement and Eusebius give the remark a still wider application. the favorite argument in recent times has been the analogy of the 8 . We are still able to judge Philo's Old Testament interpretation for ourselves. it would have suited his argument better to mention that. To begin with. though. and then declared to be the source of that philosophy. X. for these have disclosed nothing in the way of evidence for a Phoenician or Egyptian philosophy. It is a mere residuum of the Alexandrian passion for allegory. The myth of Isis and Osiris. Aristotle speaks only of the origin of mathematics in Egypt (a point to which we shall return).We see this. Cudworth speaks of the ancient "Moschical or Mosaical philosophy" taught by Thales and Pythagoras. from whom it passed to the Christian Apologists. that we have definite statements to the effect that it came from Phoenicia or Egypt. This method of interpretation culminated with the Neopythagorean Numenius. we must observe that the question wears a very different aspect now that we know the great antiquity of the Aegean civilization. and we must therefore try to understand as clearly as possible what such a statement really means. But the so-called Egyptian philosophy was only arrived at by a process of turning primitive myths into allegories. It is Numenius who asks. this farrago was revived along with everything else. It is not till later. Herodotus would not have omitted to say so. As for later influences. for instance. Plato. At the Renaissance. ALLEGED ORIENTAL ORIGIN OF PHILOSOPHY We have also to face the question of the nature and extent of the influence exercised by what we call Eastern wisdom on the Greek mind. classes them as a business-like rather than a philosophical people. though it must have been perfectly familiar to them from popular beliefs. and therefore of a wholly different nature from anything on this earth. the Ionians from the very first set their faces against any such distinction. above all. for it would have confirmed his own belief in the Egyptian origin of Greek religion and civilization. when Egyptian priests and Alexandrian Jews began to vie with one another in discovering the sources of Greek philosophy in their own past. we must insist that no writer of the period during which Greek philosophy flourished knows anything of its having come from the East. for they had far less promising material to work on.

but. It ignores the difference in the way these things are transmitted from people to people. that the Greeks derived their art from the East. the great Indian systems are later in date than the Greek philosophies they most nearly resemble. but not at all conclusive. The Greeks themselves believed their mathematical science to be of Egyptian origin. but. whether by means of books or oral teaching. where he tells us that chil9 . It cannot be an accident that philosophy originated just at the time when communication with these two countries was easiest. but philosophy can only be expressed in abstract language. But they must have made use of interpreters. Material civilization and the arts may pass easily from one people to another. the number of loaves or jars of beer that certain measures will yield. and the wages due to the workmen for a certain piece of work.arts. EGYPTIAN MATHEMATICS It would. it is said. It is the work of one Aahmes. in fact. and deal particularly with such questions as the division of a number of measures among a given number of persons. and they must have known something of Babylonian astronomy. and it is impossible to conceive of philosophical ideas being communicated through an uneducated dragoman. It corresponds exactly. though they have not a common language. The arithmetical problems mostly concern measures of corn and fruit. and we never hear till a late date of Oriental teachers who wrote or spoke in Greek. and that the very man who was said to have introduced geometry from Egypt is also regarded as the first philosopher. The Greek traveler in Egypt would no doubt pick up a few words of Egyptian. and indeed everything points to the conclusion that Indian philosophy arose under Greek influence. and it is urged that the same will in all probability prove true of their philosophy. in the times we are dealing with. and contains rules for calculations both of an arithmetical and a geometrical character. be another thing to say that Greek philosophy originated quite independently of Oriental influences. Now we know of no Greek. The Rhind papyrus in the British Museum gives us a glimpse of arithmetic and geometry as they were understood on the banks of the Nile. and it is taken for granted that the priests could make themselves understood by the Greeks. even here. Of course the mysticism of the Upanishads and of Buddhism was of native growth. No one now will suggest that Greek philosophy came from India. till some evidence has been produced that any of these peoples had a philosophy to communicate. the Indians were the only ancient people besides the Greeks who ever had anything that deserves the name. however. who could read an Egyptian book or even listen to the discourse of an Egyptian priest. That is a specious argument. and can only be transmitted by educated men. No such evidence has yet been discovered. they were related to it only as Hesiod and the Orphics were related to Greek scientific thought. But really it is not worth while to ask whether the communication of philosophical ideas was possible or not. though these influenced philosophy in the strict sense profoundly. and. We shall see that. The chronology of Sanskrit literature is an extremely difficult subject. so far as we know. We are seeing more and more. to the description of Egyptian arithmetic Plato gives us in the Laws. XI. the Greeks were really original. It thus becomes important for us to discover what Egyptian mathematics meant. so far as we can see.

The rules given for calculating areas are only exact when these are rectangular. and especially those of the zodiac. from. There is no reason for supposing that any of these peoples had troubled themselves to give a theoretical demonstration of its properties. as we should expect. this would be sufficient for practical purposes. they generalized it so as to make it of use in measuring the distances of inaccessible objects. That the Greeks learnt as much from them is highly probable." that is. however. Given the "length across the sole of the foot. It is significant in this connection that all mathematical terms are purely Greek in their origin. however. The geometry of the Rhind papyrus is of a similar character. there is no real evidence that Thales had any mathematical knowledge which went beyond the Rhind papyrus. It was probably this generalization that suggested the idea of a science of geometry. but no one has yet surpassed me in the construction of figures out of lines accompanied by demonstration. on a rather higher level. and we can see how far the Greeks soon surpassed their teachers from a remark attributed to Democritus. the scientific study of numbers. though we shall see also that. is clearly far nearer the mark than Aristotle." Now the word arpedovaptês is not Egyptian but Greek." These things point to the use of the triangle of which the sides are as 3." to find a number which represents the ratio between them. BABYLONIAN ASTRONOMY The other source from which the Ionians were supposed to have derived their science is Babylonian astronomy. XII. This is done by dividing half the diagonal of the base by the "ridge. We know that this was used from an early date among the Chinese and the Hindus. and so forth. They had planned out the fixed stars. where it was highly developed. who says it grew out of the leisure enjoyed by the priestly caste. and they probably borrowed that from Egypt. in constellations. It runs (fr. and we shall see that Thales probably learnt the use of it in Egypt. It is even assumed that a right-angled triangle can be equilateral. though Democritus would certainly have been able to do so. the diagonal of the base. The rule for finding what is called the seqt of a pyramid is. that the Babylonians had observed the heavens from an early date. It seems an anachronism to speak of elementary trigonometry in connection with a rule like this. but there is no trace of what the Greeks called arithmêtikê.dren learnt along with their letters to solve problems in the distribution of apples and wreaths to greater or smaller numbers of people. and we must conclude that mathematics in the strict sense arose in Greece after his time. who tells us that Egyptian geometry arose from the necessity of measuring the land afresh after the inundations. 299) : "I have listened to many learned men. which was really the creation of the Pythagoreans." and it is obvious that such a method might quite well be discovered empirically. and which has always a right angle. such as ships at sea. the very first. 4. 5. It means "cord-fastener. and that of the piremus or "ridge. who doubtless got it from Babylon. It comes to this. and there is nothing to suggest that the Egyptians went any further. of course. not even the Egyptian arpedonapts." and it is a striking coincidence that the oldest Indian geometrical treatise is called the Sulvasutras or "rules of the cord. As we shall see. This is clearly the origin of the art which the Greeks called logistikê. the pairing of boxers and wrestlers. It is certain. and Herodotus. as they call them. That is use10 . As fields are usually more or less rectangular.

they discovered the true theory of lunar and solar eclipses. that the earth is not the center of our system. We shall find. their originality would remain. They had distinguished and named the planets and noted their apparent motions. in the third place. There is no evidence that they attempted to account for what they saw in any but the crudest way. but in itself it belongs rather to mythology or folklore. in the reign of Cambyses. and the recorded observations were only made fully available in Alexandrian times. certain Greeks took. and were quite independent of Babylonian observations. In the first place. there is no evidence that Babylonian astronomy had passed beyond the empirical stage. The Babylonian names of the planets do not occur earlier than the writings of Plato's old age. the Greeks rejected astrology. and. indeed. The oldest astronomical document of a really scientific character which had come to light up to 1907 is dated 523 B. made at least three discoveries of capital importance in the course of two or three generations. that the earliest cosmologists paid no attention to the planets. get from Egypt certain rules of mensuration which. In the second place. at least tentatively. in close connection with that. They were well aware of their stations and retrograde movements. but revolves round the center like the planets. and it was not till the third century B. they discovered that the earth is a sphere and does not rest on anything. the final step of identifying the center round which the earth and planets revolve with the sun.ful for purposes of observational astronomy. They had also noted the occurrence of eclipses with a view to predicting their return for purposes of divination. They did. however. But. when Pythagoras had already founded his school at Croton.C. the golden age of Babylonian observational astronomy is now assigned to the period after Alexander the Great. We shall see that Thales probably knew the cycle by means of which the Babylonians tried to predict eclipses (§ 3). and data were accumulated which were of service to the Alexandrian astronomers. and they kept the year right only by intercalating a thirteenth month when it seemed desirable.. not from any scientific interest. We may sum up all this by saying that the Greeks did not borrow either their philosophy or their science from the East.C. when generalized. in itself. That made a trustworthy chronology impossible. Moreover. The Greeks. Not much later. On the other hand. while from Babylon they learnt that the phenomena of the heavens 11 . It was long before the Babylonians had a satisfactory calendar. But we must not exaggerate the antiquity or accuracy of these observations. Even then. they came to see. but it would be a mistake to suppose that the pioneers of Greek science had any detailed knowledge of Babylonian observations. The Babylonians recorded celestial phenomena for astrological purposes. when Babylon was a Hellenistic city. That. though great accuracy of observation was attained. they are only mentioned here to show the gulf between Greek astronomy and everything that had preceded it. and it is hard to say what they thought about the fixed stars. that it was introduced among them. gave birth to geometry. even if the Ionians had known them.C. and therefore there were not and could not be any data available for astronomical purposes before the so-called era of Nabonassar (747 B. shows that they started for themselves. and they were familiar with the solstices and equinoxes.). These discoveries will be discussed in their proper place. on the other hand.

instead of by observation and experiment. and sometimes we feel disposed to sympathise with the sages of the day who warned their more daring contemporaries "to think the thoughts befitting man's estate" (anthrôpina phronein). and the appearance of a string of "opinions" suggests dogmatism. No sooner did an Ionian philosopher learn half-adozen geometrical propositions. But we shall do well to remember that even now it is just such hardy anticipations of experience that make scientific progress possible. We have seen that the Eastern peoples were considerably richer than the Greeks in accumulated facts. to create this impression. no doubt. however. and we may reasonably suppose that. There are.pyramids. with an audacity almost amounting to hubris. Paros. in fact. We may smile at the medley of childish fancy and scientific insight which these efforts display. the catchwords of the time. which mostly consists of Placita -. We shall see that Anaximander made some remarkable discoveries in marine biology. so commonly held by the earlier philosophers. a somewhat different meaning from that they were afterwards made to bear at Athens. gives us a good idea of this spirit. certain exceptions to the general character of the tradition. The Greeks." and how from love of knowledge (philosopheôn). which the researches of the nineteenth century have confirmed (§ 22). which enabled the Ionians to pick up and turn to their own use such scraps of knowledge as they could come by among the barbarians.tends. inundations. and never suggested a revision of the primitive view of the world. The words theôriê. though these facts had not been observed for any scientific purpose. This is enough to show that the theory. and it was just this great gift of curiosity. there would have been many more. besides opening up new views of the world in every direction. philosophiê and historiê are. for to the Greek it suggested further questions such as no Babylonian ever dreamt of. and. he has traveled over much land for the purpose of seeing what was to be seen (theôriês heineken). however. Chacun prend son bien partout où il le trouve. of what we call "results" -. and Syracuse (§ 59). The nature of our tradition. no doubt. that the earth had been originally in a moist state. and the desire to see all the wonderful things -. and hear that the phenomena of the heavens recur in cycles. however unhistorical it may be. Croesus tells Solon that he has heard much of "his wisdom and his wanderings. This piece of knowledge doubtless had a great deal to do with the rise of science.recur in cycles. perhaps. THE SCIENTIFIC CHARACTER OF THE EARLY GREEK COSMOLOGY It is necessary to insist on the scientific character of the philosophy we are about to study. The visit of Solon to Croesus which Herodotus describes. There is no justification either for the idea that Greek science was built up by more or less lucky guesswork. The idea that underlies them all may. and so forth -.that were to be seen. XIII. We are seldom told why any early philosopher held the views he did.that is. if the later Greeks had been interested in the matter. and they were never as a people slow to act on the maxim. saw in them something that could be turned to account. 12 . and even Xenophanes supported one of his theories by referring to the fossils and petrifactions of such widely separated places as Malta. though they had. and that nearly every one of these early inquirers made some permanent addition to positive knowledge. than he set to work to look for law everywhere in nature. to construct a system of the universe. be rendered in English by the word Curiosity.

meteorology. an idea which seems astonishing to us. It is difficult for us to feel at home in this point of view. and lightning. It is inconceivable that an inquisitive people should have applied the experimental method in a single case without extending it to other problems. as is proved by the anatomical accuracy of their sculpture. 100). is necessarily identified with astronomy. The rise of the experimental method dates from the time when the medical schools began to influence the development of philosophy. We have his own account of this (fr. or even chiefly. but based on biological and palaeontological observations. We sometimes make the same mistake nowadays. but a great deal can be discovered by the help of very simple apparatus. and we can see how it brought him to the verge of anticipating Harvey and Torricelli. and indeed we have no suitable word to express what the Greeks at first called an ouranos. and stars as having a different nature from the earth. that the Greeks could observe well. The science of the sixth century was mainly concerned. as well as the heavenly bodies. moon. So long as the earth is supposed to be in the center of the world.was not purely mythological in origin. and accordingly we find that the first recorded experiment of a modern type is that of Empedocles with the klepsydra. and science inevitably and rightly began with the most obvious hypothesis. and we can see how it was the effort to "save appearances" that really operated from the first. Of course the great difficulty for us is the geocentric hypothesis from which science inevitably started. That is how the latter came sometimes to be explained as ignited clouds. rainbows. in the later sense of the word. They fancied they could work out this science at once. but then we must remember that it does not refer solely. the idea that the Greeks were not observers is ludicrously wrong. to the earth. Nor is it true that the Greeks made no use of experiment. and supposed themselves to be dealing with ultimate reality. but a sure instinct guided them to the right method. Of course the pioneers of Greek thought had no clear idea of the nature of scientific hypothesis. We know. Is it conceivable that they did not use their powers of observation to gratify that curiosity? It is true that they had not our instruments of precision. and we know that they were curious about the world. It is to those men we owe the conception of an exact science which should ultimately take in the whole world as its object. which bears witness to trained habits of observation. Indeed. though only to outgrow it in a surprisingly short time. though it includes that along with the heavenly bodies. and forget that all scientific progress con- 13 . therefore. and these include such things as clouds. It is just because the Greeks were the first people to take the geocentric hypothesis seriously that they were able to go beyond it. while the Hippocratean corpus contains models of scientific observation at its best. and it was only the thorough working out of this that could show its inadequacy. with those parts of the world that are "aloft" (ta meteôra). But even that is better than to regard the sun. It is not to be supposed that Anaximander erected his gnomon merely that the Spartans might know the seasons. It would surely be absurd to imagine that the men who could make these observations had not the curiosity or the ability to make many others of which the memory is lost. then. It will be convenient to use the term "world" for it.

it rather intensifies it. we have the significant fact that Theophrastus speaks of philosophers of a later date as having been "associates of the philosophy of Anaximenes. their science. the oldest of which. or rather the continuance of an old tradition. maintained its existence as such for some nine hundred years. and that is their title to be regarded as the originators of science. and the only question we have to decide is whether this was an innovation made in the fourth century B. XIV. as forming a strong body in his own day. there is hardly any school but that of Miletus for which we have not external evidence of the strongest kind. and the stranger of the Sophist and the Statesman speaks of his school as still in existence at Elea. the inherited property of a caste or guild. it will be necessary to elucidate it before we enter on our story. represented the early cosmologists as standing to one another in the relation of master and scholar. In almost every department of life. What distinguished the Greeks from other peoples was that at an early date these crafts came under the influence of outstanding individuals. the first writer to treat the history of Greek philosophy in a systematic way. then. In fact. Now we have the authority of Plato for speaking of the chief early systems as handed down in schools. He makes Socrates speak of "the men of Ephesus. The guild becomes what we call a "school. the corporation at first is everything and the individual nothing. was originally the "mystery" of the Asclepiads. the Academy. for instance. But the statements of Theophrastus on such a subject are not to be lightly set aside. The Greeks were the first to follow this method.sists in the advance from a less to a more adequate hypothesis. Medicine. and as members of regular societies.C. while a band of disciples attached to a master they revere is the greatest progressive force the world knows. of course. that we shall now proceed to consider the men who created Greek science. But this does not destroy the corporate character of the craft. 14 ." We shall see too in the first chapter that the internal evidence in favour of the existence of a Milesian school is very strong indeed." the Heracliteans.." and no one. It is certain that the later Athenian schools were legally recognized corporations. can doubt that the Pythagoreans were a society. This has been regarded as an anachronism. It is from this point of view. We also hear of "Anaxagoreans." and the disciple takes the place of the apprentice. is anonymous. The peoples of the East hardly got beyond this stage. and some have even denied the existence of "schools" of philosophy altogether. That is a vital change. and even as regards it. and we still see clearly in some cases that it was once the same among the Greeks. such as it is. As this point is of great importance. who gave them a fresh direction and a new impulse. A close guild with none but official heads is essentially conservative. SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY Theophrastus.

2 NOTE ON THE SOURCES .

but their way of regarding it was simply an exaggeration of Aristotle's. wherever mathematical considerations come into play. Aristotle's statements about early philosophers are far less historical than Plato's. It is often forgotten that Aristotle derived much of his information from Plato. 993 a 15). 2. and in general. and he never. He nearly always discusses the facts from the point of view of his own system. 4. for he frequently quotes early views as to knowledge and sensation in support of his thesis. The passage of the Phaedo (96a sqq. He is distinctly unfair to the Eleatics. Stoics The Stoics. The interest of such a writer as Sextus Empiricus in early philosophy is mainly to exhibit its contradictions. for instance. They did not content themselves with criticizing their predecessors from their own point of view. which Cicero renders by accommodare. Skeptics The same remarks apply mutatis mutandis to the Skeptics. was used by Philodemus to denote this method of interpretation. and that system. He has. But what he tells us is often of value. 10. except in a playful and ironical way. It is also to be noted that Aristotle regards some systems in a much more sympathetic way than others. resting as it does on the deification of the apparent diurnal revolution of the heavens. he is always illuminating.) where he describes the state of scientific opinion at Athens in the middle of the fifth century is invaluable for our purposes. which has had serious results upon our tradition. sought to read unthought-of meanings into the words of his predecessors. He is convinced that his own philosophy accomplishes what all previous philosophers had aimed at. Plato It is not very often that Plato allows himself to dwell on the history of philosophy as it was before the rise of ethical and epistemological inquiry. and especially Chrysippus. 16 . and we must specially observe that he more than once takes Plato's humorous remarks too literally. but when he does. they seem really to have believed that the early poets and thinkers taught doctrines hardly distinguishable from their own. in fact. he is an untrustworthy guide.PHILOSOPHERS 1. The word sunoikeioun. especially in the case of Heraclitus. made it very hard for him to appreciate more scientific views. a historical sense. A. Aristotle As a rule. His artistic gift and his power of entering into the thoughts of other men enabled him to describe the views of early philosophers in a sympathetic manner. 3. paid great attention to early philosophy. and their systems are therefore regarded as "lisping" attempts to formulate it (Met. which was a rare thing in antiquity.

Analecta Theophrastea. 112 sqq. and we can only estimate justly the value of statements derived from these if we bear constantly in mind the results of his investigation. A. 200). was in some degree exceptional. Of this work. the philosophers were grouped according to the affinity of their doctrine. He had.D. 499-527). The chronological order was not observed. and short historical and chronological notices were inserted. The "Opinions" of Theophrastus By the term doxographers we understand all those writers who relate the opinions of the Greek philosophers. The Doxographi Graeci The Doxographi Graeci of Professor Hermann Diels (1879) threw an entirely new light upon the filiation of the later sources. from the great work of Theophrastus. v. further showed that there were important fragments of it contained in the commentary of Simplicius (sixth cent. Doxographers A work of this kind was. that is. to Simplicius more than any one else that we owe the preservation of the fragments. has been preserved (Dox. DOXOGRAPHERS 6. the differences between those who appeared to agree most closely being carefully noted. that entitled Peri aisthêseôn. B. of course. And Usener.) on the First Book of Aristotle's Phusikê akroasis (Usener. This latter class form the 17 .). A. 7. a liberal spirit of interpretation. These extracts Simplicius seems to have borrowed in turn from Alexander of Aphrodisias (c. following Brandis. 25 sqq. We thus possess a very considerable portion of the First Book. or else they broke up his work. Here it will only be possible to give an outline which may help the reader to find his way in the Doxographi Graeci itself. From these remains it clearly appears that the method of Theophrastus was to discuss in separate books the leading topics which had engaged the attention of philosophers from Thales to Plato. These either followed Theophrastus in arranging the subject-matter under heads. Dox. however. Their chief characteristic is what Simplicius calls eugnômosunê. which dealt with the archai. Neoplatonists Under this head we have chiefly to consider the commentators on Aristotle in so far as they are independent of the Theophrastean tradition. and rearranged his statements under the names of the various philosophers to whom they applied. a godsend to the epitomators and compilers of handbooks. The First Book. as well as practically the whole of the last Book. however.D. 8. who flourished more and more as the Greek genius declined. Phusikôn doxôn iê (Diog. It is. of course. p. the library of the Academy at his disposal. for in it the order was that of the successive schools. cf. 46). at any rate up to A. pp. directly or indirectly. pp. and who derive their material.D. one considerable chapter. which makes all early philosophers agree with one another in upholding the doctrine of a Sensible and an Intelligible World.5. 529.

and Diels now calls them the Poseidonian Areskonta (Über das phys. to form a pretty accurate table of the contents of the Vetusta Placita (Dox. It is. The latter is usually the fuller of the two. Commentariorum in Aratum reliquiae. was the common source of the Placita and the Eclogae? Diels has shown that Theodoret (c. I77 (Dox." It is quite possible. aff.D. Cicero 18 . for in some cases he gives a fuller form of statements made in these two works. The Placita and Stobaeus These are now mainly represented by two works. and the Eclogae Physicae of John Stobaeus (c. so I have ventured to distinguish them by the name of biographical doxographers. For his Eisagôgê to the Phaenomena of Aratus see Maass. pp. A. 9.D. however. The latter originally formed one work with the Florilegium of the same author. Another writer who made use of the Placita is Achilles (not Achilles Tatius). The Vedusta Placita Diels has shown further. however. A. demonstrable that neither the Placita nor the doxography of the Eclogae is the original of the other. but from an intermediate epitome which he calls the Vetusta Placita. pp. The quotations from "Plutarch" by later writers. for he refers us (Gr. (Dox. § 12). Not only so. but probably he belongs to the third century A. From these writers many important corrections of the text have been derived (Dox. p. the Placita Philosophorum. and yet the former must be earlier.natural transition between the doxographers proper and the biographers. His date is uncertain. 445) had access to it. It was also the source of the notices in Eusebius and Cyril.D.). then. viz. by discounting the somewhat unintelligent additions which Aetius made from Epicurean and other sources. included among the writings ascribed to Plutarch. are also given at the foot of each page. and of the History of Philosophy ascribed to Galen. for it was used by Athenagoras for his defence of the Christians in A. 31) to Aetiou tên peri areskontôn sunagôgên. There are also traces of them in the "Homeric Allegorists. pp. System des Straton. 11. The Vetusta Placita were composed in the school of Posidonius. iv. and this gives us a fair idea of the arrangement of the original work by Theophrastus. 10. 18).D. p.). 5 sqq. under the title of Aetii Placita. 25-75. 470). 12. p. 4). and in Censorinus (De die natali). and the extracts of Theodoret from Aetius. that Aetius did not draw directly from Theophrastus. but he also names that source. 181 sqq. Diels has accordingly printed the Placita in parallel columns with the relevant parts of the Eclogae. 2). and includes a transcript of some epitome substantially identical with the pseudo-Plutarchean Placita. cur. traces of which may be found in Cicero (infra. Aetius What. who follows Varro.

The passage of Cicero and the relevant fragments of Philodemus are edited in parallel columns by Diels (Dox. This had long been known as the Philosophoumena of Origen.). however. Pythagoras. for he gives us nothing but extracts at second or third hand from the work of Theophrastus. It is drawn mainly from some good epitome of Theophrastus. 13. 119 sqq. pp. We must note. In the second place. pp. on the ground of the reference in Epp. "Diogenes Laertius" 19 . 50. This treatise was at first ascribed to Phaedrus. and would be quite useless if it did not in one case enable us to verify the exact words of Theophrastus (Chap. 122 sqq. Cicero must be classed with the doxographers.A fresh light was thrown upon this important passage by the discovery at Herculaneum of a roll containing fragments of an Epicurean treatise. 530).) that there is much to be said for the view that Cicero did not copy Philodemus. 2. The doxography has come through the hands of Cleitomachus. they are mostly taken from the earliest sections of the work. So far as we can judge. xiii. but that both drew from a common source (no doubt Phaedrus. 14. however.So far as what he tells us of the earliest Greek philosophy goes. who succeeded Carneades in the headship of the Academy (129 B. pp. some merely biographical compendium full of apocryphal anecdotes and doubtful statements." -. 531 sqq. quoted by Eusebius in his Praeparatio Evangelica. n. that the sections dealing with Thales. but the real title. Hippolytus Of the "biographical doxographies. 25-41. Two passages in his writings fall to be considered under this head. i. and De natura deorum. which were first published at Oxford in 1854. Peri Theôn) which itself went back to a Stoic epitome of Theophrastus." -. so like it as to be at once regarded as its original. but the discovery of the remaining books. was afterwards restored (Dox. ad Att. The Stromateis The fragments of the pseudo-Plutarchean Stromateis. 118. p. the language is a much less faithful transcript of the original. in which the matter was already rearranged under the names of the various philosophers. Diels. they differ chiefly in two points." the most important is Book I of the Refutation of all Heresies by Hippolytus. (b) Doxography of the "De natura deorum. has shown (Dox. (a) Doxography of the "Lucullus. and therefore most of them deal with the primary substance. the heavenly bodies and the earth. Philodêmou peri eusebeias. and not with the philosophers. In the first place. "Lucullus" (Acad. 15. namely.). ii.This contains a meagre and inaccurately-rendered summary of the various opinions held by philosophers with regard to the archê (Dox. 39. come from a source similar to that of the best portions of the Philosophoumena.C. Heraclitus.). showed finally that it could not belong to him. I. p.). 4). and Empedocles come from an inferior source.

4 a). 9). or Laertius Diogenes (cf. 14). wrote (c. C. of course.). nat. Satyrus Another peripatetic. pp. ii. 19.). 16O B. the other is of a better class. D. The same remarks apply to him as to Hermippus. These depend mainly upon the writers of "Successions. An attempt is made to disguise this "contamination" by referring to the first doxography as a "summary" (kephalaiôdês) account. 12. haer.The scrap-book which goes by the name of Diogenes Laertius. Theodoret (Gr. i sqq. Sosicrates. All these compositions were accompanied by a very meagre doxography. Irenaeus (C. P. a mere patchwork of all earlier learning. in its biographical parts. but is little more than a collection of extracts made at haphazard. The arrangement of his work is explained in Dox. But. Arnobius (Adv. which doubtless rests upon the Pinakes of Callimachus. about 200 B. It was epitomised by Heraclides Lembos. Eratosthenes and Apollodorus 20 .C.).) Lives of Famous Men. Other writers of Diadochai were Antisthenes. xv. Usener. Dei. 2). The biographical details are very untrustworthy. p. R. cur. 147. Epicurea. more like the source of Hippolytus' remaining chapters. Augustine (Civ." whom we shall have to consider in the next section. viii. and apophthegmatic kind used by Hippolytus in his first four chapters. BIOGRAPHERS 17. Satyrus. ii. 20. One is of the merely biographical. the pupil of Aristarchus. ii. Patristic Doxographies Short doxographical summaries are to be found in Eusebius (P. 18. aff. Hermippus The peripatetic Hermippus of Smyrna. but sometimes bibliographical information is added. and Alexander. anecdotic. 200 B. xiv. ii. It has not been digested or composed by any single mind at all. it contains much that is of the greatest value. wrote several biographical works which are frequently quoted. CHRONOLOGISTS 21. "Diogenes Laertius" The work which goes by the name of Laertius Diogenes is. Successions The first to write a work entitled Successions of the Philosophers was Sotion (Diog. 9-11). x.. known as Callimacheus (c.. contains large fragments of two distinct doxographies.C.C. E. 16. and made interesting by the addition of unauthentic apophthegms and apocryphal anecdotes. His work was epitomised by Heraclides Lembos. while the second is called "particular" (epi merous).

His dates can only be accepted as a makeshift.. In default of this. 21 .). 140 B. and he is assumed to have been forty years old at that date. and we can often show that Apollodorus is wrong from our other evidence.C. the accession of Polycrates in 532/1 B. but his work was soon supplanted by the metrical version of Apollodorus (c. xxxi. Of these the chief are the eclipse of Thales 586/ 5 B. See Diels' paper on the Chronika of Apollodorus in Rhein. It is usual to attach far too much weight to these combinations. that is taken as his floruit (akmê).C. Apollodors Chronik (1902). and Jacoby. the taking of Sardis in 546/5 B.C.If the date of some striking event in a philosopher's life is known.C. when nothing better is available..C. and the foundation of Thourioi in 444/3 B. from which most of our information as to the dates of early philosophers is derived. Mus.The founder of ancient chronology was Eratosthenes of Cyrene (275-194 B. The method adopted is as follows: -.C...). some historical era is taken as the floruit.

3 THE MILESIAN SCHOOL .

lends no support to the view that he was a Semite. Herodotus probably mentions the supposed descent of Thales simply because he was believed to have introduced certain improvements in navigation from Phoenicia. ORIGIN The founder of the Milesian school. whose rulers were bent on extending their dominion to the coast. but all we can really be said to know of him comes from Herodotus. but only because he knew there were bridges there already.1. became subject to the Lydians at all. without significance that Miletus is just the place where the continuity of Aegean and Ionian civilization is most clearly marked. It should be added that the Lydian alliance would facilitate intercourse with Babylon and Egypt. resuming his father's forward policy. What was called at a later date Hellenism seems to have been traditional in the dynasty of the Mermnadae. It is clear that the Ionians were great engineers. On the monuments we find Greek and Carian names alternating in the same families. strictly speaking. favored the growth of science at Miletus. moreover. was Thales. and the Milesians possessed a temple of their own at Naucratis. the tyrant Thrasybulus succeeded in making terms with King Alyattes. There is therefore no reason to doubt that Thales was of pure Milesian descent. however unhistorical its details may be. Examyes. and it is not. towards the end of the seventh century B. and the Carians had been almost completely assimilated by the Ionians. Miletus was able to maintain the old treaty-relation. but. perhaps. and never. a statement which other writers explained by saying he belonged to a noble house descended from Cadmus and Agenor. made war upon and conquered Ephesus. 2. MILETUS AND LYDIA It was at Miletus that the earliest school of scientific cosmology had its home." that Thales accompanied Croesus on his luckless campaign against Pteria. 23 . The tradition which represents Croesus as the "patron" of Greek wisdom was fully developed in the fifth century. and the Tale of the Seven Wise Men was already in existence when he wrote. and an alliance was concluded which secured Miletus against molestation for the future. though he probably had Carian blood in his veins. while the name Thales is otherwise known as Cretan. Amasis of Egypt had the same Hellenic sympathies as Croesus. his father's name. At any rate. and Herodotus says that all the "sophists" of the time flocked to the court of Sardis. Lydia was an advanced post of Babylonian culture. Even half a century later. Herodotus disbelieves the story that he diverted the course of the Halys. The Milesians had come into conflict more than once with the Lydians. and that they were employed as such by the eastern kings. and therefore the first man of science.C.. and Croesus was on friendly terms with the kings of Egypt and Babylon. and. it must clearly have some foundation in fact. The Lydian connection. He says that Thales was of Phoenician descent. It is Carian. apparently in the capacity of military engineer. Particularly noteworthy is "the common tale among the Greeks. when Croesus.

if they did not occur. The further statement in Diogenes that. further. however.S. as is shown by the words which follow.). within which eclipses of the sun and moon recurred at equal intervals of time. therefore. to justify us in identifying the eclipse as that of Thales. This does not exactly tally. Now. Thales "received the name of wise" in the archonship of Damasias at Athens. and luckily it was visible in Asia Minor. then. XLVIII. for the archonship of Damasias is the era of the restoration of the Pythian Games. he must have known scores of people who were able to remember what happened.3. It would only. 585 B.C. and according to Theophrastus Xenophanes was a disciple of Anaximander. who fixed his floruit in the same year. Now. really refers to the Tale of the Seven Wise Men. It is near enough.C.C. It is generally stated. Astronomers have calculated that there was an eclipse of the sun.). for these phenomena are not visible at all places where the sun is above the horizon at the time. THE ECLIPSE FORETOLD BY THALES The most remarkable statement Herodotus makes about Thales is that he foretold the eclipse of the sun which put an end to the war between the Lydians and the Medes. 4 (585/4 B. it will give us an indication of the time at which he lived. be possible to tell by means of the cycle that an eclipse of the sun would be visible somewhere. Now it is possible to predict eclipses of the moon approximately without knowing their true cause. throw any light on the scientific attainments of Thales. however. if we may judge from reports by Chaldaean astronomers which have been preserved. if we can fix its date. 24 . Yet the evidence for the prediction is too strong to be rejected off-hand. while Pliny gives the date of the eclipse foretold by Thales as O1. Even supposing Thales had known the cause of eclipses. and there is no doubt that the Babylonians actually did so. for May 585 belongs to the year 586/5 B. would not have enabled them to predict eclipses of the sun for a given spot on the earth's surface. 4.C.. though an observer at a given place might be disappointed five times out of six. but. and. and on a striking occasion. DATE OF THALES The prediction of the eclipse does not. this was just the position of the Babylonians in the eighth century B. To explain what we are told about Thales no more is required. on May 28 (O. and the geocentric parallax has to be taken into account. He said there would be an eclipse by a certain date. and it is incredible that the explanation should have been given and forgotten so soon. probably visible in Asia Minor. such scraps of elementary geometry as he picked up in Egypt would never have enabled him to calculate one. The testimony of Herodotus is said to have been confirmed by Xenophanes. In any case. They watched for eclipses at the proper dates. and that it might be worth while to look out for it. and this is confirmed by Apollodorus. he was quite ignorant of the cause of eclipses. This. that they had made out a cycle of 223 lunar months. and is doubtless based on the story of the Delphic tripod. The prediction of the eclipse is therefore better attested than any other fact about Thales whatsoever. according to Demetrius Phalereus. they announced the fact as a good omen. We do not occupy a position at the center of the earth. Anaximander and his successors certainly were so.

THALES IN EGYPT The introduction of Egyptian geometry into Hellas is ascribed to Thales. it must be pointed out that most writers have seriously misunderstood the character of the tradition.5. What the tradition really points to is that Thales applied this empirical rule to practical problems which the Egyptians had never faced. in describing the Nile. as his custom is. for instance the part played by Hecataeus in the Ionian revolt. This he must have known. and. and it is probable that he did visit Egypt. 6. We may conclude that Thales really was in Egypt. THALES AS A POLITICIAN Thales appears once more in Herodotus some time before the fall of the Lydian monarchy. Here we see how all these statements arose. one of which is that two triangles are equal when they have one side and the two adjacent angles equal. however. In this the first of the theories mentioned by Herodotus is ascribed to Thales. Proclus enumerates. certain propositions which he says were known to Thales. which attributes the rise of the Nile to the Etesian winds. and Eudemus assumed that he must have known all the propositions these imply. and there are many things. or whoever wrote the book. The first. as was natural. Now. THALES AND GEOMETRY As to the nature and extent of the mathematical knowledge brought back by Thales from Egypt. He is said to have urged the Ionian Greeks to unite in a federal state with its capital at Teos. and by many later writers. and this conjecture is strengthened when we find that Hecataeus mentioned Euthymenes. Both the measurement of the distance of ships at sea. that Hecataeus. which is also ascribed to him. and that of the height of the pyramids. but extant only in a Latin epitome of the thirteenth century. It is this political action which has gained the founder of the Milesian school his undisputed place among the Seven Wise Men. 7. as otherwise he could not have measured the distances of ships at sea in the way he was said to have done. Where did Aristotle. but. We shall have occasion to notice more than once that the early schools of philosophy by no means held aloof from politics. this comes from a treatise on the Rise of the Nile attributed to Aristotle and known to the Greek commentators. get these names? We think naturally of Hecataeus. and that he was thus the originator of general methods. took account. and the third to Anaxagoras. he does not name their authors. In his commentary on the First Book of Euclid. for he had a theory of the inundations of the Nile. Certain feats in the way of measurement were traditionally ascribed to Thales. of his fellow-citizen's views. 25 . are easy applications of the rule given by Aahmes for finding the seqt. which suggest that the scientific men of Miletus took up a very decided position in the stirring times that followed the death of Thales. the second to Euthymenes of Massalia. perhaps. But this is quite illusory. on the authority of Eudemus. That is a sufficient title to fame. and it is owing to his inclusion among those worthies that the numerous anecdotes told of him in later days attached themselves to his name. is ascribed to Thales in the Placita. Herodotus gives three explanations of the fact that this alone of all rivers rises in summer and falls in winter.

The earth floats on the water. to have introduced the practice of steering a ship's course by Ursa minor. and no writer earlier than Aristotle knows anything of him as a scientific man and a philosopher. makes it hard to doubt that he was correctly informed with regard to the few points about them he mentions. This very reserve. THE COSMOLOGY OF THALES The statements of Aristotle may be reduced to three: 1. Water is the material cause of all things. suggest several explanations of this doctrine. That would account for their physiological character. however. we saw. the phases of the moon. and it is from this point of view we must try to understand the theory. the heliacal risings and settings of certain stars. 9. Aristotle gives them as conjectures. but would undoubtedly mean that Thales had said water was the stuff of which all other things were transient forms. UNCERTAIN CHARACTER OF THE TRADITION So far as we know. so we may venture on a conjectural restoration of his cosmology. of course.8. The first of these statements must be understood in the light of the second. the prevailing interest was not physiological. 2. The rise of scientific medicine had made biological arguments popular in the fifth century. and gave. for a series of years. which is expressed in Aristotelian terminology. The parapêgma was the oldest form of almanac. WATER Aristotle and Theophrastus. Thales wrote nothing. in the older tradition he is simply an engineer and an inventor. Now it is not hard to see how meteorological considerations may have led Thales to adopt the view he did. followed by Simplicius and the doxographers. 3. and there is a remarkable persistence in the tradition that he tried to do something for the calendar. and also weather predictions. for it has the power of moving iron. The most probable view seems to be that Aristotle ascribed to Thales the arguments used at a later date by Hippon of Samos in support of a similar thesis. No doubt he constructed a parapêgma like those of much later date which have been discovered at Miletus. It is familiar to us in a 26 . however. The magnet is alive. Even Aristotle does not pretend to know how Thales arrived at the views he ascribes to him or by what arguments they were supported. Of all the things we know. water seems to take the most various shapes. He was said. We have seen that this was the great question of the day. though the details are not sufficiently well attested to find a place here. All things are full of gods. it is only later writers that repeat them as if they were quite certain. in the days of Thales. 10. It is obvious. that the requirements of Milesian enterprise and commerce would necessarily turn his attention to problems which we should call astronomical. but. but meteorological. This. must be taken for just what it is worth. the equinoxes and solstices.

THEOLOGY The third of the statements mentioned above is supposed by Aristotle to imply that Thales believed in a "soul of the world. The doctrine of the world-soul is then attributed quite positively to Thales by Aetius." though he is careful to mark this as no more than an inference. and can have no greater authority than its source. then. This may have seemed natural enough to men familiar with the river of Egypt which had formed the Delta. We have seen how that expression is to be understood (§ XIV). and are attributed now to one sage and now to another. 11. anonymous to begin with. and a vaporous form. Lastly.an idea derived from the observation of dew. It would be wrong. however. We need not enter. it is probable that Thales did say the magnet and amber had souls. Eliminating the Stoic pantheism. night-mists. If we may judge from his successors. and lastly. but more on the level of the statement that the earth floats on the water. On the other hand. to draw any inference from it as to his view of the world. That is no apophthegm. was also a citizen of Miletus. as a rule. such sayings are. Cicero found a similar statement in the Epicurean manual which he followed. that other things are not. At the present day the Gulf of Latmos. so the early cosmologists thought. The phenomenon of evaporation naturally suggests that the fire of the heavenly bodies is kept up by the moisture they draw from the sea. but that would not imply any definite religious belief . It is just the sort of thing we should expect Hecataeus to record about Thales. and so Thales may well have thought he saw the world-process from water and back to water again going on before his eyes. All this is derived from Aristotle's cautious statement. earth turns once more to water -. if anything. a liquid. and the chances are that it belongs to Thales as one of the Seven Wise Men. is filled up. on the old controversy whether Thales was an atheist or not. Nor must we make too much of the saying that "all things are full of gods." It is not safe to regard an apophthegm as evidence. rather than as founder of the Milesian school. he may very possibly have called water a "god". For these last were not in early times supposed to have anything to do with the rain." Water comes down again in rain. and the torrents of Asia Minor which bring down large alluvial deposits. and Theophrastus described him as an "associate" of Thales. they thought. Even at the present day people speak of "the sun drawing water. and says that Thales held there was a divine mind which formed all things out of water. Further.solid. 12. The "waters under the earth" were regarded as an independent source of moisture. THE LIFE OF ANAXIMANDER Anaximander. but he goes a step further. and identifies the world-intellect with God. for to say the magnet and amber are alive is to imply. he turns the world-intellect into a Platonic demiourgos. son of Praxiades. who gives it in the Stoic phraseology which he found in his immediate source. 27 . on which Miletus used to stand. and subterranean springs. it turns to earth.

Now Apollodorus appears to have said that he had met with the work of Anaximander. said that the material cause and first element of things was the Infinite. No doubt it was intended to be of service to Milesian enterprise in the Black Sea. but that can hardly be correct. -. in 546. a fellow-citizen and associate of Thales. 13.Hipp. Op. fr. Herodotus tells us this instrument came from Babylon. Anaximander himself conducted a colony to Apollonia. i. 16). "as is meet. p. 3 (610/9 B. 16). 6 (R.According to Apollodorus.C. Like his predecessor. 476. Anaximander was apparently a generation younger than Thales. XLII. He seems once at least to have quoted Anaximander's own words. LVIII. who assigns his great discovery of the obliquity of the zodiac to 01.). son of Praxiades. P. and Thales must have used it to determine the solstices and equinoxes." as he says in these somewhat poetical terms. We know from Xenophanes that the question. Now 547/6 is just the year before the fall of Sardis. -. he distinguished himself by certain practical inventions. in which was brought about the origin of the worlds." and that it "encompasses all the worlds. there was an eternal motion. We seem to have something more here than a combination of the ordinary type. half-way between Thales and Anaximenes. and by Pliny. He says it is neither water nor any other of the so-called elements. Anaximander was sixty-four years old in 01. He says that this is "eternal and ageless.). for they make reparation and satisfaction to one another for their injustice according to the ordering of time. Anaximander was also the first to construct a map. and we may perhaps conjecture that Anaximander mentioned what his age had been at the time of that event. P. Ref. LVIII. who says he was born in 01.C. Ref. not sixty-four." -. At all events. P. according to all the rules. -. and this would make him sixty. 2 (547/6 B. 6 (R. R. he being the first to introduce this name of the material cause. 28 . "How old were you when the Mede appeared?" was considered an interesting one in those days.. from which arise all the heavens and the worlds within them. fr.C. P. Some writers credited him with that of the gnomon. and he criticized his style.Phys. but a substance different from them which is infinite. Here are the remains of what he said of him in the First Book: Anaximander of Miletus. I7 a). for. Op.Phys. And besides this. And into that from which things take their rise they pass away once more. 2 (R. and Eratosthenes said this was the map elaborated by Hecataeus. THEOPHRASTUS ON ANAXIMANDER'S THEORY OF THE PRIMARY SUBSTANCE Nearly all we know of Anaximander's system is derived in the last resort from Theophrastus. Anaximander should have "flourished" in 565 B. and the only reason he can have had for mentioning this must be that he found in it some indication which enabled him to fix its date. who certainly knew his book.Hipp. i. and this is confirmed by Hippolytus. I7 a). 2 (Dox. and his fellow-citizens erected a statue to him.

That Anaximander called this something by the name of phusis is the natural interpretation of what Theophrastus says. We must. For there are some who make this (i. would have had its way unchecked. 14. G. and into which they once more pass away. it would seem. 18). Nor is there any reason to doubt that the account given of his reasoning is substantially correct. as some hold. the dry to the wet. a boundless stock from which the waste of existence is continually made good. Accordingly they say that what is infinite is something other than the elements.Simpl. -." and it is hard to believe that it means anything else here. indestructible something out of which everything arises. We have seen that. in order that the other things may not be destroyed by their infinity. who has the following passage in his discussion of the Infinite: Further. and there can be no doubt that Anaximander at least formulated it distinctly. the current statement that the term archê was introduced by him appears to be due to a misunderstanding. a body distinct from the elements) the infinite.He did not ascribe the origin of things to any alteration in matter.Arist. which they then derive from it. one distinct from the elements. 204 b 22 (R. have something not itself one of the warring opposites. when Aristotle used the term in discussing Thales. if any one of them were infinite.air is cold. either. If Thales had been right in saying that water was the fundamental reality. that there was an eternal. Phys. 29 . 20 (R. 16 b). Anaximander started. something more primitive. One side of the opposition. Thales had regarded water as the most likely thing to be that of which all others are forms. it would not be easy to see how anything else could ever have existed. the warm was opposed to the cold. P. the cold and moist. and into which everything returns.e. -. P. Phys. then. Indeed.and therefore. simple body which is infinite. 5. THE PRIMARY SUBSTANCE IS NOT ONE OF THE ELEMENTS Anaximander taught. we can still follow to some extent the reasoning which led him to do so. His argument seems to be preserved by Aristotle. and in particular the "elements" are an anachronism. 150. he meant what is called the "material cause. That is only the natural development of the thought we have ascribed to Thales. They are in opposition one to another -. though the form is Aristotle's own. It is clear that Anaximander is here contrasted with Thales and with Anaximenes. p. the rest would have ceased to be by this time. but said that the oppositions in the substratum. and fire hot -. were separated out. or without this qualification. from the strife between the opposites which go to make up the world. These were at war. and not air or water. there cannot be a single. and any predominance of one over the other was an "injustice" for which they must make reparation to one another at the appointed time. and from it the elements arise. which was a boundless body. and the warm and dry would have been driven from the field long ago. then. out of which they arise. Anaximander appears to have asked how the primary substance could be one of these particular things. water moist.

though the doxographers speak as if they were. and who not only agreed with some of Anaximander's views. But this is of no consequence for our interpretation of Anaximander.15. who had seen his book. At any rate. From the point of view of his own system. no doubt. Nearly all the Greek commentators referred this to Anaximander also. attributed the thought to him. these may be justified. as indicated by Aristotle. easy to show that Anaximander himself cannot have said anything of the sort. if once we introduce the elements at all. "that becoming might not fail. It is certain that he cannot have said anything about "elements. though in his own system there was no room for anything corporeal prior to the elements. but also used some of his most characteristic expressions. The "opposites" are. And certainly his view of the world would bring home to him the need of a boundless stock of matter. We may add that in one or two places Aristotle certainly seems to identify the "intermediate" with the something "distinct from" the elements." though his words may perhaps admit of another interpretation. and it is difficult to see that it is more of an anachronism to call the Boundless "intermediate between the elements" than to say that it is "distinct from the elements. at war with one another. Aristotle puts things in his own way regardless of historical considerations. the former description is the more adequate of the two. we shall have to say that Aristotle paid a great deal of attention to someone whose very name has been lost. that these words are his own." He knew that the Boundless was a body. if we refuse to understand these passages as referring to Anaximander. and no one could think of before Parmenides. and their strife is marked by "unjust" encroachments on either side. but that is no real objection. The question has only been mentioned because it has given rise to a lengthy controversy. THE PRIMARY SUBSTANCE IS INFINITE Anaximander's reason for conceiving the primary substance as boundless was. we are not bound to take what he says in an historical sense. and because it throws light on the historical value of Aristotle's statements. when he seems to attribute an idea to some earlier thinker." It is not clear. no doubt." which no one thought of before Empedocles. There is even one passage in which he speaks of Anaximander's Boundless as a "mixture. and this would lead in the long run to the destruction of everything 30 . In a number of other places Aristotle speaks of someone who held the primary substance to be something "intermediate between" the elements or between two of them. It is. The warm commits "injustice" in summer. when he uses this phrase. ARISTOTLE'S ACCOUNT OF THE THEORY It was natural for Aristotle to regard this theory as an anticipation or presentiment of his own doctrine of "indeterminate matter. we have seen. the cold in winter. So far as I know no one has doubted that. so he had to speak of it as a boundless body "alongside of" or "distinct from" the elements (para ta stoicheia)." and that he should sometimes express the views of Anaximander in terms of the later theory of "elements. but most modem writers refuse to follow them. he is referring to Anaximander." Indeed. however. It is enough for us that Theophrastus. but we shall have to remember in other cases that. 16.

and this must clearly be taken along with the statement of Aetius that. Anaximenes. "Anaximander's opinion was. according to Anaximander. an endless mass. so that there is never more than one world at a time. In any case. With regard to the first two. and that it is at least intelligible in the case of the last. We come next to a very important statement which Cicero has copied from Philodemus. We must picture. Anaximander. Democritus. if he had classed two such different views under one head. and into which it will one day be absorbed again. we have a perfect agreement among our authorities. it will be necessary to examine the evidence carefully. while Epicurus made the distances between these worlds unequal. Democritus. e." and we have to decide between the interpretation that. held that they came into being and passed away ad infinitum. rising and passing away at long intervals. Zeller rejected this evidence on the ground that we can have no confidence in a writer who attributes "innumerable worlds" to Anaximenes. and that these were the innumerable worlds ". and. and there can be no doubt that. It is practically certain that this too comes from Theophrastus through Alexander. Archelaus. out of which our world once emerged. I hope to show that the statement is correct. Epicurus. he would have been careful to point out in what respect they differed. there are an unlimited number of them in existence at the same time. Archelaus. On the contrary. Xenophanes. 31 . the "innumerable heavens" were gods. As this point is of fundamental importance. when he ascribed "innumerable worlds" to the Atomists. then. though all the worlds are perishable. Diogenes. the passage comes from Aetius. though the name of Epicurus has been added later. he meant coexistent and not successive worlds.but the Boundless itself. if there were not an inexhaustible supply of it from which opposites might continually be separated out afresh. This is confirmed by what Simplicius says: Those who assumed innumerable worlds. This mass is a body. the author of the Epicurean treatise on Religion found at Herculaneum. and Epicurus are all mentioned together as holding the doctrine of "innumerable worlds" on every side of this one. and there is no reason for doubting that it is derived from Theophrastus. and the only distinction is that. Now it is much more natural to understand the "long intervals" as intervals of space than as intervals of time. and. In the first place. Leucippus. or perhaps from the immediate source of that work. the. Anaximander. which is not any one of the opposites we know. stretching out without limit on every side of the world we live in. if that is right. at a later date. and there is no trace of any such distinction. Leucippus. "that there were gods who came into being.g." he makes Velleius say. and Zeller's view that a new world never comes into existence till the old one has passed away. THE INNUMERABLE WORLDS We are told that Anaximander believed there were "innumerable worlds in the Boundless. Now. Anaximander said all the worlds were equidistant. and Xenophanes. 17. doxographical tradition proves that Theophrastus discussed the views of all the early philosophers as to whether there was one world or an infinite number. some always coming into being and others passing away.

The school of Abdera." Moreover. must remain a conjecture in the absence of express testimony. for on this view there is at a given time only one world to "encompass. a dinê (or dinos). moreover. It is to be observed that there is no question of a sphere in revolution at this date. and there seems to be little doubt that we are entitled to regard this as the doctrine of Anaximander and Anaximenes. As to the true nature of this motion. It is certain that one of the chief features of early cosmology is the part played in it by the analogy of an eddy in water or in wind." we are on safer ground. body must be infinite. presumably. and they too were mainly dependent on the Milesians for the details of their system. we come to the motion of the world once it has been "separated off. can only be understood in one sense. and that we must not identify the primordial motion of the Boundless with any purely mundane movement such as the diurnal revolution." and it would account admirably for the position of earth and water in the center and fire at the circumference. what we have to picture is rotary motion in a plane or planes more or less inclined to the earth's surface. as will be shown (§ 179). each of which has. ORIGIN OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES The doxographers also give us some indications of the process by which the different parts of the world arose from the Boundless. the argument mentioned by Aristotle that. Lastly. It would arise very naturally in the minds of thinkers who started with water as the primary substance and ended with "air. and we shall find once more (§ 180) that the Atomists held precisely this view of its origin. with the doctrine of innumerable worlds. held there were just one hundred and eighty-three worlds arranged in a triangle. and the Pythagoreans followed Anaximander pretty closely in their cosmology (§ 54). It is in favor of the conjecture given above as to the nature of the primordial motion that it provides a satisfactory dynamical explanation of the formation of the dinê. one of the earliest Pythagoreans. 19. with "air" between them. The following statement comes ultimately from Theophrastus : 32 . for they were the only cosmologists who held there was a boundless body outside the heavens. but the term "separating off" (apokrisis) rather suggests some process of shaking and sifting as in a riddle or sieve. That is given in Plato's Timaeus as the Pythagorean doctrine. we happen to know that Petron. and is certainly intended to represent the reasoning of the Milesians. we have no definite statement. which shows at least that the doctrine of a plurality of worlds was much older than the Atomists.It may be added that it is very unnatural to understand the statement that the Boundless "encompasses all the worlds" of worlds succeeding one another in time. if what is outside the heavens is infinite. "ETERNAL MOTION" AND THE DINÊ The doxographers say it was the "eternal motion" that brought into being "all the heavens and all the worlds within them. and there must be innumerable worlds. its own center and its own diurnal revolution. however. however." We have seen (§ VIII) that this is probably only the Aristotelian way of putting the thing. When. attributed a motion of the same kind to their atoms. This. 18. Heavy things tend to the center of a vortex and light things are forced out to the periphery. That would be quite inconsistent.

He says that the earth is cylindrical in form. Alexander says this was the view of Anaximander and Diogenes. From this arose a sphere of flame which fitted close round the air surrounding the earth as the bark round a tree. ib. but we must look first at what we are told of the earth. P. cold interior of the world into air or vapor -. 16. -. Ref. The hot appears as flame surrounding the cold. I. the portion of it that evaporated produced the winds and the turnings back of the sun and moon while the portion left behind was the sea. 20.Aet. the cold.-Plut. It stays where it is because of its equal distance from everything. I (R. it first differentiated itself into the two opposites. cold matter which was "separated off" in the beginning is thus described: The sea is what is left of the original moisture. -. P. 2 (R. but there is a passage in Aristotle's Meteorology which throws some light on the question. -. they say. iii. 353 b 5. So they think the sea is becoming smaller by being dried up. 2. hot and cold. After discussing the views of the "theologians" regarding the sea. and that at last it will all be dry.He says that something capable of begetting hot and cold out of the eternal was separated off at the origin of this world. and the other is on the opposite side. At first. he says: But those who are wiser in the wisdom of men give an origin for the sea.and that the expansion of this mist broke up the flame itself into rings. 6 (R. We shall come back to these rings presently. and that.Meteor. 19). all the terrestrial region was moist. The earth swings free. as earth with air surrounding it. 33 . and that its depth is as a third part of its breadth.Ib. 20 a). P. Strom. When this had been torn off and shut up in certain rings.Hipp.). when a portion of the Boundless was separated off from the rest to form a world.it is all one at this date -. We are on one of the surfaces. and cites Theophrastus as his authority for the statement. moon and stars came into existence. as it was dried up by the sun. In his commentary on the passage. P. fr. This is confirmed by Anaximander's theory of the sea as given by the doxographers (§ 20). -Ps. The fire has dried up most of it and turned the rest salt by scorching it.-Plut. held in its place by nothing. Strom. that after the first separation of the hot and the cold by the dinê. and that it (the air) produced winds and caused its (the sun's) turnings back. 20). 355 a 21 (R. B. 2 (R. EARTH AND SEA The origin of earth and sea from the moist. water and air. fr. the heat of the flame turned part of the moist. -. Its shape is hollow and round. We conclude.Ps. when the region of the world about the earth was heated by the sun. and like a stone pillar. the sun. 20 a). air was produced and the whole heavens were increased. I. We are not told here how the cold was differentiated into earth. and. We see from this that. And the same absurdity arises for those who say the earth too was at first moist. P. then. -.

6 (R. water. There is good evidence that Anaximander made the earth share in the rotary movement. so we must not speak of an axial revolution. 20). and all the rest on the other as the cold. And the moon appears now to wax and now to wane because of the stopping and opening of the passages. and vapor. And we have seen also that the moist element was partly turned into "air" or vapor by the fire. separated off from the fire of the world. for the greater masses tend to the center of an eddy. but Anaximander realized that it was freely suspended in space (meteôros) and did not require any support. The heavenly bodies were hoop-like compressions of air. ii. I3." we see that Anaximander put fire on one side as the hot and dry. i. water. The doctrine of innumerable worlds was inconsistent with the existence of an absolute up and down in the universe. THE HEAVENLY BODIES We have seen that the flame which had been forced to the circumference of the vortex was broken up into rings by the pressure of expanding vapor produced by its own heat.Aet. or between air and water.Hipp. at which the heavenly bodies show themselves. in fact. This may explain how Aristotle came to speak of the Boundless as intermediate between fire and water. ii.Aet. and there is no reason for it to move up or down or sideways. as through the nozzle of a pair of beflows. which is also moist. however. 21. Aristotle has preserved the argument he used. -. 7 (R. 19 a). and lowest are the wheels of the stars. a sphere. It is just a solid ring in the middle of the vortex. cold interior of the world is not. and surrounded by air. The sun was a wheel 28 times the size of the earth. 19 a). The shape given to the earth by Anaximander is easily explained if we adopt the view that the world is a system of rotating rings. eclipses take place. And there are breathing-holes. which explains how Aristotle could say the Boundless was something between fire and air. 34 . It is not. full of fire. 20. certain point through an orifice. P. -. The heavenly bodies are a wheel of fire. I give the statements of Hippolytus and Aetius as to the formation of the heavenly bodies from these rings. showing the fire at a. Ref. That is why. The central position of the earth is due to the dinê. when the breathing-holes are stopped. 1 (R. breathing out flames at a certain point through orifices." That is because it has to be still further differentiated under the influence of heat into earth. so the argument is quite sound. P. The sun is the highest of all. It is always called "the moist" or "the moist state.Adopting for a moment the popular theory of "elements. certain pipe-like passages. fun of fire. -. while that of) the moon is 18 times as large. The wheel of the sun is 27 times the size of (the earth." Thales had said that the earth floated on the water. like a chariot-wheel with the felloe hollow. The earth is equally distant from the circumference of the vortex in every direction. The gradual drying up of the water by the fire is a good example of what Anaximander meant by "injustice. The moist. P.

The sun was equal to the earth. by the authority of Theophrastus. ii. in this case storm clouds. 18. not vice versa. 27 play a considerable part in primitive cosmogonies. -. There is a curious variation in the figures given for the size of the wheels of the heavenly bodies." It would follow that the diurnal revolution is only apparent. which is neither water nor air. -. In the first place. perhaps. 2. for the vapor or mist which formed them encloses the fire. The moon was a wheel 19 times the size of the earth. We may. was fire breaking through condensed air. it is difficult to resist the belief that what we call the fixed stars were identified with the "innumerable worlds" which were also "gods. The moon was eclipsed when the orifice of the wheel was stopped. The traditional cosmos has given place to a much grander scheme. like a chariot-wheel with its felloe hollow and full of fire like that of the sun.Aet. It. We do not see the wheels of fire as complete circles. -. ii. If we ask how it is that the wheels of air can make the fire invisible to us without becoming visible themselves. but the wheel from which it breathes out and by which it is carried round was 27 times the size of the earth. (Thunder and lightning. In that case. 21. and the rift gives the appearance of a flash in contrast with the blackness of the cloud. -.Aet. It is possible that the theory of "wheels" was suggested by the Milky Way. Anaximander had shaken himself free of the old idea that the heavens are a solid vault. iii. certain further inferences seem to be inevitable. that of innumerable vortices in a boundless mass. There is nothing to prevent us from seeing right out into the Boundless.Aet.] -. the answer is that such is the property of what the Greeks at this date called "air.) were all caused by the blast of the wind. 25. and forms an outer ring except at one point of their circumference. with one breathing-hole like the nozzle of a pair of bellows. ii. When it is shut up in a thick cloud and bursts forth with violence.e. lying oblique also like it. ii." we can see right through both the "air" and the hero. 3. Wind was a current of air (i. 1. 1. and that Anaximander explained the heavenly bodies on the analogy of lightning. while 19 and 28 refer to their outer circumference. iii. 29. when a Homeric hero is made invisible by being clothed in "air. 1. for the numbers 9. too. then the tearing of the cloud makes the noise. and that is the heavenly body we actually see. vapor). etc. through which the fire escapes.Aet. It must be remembered that meteorology and astronomy were still undifferentiated. and that the theory of "wheels" or rings is a natural inference from the idea of the vortex. and.Aet. 1. So far we seem to be justified." For instance. which arose when its finest and moistest particles were stirred or melted by the sun. [It is eclipsed because of the turnings of the wheel.Aet. -. infer that the wheels of the "stars" were nine times the size of the earth. It seems probable that this was really the origin of the theory. The sun was eclipsed when the orifice of the fire's breathing-hole was stopped. 24. and it seems most likely that 18 and 27 refer to their inner. if that is so. and it is hard to think that Anaximander did not believe he did. in going. 7. for the stars are at unequal distances from us. and can have no rotation in 35 . I. It should be added that lightning is explained in much the same way as the heavenly bodies.

22. 19. -. since the sun more nearly keeps up with the fixed stars. P. the wheel of the "stars. a sphere would be required. man alone requires a lengthy period of suckling. namely. they had to say that what we call the greatest velocities were the least. When the bark broke off. and it must be a slower rotation than that of the earth. Quaest. each rotating in its own vortex." which is between the earth and the moon. 22). It must. fr. 36 . for instance. he would never have survived.Hipp. and. In other words. P. Further. be due to the rotation of the cylindrical earth in twenty-four hours. No doubt this involves us in a difficulty regarding the rotation of the sun and the moon. That gets rid of one difficulty. then. on the assumption just made. each enclosed in a prickly bark. The moon. The first animals were produced in the moisture. 2 (R. It follows from the nature of the vortex that they must rotate in the same direction as the earth. 22 a). a fish. they were finally cast ashore and took to land. We come now to the crowning audacity of all. and after having been reared like sharks.). as they did. i. in any case. Strom. As they advanced in age. did not rotate so rapidly as the sun.Ps. and become capable of protecting themselves. for the fixed stars could not be explained by a "wheel" at all. His reason is that while other animals quickly find food by themselves. they survived for a short time. Holding.). I believe that Anaximander regarded the fixed stars as stationary.Aet. we have seen. Hence. -. 730 f (R. That Anaximander failed to observe this difficulty is not surprising. if we remember that he was the first to attack the problem. however. It is not immediately obvious that the center of the vortex must have a slower motion than the circumference. that must be from west to east. they came out upon the drier part. he says that originally man was born from animals of another species. in the beginning. Ref. That. ANIMALS We have. This serves to explain the origin of the theory that the heavenly bodies have a rotation of their own in the opposite direction to the diurnal revolution which we shall see reason for attributing to Pythagoras (§ 54). 6 (R. -. -. ib. 4 (R. Man was like another animal. that the whole rotation was in the same direction. were not recognized yet as a single luminary. ib. P.Plut. Symp. had he been originally as he is now. The Theophrastean account of this has been well preserved by the doxographers: Living creatures arose from the moist element as it was evaporated by the sun. is a difficulty which all the Ionian cosmologists down to Democritus had to face. then. We have seen that the earth certainly shared in the rotation of the dinê. P. seen enough to show us that the speculations of Anaximander about the world were of an extremely daring character.-Plut. He declares that at first human beings arose in the inside of fishes. are the "stars" which are accounted for by this inner wheel? I venture to suggest that they are the morning and the evening stars.common. v. What. which is inconsistent with the fact that the circumference of a vortex rotates more rapidly than the center. his theory of the origin of living creatures. which.

LXIII.C. and this means that Apollodorus had no definite information about his date. we may suppose. 26). but he rejects the more audacious theories of his predecessor.). We cannot therefore say anything positive as to his date. Op. while others have treated the whole thing as a mythological survival. and this gives us an additional guarantee for the trustworthiness of the tradition. like him. and we now see that these observations were already made by Anaximander. except that he must have been younger than Anaximander. HIS BOOK Anaximenes wrote a book which survived until the age of literary criticism. He did not. The way in which the shark nourishes its young furnished him with the very thing he required to explain the survival of the earliest animals. and died in 01. and he naturally fixed upon those fishes which present the closest analogy to the mammalia. The result is that.). 37 . It is clear from this that Anaximander had an idea of what is meant by adaptation to environment and survival of the fittest. 2 (R. it is perhaps more fruitful in ideas that were destined to hold their ground. (528/525 B. he was born when Thales "flourished. an "associate" of Anaximander. say it was indeterminate. fr. It is therefore important to notice that this is one of the rare cases where we have not merely a placitum. THEORY OF THE PRIMARY SUBSTANCES Anaximenes is one of the philosophers on whom Theophrastus wrote a special monograph. He perhaps made him die in the sixty-third Olympiad because that gives just three generations for the Milesian school. Anaximander has been called a precursor of Darwin by some. but determinate. who had been an associate of Anaximander.C. 23. THE LIFE OF ANAXIMENES Anaximenes of Miletus. that he "flourished" about the time of the fall of Sardis (546/5 B. while his view of the world is less like the truth than Anaximander's. son of Eurystratus.The importance of these statements has sometimes been overrated and still more often underestimated. 24. Apollodorus said. In other words. For this he looked to the sea. like Anaximander. son of Eurystratus. but an indication of the observations on which it was based. according to Theophrastus.Phys. The speculations of Anaximander were distinguished for their hardihood and breadth. those of Anaximenes are marked by the opposite quality." and "flourished" when Thales died. The statements of Aristotle about the galeus levis were shown by Johannes Müller to be more accurate than those of later naturalists. He appears to have thought out his system carefully. however. that the underlying substance was one and infinite. said. from the poetical prose of Anaximander. The following are the passages which contain the fullest account of the central feature of his system : Anaximenes of Miletus. 25. -. for he said it was Air. P. it appears. was. and that he saw the higher mammals could not represent the original type of animal. for we are told that he used a simple and unpretentious Ionic. very different.

i. 27." It was Empedocles who cleared up this point too by showing that darkness is a shadow. we shall see. it is invisible. becomes water. in the system of Anaximander. i.Aet. it occupied an intermediate place between the two fundamental opposites. the things that are. 7 (R. when most evenly distributed. the introduction of rarefaction and condensation into the theory is a notable advance. "our soul. took their rise. 7 (R. RAREFACTION AND CONDENSATION At first. are condensed Air. AIR The air Anaximenes speaks of includes a good deal that we should not call by the name." -. moisture and motion. and it then corresponds to our "air". to stones. still further condensed. 28). On the other hand.Phys. turns to earth. and even darkness is a form of "air. but cold and heat. if it were not. Ref. i. 26. it may just as well be one of them. since a theory which explains everything as a form of a single substance is clearly bound to regard all differences as quantitative. When it is dilated so as to be rarer. 26). Ref. this looks like a falling off from the more refined doctrine of Anaximander to a cruder view.From it. who first discovered that what we call air was a distinct corporeal substance. and shall be. P. 3. it is no longer necessary to make the primary substance something "distinct from the elements. make it visible." he said.Hipp. and not identical either with vapor or with empty space. i. -. but this is not really the case. On the contrary. is still accepted without question. he said. for. while other things come from its offspring. We know from Plutarch that he fancied air became warmer 38 . P. it makes the Milesian cosmology consistent for the first time. and this. -. so do breath and air encompass the whole world. the ring of flame and the cold. That is why he called it pneuma. The only way to save the unity of the primary substance is to say that all diversities are due to the presence of more or less of it in a given space. "Just as. -. while winds. fr." to use Aristotle's inaccurate but convenient phrase. it would not change so much as it does. it is the breath we inhale and the wind that blows. P. 24). P. Ref. In the earlier cosmologists "air" is always a form of vapor. Cloud is formed from Air by felting. It differs in different substances in virtue of its rarefaction and condensation. it is invisible to our sight. the old idea that mist or vapor is condensed air. P. and when condensed as much as it can be. It is always in motion. being air. Water. And the form of the air is as follows. In its normal condition. In fact. moist mass within it (§ 19).Hipp. and have been. It was Empedocles. 4 (R. 28).Hipp. it becomes fire. 7 (R. for. on the other hand. Where it is most even. 2 (R. Op. condensed still more. the gods and things divine. holds us together. -. 28). And when once this step has been taken. It was natural for Anaximenes to fix upon "air" as the primary substance.

7. 561). being air. 39 . fire comes into being. p. Ref. like paintings. 28). -.Ib. -. 2 (Dox. 7. 344).Ib. p." The primary substance bears the same relation to the life of the world as to that of man. but turn round it. as a cap turns round our head. THE PARTS OF THE WORLD We turn now to the doxographical tradition concerning the formation of the world and its parts: He says that. Of this he satisfied himself by a curious experimental proof. 2 (Dox. as others suppose. 352). Strom. p. so do breath and air encompass the whole world. "Just as our soul. 6 (Dox. There were also bodies of earthy substance in the region of the stars. ii. Ref. 25. when our lips are closed. Winds are produced when air is condensed and rushes along under propulsion. it is cold. 3 (R. as the air was felted. fr. -. Now this was the Pythagorean view. 29. The stars [are fixed like nails in the crystalline vault of the heavens. 7 (Dox.Aet.Ib. 348). which are of a fiery nature. 14. i. and because its distance from us becomes greater. 352). -. and. The sun is fiery. but when it is concentrated and thickened still more. holds us together. -. the air is warm. P. The stars give no heat because of the greatness of their distance. It is very broad and is accordingly supported by the air. which is attested by the single fragment that has come down to us. 356). 25). clouds are generated. The heavenly bodies were produced from the earth by moisture rising from it. I (Dox. -. They do not go under the earth.when rarefied. And he says that the heavenly bodies do not move under the earth. 23. 348).Ib. it turns to water. P.Hipp. lastly. p. I (Dox. 28. In the same way the sun and the moon and the other heavenly bodies. When we breathe with our mouths open. but some say they] are fiery leaves. but because it is concealed by the higher parts of the earth. are supported by the air because of their breadth. and colder when condensed. p. and so marks the beginning of an interest in physiological matters. The moon is of fire. and the stars are composed of the fire thus raised aloft. 16. p. THE WORLD BREATHES This argument brings us to an important point in the theory. and it is also an early instance of the argument from the microcosm to the macrocosm. It is broad like a leaf. 22.Ib.Ps. 3 (Dox. -. i.Hipp. the earth first came into being. -. revolving along with them. -. but round it. not because it goes under the earth. When this is rarefied. 20.-Plut. p. 4-6 (R. The heavenly bodies turn back in their courses owing to the resistance of compressed air. The sun is hidden from sight.

377). 379). This view is also mentioned in Aristotle's Meteorology. These arose. 4. p. Hail is produced when water freezes in falling. and it is quite likely that Anaximenes called it "divine. p. but he may have been misled by a Stoic authority. Augustine. an idea naturally suggested by the "eddy" (dinê). moon. Hence the anterior part of it seems red. It follows that the heavenly bodies cannot go under the earth at night. from the air. iii. because there is not constantly a full moon.Ib. Arat.Anaximenes explained lightning like Anaximander. The earth was like a table in shape. 3 (Dox. -. p. however. -. is far less satisfactory. These gods are probably to be explained like Anaximander's. where the elevation of the northern parts of the earth. are doubtless intended to account for eclipses and the phases of the moon. when there is some air imprisoned in the water. 15. -. 231). 40 . 370). but only round it laterally like a cap or a millstone. 3. 3 (Dox. Cicero says that Anaximenes regarded air as a god. snow. and adds that it came into being. It is quite inconsistent with the theory of a celestial sphere. And he says that a rainbow is produced at night by the moon. takes another view. -.Schol. The cause of earthquakes was the dryness and moisture of the earth. and also by St. The evidence. which makes it possible for the heavenly bodies to be hidden from sight. The sun. but not often. and stars are also fiery discs which float on the air "like leaves". I (Dox. p. -." as Anaximander did the Boundless. but it is certain that he also spoke of gods who came into being and passed away. 2 (Dox. adding as an illustration what happens in the case of the sea. 30. 368). which flashes when divided by the oars. he said. being burnt by the sun's rays. (Dox. as the primary substance. while the other part is dark. Simplicius.Aet. and because the moon's light is weaker than that of the sun.Ib. is certainly eternal. p. The earth is once more imagined as a table-like disc floating on the air. and the explanation is fairly adequate if we remember that the world is regarded as rotating in a plane. but the effect upon the details of his cosmology was unfortunate. This is expressly stated by Hippolytus. which circulate among the planets. is referred to. The rainbow is produced when the beams of the sun fall on thick condensed air.Aet. indeed. occasioned by droughts and heavy rains respectively. Air. This is only meant to explain why the stars outside the Arctic circle appear to rise and set. there is much the same difficulty about the "innumerable worlds" ascribed to Anaximenes as there is about those of Anaximander. 10. iii. INNUMERABLE WORLDS As might be expected. iii. The earthy bodies. That cannot be right. owing to the predominance of moisture. We have seen that Anaximenes was justified in going back to Thales in regard to the nature of primary substance. as Anaximander must have held.

at a later date. INFLUENCE OF ANAXIMENES It is not easy for us to realize that. was far more indebted to Anaximenes for his general theory of the world (§ 53). We shall see that Pythagoras. 41 . and because his contribution to it was one that completed the system he had inherited from his predecessors. We shall come to all this later. and so did the Atomists. That the theory of rarefaction and condensation was really such a completion of the Milesian system. though he followed Anaximander in his account of the heavenly bodies. and made Air the primary substance. We shall see further that when. science revived once more in Ionia. but it seemed desirable to point out at once that Anaximenes marks the culminating point of the line of thought which started with Thales. we have seen (§ 26). it was "the philosophy of Anaximenes" to which it attached itself (§ 122). In the main. This it can only have done because it was really the work of a school.31. and it need only be added that a clear realization of this fact will be the best clue at once to the understanding of the Milesian cosmology itself and to that of the systems which followed it. and for long after. in the eyes of his contemporaries. it is from Anaximenes they all start. And yet the fact is certain. Diogenes of Apollonia went back to the central doctrine of Anaximenes. Anaximenes was a much more important figure than Anaximander. of which Anaximenes was the last distinguished representative. and to show how the "philosophy of Anaximenes" came to mean the Milesian doctrine as a whole. Anaxagoras adopted many of his most characteristic views (§ 135). though he also tried to combine it with the theories of Anaxagoras (§ 188).

4 SCIENCE AND RELIGION .

and. in its Delian form that the northern religion had most influence. These seem to have centered round the sanctuary of Delos. 34. It was supposed that it was only when "out of the body" that the soul revealed its true nature. like Pythagoras. No doubt it was also different in the Chalcidian and Ionian colonies of the West. Now Pythagoras and Xenophanes. so far as we can judge. the Milesians wholly ignored traditional beliefs. The temple legend of Delos is certainly ancient. or oppose it openly. Now the connection of Pythagoras with Delos is well attested. Henceforth the leaders of enlightenment must either seek to reform and deepen traditional religion. like Xenophanes. If the Delian religion was really Achaean. thoroughly secular. were both Ionians. Dodona.32. and it is certain that he founded his society in cities which gloried in the Achaean name. In this form. which were founded at a time when Hesiod and his followers still held unchallenged authority. especially when reinforced by the revival that now swept over the Greek world. but was profoundly influenced by the diffusion of certain ideas originating in what was then the far North. the most striking figures of the generation that saw the Greek cities in Asia become subject to Persia. 33. so far as we can see. In this religion the new beliefs were mainly based on the phenomenon of "ecstasy" (ekstasis. There it was no longer possible to ignore religion. in the Aegean. and it connects the worship of Apollo with the Hyperboreans. and the Malian Gulf. THE DELIAN RELIGION The revival was not. we have a clue to certain things in the life of Pythagoras which are otherwise puzzling. and where there were many memories of a remote past. The stories of Abaris the Hyperborean and Aristeas of Proconnesus belong to the same religious movement and prove that it was based on a view of the soul which was new. but a fallen god. read like belated utterances of an earlier age. a mere recrudescence of the old Aegean religion. and it is natural to associate this with the coming of the Achaeans. It was not merely a feeble double of the self. IONIA AND THE WEST The spirit of the Ionians in Asia was. Their use of the term "god" for the primary substance and the innumerable worlds had no religious significance. however. the new re43 . and was associated with the name of Orpheus. bear witness to a real connection between the Danubian and Aegean civilizations at an early date. "stepping out")." which were passed on from people to people till they reached Delos by way of the head of the Adriatic. which might be restored to its high estate by a system of "purifications" (katharmoi) and sacraments (orgia). which had been the home of the Ionians long before the Anatolian coasts were open to colonization. as in Homer. but both spent the greater part of their lives in the West. who were thought of as living on the banks of the Danube. The "holy things wrapped in straw. however. who belonged to the neighboring island of Syros. In Thrace it had attached itself to the wild worship of Dionysus. ORPHICISM It was not. and the fragments of Pherecydes. as we have seen. We shall come back to these later. It was different in the Aegean islands.

we have seen. Aristotle is as much influenced by it as any one. Most of the Orphic literature that has come down to us is of late date and uncertain origin. RELATION OF RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY Science. This way of regarding philosophy is henceforth characteristic of the best Greek thought." In Ionia. who took part in the religious movement themselves. and to that extent it is true that philosophy was influenced by religion. however. the word has a far deeper meaning." a danger Plato saw and sought to avert. a new view of the soul. discovered at Thourioi and Petelia take us back to a time when Orphicism was still a living creed. became a religion. 36. as we shall see. Even the Pythagoreans and Empedocles. It was he that insisted on philosophers taking their turn to descend once more into the Cave to help their former fellow prisoners. but on voluntary adhesion and initiation. and as we should see still more clearly if we possessed his Protrepticus in its entirety. There is no room for an immortal soul in any philosophy of this period. 35. not on any real or supposed tie of blood. Socrates was the first philosopher to assert the doctrine on rational grounds. then. In any case. On the other hand. philosophia meant something like "curiosity.ligion made an immediate appeal to all sorts and conditions of men who could not find satisfaction in the worship of the secularized anthropomorphic gods of the poets and the state religions. The remarkable thing is that this did not happen. The soul so released became once more a god and enjoyed everlasting bliss. There was a danger that this attitude should degenerate into mere quietism and "otherworldliness. with Orphic verses inscribed on them. seems to have been derived. as we have seen. and its adherents were organized in communities. held views about the soul which flatly contradicted the beliefs implied in their religious practices. which is manifestly inspired by Pythagorean doctrine. but the thin gold plates. It looked to a written revelation as the source of religious authority. The religious revival implied. that was hardly the fault of the philosophers. If the other view ultimately prevailed. as we may see from the Tenth Book of the Ethics. to suppose that even now philosophy took over any particular doctrines from religion. wherever we can trace the influence of Pythagoras. though it is really impossible to assume any Indian influence in Greece at this date. It would be wrong. the main purpose of the Orphic observances and rites was to release the soul from the "wheel of birth. from reincarnation in animal or vegetable forms. and we might expect to find that it profoundly influenced the teaching of philosophers on that subject." That is the idea so nobly expressed in the Phaedo." as we find it in Isocrates. and it is significant that Plato represents him as only half serious in appealing to the Orphics for confirmation of his own teaching. based." and from that use of it the common Athenian sense of "culture. From them we learn that it had some striking resemblances to the beliefs prevalent in India about the same time. PHILOSOPHY AS A WAY OF LIFE The chief reason for taking account of the Orphic communities here is that their Organization seems to have suggested the idea that philosophy is above all a "way of life. 44 . The Orphic religion had two features which were new in Greece. Philosophy is itself a "purification" and a way of escape from the "wheel." that is.

but could not at first graft new doctrines on it. On the other hand. is evidence that Pythagoras was well known in the fifth century." and he usually refers to particular doctrines as those of "some of the Pythagoreans. "are not supposed to learn anything. as he recognized the voice of a departed friend. the worshiper was free to give any explanation of it he pleased. For all he says. though he made use of it for purposes of imposture." said Aristotle. though still within the century. Even the Pythagoreans are only once mentioned by name. It might be as exalted as that of Pindar and Sophocles or as debased as that of the itinerant mystery-mongers described in Plato's Republic." Aristotle is not so shy of the word "Pythagorean" as Plato. and we are not even told expressly that Timaeus the Locrian. Aristotle imitates his master's reserve in this matter. into whose mouth Plato has placed an unmistakably Pythagorean cosmology. is practically a contemporary one. We are left to infer it from the fact that he comes from Italy. Later. Nothing was required but that the ritual should be performed correctly and in a proper frame of mind. Herodotus speaks of him as "not the weakest scientific man (sophistês) among the Hellenes. but he uses it in a curious way. Plato was deeply interested in Pythagoreanism. for he knew Salmoxis lived many years before Pythagoras." That is why the religious revival could inspire philosophy with a new spirit. Heraclitus. That takes us some way. In one place we are told that Alcmaeon was a young man in the old age of Pythagoras. but he is curiously reserved about Pythagoras. Usually Pythagorean views are given anonymously. in which we are told that Pythagoras once heard a dog howling and appealed to its master not to beat it. Plato tells us a good deal about men whom we know from other sources to have been Pythagoreans. in the passage where Socrates is made to say that they regard music and astronomy as sister sciences. but to be affected in a certain way and put into a certain frame of mind. The story. speaks of his having carried scientific investigation (historiê) further than any one. "The initiated. however. 37." It looks as if there was some doubt in the fourth century as to who the genuine Pythagoreans were. 45 . He does not believe that." and he says he had been told by the Greeks of the Hellespont that the legendary Scythian Salmoxis had been a slave of Pythagoras at Samos. and all we are told then is that he won the affections of his followers in an unusual degree (diapherontôs êgapêthê) by teaching them a "way of life. indeed. as those of "ingenious persons" (kompsoi tives) or the like. belonged to the society. He only mentions him once by name in all his writings. We shall see why as we go on.The reason is that ancient religion was not a body of doctrine. in the next generation. Some verses are quoted from Xenophanes. we should only have been able to guess that Echecrates and Philolaus belonged to the school. CHARACTER OF THE TRADITION It is not easy to give any account of Pythagoras that can claim to be regarded as historical. From this we know that he taught the doctrine of transmigration. The earliest reference to him. The name of Pythagoras occurs only twice in the genuine works that have come down to us. He says such things as "the men of Italy who are called Pythagoreans. but he avoids the name. and the other is a quotation from Alcidamas to the effect that "the men of Italy honored Pythagoras." which was still called Pythagorean. both as a scientific man and as a preacher of immortality.

however. for Heraclitus already speaks of him in the past tense. apocryphal. In the same way. This date cannot be far wrong. who was no doubt an uncritical historian. however." we are told. so he can hardly be referring to Pythagoras. Nor does it matter. both at an earlier and a later date. both of which belong to the fourth century B. to give their names. and Herodotus was deceived by the priests or the symbolism of the monuments. though far from improbable if we consider the close relations between Polycrates of Samos and Amasis. observes that the Egyptians agreed in certain practices with the rules called Orphic and Bacchic. and cannot have been influenced by Neopythagorean fancies. Dicaearchus of Messene. we find ourselves once more in the region of the miraculous. that he wished to represent Pythagoras simply as a man of science. of course. When we come to the Lives of Pythagoras. Even the statement that he visited Egypt. LIFE OF PYTHAGORAS We may be said to know for certain that Pythagoras passed his early manhood at Samos. rests on no sufficient authority. but. Aristoxenus had been personally acquainted with the last generation of the Pythagorean society at Phlius.). and the result is a mass of incredible fiction. The only other ancient authorities on Pythagoras were Aristoxenus of Taras. He refuses. but from which quotations are found in later writers.C. These are of great value. They are based on authorities of a very suspicious character. and was anxious to refute the idea that he was a religious teacher. who all had special opportunities of knowing something about him. and he "flourished. an attempt was made in the fourth century to save his memory from that imputation. It is evident. 46 . The account of the Pythagorean Order in the Life of Pythagoras by Iamblichus is based mainly on Timaeus.C. and Timaeus of Tauromenium. Herodotus. and with the Pythagoreans. had passed it off as their own. it is true. but this does not imply that the Pythagoreans derived these directly from Egypt. though certain Greeks. This helps to account for the cautious references of Plato and Aristotle.Aristotle also wrote a special treatise on the Pythagoreans which has not come down to us. as they have to do with the religious side of Pythagoreanism. by Porphyry. for some of the most striking miracles are quoted from Aristotle's work on the Pythagoreans and from the Tripod of Andron of Ephesus. He says also that the belief in transmigration came from Egypt. and Diogenes Laertius. The fact is that the oldest and the latest accounts agree in representing Pythagoras as a wonder-worker. for the Egyptians did not believe in transmigration at all. It would be quite wrong. and was the son of Mnesarchus. which are really Egyptian. Iamblichus. for some reason. Dicaearchus tried to make out that Pythagoras was simply a statesman and reformer. 38.. in the reign of Polycrates (532 B. but its full significance will only appear later. however. but who had access to information about Italy and Sicily which makes his testimony very valuable when it can be recovered. to ignore the miraculous elements in the legend of Pythagoras. The extensive travels attributed to Pythagoras by late writers are.

Timaeus appears to have said that he came to Italy in 529 B. It was at Croton. where the Pythagoreans were assembled. Disturbances still went on. as has been maintained.). but the mention of Lysis proves that they were spread over more than one generation. DOWNFALL OF THE ORDER For a time the new Order succeeded in securing supreme power in the Achaean cities. first to Achaea and afterwards to Thebes. Nor had it anything whatever to do with the "Dorian aristocratic ideal. Nor is there any evidence that the Pythagoreans favored the aristocratic party. and remained at Croton for twenty years. He died at Metapontum. At last. and explains why the Crotoniates identified him with Apollo Hyperboreus.Aristoxenus said that Pythagoras left Samos in order to escape from the tyranny of Polycrates. Argos. It is impossible to date these events accurately. and Syracuse are quite forgotten. a religious fraternity. and it was there that he passed his remaining years. if the teacher of Epaminondas escaped from it. It is only if we keep these apart that we begin to see our way. and it is not hard to understand that the Ionian Pythagoras should have felt a certain kindness for the men of the great but unfortunate Ionian city. in its origin.C. they were victims of a tyrant and suppliants. and not. and not Dionysus. a democratic Dorian state: Lysis. The coup d'Etat of Croton can hardly have occurred before 450 B. and the later risings which led to the expulsion of the Pythagoreans from Italy. and the Order was originally confined to Achaean states. Corinth. Timaeus appears to have connected the rising of Cylon closely with the events which led to the destruction of Sybaris (510 B. at Croton after the departure of Pythagoras for Metapontum and after his death. was able to bring about the retirement of Pythagoras to Metapontum.C. was the chief Pythagorean god. but reaction soon came. There is no ground for the assertion that he sympathized with these refugees because they were "aristocrats". who were young and strong. where he was later the teacher of Epaminondas. whither he had retired when the Crotoniates rose in revolt against his authority. Moreover the "Dorian aristocratic ideal" is a fiction based on the Socratic idealization of Sparta and Crete. THE ORDER The Pythagorean Order was simply. a political league. and had urged the people of Croton to receive certain refugees who had been expelled by the tyrant Telys. Archippus and Lysis. escaped. Cylon." Pythagoras was an Ionian. We gather that in some way Pythagoras had shown sympathy with the Sybarites. 39. we are told. Our accounts of these events are much confused by failure to distinguish between the revolt of Cylon in the lifetime of Pythagoras himself. that he founded his society. who is expressly stated by Aristoxenus to have been one of the first men of Croton in wealth and birth. though Apollo. The main purpose of the Order was the cultivation of holiness. nor can it have been much later or we should have heard of it in con47 . Archippus retired to Taras. Of those in the house only two.. In this respect it resembled an Orphic society. 40.C. a city which had long been in friendly relations with Samos and was famed for its athletes and its doctors. the Cyloneans set fire to the house of the athlete Milo. That is doubtless due to the connection of Pythagoras with Delos. however. another Achaean city.

and the kinship of all living creatures. TRANSMIGRATION In the first place. what the position of Pythagoras in the history of Greek thought must have been. It seems certain that Pythagoras brought this with him from Ionia. where only bloodless sacrifices were allowed. that of Apollo the Father. as we have seen. except by some zealots whom the heads of the Society refused to acknowledge. and it was not till Alexandrian times that anyone ventured to forge books in his name. Pythagoras apparently preferred oral instruction to the dissemination of his opinions by writing. however. Further. doubtless derived from Timaeus. and the way in which he speaks suggests that this went on for a considerable time. till at last peace and order were restored by the Achaeans of Peloponnesus. he taught the doctrine of transmigration. and that he was partial to sucking-pigs and tender kids. and the Pythagorean rule is best known for its prescription of similar forms of abstinence. a view which Dicaearchus said Pythagoras held. as being the most laxative. The explanation is that Aristoxenus had been the friend of the last of the Pythagoreans. and it was said that the Akousmatics. the strict observance had been relaxed. in a very general way. The palpable exaggeration of these statements shows. and. Aristoxenus undoubtedly said Pythagoras did not abstain from animal flesh in general. so we can show.nection with the foundation of Thourioi in 444 B. that he is endeavoring to combat a belief which existed in his own day. therefore. but we may still make an attempt to understand. We shall see that at a later date some of the Pythagoreans were able to return to Italy. as they were called. Polybius tells us of the burning of the Pythagorean "lodges" (sunedria) in all the Achaean cities. The "Pythagorists" who clung to the old practices were now regarded as heretics. The early history of Pythagoreanism is. out of his own mouth. In a valuable passage. and once more acquired great influence there. Now this is most easily to be explained as a development of the primitive belief in the kinship of men and beasts. WANT OF EVIDENCE AS TO THE TEACHING OF PYTHAGORAS Of the opinions of Pythagoras we know even less than of his life. that the tradition which made the Pythagoreans abstain from animal flesh and beans goes back to a time long before the Neopythagoreans. Plato and Aristotle clearly knew nothing for certain of ethical or physical doctrines going back to the founder himself. were really followers of Hippasus.C. The writings ascribed to the first Pythagoreans were also forgeries of the same period. 43. He also said that Pythagoras preferred beans to every other vegetable. the periodic cycle. Dicaearchus said hardly anything of what Pythagoras taught his disciples was known except the doctrine of transmigration. 42. but only from that of the ploughing ox and the ram. Timaeus told how at Delos he refused to sacrifice on any but the oldest altar. 41. who had been excommunicated 48 . wholly conjectural. this belief is commonly associated with a system of taboos on certain kinds of food. in their time. Aristoxenus gave a string of moral precepts. ABSTINENCE It has indeed been doubted whether we can accept what we are told by such late writers as Porphyry on the subject of Pythagorean abstinence.

They do not pretend to go back to Pythagoras himself. Not to touch a white cock. but they never wholly died out. 7. Now. 13. and consists of rules called Akousmata. however. not to leave the mark of it in the ashes. which points to their being the property of the sect which had faithfully preserved the old customs. 11. History has not been kind to the Akousmatics. who did.Not to break bread. though the Pythagoreans did as a rule abstain from flesh.When the pot is taken off the fire. 9. 1. but to stir them together. Not to pick up what has fallen. not on humanitarian or ascetic grounds. and we infer that his rule of abstinence from flesh was based. 10. The second class is of a different nature.Not to walk on highways.Not to let swallows share one's roof.Not to sit on a quart measure.Not to eat from a whole loaf. calling themselves followers of Pythagoras. we have a primitive belief. Here. The names of Diodorus of Aspendus and Nigidius Figulus help to bridge the gulf between them and Apollonius of Tyana.Not to eat the heart. I give a few examples to show what the Pythagorean rule was really like. 2. they are only the sayings which the last generation of "Mathematicians" heard from their predecessors. there were plenty of people in the fourth century. even though the friends of Aristoxenus did not practice abstinence. that. we often find that the sacred animal is slain and eaten on certain solemn occasions. We have seen that Pythagoras taught the kinship of beasts and men. and for the most part preserved by Iamblichus. These are of two kinds. 8. The genuine followers of Pythagoras were the Mathematicians. derived from Aristoxenus. are mere precepts of morality. 5.Not to step over a crossbar. but it does not require a practiced eye to see that they are genuine taboos. but on taboo.Not to stir the fire with iron. among primitive peoples. though in ordinary circumstances this would be the greatest of all impieties. The satire of the poets of the Middle Comedy proves. 49 . This is strikingly confirmed by a statement in Porphyry's Defence of Abstinence. again.To abstain from beans.Not to pluck a garland. they nevertheless ate it when they sacrificed to the gods. AKOUSMATA We shall now know what to think of the Pythagorean rules and precepts that have come down to us. 4. 44. Later writers interpret them as "symbols" of moral truth. to the effect that. Some of them. We know also from Isocrates that they still observed the rule of silence. 6.for revealing secret doctrines. and have different sources. 12. and we need not attach any weight to the denials of Aristoxenus. 3.

The lowest class is made up of those who come to buy and sell." a title which at this date does not imply the slightest disparagement. Can we trace any connection between these two sides of his activity? We have seen that the aim of the Orphic and other Orgia was to obtain release from the "wheel of birth" by means of "purifications" of a primitive type. It is easy to understand that most of his followers would rest content with the humbler kinds of purification. and without his command we have no right to make our escape. just as there are three sorts of people who come to the Olympic Games. and therefore to the founder. would be quite wrong. though he adds that later he did not renounce the miracle-mongering of Pherecydes. science. The doctrine is to this effect. Best of all. but what has been said is sufficient for our purpose. but all these ideas are genuinely Pythagorean. the true philosopher. the Practical. We are strangers in this world. and relegate him to the class of "medicine-men" (goêtes) along with Epimenides and Onomacritus.14. and the body is the tomb of the soul. we should be tempted to delete the name of Pythagoras from the history of philosophy. and it is the man who devotes himself to that. Heraclitus. Aristoxenus said that the Pythagoreans employed music to purge the soul as they used medicine to purge the body. That. who has most effectually released himself from the "wheel of birth. are those who come to look on (theorein).Do not look in a mirror beside a light. 15. therefore." It would be rash to say that Pythagoras expressed himself exactly in this manner. A few would rise to the higher doctrine. Herodotus called Pythagoras "by no means the weakest sophist of the Hellenes. says that Pythagoras had pursued scientific investigation further than other men. But there is more than this. and we have now to ask how much of the later Pythagorean science may be ascribed to Pythagoras himself. and will serve to explain the Pythagorean interest in Harmonics. however. it at the same time suggested a deeper idea of what "purification" really is. and it is only in some such way that we can bridge the gulf which separates Pythagoras the man of science from Pythagoras the religious teacher. were this all. 50 . PYTHAGORAS AS A MAN OF SCIENCE Now. who is not partial to him. for we are the chattels of God who is our herdsman. It would be easy to multiply proofs of the close connection between Pythagoreanism and primitive modes of thought. and it is certain that Pythagorean science goes back to the early years of the fifth century. and this will account for the sect of the Akousmatics. If we can trust Heraclides. while it admitted all these old practices. The new thing in the society founded by Pythagoras seems to have been that. but does imply scientific studies." the Theoretic. 45. The Pythagorean Society became the chief scientific school of Greece. however.When you rise from the bedclothes. it was Pythagoras who first distinguished the "three lives. In this life there are three kinds of men. which Aristotle made use of in the Ethics. and the Apolaustic. The greatest purification of all is. Such methods of purifying the soul were familiar in the Orgia of the Korybantes. Aristotle said that Pythagoras at first busied himself with mathematics and numbers. and yet we must not seek to escape by self-murder. and next above them are those who come to compete. roll them together and smooth out the impress of the body.

Some of these must be mentioned at once. As. a fresh unit. It is only by separating its earliest form from its later that the place of Pythagoreanism in Greek thought can be made clear. By the end of the fifth century B. Aristotle compares his procedure to that of those who bring numbers into figures (schêmata) like the triangle and the square. for they are of unknown antiquity. though we must remember that no one can now pretend to draw the line between its successive stages with any certainty. the more likely it is to be that of Pythagoras himself. though the developed system belongs to a later part of our story. Aristoxenus said that Pythagoras was the first to carry that study beyond the needs of commerce. ARITHMETIC In his treatise on Arithmetic. Now these statements. He therefore belongs to the beginning of the fourth century B. and go back to the time when men could only count by arranging numbers in such patterns. when we find the later Pythagoreans teaching things that were already something of an anachronism in their own day. Moreover.C. We are told of him. the best proof that this is a genuinely primitive method of indicating numbers. of which the marking of dice or dominoes gives us the best idea. THE FIGURES One of the most remarkable statements we have about Pythagoreanism is what we are told of Eurytus on the unimpeachable authority of Archytas. of a numerical symbolism quite distinct from the alphabetical notation on the one hand and from the Euclidean representation of numbers by lines on the other. it must have originated with some great man. then. and that he demonstrated these by arranging pebbles in a certain way. and he was no eccentric enthusiast. and Aristoxenus mentioned him along with Philolaus as having taught the last of the Pythagoreans. 51 . he wrote nothing. and earlier. The former was inconvenient for arithmetical purposes. All we can safely say is that. in fact. however. and all the more so if it can be shown to have points of contact with views which we know to have been held in his own time or shortly before it. as it were. we find that there is a widespread interest in such subjects and that these are studied for their own sake. The representation of numbers by lines was adopted to avoid the difficulties raised by the discovery of irrational quantities. such as horses and men. And these markings are. but one of the foremost men in the school. we may be pretty sure we are dealing with survivals which only the authority of the master's name could have preserved. 47. because the zero was not yet invented. Now this new interest cannot have been wholly the work of a school. Eurytus was the disciple of Philolaus. seem to imply the existence at this date. the more primitive any Pythagorean doctrine appears.46. that he used to give the number of all sorts of things. and there is no one but Pythagoras to whom we can refer it. the men with whom he himself was acquainted.. In particular. by which time the Pythagorean system was fully developed. and is of much later date. and his statement is confirmed by everything we otherwise know. It seems rather that numbers were originally represented by dots arranged in symmetrical and easily recognized patterns. we have no sure means of distinguishing his own teaching from that of his followers in the next generation or two. and especially the remark of Aristotle last quoted.C. each of which became.

These men not only abandoned the linear symbolism of Euclid. the tetraktys. for instance.It is. Of course the employment of the letter alpha to represent the units is derived from the conventional notation. but otherwise we are clearly in presence of something which belongs to the very earliest stage of the science. How much of this goes back to Pythagoras himself. We also gather that the dots were supposed to represent pebbles (psêphoi). In later days there were many kinds of tetraktys. as inadequate to represent the true nature of number. was the "tetraktys of the dekad. The natural thing would be to represent linear or prime numbers by a row of units. but we are probably justified in referring to him the conclusion that it is "according to nature" that all Hellenes and barbarians count up to ten and then begin over again." It was a figure like this: and represented the number ten as the triangle of four. and revived the study of arithmetic as a science independent of geometry. and this throws light on early methods of what we still call calculation. SQUARE AND OBLONG NUMBERS That Aristotle refers to this seems clear. we cannot tell. Nicomachus of Gerasa says. that by which the Pythagoreans swore. by which the Pythagoreans used to swear. It is. Speusippus tells us of several properties which the Pythagoreans discovered in the dekad. significant that we do not find any clue to what Aristotle meant by "those who bring numbers into figures like the triangle and the square" till we come to certain late writers who called themselves Pythagoreans. which they did use. the first number that has in it an equal number of prime and composite numbers. and solid numbers by units disposed in pyramids and so forth. and is confirmed by the tradition that the great revelation made by Pythagoras to mankind was precisely a figure of this kind. 52 . expressly that the letters used to represent numbers are purely conventional. polygonal numbers by units arranged so as to mark out the various plane figures. and we have the authority of Speusippus for holding that the whole theory was Pythagorean. but also regarded the alphabetical notation. TRIANGULAR. We therefore find figures like this: Now it ought to be obvious that this is no innovation. It showed at a glance that 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10. 48. therefore. but the original one.

and the so-called Pythagorean triangle is the application of its converse to a particular case. The dots which stand for the pebbles are regularly called "boundary-stones" (horoi. GEOMETRY AND HARMONICS It is easy to see how this way of representing numbers would suggest problems of a geometrical nature. and the area they mark out is the "field" (chôra). and studied pyramidal or cubic numbers. the use of the triangle 3. of course. if even numbers are added. therefore. namely a square. This is evidently an early way of speaking. we get a series of rectangles. He knew." and this is surely just the rope of the "arpedonapt. the sums of the series of successive odd numbers are called "square numbers. while. termini." For similar reasons. as shown by the figure: It is clear. In later writers it is actually called the "Pythagorean triangle. Once more the tradition is helpful in suggesting the direction his thoughts must have taken. 4. though certainly these would fail to satisfy him.It is obvious that the tetraktys may be indefinitely extended so as to exhibit the sums of the series of successive integers in a graphic form. the result is always a similar figure. in a right-angled triangle. and these sums are accordingly called "triangular numbers. It means literally "the cord stretching over against. if they did not know it already. that we are entitled to refer the study of sums of series to Pythagoras himself. 50. 5 in constructing right angles." It is. quite possible that this proposition was really discovered by Pythagoras. 49. INCOMMENSURABILITY 53 . the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the squares on the other two sides. We have seen (§ XI) that it was familiar in the East from a very early date." and those of successive even numbers "oblong." Now the Pythagorean proposition par excellence is just that. though we cannot be sure of that. but whether he went beyond the oblong. then. The very name "hypotenuse" (hupoteinousa) affords strong confirmation of the intimate connection between the two things. "terms")." If odd numbers are added in the form of gnomons. and that Thales introduced it to the Hellenes. and it is likely that he knew the rough methods of doing this traditional in Egypt. and though the demonstration of it which Euclid gives is certainly not his. we cannot say. Now it must have struck him that "fields" could be compared as well as numbers. and may be referred to Pythagoras himself.

In this sense. PROPORTION AND HARMONY These last considerations show that." stands in close relation to his discovery of the octave." taken in connection with what we are told about the method of Eurytus. It follows at once from the Pythagorean proposition that the square on the diagonal of a square is double the square on its side. or suspending weights corresponding to those of the hammers to equal strings. is distinctly Pythagorean in character. we find that 12:6 is the octave. that led Pythagoras to say all things were numbers. are. They are not stories which any Greek mathematician could possibly have invented. and the proof mentioned by Aristotle. to give a complete theory of irrationals. a "scandalous exception. and so the problem cannot be solved. and this ought surely to be capable of arithmetical expression. 12:8 the fifth. 51. we should have to say that an even number was equal to an odd number. the statement that he discovered the "consonances" by measuring the lengths corresponding to them on the monochord is quite credible and involves no error in acoustics. but it is sheer waste of time to rationalize them. awaited him. studied proportion in their own way. and it can therefore be applied to relations which are not capable of being expressed as equations between rational numbers. namely. but the mere fact that they called them "numbers. the doctrine of proportion which we find in Euclid cannot be Pythagorean. iff they were commensurable. For the present. but we know that it was left for Plato's friends. Theodorus of Cyrene and Theaetetus. indeed. the Pythagoreans identified these numbers with geometrical figures. As a matter of fact. a complete inversion of the original order. however. is suffi54 . The stories about his observing the harmonic intervals in a smithy. and it can hardly be doubted that Pythagoras himself discovered these intervals. We shall see that. For our purpose their absurdity is their chief merit. but popular tales bearing witness to the existence of a real tradition that Pythagoras was the author of this momentous discovery. Yet it is clear that the early Pythagoreans. at a later date. and is indeed the work of Eudoxus. it is certain that Pythagoras did not care to pursue the subject any further. impossible and absurd. However that may be. as has been said. 52. and probably Pythagoras himself. the "harmonic. and 8:6 the fourth. his arithmetical method is certainly not theirs. that. however. If we take the harmonic proportion 12:8:6.One great disappointment. He may have stumbled on the fact that the square root of two is a surd. the incommensurability of the diagonal and the square remained. while it is quite safe to attribute the substance of the early books of Euclid to the early Pythagoreans." Our tradition says that Hippasus of Metapontum was drowned at sea for revealing this skeleton in the cupboard. it may be true that Pythagoras discovered the incommensurability of the diagonal and the side of a square. THINGS ARE NUMBERS It was this. especially as the most complicated of them. That is doubtless why arithmetic is not treated in Euclid till after plane geometry. For the same reason. there is no square number which can be divided into two equal square numbers. no doubt. and then weighing the hammers that produced them. It operates with lines instead of with units. and that the three "medieties" (mesotêtes) in particular go back to the founder. On the other hand.

like that by which the octave was discovered. and it becomes practically certain that it was taught by Pythagoras. We find also clear traces of the other confusion. We must think. in fact. In substance. that Pythagoras identified the Limit with fire. he tells us. These identifications. The Pythagoreans held. with a few others like them. and the Boundless with darkness. that of air and vapor. which means that Pythagoras himself left no developed doctrine on the subject. in discussing the opinions of his contemporaries. It seems certain. going back in this as in other matters to the earliest tradition of the school.the nearest part of the Boundless was first drawn in and limited. In these passages of Aristotle. We know. of a "field" of darkness or breath marked out by luminous units. the "breath" is also spoken of as the void or empty. but from any statements we can find that present points of contact with the teaching of the Milesian school. 53. It is even probable that we should ascribe to Pythagoras the Milesian view of a plurality of worlds. and that it is the Boundless thus inhaled that keeps the units separate from each other. Aristotle does imply." Fire and Night. with his usual historical tact. This is a primitive way of describing discrete quantity. and marriage three. and we shall see that Parmenides. and that it was inhaled by the world. after the first unit had been formed -. not from them. Plato. We may infer that the further development of the idea is also due to Pythagoras. that according to them the "right time" (kairos) was seven. will reveal their true numerical nature. at 55 . while the Pythagoreans of the fifth century did not care to add anything of the sort to the tradition. We must start. If musical sounds can be reduced to numbers. an imagination the starry heavens would naturally suggest. makes the Pythagorean Timaeus describe mist and darkness as condensed air. attributes to them the view that there were two primary "forms. This is a confusion we have already met with in Anaximenes. The Neopythagorean writers. belong to the system in its most primitive form. We are told that. and it need not surprise us to find it here. We also find that Light and Darkness appear in the Pythagorean table of opposites under the heads of the Limit and the Unlimited respectively. but we must not attach too much importance to them. indulge their fancy in trading out analogies between things and numbers in endless variety. but we are fortunately dispensed from following them in these vagaries. and it may well be that a lucky experiment. COSMOLOGY Now the most striking statement of this kind is one of Aristotle's. while in the fifth its true nature was known. for in the sixth century darkness was supposed to be a sort of vapor. though it would not have been natural for him to speak of an infinite number. These. It is enough to suppose that Pythagoras reasoned somewhat as follows. that there was "boundless breath" outside the heavens. The identification of breath with darkness here implied is a strong proof of the primitive character of the doctrine. we may safely refer to Pythagoras or his immediate successors.cient to show this was not the original sense of the doctrine. however. we may fairly infer. justice was four. why not everything else? There are many likenesses to number in things. when we find that Xenophanes denied it. We are told by Aristotle that Hippasus made Fire the first principle. then. It represents the interval between them. that is the doctrine of Anaximenes.however that may have taken place -. Aristotle tells us distinctly that the Pythagoreans explained only a few things by means of numbers.

We have simply assigned to him those portions of the Pythagorean system which appear to be the oldest. one of the early Pythagoreans. refused to accept. The account just given of the views of Pythagoras is. on the Ionian view it is "left behind" far less than any other planet. and planets are composite. If it is to be taken seriously. that he still adhered to the geocentric system. we may confidently attribute to Pythagoras himself the discovery of the sphericity of the earth. on the Pythagorean system. that Petron. that is. and that the discovery that the earth was a planet belongs to a later generation (§ 150). That. The word harmonia does not mean harmony. but octave. and suggests that the heavens are spherical. THE HEAVENLY BODIES Anaximander had regarded the heavenly bodies as wheels of "air" filled with fire which escapes through certain orifices (§ 21). the fifth. It is probable. and probably to Pythagoras himself. however. takes about thirty years to complete its revolution. and it is extremely probable that Pythagoras identified the intervals between these with the three musical intervals he had discovered. may also be referred to the early days of the school. We have seen that Anaximander only assumed the existence of three such wheels. and planets from west to east. it more nearly keeps pace with the signs of the Zodiac. and the "spheres" are an anachronism. We are still at the stage when wheels or rings were considered sufficient to account for the heavenly bodies. which made it necessary to hold that all the heavenly bodies revolved in the same direction. said there were just a hundred and eighty-three worlds arranged in a triangle. down to the time of Democritus. It is clear at any rate that the great contribution of 56 . and it has not even been possible at this stage to cite fully the evidence on which our discussion is based. For reasons which will appear later. have the greatest angular velocity have the least on theirs. the fourth. even Anaxagoras and Democritus. 54. never accepted this view. no doubt.least. Apparently this was expressed by saying that the motions of the planetary orbits. and there is evidence that Pythagoras adopted the same view. conjectural and incomplete. moon. for instance. we must suppose that the motions of the sun. Saturn. It will only appear in its true light when we have examined the second part of the poem of Parmenides and the system of the later Pythagoreans. and the slower revolutions of the sun. It obviously involves a complete break with the theory of a vortex. They clung to the theory of the vortex." though the expression would be doubly misleading if applied to any theory we can properly ascribe to Pythagoras himself. so that those which. are mastered (krateitai) by the diurnal revolution. That would be the most natural beginning for the doctrine of the "harmony of the spheres. moon. On the one hand. and the octave. The distinction between the diurnal revolution of the heavens from east to west. which the Ionians. which are oblique to the celestial equator. but they are also carried along by the diurnal revolution from east to west. they have their own revolutions with varying angular velocities from west to east. was the only way to get out of the difficulties of Anaximander's system. however. On the Pythagorean view. The Ionians.

57 .Pythagoras to science was his discovery that the concordant intervals could be expressed by simple numerical ratios. is based on the assumption that he went to Elea in the year of its foundation.C. whose testimony in such matters carries weight.. R. it is clear that other opposites may be similarly harmonized. said he was a contemporary of Hieron and Epicharmus. but was quite unaffected by the revival of religion going on all round him. LIFE OF XENOPHANES We have seen how Pythagoras gave a deeper meaning to the religious movement of his time. We are also told that he opposed the views of Thales and Pythagoras. if I can say aught truly about these matters. and is. at least." If a perfect attunement (harmonia) of the high and the low can be attained by observing these ratios. the wet and the dry. Xenophanes denied the anthropomorphic gods altogether. and that he was still alive and making poetry at the age of ninety-two. The hot and the cold. The medical doctrine of the "temperaments" is derived from the same source. It is not too much to say that Greek philosophy was henceforward to be dominated by the notion of the perfectly tuned string. Moreover. that would make it impossible to date the birth of Xenophanes earlier than 570 B. it is evident that the date 540 B. However that may be. P.. 97): There are by this time threescore years and seven that have tossed my careworn soul up and down the land of Hellas. (540-537 B. though no fragments of the kind have come down to us.C ) as the date of his birth. whose information on such matters mostly comes from Apollodorus. which need not be taken into account. It is not easy to determine the date of Xenophanes. As Hieron reigned from 478 to 467 B. On the other hand. and adds that his days were prolonged till the time of Darius and Cyrus. says he flourished in 01. even if we suppose him to have lived till the age of a hundred.. In principle. What we do know for certain is that Xenophanes had led a wandering life from the age of twenty-five. and attacked Epimenides. a mere combination.C. LX. we have now to consider a very different manifestation of the reaction against the view of the gods which the poets had made familiar. He says himself (fr.).C.C. the famous doctrine of the Mean is only an application of the same idea to the problem of conduct. (620-616 B. may be united in a just blend (krasis). We still have a fragment of an elegy in which he ridiculed Pythagoras and the doctrine of transmigration. and Diels holds that Apollodorus really said so. an idea to which our word "temperature" still bears witness. Clement says that Apollodorus gave 01. Timaeus. that suggests an entirely new view of the relation between the traditional "opposites. 8 = 24 Karst. which is likely enough. Diogenes. Again. XL. 55. and there were then five-and-twenty years from my birth. therefore. and he certainly seems to have played a part in the anecdotical romance of Hieron's court which amused the Greeks of the fourth century as that of Croesus and the Seven Wise Men amused those of the fifth.

we have seen.C. and 58 . however. his birth would fall in 565 B. 259 B.It is tempting to suppose that in this passage Xenophanes was referring to the conquest of Ionia by Harpagus. and this means that the Academy possessed no copy of such a poem. put much of his satire upon philosophers into the mouth of Xenophanes. Only one iambic line has been preserved. and that he is. 95 a): This is the sort of thing we should say by the fireside in the winter-time.). answering the question asked in another poem (fr. The satires are called Silloi by late writers. the refugees tried to keep up the usages of good Ionian society.. That would be in the manner of the time. which would be very strange if it had ever existed. Theophrastus said that Xenophanes had "heard" Anaximander. 28). he lived in Sicily. and is in turn so referred to by Heraclitus. We note also that he referred to Pythagoras in the past tense. The statement that he was a rhapsode has no foundation at all. The singer of elegies was no professional like the rhapsode. R. 56. When driven from his native city. he unburdened his soul in elegies and satires. In his ninety-second year he was still.C. Simplicius tells us he had never met with the verses about the earth stretching infinitely downwards (fr. Xenophanes wrote in hexameters and also composed elegies and iambics against Homer and Hesiod. It may. the "sillographer" (c. and this name may go back to Xenophanes himself. originate in the fact that Timon of Phlius. Simplicius was able to find the complete works of much smaller men. drinking sweet wine and crunching chickpeas: "Of what country are you. POEMS According to Diogenes. chiefly. Like Archilochus before him. then. and we shall see that he was acquainted with the Ionian cosmology. leading a wandering life. and how old are you. Nor does internal evidence lend any support to the view that Xenophanes wrote a philosophical poem. as we can see from the remains of Epicharmus. which is hardly consistent with the statement that he settled at Elea and founded a school there. which he recited at the banquets where. we are told. but they would all come in quite as naturally in his attacks on Homer and Hesiod.. and his connection with Hieron would be quite credible. as I have endeavored to show. It is more probable. at Zankle and Catana. It is also significant that a number of them are derived from commentators on Homer. but the social equal of his listeners. that Xenophanes expressed such scientific opinions as he had incidentally in his satires. we may suppose. especially if we are to think of him as spending his last days at Hieron's court. Diels refers about twenty-eight lines to it. and all the evidence we have seems inconsistent with his having settled there at all. as we lie on soft couches after a good meal. good sir? And how old were you when the Mede appeared?" In that case. No good authority says anything of his having written a philosophical poem. 22 = 17 Karst. P. in fact. It is very remarkable that no ancient writer expressly says he ever was at Elea.

It is but little joy a city gets of it if a man conquer at the games by Pisa's banks.he will not deserve all this for his portion so much as I do.the city would be none the better governed for that.no sin is it to drink as much as a man can take and get home without an attendant. one sets twisted garlands on our heads. but to give heedful reverence to the gods is ever good. vainglorious and proud of their comely tresses.for that is in truth the first thing to do -. 14). with holy tales and pure words.nor of turbulent civil broils in which is no good thing at all. song and revel fill the halls. 57. his food at the public cost from the State. Even if there arise a mighty boxer among a people. so long as they were free from hateful tyranny. where is the precinct of Zeus by Pisa's springs. soft and smelling of flowers in the jars. full of gladness. -. Elegies (1) Now is the floor clean. -. 59 . or in wrestling. and win a place of honor in the sight of all at the games. then after libation and prayer made that we may have strength to do right -. This suggests that Xenophanes inserted iambic lines among his hexameters in the manner of the Margites. In the midst the frankincense sends up its holy scent. or in the pentathlon. not less than a thousand of them all told. reeking with fragrance from cunning salves. And of all men is he to be praised who after drinking gives goodly proof of himself in the trial of skill as memory and strength will serve him. Let him not sing of Titans and Giants -. at Olympia. but water first and wine on the top of it. The mixing bowl stands ready. another hands us fragrant ointment on a salver.that is immediately followed by a hexameter (fr. Far better is our art than the strength of men and of horses! These are but thoughtless judgements. or one great in the pentathlon or at wrestling. But first it is meet that men should hymn the god with joy. (3) They learnt dainty and unprofitable ways from the Lydians. and there is cold water. and a gift to be an heirloom for him. (4) Nor would a man mix wine in a cup by pouring out the wine first. and the hands and cups of all. and there is more wine at hand that promises never to leave us in the lurch. it is not this that makes fat the store-houses of a city.and that stands in honor before all tasks of men at the games -. or one excelling in swiftness of foot -. sweet and clean.what if by cruel boxing or that fearful sport men call pankration he become more glorious in the citizens' eyes. nor is it fitting to set strength before goodly art.what if he conquer in the chariot-race. (2) What if a man win victory in swiftness of foot. THE FRAGMENTS I give the fragments according to the text and arrangement of Diels. -. so he be not stricken in years. Brown loaves are set before us and a lordly table laden with cheese and rich honey. they went to the market-place with cloaks of purple dye.those fictions of the men of old -. The altar in the midst is clustered round with flowers.

P. neither in form like unto mortals nor in thought. so long as Greek songs last. R. stealings and adulteries and deceivings of one another. P. R. P." (8) There are by this time threescore years and seven that have tossed my careworn soul up and down the land of Hellas. stealings and adulteries and deceivings of one another. and there were then five-and-twenty years from my birth. R. ib. R. and hears all over. 100. P. P. R.
 (12) Since they have uttered many lawless deeds of the gods. moving not at all. 110 a. and produce works of art as men do. ib. and voice and form. the greatest among gods and men.
 (11) Homer and Hesiod have ascribed to the gods all things that are a shame and a disgrace among mortals. R.
 (15) Yes.
 (26) And he abideth ever in the selfsame place.. (7) And now I will turn to another tale and point the way. and if oxen and horses or lions had hands. 100 b. thinks all over. 108 b.
 (14) But mortals deem that the gods are begotten as they are. P..
 60 . 99.. R.. a worthy guerdon for a man to get.. P. horses would paint the forms of the gods like horses. R. P.
 (24) He sees all over. 102. 100.. if I can say aught truly about these matters.
 (16) The Ethiopians make their gods black and snub-nosed. and oxen like oxen. (9) Much weaker than an aged man. and have clothes like theirs.
 (18) The gods have not revealed all things to men from the beginning. P. and could paint with their hands.
 (25) But without toil he swayeth all things by the thought of his mind... Once they say that he (Pythagoras) was passing by when a dog was being beaten and spoke this word: "Stop! don't beat it! For it is the soul of a friend that I recognized when I heard its voice.
 (23) One god.. but by seeking they find in time what is better. whose glory is to reach every part of Hellas and never to pass away. and make their bodies in the image of their several kinds. Satires (10) Since all at first have learnt according to Homer. the Thracians say theirs have blue eyes and red hair. R. nor doth it befit him to go about now hither now thither. 104 b. R. P.(5) Thou didst send the thigh-bone of a kid and get for it the fat leg of a fatted bull.

and we may infer that the same thing had been said of the sun.. and stars.
 (32) She that they call Iris is a cloud likewise. But the system is due to the arrangement of the work of Theophrastus. P.
 (30) The sea is the source of water and the source of wind. P. 103. P. R.
 (37) And in some caves water drips. ib. which gives the appearance of a systematic Cosmology. P. THE HEAVENLY BODIES Most of these fragments are not in any way philosophical. men would think figs far sweeter than they do. "which some call the Dioscuri. purple. for neither in the clouds (would there be any blasts of wind blowing forth) from within without the mighty sea. 32) is clear. yet he himself knows not that it is so.
 (28) This limit of the earth above is seen at our feet in contact with the air. and in earth all things end. We are told that it is an ignited cloud. for the doxographers tell us that these were all explained as "clouds ignited by motion. R. and those that appear to be so are easily accounted for otherwise. R. below it reaches down without a limit. The mighty sea is father of clouds and of winds and of rivers. scarlet and green to behold. Even if he should chance to say the complete truth. P." To the same context clearly belongs the explanation of the St. "Iris too" is a cloud. nor rivers' streams nor rain-water from the sky. moon.
 (38) If god had not made brown honey. 103 a.. R. 103. and not to Xenophanes.
 (31) The sun swinging over the earth and warming it.
 (34) There never was nor will be a man who has certain knowledge about the gods and about all the things I speak of. for it is obvious that a very few additional hexameters would amply account for the whole doxography. 104 a. comets. . "The things like stars that appear on ships. The intention of one of them (fr." we are told.
 (35) Let these be taken as fancies something like the truth. P. 104. But all may have their fancy. What we hear of the sun presents some difficulties.
 (36) All of them that are visible for mortals to behold. are little clouds made luminous by motion.(27) All things come from the earth. R. shooting stars." In the doxographers the same explanation is repeated with trifling variations under the head of moon. R. 103. lightning. stars. but this is not very consistent with the statement that the evaporation of the sea from which clouds arise is due 61 . . Elmo's fire which Aetius has preserved. and so forth. P. R. 58. P.
 (33) For we all are born of earth and water. 103. R.
 (29) All things are earth and water that come into being and grow. ..

one of each for every region of the earth. is the statement that this change applies to "all the worlds. 103 a). however." Such expressions can only be meant to make the heavenly bodies appear ridiculous." Gaia too is a passing appearance. and Diogenes ascribes it to him also. Ref. but the moon "does no work in the boat. and at Malta flat impressions of all marine animals. but even this leaves the exhalation itself unexplained. and it will therefore be well to ask whether the other supposed cosmological fragments can be interpreted on the same principle. 59. so far from being "a sure seat for all things ever. which we must suppose were quoted by Theophrastus. and if in this connection Xenophanes spoke. As we have seen. Besides that. An eclipse may last a month. These. The vigorous expression "tumbling into a hole" seems clearly to come from the verses of Xenophanes himself. as Anaximander taught. he says.Hipp. -. He says that he has the following proofs of this." and Hippolytus has preserved the account given by Theophrastus of the context in which this occurred. of "innumerable worlds. according to Xenophanes. All human beings are destroyed when the earth has been carried down into the sea and turned to mud. That. at Paros the form of a bayleaf in the depth of the stone. and we may perhaps credit him rather than Xenophanes with the observations of fossils. with Anaximander. Shells are found in midland districts and on hills. but a new one altogether. So it is not the same sun that rises next morning. and the appearance of a circular path is solely due to its increasing distance. If our interpretation of him is correct. EARTH AND WATER In fr. The stars go out in the daytime. but glow again at night "like charcoal embers. while eclipses occur because the sun "tumbles into a hole" when it comes to certain uninhabited regions of the earth. there is no great difficulty here. if the chief aim of Xenophanes was to discredit the anthropomorphic gods. but straight on. The important thing is that Helios too is a temporary phenomenon. of course. the theory of Anaximander. That belongs to the attack on Hesiod. The sun does not go round the earth. Aetius includes him in his list of those who held this doctrine. P. 29 Xenophanes says that "all things are earth and water. This change takes place for all the worlds. matters little. Most remarkable of all. i. and the outlines were dried in the mud. The point is that. and that it is being gradually dissolved by the moisture.to the sun's heat. there are many suns and moons. This is." while elsewhere he 62 . Theophrastus stated that the sun." It seems impossible to doubt that Theophrastus attributed a belief in "innumerable worlds" to Xenophanes. rather than to give a scientific theory of the heavenly bodies. 14 (R. We shall find. was a collection of sparks from the moist exhalation. that in another connection he said the World or God was one." The sun is of some use in producing the world and the living creatures in it. and he says that in the quarries at Syracuse has been found the imprint of a fish and of seaweed. while Hippolytus seems to take it for granted. and there are others of a similar kind. were produced when all things were formerly mud. however. however. It was as follows: Xenophanes said that a mixture of the earth with the sea is taking place.

Theophrastus. "He made no clear pronouncement on the subject. we are entitled to disbelieve that it was in a cosmological poem such startling contradictions occurred. to which he added another like it. It may be suggested that. Aristotle is simply reproducing certain 63 . A more subtle explanation of the difficulty commended itself to the late Peripatetic who wrote an account of the Eleatic school." and the context shows he means to suggest he was the first of the Eleatics. and until recently all accounts of Xenophanes were vitiated by the same confusion. He said that Xenophanes declared the world to be neither finite nor infinite. part of which is still extant in the Aristotelian corpus. of course. it has no limit below. The story of Uranus and Gaia was always the chief scandal of the Theogony.said that God or the World was one. Aristotle speaks of Xenophanes as "the first partisan of the One. that the world is neither in motion nor at rest. This is attested by Aristotle. and Gorgias. we regard these statements from the same point of view as those about the heavenly bodies. This has introduced endless confusion into our sources. and that agrees with his view of the earth as an infinitely extended plain. but. If. and it is probable that. while the earth has an upper limit which we see. and is generally known now as the treatise on Melissus. but for this. 60. that gets rid of Tartarus. we shall see what they probably mean. which Homer described as situated at the bottommost limit of earth and sea. He also held (fr. We are therefore bound to try to find room for an infinite earth and an infinite air in a spherical finite world! That comes of trying to find science in satire." he tells us. As to the earth stretching infinitely downwards. that may be connected with a still better attested contradiction which we have now to examine. It further appears from the fragment of Empedocles quoted by Aristotle that Xenophanes said the vast Air extended infinitely upwards. we should never have heard of the "philosophy of Xenophanes. and the infinite air gets rid of Uranus altogether. 61. who speaks of the earth being "infinitely rooted. as usual in such cases. and Simplicius supposed the quotations from it to be from Theophrastus too." and adds that Empedocles criticized Xenophanes for holding this view. Alexander used this treatise as well as the work of Theophrastus. This is pure conjecture. namely." It really appears that Xenophanes did not feel the contradiction involved in calling the world "equal every way" and infinite. because he said it was "equal every way." a way of speaking which is really a survival from the days before this scholastic exercise was recognized as having no authority. on the other hand. Xenophanes. as far beneath Hades as heaven is above the earth. if it is even possible. GOD AND THE WORLD In the passage of the Metaphysics just referred to. We have seen that he said the sun went right on to infinity. on the other hand. and composed a series of arguments in support of this thesis. We have seen already that the certain facts of his life make it very unlikely that he settled at Elea and founded a school there. decided that he regarded it as spherical and finite. 28) that. Having no copy of the poems he was completely baffled. FINITE OR INFINITE Aristotle tried without success to discover from the poems of Xenophanes whether he regarded the world as finite or infinite.

statements of Plato. and the other references to "gods" can be best explained as incidental to his attack on the anthropomorphic gods of Homer and Hesiod. Least of all can we admit that Xenophanes allowed the existence of subordinate or departmental gods. 26. comes nearer the mark when he calls it a "somewhat narrow pantheism. however. At the same time. It was probably in the same context that Xenophanes called the world or god "equal every way" and denied that it breathed. He also calls it "one god." But all these views would have surprised Xenophanes himself about equally." so he attached the Eleatics to Xenophanes and still earlier authorities. At any rate. 11-16. then. instead of referring the one set of verses to the Satires and the other to a cosmological poem. A god has no wants. What Xenophanes is really concerned to deny is the existence of any gods in the proper sense. and it sways all things by the thought of its mind. 64 . We have seen before how these playful and ironical remarks of Plato were taken seriously by his successors." and. then Xenophanes was a monotheist. I cannot help thinking that Freudenthal was more nearly right than Wilamowitz. who says that Xenophanes "upheld the only real monotheism that has ever existed upon earth. with prophets to right and left of him. 23-26. He was really Goethe's Weltkind. though this is surely not how the word is generally understood." This clearly alludes to frs." Diels. That he should use the language of polytheism in his elegies is only what we should expect. Just as he called the Heracliteans "followers of Homer and still more ancient teachers. for it was just the existence of such that he was chiefly concerned to deny. 62." It is certainly wrong. I fancy. and we must not make too much of this fresh instance of Aristotelian literalness. like Iris and Hermes in Homer. Plato had spoken of the Eleatics as the "partisans of the Whole. show clearly what he meant. Aristotle tells us. where all human attributes are denied of a god who is said to be one and "the greatest among gods and men. Xenophanes regarded it as sentient. if that is monotheism. The fact is that the expression "one god" wakens all sorts of associations in our mind which did not exist for the Greeks of this time." The last words. and he would have smiled if he had known that one day he was to be regarded as a theologian. MONOTHEISM OR POLYTHEISM That this "god" is just the world. Freudenthal has pressed a proverbial way of speaking too hard. "referring to the whole world." and he had also spoken of the school as "starting with Xenophanes and even earlier. and the words "One god" mean "No god but the world. said the One was god." It may be added that these verses gain much in point if we think of them as closely connected with frs. nor is it fitting for one god to be the servant of others. In one case. to say with Freudenthal that Xenophanes was in any sense a polytheist. and the use of the word theos is quite in accordance with Ionian usage. The statement that there is no mastership among the gods also goes very well with fr. Aristotle goes on to tell us that Xenophanes. though without any special organs of sense.

5 HERACLITUS OF EPHESUS .

63. Life of Heraclitus Heraclitus of Ephesus, son of Bloson, is said to have "flourished" in 01. LXIX. (504/3-501/0 B.C.); that is to say, just in the middle of the reign of Darius, with whom several traditions connected him. It is more important, however, for our purpose to notice that, while Heraclitus refers to Pythagoras and Xenophanes by name and in the past tense (fr. 16), he is in turn alluded to by Parmenides (fr. 6). These references mark his place in the history of philosophy. Zeller held, indeed, that he could not have published his work till after 478 B.C., on the ground that the expulsion of Hermodorus, alluded to in fr. 114, could not have taken place before the downfall of Persian rule. If that were so, it might be hard to see how Parmenides could have known the views of Heraclitus at the time he wrote his poem; but there is no difficulty in supposing that the Ephesians may have sent one of their citizens into banishment when they were still paying tribute to the Great King. The spurious Letters of Heraclitus show that the expulsion of Hermodorus was believed to have taken place during the reign of Darius, and it seems probable that the party led by him had enjoyed the confidence of the Persian government. His expulsion would mark the beginnings of the movement against Persian rule, rather than its successful issue. Sotion quotes a statement that Heraclitus was a disciple of Xenophanes, which is not probable; for Xenophanes left Ionia before Heraclitus was born. More likely he was not a disciple of anyone; but it is clear that he was acquainted both with the Milesian cosmology and with the poems of Xenophanes. He also knew something of the theories taught by Pythagoras (fr. 17). Of his life we really know nothing, except, perhaps, that he belonged to the ancient royal house and resigned the nominal position of Basileus in favor of his brother. The origin of the other statements bearing on it is quite transparent. 64. His Book We do not know the title of the work of Heraclitus -- if, indeed, it had one -- and it is not easy to form a clear idea of its contents. We are told that it was divided into three discourses: one dealing with the universe, one political, and one theological. It is not to be supposed that this division is due to Heraclitus himself; all we can infer is that the work fell naturally into these three parts when the Stoic commentators took their editions of it in hand. The style of Heraclitus is proverbially obscure, and, at a later date, got him the nickname of "the Dark." Now the fragments about the Delphic god and the Sibyl (frs. 11 and 12) seem to show that he was conscious of writing an oracular style, and we have to ask why he did so. In the first place, it was the manner of the time. The stirring events of the age, and the influence of the religious revival, gave something of a prophetic tone to all the leaders of thought. Pindar and Aeschylus have it too. It was also an age of great individualities, and these are apt to be solitary and disdainful. Heraclitus at least was so. If men cared to dig for the gold they might find it (fr. 8); if not, they must be content with straw

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(fr. 51). This seems to have been the view taken by Theophrastus, who said the headstrong temperament of Heraclitus sometimes led him into incompleteness and inconsistencies of statement. 65. The Fragments I give a version of the fragments according to the arrangement of Bywater's exemplary edition: (1) It is wise to hearken, not to me, but to my Word, and to confess that all things are one. R. P. 40. (2) Though this Word is true evermore, yet men are as unable to understand it when they hear it for the first time as before they have heard it at all. For, though all things come to pass in accordance with this Word, men seem as if they had no experience of them, when they make trial of words and deeds such as I set forth, dividing each thing according to its kind and showing how it truly is. But other men know not what they are doing when awake, even as they forget what they do in sleep. R. P. 32. (3) Fools when they do hear are like the deaf: of them does the saying bear witness that they are absent when present. R. P. 31 a. (4) Eyes and ears are bad witnesses to men if they have souls that understand not their language. R. P. 42. (5) The many do not take heed of such things as those they meet with, nor do they mark them when they are taught, though they think they do. (6) Knowing not how to listen nor how to speak. (7) If you do not expect the unexpected, you will not find it; for it is hard to be sought out and difficult. (8) Those who seek for gold dig up much earth and find a little. R. P. 44 b. (10) Nature loves to hide. R. P. 34 f. (11) The lord whose is the oracle at Delphi neither utters nor hides his meaning, but shows it by a sign. R. P. 30 a. (12) And the Sibyl, with raving lips uttering things mirthless, unbedizened, and unperfumed, reaches over a thousand years with her voice, thanks to the god in her. R. P. 30 a. (13) The things that can be seen, heard, and learned are what I prize the most. R. P. 42. (14) ... bringing untrustworthy witnesses in support of disputed points. (15) The eyes are more exact witnesses than the ears. R. P. 42 c.

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(16) The learning of many things teacheth not understanding, else would it have taught Hesiod and Pythagoras, and again Xenophanes and Hecataeus. R. P. 31. (17) Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchus, practiced scientific inquiry beyond all other men, and making a selection of these writings, claimed for his own wisdom what was but a knowledge of many things and an imposture. R. P. 31 a. (18) Of all whose discourses I have heard, there is not one who attains to understanding that wisdom is apart from all. R. P. 32 b. (19) Wisdom is one thing. It is to know the thought by which all things are steered through all things. R. P. 40. (20) This world, which is the same for all, no one of gods or men has made; but it was ever, is now, and ever shall be an ever-living Fire, with measures of it kindling, and measures going out. R. P. 35. (21) The transformations of Fire are, first of all, sea; and half of the sea is earth, half whirlwind.... R. P. 35 b. (22) All things are an exchange for Fire, and Fire for all things, even as wares for gold and gold for wares. R. P. 35. (23) It becomes liquid sea, and is measured by the same tale as before it became earth. R. P. 39. (24) Fire is want and surfeit. R. P. 36 a. (25) Fire lives the death of air, and air lives the death of fire; water lives the death of earth, earth that of water. R. P. 37. (26) Fire in its advance will judge and convict all things. R. P. 36 a. (27) How can one hide from that which never sets? (28) It is the thunderbolt that steers the course of all things. R. P. 35 b. (29) The sun will not overstep his measures; if he does, the Erinyes, the handmaids of Justice, will find him out. R. P. 39. (30) The limit of dawn and evening is the Bear; and opposite the Bear is the boundary of bright Zeus.

If there were no sun it would be night, for all the other stars could do. (32) The sun is new every day.

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(33) (Thales foretold an eclipse.) (34) ... the seasons that bring all things. (35) Hesiod is most men's teacher. Men are sure he knew very many things, a man who did not know day or night! They are one. R. P. 39 b. (36) God is day and night, winter and summer, war and peace, surfeit and hunger; but he takes various shapes, just as fire, when it is mingled with spices, is named according to the savor of each. R. P. 39 b. (37) If all things were turned to smoke, the nostrils would distinguish them. (38) Souls smell in Hades. R. P. 46 d. (39) Cold things become warm, and what is warm cools; what is wet dries, and the parched is moistened. (40) It scatters and it gathers; it advances and retires. (41, 42) You cannot step twice into the same rivers; for fresh waters are ever flowing in upon you. R. P. 33. (43) Homer was wrong in saying: "Would that strife might perish from among gods and men!" He did not see that he was praying for the destruction of the universe; for, if his prayer were heard, all things would pass away.... R. P. 34 d. (44) War is the father of all and the king of all; and some he has made gods and some men, some bond and some free. R. P. 34. (45) Men do not know how what is at variance agrees with itself. It is an attunement of opposite tensions, like that of the bow and the lyre. R. P. 34. (46) It is the opposite which is good for us. (47) The hidden attunement is better than the open. R. P. 34. (48) Let us not conjecture at random about the greatest things. (49) Men that love wisdom must be acquainted with very many things indeed. (50) The straight and the crooked path of the fuller's comb is one and the same. (51) Asses would rather have straw than gold. R. P. 31 a. (51a) Oxen are happy when they find bitter vetches to eat. R. P. 48 b.
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P. 49 a. and from water. P. 42 c. what is drawn together and what is drawn asunder. (61) To God all things are fair and good and right. so deep is the measure of it. (64) All the things we see when awake are death. P. 47 c. but men hold some things wrong and some right. to men it is undrinkable and destructive. P. (56) Same as 45.. (55) Every beast is driven to pasture with blows. even as all we see in slumber are sleep. But water comes from earth. R.. 47 c. the harmonious and the discordant. the one living the others' death and dying the others' life. (62) We must know that war is common to all and strife is justice. 38. P. and rack the sick. (59) Couples are things whole and things not whole. and death to water to become earth. demand a fee for it which they do not deserve to get. R. stab. R. 46. 47 c. R. It is unwilling and willing to be called by the name of Zeus. soul. (66) The bow (biós) is called life (bíos). (60) Men would not have known the name of justice if these things were not. 36 d. 45. (69) The way up and the way down is one and the same. 40. The one is made up of all things. R. but its work is death. and barnyard fowls in dust. P. (65) The wise is one only. (67) Mortals are immortals and immortals are mortals. R. (71) You will not find the boundaries of soul by traveling in any direction. and it is good for them. P. (54) . (70) In the circumference of a circle the beginning and end are common. 41 d. Fish can drink it. R. 70 .(52) The sea is the purest and the impurest water. burn. P. (53) Swine wash in the mire. P. (57) Good and ill are one. R. R. to delight in the mire. (58) Physicians who cut. and all things issue from the one. and that all things come into being and pass away (?) through strife. P. P. (68) For it is death to souls to become water. R. R.

when he gets drunk.and they leave children behind them to meet with their dooms in turn. P. 48. 44. P.or rather to rest -. R. R. (81) We step and do not step into the same rivers. (80) I have sought for myself. awake and asleep. (91a) Thought is common to all. 47. we are and are not. P. R. and even more strongly. R. 40 a. R. (82) It is a weariness to labor for the same masters and be ruled by them. they wish to live and to meet with their dooms -.(72) It is pleasure to souls to become moist. P. 42. P. (85) Corpses are more fit to be cast out than dung. R. and the latter in turn are shifted and become the former. (91b) Those who speak with understanding must hold fast to what is common to all as a city holds fast to its law. yet though my Word is common. R. he that is awake lights up from the sleeping. tripping. P. 42. (78) And it is the same thine in us that is quick and dead. P. R. having his soul moist. (87-89) A man may be a grandfather in thirty years. lights up from the dead. (86) When they are born. (84) Even the posset separates if it is not stirred. when he has died but is alive. is led by a beardless lad. the many live as if they had a wisdom of their own. (79) Time is a child playing draughts. (83) It rests by changing. (73) A man. (92) So we must follow the common. 46 c. The sleeper. the former are shifted and become the latter. (74-76) The dry soul is the wisest and best. and suffices for all things with something to spare. P. the kingly power is a child's. knowing not where he steps. 43. For all human laws are fed by the one divine law. P. young and old. 33 a. (90) Those who are asleep are fellow-workers (in what goes on in the world). 71 . It prevails as much as it will. whose vision has been put out. R. (77) Man kindles a light for himself in the night-time.

R. the best man among them. R. P. weariness. but the sleeping turn aside each into a world of his own. For even the best of them choose one thing above all others. "We will have none who is best among us. 31 a. R. (105-107) It is hard to fight with one's heart's desire. let him be so elsewhere and among others. every grown man of them. R. (101) Greater deaths win greater portions. P. just as the most beautiful ape is ugly compared to man." R. (104) It is not good for men to get all they wish to get. even more than a house on fire. R. 49 a. 45. 49 a. R. 32 b. R. immortal glory among mortals. P. 109) It is best to hide folly. if there be any such. for they have cast out Hermodorus. (95) The waking have one common world. (103) Wantonness needs putting out. (96) The way of man has no wisdom. to obey the counsel of one. R. 49 a. P. "Most men are bad. 48 b. but it is hard in times of relaxation. R. while most of them are glutted like beasts. 99) The wisest man is an ape compared to God. (98.(93) They are estranged from that with which they have most constant intercourse. good. (110) And it is law. (108. 72 . it purchases at the cost of soul. R. P. P. (He said. 31 a. P. (114) The Ephesians would do well to hang themselves. even as a child by a man. It is sickness that makes health pleasant. 49 a. plenty. over our cups. saying. but that of God has. if he be the best. (94) It is not meet to act and speak like men asleep. son of Teutamas. and leave the city to beardless lads. (100) The people must fight for its law as for its walls. Whatever it wishes to get. 29 b. knowing not that there are many bad and few good. 43 b. P. 45. rest. (102) Gods and men honor those who are slain in battle. P. evil.") (113) One is ten thousand to me. P. P. R. P. (97) Man is called a baby by God. P. (112) In Priene lived Bias. (111) For what thought or wisdom have they? They follow the poets and take the crowd as their teacher. who is of more account than the rest. hunger. too. R. 49 a.

then. on some writer of Successions who regarded Heraclitus as a Pythagorean. (The wise man) is not known because of men's want of belief. that they rise up and become the wakeful guardians of the quick and dead. But Hades is the same as Dionysus in whose honor they go mad and rave. mostly consisting of apocryphal anecdotes and apophthegms. R. just as if one who had stepped into the mud were to wash his feet in mud. (117) The fool is fluttered at every word. and there are probably not a few of which the meaning will never be recovered. P. but from a biographical compendium. Magians. as if one were to talk with a man's house. P. R. 66. following Aristotle. It was based. on whom we can generally rely for a fairly accurate account of what Theophrastus said.. and Archilochus likewise. The link between him and the Pythagoreans was Hippasus. (122) There awaits men when they die such things as they look not for nor dream of. We turn. Theophrastus. (119) Homer should be turned out of the lists and whipped. (121) Man's character is his fate.. derived the material for his first four chapters. R. 48. yet of a truth justice shall overtake the artificers of lies and the false witnesses. R. in whose system fire played an important part. 44 b.. P. R. to the doxographers for a clue. knowing not what gods or heroes are. which treat of Thales. they would be acting most shamelessly. (118) The most esteemed of them knows but fancies. and Empedocles. further. R. (126) And they pray to these images.. 49 a.. (129. R. (123) . but unfortunately they are less instructive with regard to Heraclitus than we have found them in other cases. and the initiated . Any man who marked him doing thus. 31. Heraclitus.(115) Dogs bark at every one they do not know. Hippolytus. The Doxographical Tradition Some of these fragments are far from clear. P. (116) . Lenai. P. R. 46 d. (127) For if it were not to Dionysus that they made a procession and sang the shameful phallic hymn. R. 49 a. 31 a. Pythagoras. and holds fast to them. not from the excellent epitome he afterwards used. 49. (125) The mysteries practiced among men are unholy mysteries. would deem him mad. (120) One day is like any other. 130) They vainly purify themselves by defiling themselves with blood. P.. 46 d. Bacchii. had spoken of the two 73 . P. (124) Night-walkers. P. P.

The Discovery of Heraclitus Heraclitus looks down not only on the mass of men. Another difficulty we have to face is that most of the commentators on Heraclitus mentioned in Diogenes were Stoics. In the Sophist (242d). after explaining how the Eleatics maintained that what we call many is really one. The truth Heraclitus proclaimed was that the world is at once one and many. From this it follows that wisdom is not a knowledge of many things. pretty full and accurate. so paying the penalty to one another for their unjust encroachments. on the other hand. From them we gather that the truth hitherto ignored is that the many apparently independent and conflicting things we know are really one. 18 and 45. to look to the more detailed of the two accounts of the opinions of Heraclitus given in Diogenes. This must mean that he believed himself to have attained insight into some truth not hitherto recognized. the Stoic theories of the logos and the ekpurôsis are constantly ascribed to Heraclitus. It is here implied that there is something wrong in the war of opposites. and that was enough for the writers of Successions. they were fond of "accommodating" the views of earlier thinkers to their own. and sought to interpret him as far as possible in accordance with their own system. It is the same conclusion as that of Pythagoras. and that it is just the "opposite tension" of the opposites that constitutes the unity of the One. though it was staring men in the face (fr. Is not this just what the Greeks say their great and much belauded Heraclitus put in the forefront of his philosophy as summing it all up. The "strife of opposites" is really an "attunement" (harmonia). the opposites are disclosed. That this really was the fundamental thought of Heraclitus is stated by Philo. fortunately. and is. and the very fragments are adulterated with scraps of Stoic terminology. 67. but passed away into it once more. He says: "For that which is made up of both the opposites is one. though it is put in another way. and that. The use of the word harmoniê suggests that Heraclitus had come under the influence of his older contemporary to some extent. and that the existence of the opposites is a breach in the unity of the One. Further. we must try then to find out what he was thinking of when he launched into those denunciations of human dulness and ignorance. To get at the central thing in his teaching. then. proceeds: 74 . and this has had serious consequences. this one is also many. the Stoics held the Ephesian in peculiar veneration. We are forced. but the perception of the underlying unity of the warring opposites. In particular. and. Plato clearly states that this was the central thought of Heraclitus. 93). which goes back to the Vetusta Placita. The One and the Many Anaximander had taught that the opposites were separated out from the Boundless. but on all previous inquirers into nature.in the same sentence. Now. The answer seems to be given in two fragments. the Eleatic stranger. when the one is divided. and boasted of as a new discovery?" 68.

and nothing abides". "in its division it is always being brought together" (cf. Heraclitus taught that reality was at once many and one. It follows that the whole of reality is like an ever-flowing stream. while everything else would pass in turn into it. on the contrary. It is always consuming fuel and always liberating smoke. According to Plato. "All things are in motion like streams". In this passage the Ionian Muses stand. while fresh stuff has come into them from another source. and its place is always being taken by fresh matter from the fuel that feeds it. for Heraclitus." say the more severe Muses. in the phrase "All things are flowing" (panta rei). "For. and that nothing is ever at rest for a moment. fr. Fire burns continuously and without interruption. some of the stuff of which they are composed has already passed into something else. 69. of course. then. This was not meant as a logical principle. the flame seems to be what we call a "thing. and is kept together by Hate and Love. Anaximander had treated the strife of opposites as an "injustice. and said that the All was alternately one and at peace through the power of Aphrodite. and many and at war with itself because of something they called Strife. though this does not seem to be a quotation from Heraclitus. The quantity of fire in a flame burning steadily appears to remain the same. 20). fr. and. This is usually summed up. The identity which Heraclitus explains as consisting in difference is just that of the primary substance in all its manifestations. expresses the idea quite clearly. but they had found a difficulty in the difference. 59). appropriately enough. Plato. and it is easy to see why. it was the highest justice (fr. Even as we look at them.But certain Ionian and (at a later date) certain Sicilian Muses remarked that it was safest to unite these two things. "Heraclitus says somewhere that all things pass and naught abides. he says you cannot step twice into the same stream" (cf. however. The substance of the things we see is in constant change. It is always passing away in smoke. Everything is either mounting upwards to serve as fuel. 41) -. He wanted not merely something from which opposites could be "separated out. Fire All this made it necessary for him to seek out a new primary substance. This is just what we want." And yet the substance of it is continually changing. while all things are always returning to it. if we consider the phenomenon of combustion. 70. and the Sicilian for Empedocles." and what Heraclitus set himself to show was that. Flux This necessarily brings with it a certain way of looking at the change and movement of the world. 62). "All things are passing. This identity had been realized already by the Milesians. comparing things to the current of a river. while the softer Muses relaxed the requirement that this should always be so. and to say that reality is both many and one. "Nothing ever is. If we regard the world as an "ever-living fire" (fr. everything is becoming". This he found in Fire. we can understand how it is always becoming all things." but something which of its own nature would pass into everything else. or sinking downwards after having nourished the flame.these are the terms in which 75 .

in fact. R. was merely a section in the stream. that exhalations arose both from the sea and the land. however. He held. was nearer 76 . our best account of the Theophrastean doxography of Heraclitus is the fuller of the two accounts given in Laertius Diogenes. that there were bowls in it with the concave sides turned towards us. And Aristotle says the same thing. some bright and pure." "nothing steadfastly is. The moon. It has been pointed out that. He called change the upward and the downward path.he describes the system. that any given thing. The flame of the sun was the brightest and warmest. "All things are in motion. P. And. We shall see presently how he conceived the process to operate. on the other hand. it appears. 71. for he refers almost everything to the evaporation from the sea. again. in default of Hippolytus. water being congealed turns to earth. however. Fire was nourished by the bright ones. The passage from Diogenes we are about to quote has faithfully preserved this touch. and from it water arises. and when compressed it turns to water. however stable in appearance. but he allowed it was by no means clear. The all is finite and the world is one. It is unlikely. and is consumed again by fire alternately through all eternity in certain cycles. This happens according to fate. a very good name for what happens when fire gives out smoke and takes in fuel instead. He held. These were the heavenly bodies. that which leads to the final conflagration is Concord and Peace. and from that everything else. and that the stuff composing it was never the same in any two consecutive moments. that which leads to the becoming of the world is called War and Strife. the earth is in turn liquefied. Of the opposites. and moisture by the others. and all things were in flux like a river. and for that reason gave less light and heat. All things were produced in opposition. for the other heavenly bodies were more distant from the earth. This is the path upwards. produced by condensation and rarefaction. It arises from fire. But he explains nothing clearly. 22). When fire is condensed it becomes moist. The expression used is "exchange" (fr. and that all things were an exchange for fire. in which the bright exhalations were collected and produced flames. He does not make it clear what is the nature of that which surrounds the world. and this he calls the downward path. 36. others dark. Theophrastus. and held that the world comes into being in virtue of this. It is as follows: His opinions on particular points are these: He held that Fire was the element. The Upward and Downward Path Heraclitus appears to have worked out the details with reference to the theories of Anaximenes. that he explained the transformations of matter by means of rarefaction and condensation. meanwhile we remark that this is not the most original feature of the system. The Milesians had held a similar view. suggested that he did." Heraclitus held. In the fragments we find nothing about rarefaction and condensation. too.

then the world. months and seasons and years." we find that the earth is liquefied. They were due. and so passes once more into sea. were his opinions. while the monthly phases of the moon were produced by a gradual turning of its bowl. That is why it gives more heat and light. namely. "to the kindling and extinction of clouds. but it moved through an impure region. with the concave side turned towards us. As to the earth. the bright vapor. and we want a similar meteorological explanation of the passing of fire back into sea. and secondly. is a trough or bowl. 21). These. The pure fire. R. It is amply attested that Heraclitus explained the rise of the sea to fire by means of the bright evaporations. when ignited in the circle of the sun. We are already familiar with this idea (§ 10). First we have the primary substance. upon the whole. Let us look at the details. we find that the first transformation it undergoes is into sea. We conclude. At the next stage we find water continually passing into earth.the earth. we are told. no one has yet proposed to take the word in the sense it usually bears elsewhere. and we are further told that half of the sea is earth and half of it prêstêr (fr. Turning to the "upward path. firstly. 39 b. The sun moved in a bright and unmixed region and at the same time was at just the right distance from us. How does the fire of the sun pass into other forms? If we look at the fragments which deal with the downward path. rains and winds. any more than he does about that of the bowls. then the heavenly bodies. of some pieces of Stoical interpretation which come from the Vetusta Placita. then. And this interpretation becomes practically certain when taken in connection with the report of Aetius as to the Heraclitean theory of prêstêres. and it certainly comes down in the form of water. He assigns the causes of other things in conformity with this. We want. The increase of warmth proceeding from the bright exhalation produced summer. we are told." In other words. so that the sea is still "measured 77 . were due to the different exhalations. something which will stand equally for the smoke produced by the burning of the sun and for the immediate stage between fire and water. if we can trust this passage. and the preponderance of the opposite exhalations produced night. then. that. he makes no clear statement about its nature. of hurricane accompanied by a fiery waterspout. Day and night. we can trust it is shown by the fact that it follows the exact order of topics to which all the doxographies derived from the work of Theophrastus adhere. it is of the greatest value. produced day. that it may be accepted with the exceptions. after kindling in the bowl of the sun and going out again. in which the bright exhalations from the sea collect and burn. This. in the same proportion as the sea becomes earth. of the probably erroneous conjecture of Theophrastus as to rarefaction and condensation. and lastly. What is this prêstêr? So far as I know. in fact. Now. Yet surely this is just what is wanted. and that. The bright exhalation. and the preponderance of moisture from the dark exhalation produced winter. and things like these. reappears as the dark fiery storm-cloud. What could serve the turn better than a fiery water spout? It sufficiently resembles smoke to be accounted for as the product of the sun's combustion. like the other heavenly bodies. is to be found chiefly in the sun. P. The eclipses of the sun and moon were due to the turning of the bowls upwards. meteorological phenomena.

though its substance is constantly changing. "The sun will not exceed his measures" (fr. In particular. In proportion as the sea is increased by rain. 21)." and all these things seem to be closely connected. 78 . Certain "measures" of the ever-living fire "are always being kindled. 26. and this implies that for everything it takes. in proportion as the sea is diminished by evaporation. so in the microcosm the fire alone is conscious. fire will give as much. it will be convenient to start with the microcosm. 23). fire. All things are "exchanged" for fire and fire for all things (fr. 22). Measure for Measure How is it that. in spite of this constant flux. 73. And yet the "measures" are not absolutely fixed. but. it is fed by the earth. and the water earth. the ignition of the bright vapor from the sea in the bowl of the sun completes the circle of the "upward and downward path. Half of it is earth and half of it is prêstêr (fr. were accounted for in this way. just as in the macrocosm fire is identified with the one wisdom. 81). while half of it is going up. we read of fire "advancing. The fire in us is perpetually becoming water. We are and are not the same for two consecutive instants (fr. Man is made up of three things. the alternation of day and night. and earth." just as much as the fire of the world. both human and divine. again." in virtue of which the aggregate bulk of each form of matter in the long run remains the same. summer and winter. the remainder.by the same tale" (fr. water passes into earth. half of the sea is taking the downward path." We are just as much in perpetual flux as anything else in the world. 20). the mere earth and water. Lastly. Man In studying this alternate advance of fire and water. We must therefore try to see whether there is anything in the remaining fragments that bears on the subject. in a passage of the pseudo-Hippocratean treatise Peri diaitês which is almost certainly of Heraclitean origin. we read of an "advance of fire and water" in connection with day and night and the courses of the sun and moon. and Aristotle speaks of Heraclitus as explaining all things by evaporation. Now. the fire which animates man is subject to the "upward and downward path. while like measures" are always going out (fr. We have more definite information about the two exhalations in man than about the analogous processes in the world at large. and has just been earth. as the opposite process goes on simultaneously. The Peri diaitês has preserved the obviously Heraclitean sentence: "All things are passing. we appear to remain the same. at any given moment. things appear relatively stable? The answer of Heraclitus was that it is owing to the observance of the "measures. water. 85). is altogether worthless (fr. and has just been fiery storm cloud. 29). This must mean that. In fr. and it would seem that Heraclitus himself explained the world by man rather than man by the world. Of course. When it has left the body. We gather from the passage of Diogenes quoted above that Theophrastus spoke of an alternate preponderance of the bright and dark exhalations. Aristotle implies that soul is identical with the dry exhalation and this is confirmed by the fragments." 72. upwards and downwards by exchanges. But.

for the theory of pores is due to Alcmaeon (§ 96). when they are brought near the fire. When we awake again. The reference to the pores or openings of the senses is probably foreign to him also. and only our connection with it by means of respiration is preserved as a sort of root (from which the rest may spring again). and go out when they are taken away from it again. It is death. and so does it become of like nature to the whole when contact is established through the greatest number of openings. when it is thus separated. the mind which is in us is cut off from contact with that which surrounds us. The true doctrine doubtless was. when the openings of the senses close. and the result in either case is death. In particular. Man is subject to a certain oscillation in his "measures" of fire and water. the equilibrium is restored in the morning by an equal advance of the bright exhalation. 68). it loses the power of memory that it had before. In sleep. The locus classicus on this is a passage of Sextus Empiricus. as may be seen in the case of the drunken man. as if through windows. the distinction between mind and body is far too sharply drawn. we lose contact with the fire in the world which is common to all. the important role assigned to respiration may very well be Heraclitean. it assumes the power of reason. P. we become rational. to souls to become water (fr. it is more difficult to hide folly than at other times (fr. 73). the identification of "that which surrounds us" with the air cannot be Heraclitean. Let us take each of these cases in turn. when we draw in this divine reason by means of respiration. 108). dark exhalations from the water in the body. 77). Sleeping and Waking This. however. so does the portion of the surrounding mind which sojourns in our body become irrational when it is cut off. but that is what happens to souls which seek after pleasure. It is as follows (R. In this passage there is clearly a large admixture of later ideas.74. but at our waking we become conscious once more. then. is not all. and retire to a world of our own (fr. 95). that sleep was produced by the encroachment of moist. life and death. which gives rise to the alternations of sleeping and waking. change and become red-hot. That is why we must quench 79 . which reproduces the account given by Aenesidemus. Lastly. for we have met with it already in Anaximenes. which cause the fire to burn low. In sleep we forget. it looks out through the openings of the senses. 41): The natural philosopher is of opinion that what surrounds us is rational and endowed with consciousness. Life and Death But in no soul are the fire and water thus evenly balanced for long. fr. For in sleep. According to Heraclitus. however. who has so moistened his soul that he does not know where he is going (fr. as embers. 75. Just. Even in gentle relaxation over our cups. we know. In a soul where the fire and water are evenly balanced. for Heraclitus knew nothing of air except as a form of water (§ 27). and. On the other hand. And we can hardly doubt that the striking simile of the embers which glow when brought near the fire is genuine (cf. One or the other acquires predominance. For pleasure is a moistening of the soul (fr. and coming together with the surrounding mind. 72).

and the real rest is change (fr. So. 32) to be kindled. But it can only be for a time. but the preponderance of fire causes death as much as that of water. too.wantonness (fr. we are told (fr. Diogenes tells us that fire was kept up by the bright vapors from land and sea. that is. and so are youth and age (fr. They. They live each others' life. and to nourish itself at the expense of the moist element for a time. then. This. that Heraclitus believed night and winter to be produced by the rise of darkness from earth and sea -. The real weariness is continuance in the same state (fr. and from water is once more exhaled a soul (fr. is the best (fr. but from the earth comes water. as the case may be. Take now the other case. however. being moist. diminishes the power of the sun to cause evaporation. of the fire within us (fr. Rest in any other sense is tantamount to dissolution (fr." so do life and death. 78). to recommence once more its unceasing upward and downward path. The dry soul. destroys the power of darkness itself. however.he saw. and necessarily reproduce one another by their "opposite tension. just as summer and winter are one. This. and those immortals become mortal in their turn. Further. The sun. and this applies not only to the souls that have become water. like the pieces on a child's draught-board (fr. they become the guardians of the quick and the dead (fr. and moisture by the dark. We know that the "turnings back" of the sun were a subject of interest in those days. in which alone their true ground of explanation is to be found (fr. 84). Summer and winter were to be explained in the same way. that which has least moisture. they are merely two sides of one process. 123). the shortest time in which a man may become a grandfather (frs. 36). that it will only turn to fire or water.and that this darkness. and die each others' death. and wins "greater portions" for those who die it (fr. 68). of course. 79). so increased the watery element as to put out the sun's light. caused by the heat of the sun itself. Heraclitus estimated the duration of the cycle which preserves the balance of life and death as thirty years. The Day and the Year Let us turn now to the world. that the valleys were dark before the hill-tops -. by burning up the bright vapor. 83). Those mortals that die the fiery death become immortal. So they too are born once more. and the dark vapor once more gets the upper hand. for whatever our heart's desire insists on it purchases at the price of life. however. We know that the idea of darkness as privation of light is not primitive. The soul that has died from excess of moisture sinks down to earth. 101). 74). It is a very different death. and it was natural for Heraclitus to see in its retreat to the south the advance of the moist element. It follows that the soul will be now living and now dead. 105). Each implies the other. 87-89). 35). we shall be inclined to regard them as darkness itself. 78). too. are one. What are these "dark" vapors which increase the moist element? If we remember the "Air" of Anaximenes. 76. we are told. Everything is the death of something else (fr. 82). It is in this sense that "day and night are one" (fr. and so it becomes possible for a fresh sun (fr. but to those that have become fire and are now guardian spirits. It can no longer rise upwards unless the sun gives it motion. 103). I suppose. 64). 67) that gods and men are really one. deprives himself of nourishment. and so it must return to the north that it may supply 80 . The living and the dead are always changing places (fr.

it has no longer power to resist. He quotes him along with Empedocles as holding that the "heavens" are alternately as they are now and in some other state. or some of them. then. which is identified with the "Great Year. the Stoic doctrine. held that the Great Year was the period between one world-conflagration and the next. which is usually supposed to refer to the doctrine of a periodic conflagration. however. it stands still. in any case.800 years. Such was. however. It is not.itself with nourishment." that is to say. from his own point of view." and is variously described as lasting 18. For neither can prevail altogether for the following reasons. and this receives a curious confirmation from a passage in Aristotle. The following passage is clearly Heraclitean: And in turn each (fire and water) prevails and is prevailed over to the greatest and least degree that is possible. he identifies this with the Fire of Heraclitus. the ordinary interpretation of the passage must be wrong. if so. but is consumed as nourishment for the fire that falls upon it. It retires. They were careful. and. If fire advances towards the utmost limit of the water. It is surely clear that this is a reference to the parallel between the generation and the Great Year. And if water advances towards the utmost limit of the fire. one of passing away. we are not entitled without more ado to credit him with the theory of a general conflagration. and naturally enough.000 years is just half that period. indeed. At that point. We must try first to interpret the Great Year on the analogy of the shorter periods discussed already." is eternal or not. He is discussing the question whether the "heavens. but that is exactly the inconsistency we have felt bound to recognize with regard 81 . when it has come to a stand. 77. to a place where it can get nourishment. and 18. and that it comes from Heraclitus seems to be proved by its occurrence in the Peri diaitês. a fact which may be connected with Heraclitus's way of dividing all cycles into an "upward and downward path. and he goes on to point out that this is not really to say they pass away.000 and 10. if we said that he turned from boy to man and then from man to boy again. quite consistent with the theory to suppose that a "measure" of Fire could preserve its identity throughout the whole of its upward and downward path. it is the period of the upward or downward path of the soul. The Great Year Heraclitus spoke also of a longer period. The period Of 36.000 years was Babylonian. Plato implies that such a parallelism between the periods of man and the world was recognized. any more than it would be to say that a man ceases to be. and. of what process Heraclitus supposed to take place in the Great Year. So long as things are as they are. For these reasons neither can prevail altogether. and. what he calls the "first heaven. and the most natural interpretation of the longer period would surely be that it represents the time taken by a "measure" of the fire in the world to travel on the downward path to earth or return to fire once more by the upward path. its nourishment fails it. to make it a good deal longer than Heraclitus did. Now we have seen that a generation is the shortest time in which a man can become a grandfather. at any rate. then. then none of the things that exist would be as they are now. and neither will ever fail. movement fails it. But if at any time either should be in any way overcome. fire and water will always be too." The Stoics. We have no definite statement.

to use the Stoic term. such an interpretation destroys the whole point of Plato's contrast between Heraclitus and Empedocles (§ 68). however. In the second place. and reproduce the Stoic view. while Heraclitus said the One was always many." We see from this that the question was debated." It is also quite consistent with our interpretation when he says that all things at one time or another become fire. Nor is there anything in Aristotle to set against Plato's statement. 82 . which Aristotle identified with the substance of his own "first heaven. "I hear all that. In the first place. it is a contradiction which he has not observed. is that there was a difference of opinion on the subject even among the Stoics. The Christian apologists too were interested in the idea of a final conflagration. if the evidence for it should prove irresistible.000. Marcus Aurelius says: "So that all these things are taken up into the Reason of the universe. the thought that possessed his whole mind (§ 67).000 is half 36. Zeller's interpretation obliges us. and this is in favor of the higher number. and is indeed admitted by Zeller." Plutarch makes one of his personages say. 78. and the Many always one." Indeed. It is highly significant that not a single quotation of the kind can be produced. This need not mean that they all become fire at the same time. but it is very unlikely that there was this particular contradiction. to suppose that Heraclitus flatly contradicted his own discovery without noticing it. 10. it will be noted that. In one place. if the two doctrines are not compatible. it is inconsistent with the central idea of his system. and that Plato. Empedocles said the All was many and one by turns. which is just that. which would make each generation a day in the Great Year.to the continuance of individual souls. and I see the Stoic conflagration spreading over the poems of Hesiod. it is quite likely that there were contradictions in the discourse of Heraclitus.800 is 360 x 30. "from many people. Did Heraclitus Teach a General Conflagration? Most writers ascribe to Heraclitus the doctrine of a periodical conflagration or ekpurôsis. then. We have seen that the passage in which he speaks of him along with Empedocles as holding that the heavens were alternately in one condition and in another refers not to the world." Now. but to fire. whether by a periodical conflagration or a renovation effected by eternal exchanges. The earliest statements to the effect that Heraclitus taught the doctrine of a general conflagration are found in Stoic writers. and we can only admit the possibility of that. 144) the words: "Heraclitus did not intend to retract this principle in the doctrine of a periodic change in the constitution of the world. in discussing this very discovery. while 18. was also blind to the contradiction. That this is inconsistent with his general view is obvious. there were some who said there was no general conflagration at all in Heraclitus. just as it does over the writings of Heraclitus and the verses of Orpheus. Now. who adds to his paraphrase of the statement of Plato quoted above (p. but may be merely a statement of the undoubted Heraclitean doctrine of the upward and downward path. and we should therefore expect any statement of Heraclitus which could settle it to be quoted over and over again. The curious thing.

it is not easy to see how. When gold is given in exchange for wares and wares for gold. In the same way. the absence of anything to show that Heraclitus spoke of a general conflagration only becomes more patent when we turn to the few fragments which are supposed to prove it. as we saw. These appear to be the only passages which the Stoics and the Christian apologists could discover. directly contradict the idea of a general conflagration. and more especially fr. where we read that fire in its advance will judge and convict all things. fr. 43. It does not imply this. And. and cease to "run in opposite directions. but only that man. in accordance with these views." If they all took the upward path. where we are told that Heraclitus said Fire was Want and Surfeit. however." which is said to be eternal. points in the same direction. to suggest that fire will judge all things at once rather than in turn. the sum or "measure" of each remains constant." which is applied to the transformations of fire in fr. that an advance of fire increases the moist exhalation. 36. There is nothing in this. in other words. it is surely clear that they cannot bear the weight of their conclusion. and it has a perfectly intelligible meaning on our interpretation. and. Thirdly. 22. 29). 83 . and a very good reason is given for this. oscillates between fire and water. is very conclusive. The next is fr. we should have a general conflagration. Lassalle's argument from the concluding sentence of the passage from the Peri diaitês quoted above. fr. Now. in this passage we read that neither fire nor water can prevail completely. but which is expressly said to be limited to a certain maximum. indeed. The cessation of strife would mean that all things should take the upward or downward path at the same time. that it cannot be Heraclitean because it implies that all things are fire and water. a reason too which is in striking agreement with the other views of Heraclitus. 20 it is this world.On the contrary. and is compensated in the long run by a variation in the other direction. in which Heraclitus blames Homer for desiring the cessation of strife. who sees to it that the sun does not take more than he gives. 29. and that is just what Heraclitus taught. and they must be interpreted in the light of fr. but it is strictly confined within limits. the world could ever recover from a general conflagration if such a thing were to take place. 20. something of equal amount must cease to be fire. and it appears also that its eternity depends on the fact that it is always kindling and always going out in the same "measures. and not merely the " ever-living fire. or. and that it will be just." or that an encroachment in one direction is compensated by a subsequent encroachment in the other. the metaphor of "exchange. and. we note that in fr. 26. The "measures" of fr. like the heavenly bodies. Of course there is a certain variation. which is further confirmed by fr. It is much easier to find fragments which are inconsistent with a general conflagration. indeed. That is just in his manner. 24. Now. when anything becomes fire. is really untouched by Zeller's objection. The favorite is fr. 23. if Heraclitus had himself held this to be the appointment of fate. though they change owners. if the "exchange" is to be a just one. we are assured by the watchfulness of the Erinyes (fr. and that there was nothing more definite to be found. Lastly. 29 must be the same thing. whether our interpretation of them is right or wrong. 20 and fr. If this be so. All the wares and gold do not come into the same hands. would he have been likely to upbraid Homer for desiring so necessary a consummation? Fourthly. the phraseology reminds us of the advance of fire and water which we have seen reason for attributing to Heraclitus. The whole process depends on the fact that Surfeit is also Want. "The sun will not overstep his measures." Secondly.

Plato. 45). some of which must certainly come from Heraclitus. Water. Fire. I think that Campbell gave the best explanation of the simile. were certainly composed by someone who had access to the original work. in the world as in human society (fr. but that they were two sides of the same process. though spurious. and to the different parts of the bow (cf.one of which is taking the upward and the other the downward path. Heraclitus." that "keeps things together. and are among the most striking of the utterances that have come down to us. The painter produces his harmonious effects by the contrast of colors." War. it is Strife.while an advance of water deprives the fire of its power to cause evaporation. is made practically certain by the fact that this agreement extends in part to the Letters of Heraclitus. and then motion would become impossible. to the oscillation described above -. There is a remarkable agreement between a passage of this kind in the pseudo-Aristotelian Peri kosmou and the Hippocratean Peri diaitês. namely. and that neither would be possible without the other. and Earth.subject. and vice 84 . The clue to their meaning is to be found in the account already given of the assertion that day and night are one. but it is not easy to separate them from the later additions. and Homer's wish that strife might cease was really a prayer for the destruction of the world (fr. 44). would destroy the opposite tension on which the rise of a new world depends. then. and the sweet note of the lyre is due to a similar tension and retention. Strife and "Harmony" We are now in a position to understand more clearly the law of strife or opposition which manifests itself in the "upward and downward path. It thus forms the "hidden attunement" of the universe (fr. though. 47). 79." this "opposite tension. in another aspect of it. the oscillation of the "measures" of fire and water. 439). Correlation of Opposites There are several Heraclitean fragments which form a class by themselves. namely. of course." he said. which." There are many similar examples." and maintains them in an equilibrium which can only be disturbed temporarily and within certain limits. 80. We know from Philo that Heraclitus supported his theory by a multitude of examples. each of the three aggregates. Any explanation that can be given of night will also be an explanation of day. "the hands are pulling opposite ways to each other. is the father and king of all things. there would be no delight in them. The conflagration. not that day was night or night was day. Now. is made up of two equal portions -. the musician by that of high and low notes. That the authors of both drew from the same source. We have seen that Heraclitus meant. "As the arrow leaves the string. "If one were to make all things alike. As to the "bow and the lyre" (fr. it is just the fact that the two halves of everything are being "drawn in opposite directions. The argument was that men themselves act just in the same way as Nature. and it is therefore surprising that they do not recognize the laws by which she works. These assert in the most downright way the identity of various things usually regarded as opposites. 43). though it lasted but for a moment." At any given moment. iv. and some of these can still be recovered. Rep. The secret of the universe is the same.

so the disappearance of hunger. but simply that they are the two inseparable halves of one and the same thing. the other would cease too. for it is the common element in them (fr. there is no relativity. justice. and the world would disappear. We are told that. there would be no heat. The upward path is nothing without the downward (fr. The most startling of these sayings is that which affirms that good and evil are the same (fr. Heraclitus is not a believer in absolute relativity. In other words. and rest. and Heraclitus is showing that the war between them is really peace. which is an evil (fr. the "satiety" which makes fire pass into other forms. and 98 refer. for it takes both to make an apparently stable reality. and "hide itself" (fr. It itself is. disease. The other is the "want" which leads it to consume the bright vapor as fuel. which makes it seek "rest in change" (fr. and in so far as. while to man some things are evil and some things are good. all things are good to God (fr. that "Man is the measure of all things." At the upper end. for it will be an account of what is common to both. it will be observed. 61). are just the two primary oppositions of Anaximander. And the same thing applies to the opposition of wet and dry (fr. an injustice which they commit one against the other. 97. and manifests itself now as one and now as the other. This does not mean that good is evil or that evil is good. Now this is only a particular application of the principle that the primary fire is one even in its division. and yet it is made a good by the presence of another evil. 96. health. but an "upward and downward path. disease. Just as the cessation of strife in the world would mean its destruction. At the same time. namely. 69). both surfeit and want. which is a good. 10) in the "hidden attunement" of opposition. There can hardly be any question that what he meant to say was that in it the opposition and relativity universal in the world disappear. 58 shows this clearly. and weariness would mean the disappearance of satisfaction. as Anaximander had taught.versa. we have the pure fire. All other utterances of the kind are to be explained in the same way. and everything depends on the contrast. 104). even in its unity. as is shown by the fact that surgeons expect a fee for inflicting it on their patients. Torture. in which. 57). Now by God. 60). This leads to a theory of relativity which prepares the way for the doctrine of Protagoras. is only one side of the process. and which must be expiated by a reabsorption of both in their common ground." Sea-water is good for fish and bad for men (fr. The illustration given in fr. 52)." there is no doubt Heraclitus meant Fire. The Wise 85 . as there is no separation. 39). war and peace (fr. where the two paths meet. If either were to cease. 81. and not. or the "one wise. on the other hand. The process of the world is not merely a circle. 36). It is doubtless to this that frs. would be unknown were it not for injustice. 62) which appears as strife. and that very strife is justice. it is already cold. for a thing can only grow warm if. And that is why it is not good for men to get everything they wish (fr. A thing can become good only in so far as it is already evil. and so with many other things. These. If there were no cold. 83). one would say. and evil only in so far as it is already good. was an evil.

by letting our souls grow moist. he had the greatest possible contempt (fr. at least. the city must fight for them as for its walls. That alone has wisdom. and public opinion is therefore just the opposite of "the common. It is not. that is. 83. to cut ourselves off from the fire in the world. and he also applies the term to that unity itself regarded as the "thought that directs the course of all things." and the greatest fault is to act like men asleep (fr. 130). and the strange idea that blood-guiltiness can be washed out by the shedding of blood (fr. 86 . of course. What these reservations were. 92). the partial things we see have not. 74). meaning by it the perception of the unity of the many. and. 97). it is easy to guess." that they live each in his own world (fr. He agrees further with Xenophanes in holding that this "god. 126). if it has the good fortune to possess a citizen with a dry soul. nevertheless. 82. In saying this. We have seen already that he said wisdom was "something apart from everything else" (fr. 127). Heraclitus was prepared to call the one Wisdom by the name of Zeus. Ethics of Heraclitus The moral teaching of Heraclitus is summed up in the rule "Follow the common. 91). Theology With certain reservations. indeed. Such. the two were really one. Heraclitus would only have been repeating what had already been said by Xenophanes. It is. That is what is really "common. one taking the upward and the other the downward path. for in him alone is "the common" embodied. however. 95)." The rule is really to be interpreted as a corollary of his anthropological and cosmological views. The first requirement is that we keep our souls dry. Heraclitus prepared the way for the Stoic world-state by comparing "the common" to the laws of a city. to be pictured in the form of a man. He seems also to have said that it was absurd to celebrate the worship of Dionysus by cheerful and licentious ceremonies. while Hades was propitiated by gloomy rites (fr. as if they had a private wisdom of their own (fr. 94). and the one Wisdom ought to be worshiped in its integrity. 124) of some of the religious figures of his time. 111). however. for which. 113)." if it is to be called so. We ourselves are only wise in so far as we are fiery (fr.Heraclitus speaks of "wisdom" or the "wise" in two senses. and thus assimilate them to the one Wisdom. According to the mystic doctrine itself. "Man is a baby compared to God" (fr. exhaust it altogether. He gives a list (fr. appears to be the meaning of fr. something very different from common sense. 65. is one. 18). in fact. He comments on the absurdity of praying to images (fr. he is worth ten thousand (fr. and the context in which the fragment is quoted shows that he in some way threatened them with the wrath to come. but his polemic against popular religion was directed rather against the rites and ceremonies themselves than their mythological outgrowth. They cannot. for in all human affairs there is an element of relativity (fr. his strongest objection to "the many." This is synonymous with the pure fire which is not differentiated into two parts. which is fire." The "common" upon which Heraclitus insists is. And these are even more than a type of the divine law: they are imperfect embodiments of it. Such as they are.

6 PARMENIDES OF ELEA .

we shall have something to say later. Others add that the magistrates of Elea made the citizens swear every year to abide by the laws Parmenides had given them. we get 451-449 B.).C." It is certain. in his ninety-second year. Xenophanes tells us himself that. Elea. for Xenophanes was not a 88 . and this was doubtless the date given by Apollodorus. Parmenides and Empedocles. Now Socrates was just over seventy when he was put to death in 399 B. moreover. 85. and Heraclitus. and that it is thrown into the form of an Orphic apocalypse. and the only Greeks who ever wrote philosophy in verse at all were just these two. from eighteen to twenty years old. preserved by Diogenes. Anaximander. that the opening of the poem of Parmenides is an allegorical description of his conversion from some form of error to what he held to be the truth. At that time Parmenides would be well advanced in life. as the date of that event. was a citizen of Hyele. accompanied by Zeno.C. where Pericles is said to have "heard" him. We have seen (§ 55) that Aristotle mentions a statement which made Parmenides a disciple of Xenophanes.84. On the other hand. This does not read like an invention. so we need not hesitate to accept the tradition that he had. Plato says that Parmenides came to Athens in his sixty-fifth year. The date given by Apollodorus depends solely on that of the foundation of Elea (540 B. he was still wandering up and down (fr. and conversed with Socrates. who was then quite young. which we have dealt with already. At present we need only note that. or Velia. wrote in prose. He was really the "associate" of a Pythagorean. just as Zeno is born in the year when Parmenides "flourished. he did not "follow" him. son of Diochaetas. Parmenides is born in that year. "a poor but noble man to whom he afterwards built a shrine as to a hero. that. It should also be mentioned that Strabo describes Parmenides and Zeno as Pythagoreans. It is quite uncritical to prefer the estimate of Apollodorus to Plato's express statement. That would be quite natural if he had been a Pythagorean in his early days. and that Cebes talks of a "Parmenidean and Pythagorean way of life. and would have a dedicatory inscription. Life of Parmenides Parmenides. at the time of his interview with Parmenides. The shrine erected by Parmenides would still be there in later days. And we must not overlook the statement of Sotion. 8). As regards the relation of Parmenides to the Pythagorean system. like the grave of Pythagoras at Metapontum. if we suppose him to have been an ephebos. LXIX.C. His predecessors." I do not understand how any one can attach importance to such combinations.C. (504-500 B." and we have independent evidence of the visit of Zeno to Athens.). and therefore. but it is practically certain that the statement referred to is only Plato's humorous remark in the Sophist. The Poem Parmenides was the first philosopher to expound his system in metrical language. like most of the older philosophers. a colony founded in Oenotria by refugees from Phocia in 540-39 B. which he had adopted as the floruit of Xenophanes. that is. Diogenes tells us that he "flourished" in 01. especially as Parmenides himself speaks of visiting "all towns. Anaximenes. though Parmenides "heard" Xenophanes. and Speusippus recorded that he legislated for his native city. . son of Pyres. he took part in politics." It was Ameinias and not Xenophanes that "converted" Parmenides to the philosophic life. Ameinias.C.

P. There are the gates of the ways of Night and Day.. but right and justice that has sent thee forth to travel on this way..gave forth a sound as of a pipe. they disclosed a wide opening. as well the unshaken heart of well-rounded truth. did the maidens guide the horses and the car. nor let habit by its much experience force thee to cast upon this way a wandering eye or sounding ear or tongue. (1) The car that bears me carried me as far as ever my heart desired. But the thing was an innovation. that It is. drawing my car. when the doors were thrown back. when it had brought me and set me on the renowned way of the goddess. for I shall come back again there. R. for on it did the wise steeds carry me. -. because in his time the original work was already rare. and one that did not maintain itself.for it was urged round by the whirling wheels at each end -. threw back their veils from off their faces and left the abode of Night. on the broad way. does it lie from the beaten track of men! Meet it is that thou shouldst learn all things. and spake to me these words: Welcome.the only two ways of search that can be thought of. that comest to my abode on the car that bears thee tended by immortal charioteers! It is no ill chance. Straight through them. who fortunately inserted them in his commentary.how passing right through all things one should judge the things that seem to be. I will tell thee -. and Avenging Justice keeps the keys that fit them. and took my right hand in hers. Thou canst not cut off what is from holding fast to what is. The first. There is only one way left that can be spoken of. 5) Come now. which leads the man who knows through all the towns. O youth. On that way was I bome along. and he. high in the air. namely. no doubt. The Way of Truth (2) Look steadfastly with thy mind at things though afar as if they were at hand.. indeed. glowing in the socket -. but judge by argument the much disputed proof uttered by me.philosopher any more than Epicharmus. Empedocles copied Parmenides. P. Yet nonetheless shalt thou learn these things also. But do thou restrain thy thought from this way of inquiry. and that it is impossible for it not to 89 . They themselves. I follow the arrangement of Diels. (4. Far. when the daughters of the Sun. as the opinions of mortals in which is no true belief at all. are closed by mighty doors. when their brazen posts fitted with rivets and nails swung back one after the other. and maidens showed the way. Her did the maidens entreat with gentle words and cunningly persuade to unfasten without demur the bolted bars from the gates.and do thou hearken to my saying and carry it away -. R. 118 a. And the axle. 113. hasting to convey me into the light. was influenced by the Orphics. Then. and the goddess greeted me kindly. fitted above with a lintel and below with a threshold of stone. The fragments of Parmenides are preserved for the most part by Simplicius. (3) It is all one to me where I begin. neither scattering itself abroad in order nor coming together.

nor will it be. 116. and it is not possible for what is nothing to be. if it were infinite. for it can neither be thought nor uttered that anything is not. P. The other. but holds it fast. can what is be going to be in the future? Or how could it come into being? If it came into being. It is the same. Nor was it ever.. This is what I bid thee ponder. then. for hard necessity keeps it in the bonds of the limit that holds it fast on every side. who hold that it is and is not the same and not the same. for you cannot find thought without something that is. 114. namely. since it is all alike. and there is no more of it in one place than in another.. Nor will the force of truth suffer aught to arise besides itself from that which is not. it would stand in need of everything. 118. that It is. while. for now it is. R. for truth is its companion. since coming into being and passing away have been driven afar. for it is complete.that. to hinder it from holding together. P. namely. For thou canst not know what is not -. Nor is it divisible. R. 117. all at once. (6) It needs must be that what can be spoken and thought is. what need could have made it arise later rather than sooner? Therefore must it either be altogether or be not at all. Wherefore.that is impossible -. For what kind of origin for it wilt thou look for? In what way and from what source could it have drawn its increase? . is the way of belief. and it rests in the self-same place. upon which mortals knowing naught wander two-faced. that It is not. that we are to set aside the one way as unthinkable and nameless (for it is no true way). abiding in itself. Thus is becoming extinguished and passing away not to be heard of. And. (8) One path only is left for us to speak of. for it is possible for it to be.nor utter it. R. Moreover. How. nor less of it. that the things that are not are. justice doth not loose her fetters and let anything come into being or pass away. Our judgment thereon depends on this: "Is it or is it not?" Surely it is adjudged. for it is in need of nothing. I hold thee back from this first way of inquiry. and do thou restrain thy thought from this way of inquiry.be. for what is. as to which it is uttered. And there is not. is a path that none can learn of at all. as it needs must be. I shall not let thee say nor think that it came from what is not. so that they are borne along stupefied like men deaf and blind. R. for it is the same thing that can be thought and that can be. P. if it came from nothing. it is not. and without end.P. but everything is full of what is. and that the other path is real and true. and true belief has cast them away. In this path are very many tokens that what is is uncreated and indestructible. and all things travel in opposite directions! R. Wherefore it is not permitted to what is to be infinite. I tell thee. it is immovable in the bonds of mighty chains. And thus it remaineth constant in its place. immovable. nor is it if it is going to be in the future. Undiscerning crowds. is in contact with what is. P. (7) For this shall never be proved. Wherefore it is wholly continuous. a continuous one. 115. for helplessness guides the wandering thought in their breasts. The thing that can be thought and that for the sake of which the thought exists is the same. -. and that it must needs not be. without beginning and without end. and never 90 . and from this other also.

124. and the sky that is common to all. it is complete on every side. Since. in every direction the same as itself.coming into being and passing away. For the point from which it is equal in every direction tends equally to the limits.. Henceforward learn the beliefs of mortals. and of her substance. anything besides what is. everything is full at once of light and dark night. R. and that is where they go astray from the truth. 11) And thou shalt know the substance of the sky. Wherefore all these things are but names which mortals have given. and the moon. and the resplendent works of the glowing sun's pure torch. for so no thought of mortals will ever outstrip thee. too. like the mass of a rounded sphere. R. P. (9) Now that all things have been named light and night.shall be. 121. wandering round the earth. and the sun. a compact and heavy body. and the Milky Way. how the earth. (12) The narrower bands were filled with unmixed fire. and the male to that of the female. 123. since fate has chained it so as to be whole and immovable. and the burning might of the stars arose. P. since neither has aught to do with the other. then. very light. P. it has a furthest limit. To the one they allot the fire of heaven. P. and in the midst of these rushes their portion of fire. For there is no nothing that could keep it from reaching out equally. whence they arose. and have assigned to them marks distinct from one another. and the outermost Olympus. the heavens that surround us. and all the signs in the sky. (10. since it is all inviolable. and the names which belong to the power of each have been assigned to these things and to those. Of these I tell thee the whole arrangement as it seems likely. 125. nor can aught that is be more here and less there than what is. change of place and alteration of bright color. 125. driving the female to the embrace of the male. Mortals have made up their minds to name two forms. (14) Shining by night with borrowed light. and how Necessity took them and bound them to keep the limits of the stars . R. R. 91 . R. 119. for she is the beginner of all painful birth and all begetting. Thou shalt know. (13) First of all the gods she contrived Eros. both equal. R. one of which they should not name. for it cannot be greater or smaller in one place than in another. In the midst of these is the divinity that directs the course of all things. And thou shalt learn likewise of the wandering deeds of the round-faced moon. being and not being. giving ear to the deceptive ordering of my words. P. believing them to be true -. They have distinguished them as opposite in form. equally poised from the center in every direction. The Way of Belief Here shall I close my trustworthy speech and thought about the truth. dark night. gentle. 120. and those next them with night. The other is just the opposite to it. but not the same as the other. P. and whence they arose..

for that which thinks is the same. (19) Thus. however. R. 8). 86. The statement. P. 6). namely. 129 b. on the left girls. were there nothing more than this. he virtually affirmed the existence of what is not (fr. and thus they are now. by assuming there was less of what is in one place than another. therefore. and it furnishes a very accurate description of the theory of Heraclitus. assumes the existence of what is not. the reference might well seem doubtful. 6). that. and thus making it capable of explaining the world. Moreover. (16) For just as thought stands at any time to the mixture of its.(15) Always looking to the beams of the sun. Anaximenes. He showed once for all that if you take the One seriously you are bound to deny everything else. In time they will grow up and pass away. as Heraclitus had done." can hardly be understood of anything but the "upward and downward path" of Heraclitus (§ 71). It is certainly regarded as spatially extended. Parmenides does not say a word about "Being" anywhere. From this it follows that there can be no such thing as motion. had missed the point. though upon insufficient grounds. The Pythagorean explanation implied that empty space or air existed outside the world. as we have seen. so does it come to men. The assertion that it is amounts just to this. he only says that it is and is not the same and not the same. according to men's opinions. "all things travel in opposite directions. who thought to save the unity of the primary substance by his theory of rarefaction and condensation. That is the natural meaning of the words. There can be no real doubt that this is what we call body. Parmenides does not attribute the view that Being and not-Being are the same to the philosopher whom he is attacking. 8). "It Is" In the First Part of his poem. It. Nor is the theory of Heraclitus any more satisfactory. and that there is no such thing as empty space. R. for their thought is that of which there is more in them. and. and it is remarkable that he avoids the term "god. for it is based on the contradiction that fire both is and is not (fr. Zeller points out quite rightly that Heraclitus never says Being and not-Being are the same (the old translation of fr. All previous solutions of the question. but it is not quite obvious at first sight what it is precisely that is. did things come into being. we find Parmenides chiefly interested to prove that it is. is. Instead of endowing the One with an impulse to change. On the right boys. in each and every man. according to the view in question. and that it entered into it to separate the units (§ 53). too. did not observe that. The allusion to Heraclitus in the verses last referred to has been doubted. 92 . P. 128. erring organs. Parmenides dismissed change as an illusion. And. What is. for it is quite seriously spoken of as a sphere (fr. (17). that the universe is a plenum." which was so freely used by earlier and later thinkers. To each of these things men have assigned a fixed name. He says simply. the substance of the limbs. Aristotle tells us that Parmenides believed in none but a sensible reality. either inside or outside the world.

as much of it in one place as in another. it must move into an empty space. What is never came into being. and it cannot be more or less. nothing cannot be thought. So much the worse for the senses. It cannot have arisen out of nothing. for the incorporeal was still unknown. so far as we know. men might have gone on in the endless circle of opposition. having no place in which to move. The next question is whether this can be thought. If Parmenides had lacked courage to work out the prevailing views of his time to their logical conclusion. That is the inevitable outcome of a corporeal monism. is. and therefore cannot exist. "Is it or is it not?" If it is. all at once. and there is no empty space. and has no need to stretch out indefinitely into an empty space that 93 . for there is no such thing as nothing. then it is now. it must be finite. Therefore there is no nothing. however paradoxical it might appear. What is cannot have beside it any empty space in which something else might arise. for there is no room for anything but itself. That which is." Aristotle is no less clear. It is hemmed in by what is. indivisible plenum. and this bold declaration of it ought to have destroyed that theory for ever. for ever. This method Parmenides carries out with the utmost rigor. Only that can be which can be thought (fr. It is complete in itself. For the same reason. and the answer is that it cannot. and he finds that this is the existence of what is not. 5). From this it follows at once that it must be immovable. He will not have us pretend that we think what we must admit to be unthinkable. and arrived ultimately at the atomic theory. and to accept that conclusion. for thought exists for the sake of what is (fr. we come into direct conflict with our senses. is the last word of the view that the world is body in motion. and can have nothing beyond it. for empty space is nothing. Nor can it have arisen from something. If it moved. That this is a denial of the existence of empty space was well known to Plato. He says Parmenides held "all things were one. There is. He first asks what is the common presupposition of all the views he has to deal with. says Parmenides. The Results Parmenides goes on to develop all the consequences of the admission that it is. It was the thorough-going dialectic of Parmenides that made progress possible. which. It therefore ceased to be monistic. which present us with a world of change and decay.87. and the world is a continuous. rarefaction. If you think at all. Philosophy must now cease to be monistic or cease to be corporealist. therefore. by the real. on every side. one and many. nor is anything going to come into being in the future. 8). The Method of Parmenides The great novelty in the poem of Parmenides is the method of argument. It could not cease to be corporealist. He lays down that Parmenides was driven to take up the position that the One was immovable just because no one had yet imagined there was any reality other than the sensible. 88. you must think of something. It is true that if we resolve to allow nothing but what we can understand. and that the one remains at rest in itself. and condensation. It must be uncreated and indestructible.

indeed. and there is nothing beyond it. "What he offered were the Opinions of Mortals. Hence. We see from this that the primary substance of which the early cosmologists were in search has now become a sort of "thing in itself. The appearances of multiplicity and motion." This is how Theophrastus put the matter. is not convincing either. are illusions. What appears later as the elements of Empedocles. meant to give the belief of "the many. spherical. and this description did not merely cover other people's opinions. or that. "The many" are as far as possible from believing in an elaborate dualism such as Parmenides expounded." His explanation however. but it was a natural way of speaking to call the cosmology of the Second Part of the poem that of Parmenides. The Beliefs of "Mortals" It is commonly held that. as some have said. It included his own as well. and it is a highly artificial hypothesis to assume that he wished to show how the popular view of the world could best be systematized. is just the Parmenidean "being. in the Second Part of the poem.does not exist. It need hardly be said that this is almost as great an anachronism as the Kantian parallelism suggested by Gomperz. Parmenides himself tells us in the most unequivocal language that there is no truth at all in the theory which he expounds. motionless corporeal plenum. on the contrary. the so-called "homoeomeries" of Anaxagoras and the atoms of Leucippus and Democritus. too. It is equally real in every direction. and Alexander seems to have spoken of the cosmology as something which Parmenides himself regarded as wholly false. the Peripatetic tradition was that Parmenides. is a finite. in the Second Part of his poem. 90. Parmenides. Parmenides offered a dualistic theory of the origin of things as his own conjectural explanation of the sensible world. finds adherents. What is. and that he gives it merely as the belief of "mortals. Any other would be in one direction more than in another. all materialism depends on his view of reality." Now it is true that in one place Aristotle appears to countenance a view of this sort. so it is necessary to point out that the beliefs in question are only called "the opinions of mortals" for the very simple reason that the 94 . Nor is it really Aristotle's view. At any rate. who regarded the Way of Truth as an account of the intelligible world." It never quite lost this character again. 89. the "father of idealism". It still. it is spherical. the Father of Materialism To sum up." Parmenides is not. though preferable to that of Simplicius. His hearers would understand in what sense this was meant. and the Way of Opinion as a description of the sensible. "The many" would hardly be convinced of their error by having their beliefs presented to them in a form they would certainly fail to recognize them in. The other view comes from the Neoplatonists." It was this that led Theophrastus to speak of it as the opinion of "the many. seems the most incredible interpretation of all. This. however. as Gomperz says. and the sphere is the only form that meets this condition. but nevertheless it is an anachronism. as far as they were not confined to the unassailable ground of an apparent philosophical necessity. empty space and time. and especially Simplicius. He was well aware that Parmenides did not admit the existence of "not-being" in any degree whatever.

and it was not. that there are really only two ways that can be thought of. then. if we find in Parmenides ideas wholly unconnected with his own view of the world. and so no opinion of mortals will ever get the better of him (fr. The entire history of Pythagoreanism up to the end of the fifth century B. and if we find precisely the same ideas in later Pythagoreanism. Here it becomes important to remember that he had been a Pythagorean himself. The goddess tells him that he must learn of those beliefs also "how one ought to pass right through all things and judge the things that seem to be. Now. but. Pythagoras came from Samos. 95 . and it was necessary for him to instruct his disciples in the system they might be called upon to oppose. He is to learn these beliefs. and it is certainly to them that we should expect Parmenides to define his attitude." must be the system of Heraclitus. In any case. in the absence of evidence to the contrary. we have to note that Parmenides forbids two ways of research.C. and we have seen that the second of these. the Pythagoreans were far more serious opponents at that date in Italy. they could not reject it intelligently without a knowledge of it. In any case. In such cases men commonly feel the necessity of showing where their old views were wrong. but his statements require. in which he forbids the second way of inquiry. is certainly conjectural. which is also expressly ascribed to "mortals. It has been pointed out (§ 53) that the idea of the world breathing came from Anaximenes.speaker is a goddess. why he should have thought it worth while to put into hexameters a view he believed to be false. so far as we can see. Now it is admitted by every one that there are Pythagorean ideas in the Second Part of the poem. He implies. the most natural inference will be that the later Pythagoreans derived these views from their predecessors. and this Parmenides had to supply himself. to find that the other way is also the system of some contemporary school. This will be confirmed if we find that they are developments of certain features in the old Ionian cosmology. and that the attempt of Heraclitus to combine them was futile. It is still not quite clear. 91. He says. We should expect. to be examined with care. however. and we need not be surprised to find traces of Anaximander too. as usual. It does not appear that Parmenides said any more about Heraclitus than the words to which we have just referred. if we were confined to what Aristotle tells us on this subject. The Dualist Cosmology The view that the Second Part of the poem of Parmenides was a sketch of contemporary Pythagorean cosmology is. Parmenides was founding a dissident school. that the whole of its cosmology comes from the same source. and it seems hard to discover any of sufficient importance at this date except the Pythagorean. incapable of rigorous demonstration. and it is therefore to be presumed. indeed. and that the poem is a renunciation of his former beliefs. it would be hard to make out a case. If we remember that the Pythagorean system at this time was handed down by oral tradition alone. in his cosmological views that he chiefly displayed originality." We get a further hint in another place. he tells us distinctly that he has passed from darkness into the light. doubtless. 8). Further. In the introductory verses. and that they formed part of the original stock-in-trade of the society. we shall see what this may mean. but it can be made extremely probable.

" We seem. We have seen that Simplicius. though Theophrastus followed him in it. The further statement of Theophrastus. then. and the doxographical tradition hard to interpret. and Fire. That which is in the middle of all the bands is also solid. at once adds "or rather Light and Darkness". and light with the Unlimited. The central circle of the mixed bands is the cause of movement and becoming to all the rest.Aet. then. ii. and he is amply home out by the fragments he quotes. we get into insuperable difficulties. VII. after mentioning Fire and Earth. must of necessity be cold. that the two elements of Parmenides were the Warm and the Cold. of course. which stands very well for the Unlimited. as many critics do. who had the poem before him (§ 85). is not. formed of the rare and the dense element respectively. but enough remains to show that here. then.)." the unreal of the First Part of the poem. That which surrounds them all was solid like a wall. however. 1 (R. 92. Parmenides himself calls one "form" Light." is the Pythagorean Air or Void. At a later stage. and that between these there were other mixed bands made up of light and darkness. to be regarded as historical. and there can be no difficulty in identifying this "boundless breath" with Darkness." "the Holder of Lots. we shall be able to see how it may have originated. The fragments are scanty. Here. if we suppose that the second of the two "forms. too. corrects Aristotle by substituting Light and Darkness for Fire and Earth. we have the traditional "opposites" of the Milesians. If. of course. and surrounded in turn by a fiery band. On the other hand. Simplicius. And that which gives definiteness to the vague darkness is certainly light or fire. we are on Pythagorean ground. misleading. and this is suggestive. Flame. Lastly. The Heavenly Bodies We must now look at the general cosmical view expounded in the Second Part of the poem." and "Necessity. we get a very good explanation of Aristotle's identification of it with "what is not.first of all. that the Pythagorean distinction between the Limit and the Unlimited. In this he is so far justified by the fragments that. P. Aristotle's identification of the dense element with "what is not. "Air" or mist was always regarded as the dark element. and this may account for the prominence given to that element by Hippasus. on the other hand. the other "form. which we shall have to consider later (Chap. and the other Night." -. since the Fire of which Parmenides speaks is. and under it is a fiery band. that the Warm was the efficient cause and the Cold the material or passive. and we have now to consider whether these can be identified with the Pythagorean Limit and Unlimited. Aristotle's identification of these with Fire and Earth is. we identify darkness with the Limit. warm." the one which should not have been "named. Aetius says: Parmenides held that there were bands crossing one another and encircling one another. We have seen good reason to believe (§ 58) that the idea of the world breathing belonged to the earliest form of Pythagoreanism. 126). is not easy to reconcile with the view that it is earth. made its first appearance in this crude form. We may probably conclude. to be justified in neglecting the identification of the dense element with earth for the present. with the poem of Parmenides before him. 96 . He calls it "the goddess who directs their course. 7." which has all the opposite qualities.

"is the goddess who steers the course of all things. Simplicius. and it looks as if there was some confusion here. till Aristotle turned the geometrical construction which Eudoxus had set up as a hypothesis "to save appearances" (sôzein ta phainomena) into real things. in fact. exclude the identi97 . as is clear from the language he uses. These last words would then be a simple repetition of the statement that the narrower circles are filled with unmixed fire. which might certainly be interpreted to mean that between the bands of fire there were bands of night with a portion of fire in them. The expression "like a wall" would be highly inappropriate in that case. but it seems incredible that it should be used of spheres. in the first place. and that each has its portion of fire rushing in the midst of it. and we should have a fairly exact description of the "wheels" of Anaximander. It may be doubted whether these statements are based on anything else than fr. We seem." says Parmenides. to be face to face with something like the "wheels" of Anaximander." The fact is. That may be right. Nor is evidence lacking that the Pythagoreans did regard the heavenly bodies in this way. which must mean "rim. In this very passage we are told that what is in the middle of all the bands is solid. then. If is not likely that either of them had anything better to go upon than the words of Parmenides himself. We are next told that these "bands" encircle one another or are folded over one another. there is no evidence that anyone ever adopted the theory of celestial spheres. in the Homeric Hymn to Ares. while Theophrastus could not do that. and these are ambiguous. but bands or strips crossing each other at an angle. that is to say. In Plato's Myth of Er. but I think it rather more natural to understand the passage as saying that the narrower circles are surrounded by wider circles of night.93. 94. but of the "lips" of concentric whorls fitted into one another like a nest of boxes. 12. At this date. The data furnished by Theophrastus. that light and darkness are exactly the same thing as the rare and the dense. because he knew and stated that Parmenides described the earth as round and in the center of the world. The Goddess "In the middle of those. in the center of the world. In the Timaeus there are no spheres either. Now it is to be observed. we do not hear of spheres." Aetius explains this to mean in the middle of the "mixed bands. which is certainly Pythagorean in its general character. which seems to have been composed under Pythagorean influence. identified this goddess with the Pythagorean Hestia or central fire. spheres would not have served to explain anything that could not be explained more simply without them. It does not appear." while Simplicius declares that it means in the middle of all the bands. the word used for the orbit of the planet is antux. either. The Stephanae Now it is quite unjustifiable to regard these "bands" as spheres. and that they are made of the rare and the dense element. and it is highly probable that Pythagoras adopted the theory from him. Lastly. We also learn that between them are "mixed bands" made up of light and darkness. that the solid circle which surrounds all the crowns is to be regarded as spherical. The word stephanai can mean "rims" or "brims" or anything of that sort.

unfortunately without quoting the actual words. We shall come to it again in Empedocles." We know already that she "steers the course of all things. it is certain that Parmenides went on to describe how the other gods were born and how they fell. 11. and not to the beliefs of "the many. and which may well have been Pythagorean. that any theory shall account for what was evidently no inconsiderable portion of the poem. Such things belong to theological speculation. Whether we believe in the "mixed bands" or not makes no difference in this respect. It is to be noticed further that in fr. Nor does it seem fitting to relegate a goddess to the middle of a solid spherical earth. and the whole theory of wheels or bands was probably suggested by the Milky Way. and this agrees very well with the prominent way in which it is mentioned in fr. who discovered the identity of the evening and morning star. We cannot say that what is in the middle of all the bands is solid. that we must think of the Milky Way as a band intermediate between those of the Sun and the Moon. raising that vexed question. It seems to me. Agathon couples Parmenides with Hesiod as a narrator of ancient deeds of violence committed by the gods. 10 we read how Ananke took the heavens and compelled them to hold fast the fixed courses of the stars. Now she is identified with one of the bands in a somewhat confused passage of Cicero. that she sends souls at one time from the light to the unseen world. We must ask. It would be difficult to describe more exactly what the goddess does in the Myth of Er. Simplicius adds. Physiology 98 . Without. Lastly. and so here once more we seem to be on Pythagorean ground. It is better not to be too positive about the other details. 95. however. We are further told by Aetius that this goddess was called Ananke and the "Holder of Lots. she occupied a position midway between the earth and the heavens. If Parmenides was expounding the Pythagorean theology. I think. So we shall find that in Empedocles it is an ancient oracle or decree of Ananke that causes the gods to fall and become incarnate in a cycle of births. and that in fr. and according to others Parmenides. 12 we are told that she is the beginner of all pairing and birth. for the statement of Aetius that she was in the middle of the mixed bands undoubtedly implies that she was between earth and heaven. in fr.fication of the goddess with the central fire altogether. Besides all this. according to Theophrastus. we may lay down with some confidence that. In Plato's Symposium. but it seems hopeless to explain it on any of the other theories which have been advanced on the purpose of the Way of Belief. at another from the unseen world to the light. therefore. that she regulates the motions of the celestial bands." that is. We should be more certain of the place this goddess occupies in the universe if we could be sure where Ananke is in the Myth of Er. 13 we hear that she created Eros first of all the gods. this is just what we should expect. and that under it there is again a fiery band. an idea which we know to be Orphic." Still less can we think it probable that Parmenides made up these stories himself to show what the popular view of the world really implied if properly formulated. though it is interesting to notice that according to some it was Pythagoras.

as is proved by one of the scanty fragments of his book. Parmenides was obliged. that he was a Pythagorean. to say a good deal about physiological matters. He knew the importance of air for the sense of hearing. males came from the right side and females from the left. His theories of the special senses are of great interest. In the first place. In the first place. In any case. 96. Women had more of the warm and men of the cold. but we learn two things from it. We also know the name of a very distinguished medical writer who lived at Croton in the days between Pythagoras and Parmenides. he dedicated his work to the heads of the Pythagorean Society. from which the warm has been removed. though we have no means of knowing where he drew the line between them. though he called it the void. and. a view which Hippocrates and Plato adopted from him. what is characteristic of Greek theories of vision as a whole. the gods have certainty. so that even corpses.. " The quotation unfortunately ends in this abrupt way. though he points out that he seems either to have derived his theory of opposites from the Pythagoreans or they theirs from him. Some curious views with regard to generation were also stated. We find in him already. and in the second place. though Empedocles. but. Aristotle. though the nerves were not yet recognized as such. but as landmarks by which we can trace the origin and growth of one of the most influential of medical theories. we know that Croton was famous for its doctors. Alcmaeon's importance really lies in the fact that he is the founder of empirical psychology.. as we see from the fragments. and the Stoics reverted to the more primitive view that the heart is the central organ of sense.In describing the views of his contemporaries. the attempt to combine the view of vision as a radiation proceeding from the eye with that which attributes it to an image reflected in the eye. he was intimately connected with the society. Alcmaeon of Croton Aristotle tells us that Alcmaeon of Croton was a young man in the old age of Pythagoras. man was composed of the warm and the cold. and point to the fact that one of its leading schools stood in close relation with the Pythagorean Society. Like everything else. As to things invisible and things mortal. We have authority for saying that he practiced dissection. it was known that there were certain "passages" (poroi) which might be prevented from communicating sensations to the brain by lesions. It is the proportion of the warm and cold in men that determines the character of their thought. He also distinguished between sensation and understanding. spoke these words to Brotinus and Leon and Bathyllus. 99 . and death was caused by the removal of the warm. retain a perception of what is cold and dark. son of Perithous. a thoroughly Pythagorean touch. He regarded the brain as the common sensorium. so far as men may infer . that which explains health as a balance of opposites. Even before the days of Pythagoras. He does not actually say. and the few facts we are told about him enable us to regard the physiological views described by Parmenides not as isolated curiosities. as later writers do. It began as follows: "Alcmaeon of Croton. a view we shall find Empedocles contradicting. These fragments of information do not tell us much when taken by themselves. There is no reason to doubt that he made this discovery by anatomical means. Alcmaeon possessed that reserve which marks all the best Greek medical writers. but they connect themselves in an interesting way with the history of medicine.

He seems. that "most things human were two. It doubtless stood in close connection with his saying that soul was immortal because it resembled immortal things. we see that he had not gone very far beyond the Milesians in such matters. and we shall have to consider in the sequel its influence on the development of Pythagoreanism. the moist and the dry. and also that which had the greatest influence on the subsequent development of philosophy. we were right in holding that the Second Part of the poem of Parmenides represents the view of Pythagoras. His astronomy seems very crude for one who stood in close relations with the Pythagoreans. The orbits of the heavenly bodies always come full circle. Taken along with the theory of "pores.With regard to the other senses. We are told that he adopted Anaximenes' theory of the sun and Heraclitus's explanation of eclipses." it is of the greatest importance for later science.while health was the establishment in the body of a free government with equal laws. but sufficient to show that he treated the subject systematically. and the rest of the opposites. that the soul has circles in it revolving just as the heavens and the planets do. His theory of the heavenly bodies was still "meteorological. This was the leading doctrine of the Sicilian school of medicine. our information is more scanty. however. Alcmaeon's theory of health as "isonomy" is at once that which most clearly connects him with earlier inquirers like Anaximander." and by this he meant that man was made up of the hot and the cold. Disease was just the "monarchy" of any one of these -. 100 . which he may have learnt from Pythagoras. If.the same thing that Anaximander had called "injustice" -. He observed. would naturally be suggested by the difficulties we noted in the system of Anaximander. and was always in motion like the heavenly bodies. to be the author of the curious view Plato put into the mouth of the Pythagorean Timaeus. This view. This too seems to be the explanation of his further statement that man dies because he cannot join the beginning to the end. but the circles in the human head may fail to complete themselves." It is all the more remarkable that Alcmaeon is credited with the view that the planets have an orbital motion in the opposite direction to the diurnal revolution of the heavens. to begin with. in fact.

7 EMPEDOCLES OF ACRAGAS .

we can be said to know is. The Sicilian historian Timaeus seems to have treated these fully. though we have no clear knowledge of what he did. according to the best accounts. Those who still held by it adopted a critical attitude. the date of Theron's death. All. Pluralism The belief that all things are one was common to the early Ionians. but there are reasons for thinking that his date is considerably too late. and we are told. But we are not bound to believe that he was just forty years old at the time. we must give up the idea that it can take different forms. but now Parmenides has shown that. Like all popular traditions. some continued to expound the systems of the early Milesians. 102 . said Empedocles visited the new city shortly after its foundation. Empedocles as a Politician Empedocles certainly played an important part in the political events which followed the death of Theron. in particular. There seemed to be no escape from his arguments. That is the date of the foundation of Thourioi. was Meton. and confined themselves to a defense of the theory of Parmenides against the new views..).C. (496-95 B. That is the usual assumption of Apollodorus. and tells some stories which are obviously genuine traditions picked up about a hundred and fifty years afterwards. they are a little confused.C. but the leading men are all pluralists. LXXI. and he may well have been more than forty years old when that happened.perhaps some oligarchical association or club. we see that Empedocles was the great democratic leader at Acragas in those days. The picturesque incidents are remembered. therefore. and it appears from the quotation in Diogenes that the fifth-century biographer. which present to us a world of change and multiplicity. but the essential parts of the story are dropped. 99. At any rate. however. 98." as his critics called him. He was the only native citizen of a Dorian state who plays an important part in the history of philosophy. I (444-43 B. His father's name. are deceitful. It is more likely that Empedocles did not go to Thourioi till after his banishment from Acragas. It may have been for this that he was offered the kingship. LXXXIV.97. Date of Empedocles Empedocles was a citizen of Acragas in Sicily. and so we find that from this time onwards all the thinkers in whose hands philosophy made progress abandoned the monistic hypothesis. has enabled us to measure the historical importance of Empedocles for ourselves by showing us how he was pictured by the great-grandchildren of his contemporaries. and that he died later than 444. Still. Glaucus of Rhegion. we may be thankful that the "collector of old wives' tales.C. that he himself was active at Acragas after 472. also called Empedocles. All the tales are intended to show the strength of his democratic convictions. The senses. that he broke up the assembly of the Thousand -. His grandfather. The corporealist hypothesis had proved unable to bear the weight of a monistic structure. that his grandfather was still alive in 496 B. had won a victory in the horse-race at Olympia in 01. which Aristotle tells us he refused. and Apollodorus fixed the floruit of Empedocles himself in 01. Others taught the doctrine of Heraclitus in an exaggerated form. if this one thing really is.).

It seems most likely. A more external characteristic of the medicine taught by the followers of Empedocles is that they still clung to ideas of a magical nature. and had considerable influence on him. there is no reason to doubt the statement of Ammonius that fr. 129 refers to Pythagoras. and still more on Aristotle. The heart. and that the act of respiration is closely connected with the motion of the blood. however. Empedocles was not a mere statesman. if that is so. Further. that Empedocles preached a form of Pythagoreanism which was not considered orthodox by the heads of the Society. It has been said that Empedocles had no successors. he had a good deal of the "medicine-man" about him. who profess to be very religious. Orphicism seems to have been strong at Acragas in the days of Theron. 134 refers to Apollo. Timaeus already knew the story that Empedocles had been expelled from the Pythagorean Order for "stealing discourses.100. Rhetoric and Medicine Aristotle said that Empedocles was the inventor of Rhetoric. Gorgias affirmed that he had been present when his master was performing sorceries. Empedocles as a Religious Teacher But there is another side to his public character which Timaeus found it hard to reconcile with his political views. Empedocles was a preacher of the new religion which sought to secure release from the "wheel of birth" by purity and abstinence." and it is probable on the whole that fr. Relation to Predecessors 103 . and to receive the homage of his fellow-citizens in that capacity. Its fundamental doctrine was the identification of the four elements with the hot and the cold. the whole tendency of scientific thinking. A protest against this by a member of the Koan school has been preserved." 102. the moist and the dry. and the remark is true if we confine ourselves strictly to philosophy. through it. According to Satyrus. Both these statements must be considered in connection with his political and scientific activity. and there are even some verbal coincidences between the poems of Empedocles and the Orphicising Odes which Pindar addressed to that prince. His influence on the development of medicine was. it points to his having been an adherent of the Ionic form of the mystic doctrine. far more important. but. was regarded as the organ of consciousness. were marked by that euphuism which Gorgias introduced to Athens at a later date. and. It also held that we breathe through all the pores of the body. 101. as it affected not only medicine itself. and also that the speeches. It is probable that Gorgias was his disciple. He refers to them as "magicians and purifiers and charlatans and quacks. The truth is. which he puts on a level with those of Kos and Cnidos. but the medical school he founded was still living in the days of Plato. as we have seen (§ 39) Pythagoras was. He claimed to be a god. then. of which he must have made many. On the other hand. We can see what this means from the fragments of the Purifications. and Galen made him the founder of the Italian school of Medicine. not the brain. and which gave rise to the idea of an artistic prose. The actual marvels related of him seem to be mere developments of hints in his poems.

I give the remains as they are arranged by Diels: (1) And do thou give ear. Of course. or. No doubt Alcidamas said "Pythagoreans. 103. of which about 2000 belonged to the former work. the poetical imagery creates a difficulty for the interpreter. Pausanias. at Thourioi. Theophrastus too made him a follower and imitator of Parmenides. but it cannot be said that it is harder to extract the philosophical kernel from the verses of Empedocles than from the prose of Heraclitus. however. Both stories would easily get accepted. Empedocles did not die in Sicily. even in this favorable instance. the librarians of Alexandria estimated the Poem on Nature and the Purifications together as 5000 verses. This appears to be a malicious version of a tale set on foot by his adherents that he had been snatched up to heaven in the night. were due to the influence of Leucippus. we hear nothing of his theory of nature. son of Anchitus the wise! 104 . made him a fellow-student of Zeno under Parmenides. The only hints we get are some statements about his teachers. 105. But the further statement that he had "heard" Pythagoras cannot be right. if we leave the satirist Xenophanes out of account. Diels gives about 350 verses and parts of verses from the cosmological poem. but in the Peloponnese. It is important to remember that. Writings Empedocles was the second philosopher to expound his system in verse. The other poems ascribed to Empedocles by the Alexandrian scholars were probably not his. The Remains We have more abundant remains of Empedocles than of any other early Greek philosopher. just as Empedocles imitated Parmenides. in particular the theory of pores and effluvia (§ 118). We can generally see that those reached Ionia through the medical school which Empedocles founded. Death We are told that Empedocles leapt into the crater of Etna that he might be deemed a god. Alcidamas. He was also the last among the Greeks. this is more in accordance with the history of certain other physiological views which are common to Alcmaeon and the later Ionian philosophers. Moreover. and the elder Critias adopted one of his characteristic theories. so much has been lost. 104. that Alcmaeon (§ 96) spoke of "pores" in connection with sensation. Lucretius imitates Empedocles in this. We know. or not a fifth of the whole. perhaps. for the forged Pythagorean poems may be neglected. Plato represents Socrates as familiar with his views in early life. It is not at all unlikely that he visited Athens. who had good opportunities of knowing. and it was more probably from him that Empedocles got the theory.In the biography of Empedocles. If we may trust our manuscripts of Diogenes and of Souidas. for there was no local tradition." Some writers hold that certain parts of the system of Empedocles.

R. so hardly grasped by their mind! Howbeit. do I beseech that I may hear what is lawful for the children of a day! Speed me on my way from the abode of Holiness and drive my willing car! Thee shall no garlands of glory and honor at the hands of mortals constrain to lift them from the ground. Hallow my lips and make a pure strewn flow from them! And thee. turn aside from my tongue the madness of those men.for they have no far-reaching thoughts -. There is no substance of any of all the things that perish. R. when my words have been divided in thy heart. and so to gain a seat upon the heights of wisdom. Do thou learn as the sure testimonies of my Muse bid thee. So hardly can these things be seen by the eyes or heard by the ears of men. (6) Hear first the four roots of all things: shining Zeus.who deem that what before was not comes into being. (5) But it is all too much the way of low minds to disbelieve their betters. (7) . but consider everything in the way it is clear. P. (8) And I shall tell thee another thing.(2) For straitened are the powers that are spread over their bodily parts. that that is to be born. 164. or that aught can perish and be utterly destroyed. to keep within thy dumb heart. R. (4) But. 12) Fools! -. white-armed Virgin Muse. since thou hast found thy way hither. 163. (10) Avenging death. uncreated. P.. 163. P. thou. O ye gods. 165. P. For it cannot be that aught can arise 105 . Hold not thy sight in greater credit as compared with thy hearing. (11. (9) But they (hold?) that when Light and Air (chance?) to have been mingled in the fashion of a man. Each is convinced of that alone which he had chanced upon as he is hurried every way. much-wooed. and idly boasts he has found the whole. Aidoneus and Nestis whose tear-drops are a well-spring to mortals. are borne up and fly off like smoke. Go to now. lifebringing Hera. shalt learn no more than mortal mind hath power. and when these things have been separated once more.. on condition of speaking in thy pride beyond that which is lawful and right. R. (3) . Substance is but a name given to these things by men. They are only a mingling and interchange of what has been mingled... and many are the woes that burst in on them and blunt the edge of their careful thoughts! They behold but a brief span of a life that is no life. nor any cessation for them of baneful death. doomed to swift death. and. and do not withhold thy confidence in any of thy other bodily parts by which there is an opening for understanding. they call it (wrongly?) woeful death. I follow the custom and call it so myself. consider with all thy powers in what way each thing is clear. nor value thy resounding ear above the clear instructions of thy tongue. or in the fashion of the race of wild beasts or of plants or birds.

There is a double becoming of perishable things and a double passing away. 165 a. the other grows up and is scattered as things become divided. (16) For even as they (Strife and Love) were aforetime. when the one is parted asunder. dread Strife. ***** But come. they would not be now. for it will always be. It is she that makes them have thoughts of love and work the works of peace. At one time it grew to be one only out of many. They call her by the names of joy and Aphrodite. nor ever. so too they shall be. could aught come to increase it? (15) A man who is wise in such matters would never surmise in his heart that as long as mortals live what they call their life. Her do thou contemplate with thy mind. Whence. but do thou attend to the undeceitful ordering of my discourse. nor sit with dazed eyes. so far they come into being and their life abides not. for it is learning that increaseth wisdom. The coming together of all things brings one generation into being and destroys it. (13) And in the All there is naught empty and naught too full. I shall tell thee a twofold tale. (14) In the All there is naught empty. Her has no mortal yet marked moving round among them. while before they were formed and after they have been dissolved they are just nothing at all. wherever one may keep putting it. inasmuch as they never cease changing their places continually. of equal weight to each. P. and Love in their midst. and what could increase this All and whence could it come? How. 165 a. and suffer good and ill. -. apart from these. then. at another each borne in different directions by the repulsion of Strife. hearken to my words. P. R. R. nor do they pass away. at another.from what in no way is. at one time all uniting in one through Love. As I said before. too. 166 c. yet each has a different prerogative and its own peculiar nature.Fire and Water and Earth and the mighty height of Air. so far they are ever immovable as they go round the circle of existence. so long they are. At one time it grew together to be one only out of many. methinks. at another it parted asunder so as to be many instead of one. will boundless time be emptied of that pair. as far as it is their nature to grow into one out of many. since 106 . And these things never cease continually changing places. And nothing comes into being besides these. P. For all these are equal and alike in age. equal in length and breadth. (17) I shall tell thee a twofold tale. when I declared the heads of my discourse. it divided up to be many instead of one. and it is impossible and unheard of that what is should perish. R. for. could it perish. Thus. but they gain the upper hand in turn when the time comes round. It is she that is known as being implanted in the frame of mortals. too. and to become many once more. But. if they had been passing away continually.

that live long lives. look at the things that bear witness to my earlier discourse. yea. Behold the rain. that there is any other source of all the perishable creatures that appear in countless numbers. and sea -. Know this for sure. mix them in due proportion. P. since it hath wrought their birth. 173 d. they take different shapes -. P. When they are in strife all these are different in form and separated. and from the earth issue forth things close-pressed and solid. Those things. R. beasts and birds and fishes that dwell in the waters. R. not to travel only one path of words to the end. at another. and are desired by one another.trees and men and women. but. beasts and birds and the fishes that dwell in the waters.no place is empty of these things? There are these alone. and are exalted in honor. they wander each alone by the breakers of life's sea. mixture and the forms imprinted on each. And even so all things that are more adapted for mixture are like to one another and united in love by Aphrodite. yea. (22) For all of these -.so much does mixture change them. and gods. R. they become now this. again. (21) Come now. running through one another. for thou hast heard the tale from a goddess. and the gods that live long lives and are exalted in honor. when they have taken pigments of many colors with their hands. men whom wisdom hath well taught their art. with the beasts that have their lairs on the hills and the seabirds that sail on wings. P. if so be that there was any shortcoming as to their form in the earlier list. now that and like things evermore. (20) This (the contest of Love and Strife) is manifest in the mass of mortal limbs. -. (19) Clinging Love. R.. 166 g. more of some and less of others. P. 107 . 166 i. but they come together in love. Behold the sun. and all the immortal things that are bathed in heat and bright radiance. and from them produce shapes like unto all things. everywhere dark and cold. It is the same with plants and the fish that make their homes in the waters. For there are these alone. (18) Love. 166. At one time all the limbs that are the body's portion are brought together by Love in blooming life's high season. earth. severed by cruel Strife. are most hostile. running through one another. that differ most in origin. For out of these have sprung all things that were and are and shall be -. (24) Stepping from summit to summit.they. -. (23) Just as when painters are elaborating temple-offerings.. but. being altogether unaccustomed to unite and very sorry by the bidding of Strife.so let not the error prevail over thy mind. making trees and men and women. sky. everywhere bright and warm.are at one with all their parts that are cast far and wide from them in mortal things..sun.

but he was spherical and equal on every side. R. rejoicing in his circular solitude. P. spherical and round.. for all the limbs of the god in turn quaked. 167. R. and again divided become more than one. rejoicing in his circular solitude. (27a) There is no discord and no unseemly strife in his limbs.. -. When Strife was fallen to the lowest depth of the vortex. At one time they are all brought together into one order by Love. (30. a soft. and some had passed out from the limbs of the All. and straightway those things became mortal which had 108 . 167. at another. . But in proportion as it kept rushing out.(25) What is right may well be said even twice. immovable in the circle. and pass into one another. immortal stream of blameless Love kept running in. (27) There (in the sphere) are distinguished neither the swift limbs of the sun. alternating with the things that were being mixed. no. drawing from my saying a new saying. no fruitful parts. (29) Two branches do not spring from his back. all that Strife not fallen yet retained. Yet many things remained unmixed. P. (33) Even as when fig juice rivets and binds white milk. running through one another. 31) But when Strife was grown great in the limbs of the god and sprang forth to claim his prerogatives. and.. till they grow once more into one and are wholly subdued. (34) Cementing meal with water. (26) For they prevail in turn as the circle comes round. they are carried each in different directions by the repulsion of Strife. but coming together at their will each from different quarters.. nor the sea... strife began to pass out to the furthest limit. (32) The joint binds two things. for it had not yet altogether retired perfectly from them to the outermost boundaries of the circle. not all at once. namely. spherical and round. R. nor the shaggy earth in its might. so far they come into being and their life is not lasting.so fast was the god bound in the close covering of Harmony. P. as they mingled. but insofar as they never cease changing continually. 36) But now I shall retrace my steps over the paths of song that I have traveled before. Thus in so far as they are wont to grow into one out of many.. but. in the fulness of the alternate time set for them by the mighty oath. no swift knees.. 166 c. (28) But he was equal on every side and quite without end. they become men and the tribes of beasts. and Love had reached to the center of the whirl. so far are they evermore. (35. he has no feet. There are these alone. Some of it still remained within. in it do all things come together so as to be one only. and grow great in their appointed turn.

169. as they mingled. (42) And she cuts off his rays as he goes above her.. (41) But (the sunlight) is gathered together and circles round the mighty heavens. and casts a shadow on as much of the earth as is the breadth of the pale-faced moon. 171 a.been immortal before. (54) But the air sank down upon the earth with its long roots. 109 . R. R. though often otherwise. (37) Earth increases its own mass. (55) Sea the sweat of the earth. I shall now tell thee first of all the beginning of the sun. P. (43) Even so the sunbeam. (45. (44) It flashes back to Olympus with untroubled countenance. running so as to reach the sky.. (51) (Fire) swiftly rushing upwards . I70 b. (49) . (40) The sharp-darting sun and the gentle moon. the damp vapor and the Titan air that binds his circle fast round all things. R. P. P. returns at once. of solitary.. a foolish saying which has been vainly dropped from the lips of many mortals.. (38) Come. the earth and the billowy sea. 171 a. P. R. And. (48) It is the earth that makes night by coming before the lights. and the sources from which have sprung all the things we now behold. (50) And Iris bringeth wind or mighty rain from the sea. (39) If the depths of the earth and the vast air were infinite. countless tribes of mortal creatures were scattered abroad endowed with all manner of forms. having struck the broad and mighty circle of the moon. 46) There circles round the earth a round borrowed light. 170 a. P.. R. P. and Air swells the bulk of Air. R. P. R. 170 c. R. blind-eyed night. a wonder to behold. 103 b. as the nave of the wheel circles round the furthest (goal). those things were mixed that had before been un-mixed. each changing its path. though they have seen but a little of the All. (53) For so it (the air) chanced to be running at that time. P... 171 a. (52) And many fires burn beneath the earth. (47) For she gazes at the sacred circle of the lordly sun opposite.

(56) Salt was solidified by the impact of the sun's beams. R. (68) On the tenth day of the eighth month it turns to a white putrefaction.. 173 b. (69) Double bearings (70) Sheepskin. part of it in men's (and part in women's body). for my tale is not off the point nor uninformed. out of Water and Earth and Air and Fire mingled together. (60) Shambling creatures with countless hands. Eyes strayed up and down in want of foreheads. P. But the substance of (the child's) limbs is divided between them. These did the fire.. hear how the Fire as it was separated caused the night-born shoots of men and tearful women to arise. send up. offspring of oxen with faces of men. P. (58) Solitary limbs wandered seeking for union. 173 a. (59) But.. and creatures in whom the nature of women and men was mingled. (66) The divided meadows of Aphrodite. (71) But if thy assurance of these things was in any way deficient as to how. arose the forms and colors of all those mortal things that have been fitted together by Aphrodite. and many other things besides them continually arose. these things joined together as each might chance. and when it met with cold women arose from it. R. furnished with sterile parts. desirous of reaching its like. 110 . (57) On it (the earth) many heads sprung up without necks and arms wandered bare and bereft of shoulders. and so are now come into being. nor yet the voice and parts that are proper to men. (63) .. And it was poured out in the purified parts. Whole-natured forms first arose from the earth. (64) And upon him came desire reminding him through sight. as divinity was mingled still further with divinity. 173 c. and that is why men are dark and more manly and shaggy. some.. arose as offspring of men with the heads of oxen. again.. (61) Many creatures with faces and breasts looking in different directions were born. having a portion both of water and fire. showing as yet neither the charming form of the limbs. P. (67) For in its warmer part the womb brings forth males. (65) . R. (62) Come now.. while others.

R. P. (76) This thou mayest see in the heavy-backed shell-fish that dwell in the sea. shines across the threshold with unfailing beams. P. and thick feathers of birds. (85) But the gentle flame (of the eye) has but a scanty portion of earth.. (74) Leading the songless tribe of fertile fish. (87) Aphrodite fitting these together with rivets of love.(72) How tall trees and the fishes in the sea . preparing warmth. after she had moistened the Earth in water. 171.. (77-78) It is moisture that makes evergreen trees flourish with abundance of fruit the whole year round. are the same thing. 166 h. R. R.. (79) And so first of all tall olive trees bear eggs. and they scatter the blast of the winds that blow. (84) And even as when a man thinking to sally forth through a stormy night. having received a flaccidity of this kind at the hands of Cypris. In them thou mayest see that the earthy part dwells on the uppermost surface of the skin. (81) Wine is the water from the bark. They keep out the deep water that surrounds the pupil. and the scales that grow on mighty limbs. (83) But the hair of hedgehogs is sharp-pointed and bristles on their backs. gave it to swift fire to harden it. as much of it as is finer. a flame of blazing fire. but the light leaping out through them. which are pierced through and through with wondrous passages. (73) And even as at that time Cypris. the round pupil.... (75) All of those which are dense within and rare without. (89) Know that effluences flow from all things that have come into being.. (80) Wherefore pomegranates are late-born and apples succulent... even so did she (Love) then entrap the elemental fire. fastening to it horn plates to keep out all manner of winds. (82) Hair and leaves. but they let through the fire. (86) Out of these divine Aphrodite fashioned unwearying eyes. gets him ready a lantern. 111 .. as much of it as is finer. P.. in sea-snails and the stony-skinned turtles. 177 h. (88) One vision is produced by both the eyes. putrefied in the wood. confined within membranes and delicate tissues.

till she lets go with her hand. playing with a water-clock of shining brass. anchoring in the perfect harbors of Aphrodite. So arose white bones divinely fitted together by the cement of proportion. 112 . (100) Thus do all things draw breath and breathe it out again. the fleshy sprout (of the ear). (99) The bell . but then air escapes and an equal volume of water runs in. puts the orifice of the pipe upon her comely hand. when water occupies the depths of the brazen vessel and the opening and passage is stopped up by the human hand. R. with Hephaestus and Water and gleaming Air -. just in the opposite way to what happened before.the stream does not then flow into the vessel. the wind rushes in and an equal volume of water runs out to make room. Then. 175 c. -. 175. but it will not (mingle) with oil. Even so. so as to keep in the blood while a free passage is cut for the air to pass through. (92) Copper mixed with tin.just in the same way. Then. and warm couples with warm. and when the blood runs back it is breathed out again. (98) And the earth. pressing upon its surface. keeps it out till she uncovers the compressed stream. on the contrary. R. P. acid comes to acid. P. holds the water back at the gates of the ill-sounding neck. All have bloodless tubes of flesh extended over the surface of their bodies. and four of Hephaestus. (93) The bloom of scarlet dye mingles with the grey linen. (96) The kindly earth received in its broad funnels two parts of gleaming Nestis out of the eight. or less of them and more of it. From these did blood arise and the manifold forms of flesh. the air outside. (91) Water fits better into wine. the bubbling air rushes in with an impetuous surge.. meets with these in nearly equal proportions. (95) Since they (the eyes) first grew together in the hands of Cypris. (97) The spine (was broken). 166 h. pressing upon the close-packed perforations. and dips the waterclock into the yielding mass of silvery water -. Just as when a girl. straightway the stream of air comes in with a rushing swell. and at the mouths of these the outermost surface of the skin is perforated all over with pores closely packed together. when the thin blood that surges through the limbs rushes backwards to the interior. R. striving to get in. when the thin blood recedes from these. but the bulk of the air inside.. and bitter rushes to bitter. but when the blood runs back the air breathes out again in equal quantity. The same is seen in hollow caves.either a little more of it.(90) So sweet lays hold of sweet. P. (94) And the black color at the bottom of a river arises from the shadow.

R. Purifications (112) Friends. by fire destroying Fire. and again thou shalt change the summer drought for streams that feed the trees as they pour down from the sky. 176. R. and by these do men think and feel pleasure and pain. But if thou strivest after things of another kind. R. (106) For the wisdom of men grows according to what is before them. 177. (111) And thou shalt learn all the drugs that are a defense against ills and old age. where is each man's true nature. as it is the way with men that ten thousand sorry matters blunt their careful thoughts. (108) And just so far as they grow to be different. when thou so desirest. (105) (The heart). where chiefly is what men call thought. that inhabit the great town looking down on the yellow rock of Acragas. no mortal now. and the breath from their feet that they leave in the soft grass. P. and Water with water. and again. for the blood round the heart is the thought of men. For these things grow of themselves into thy heart. both men and women. Thou shalt bring back from Hades the life of a dead man. honored among all as is meet. up by the citadel. all hail. into 113 . dwelling in the sea of blood that runs in opposite directions. P. (110) For if. P. for they long to return once more to their own kind. R. And inasmuch as the rarest things came together in their fall. and thou shalt gain many others from them. men unskilled in meanness. Straightway. supported on thy steadfast mind. for know that all things have wisdom and a share of thought. whenever I enter with these in my train. 178 a. (103. (109) For it is with earth that we see Earth. harbors of honor for the stranger... P.. by air we see bright Air.(101) (The dog) with its nostrils tracking out the fragments of the beast's limbs. since for thee alone will I accomplish all this. thou wilt contemplate these things with good intent and faultless care. By love do we see Love. so far do different thoughts ever present themselves to their minds (in dreams). Thou shalt arrest the violence of the weariless winds that arise to sweep the earth and waste the fields. 177 a. (107) For out of these are all things formed and fitted together. (102) Thus all things have their share of breath and smell. soon will these things desert thee when the time comes round. then shalt thou have all these things in abundance throughout thy life. R. 178. crowned with fillets and flowery garlands. Thou shalt cause for men a seasonable drought after the dark rains. thou shalt bring back their blasts in return. and Hate by grievous hate. I go about among you an immortal god. P. busy in goodly works. 104) Thus have all things thought by fortune's will.

is reverence done me. for that I put my trust in insensate strife. Silence and Voice. the joyless land. changing their forms. a bush and a bird and a dumb fish in the sea. P. (117) For I have been ere now a boy and a girl. (122. Earth tosses him into the beams of the blazing Sun. One takes him from the other. that whenever one of the daemons. has sinfully polluted his hands with blood. Movement and Immobility. R. Sleep and Waking. R. P. bloody Discord and gentle-visaged Harmony. 182 a. but it is hard for men. I know indeed that truth is in the words I shall utter. he must wander thrice ten thousand seasons from the abodes of the blessed. (120) We have come under this roofed-in cave. 182. P. sore unblessed: such are the strifes and groanings from which ye have been born! (125) From living creatures he made them dead. R. Callisto and Aischre. Speed and Tarrying.the flourishing towns. One of these I now am. some desiring oracles. (124) Alas. an exile and a wanderer from the gods. O wretched race of mortals. and parching Plagues and Rottennesses and Floods roam in darkness over the meadow of Ate. 181. from what a height of bliss have I fallen to go about among mortals here on earth. and he flings him back to the eddies of Air. or followed strife and forsworn himself. perishable men? (114) Friends. For the mighty Air drives him into the Sea. an ancient ordinance of the gods. they go after me in countless throngs. R. who for many a weary day have been pierced by the grievous pangs of all manner of sickness. Birth and Decay. 162 f. 114 .. being born throughout the time in all manners of mortal forms.. asking of me what is the way to gain. crowned Majesty and Meanness. changing one toilsome path of life for another. (119) From what honor. (118) I wept and I wailed when I saw the unfamiliar land. R. (116) Charis loathes intolerable Necessity. 182. and all reject him. 123) There were Chthonie and far-sighted Heliope. (121) . (113) But why do I harp on these things. beg to hear from me the word of healing. eternal and sealed fast by broad oaths. as if it were any great matter that I should surpass mortal. P. whose portion is length of days. (115) There is an oracle of Necessity. P. lovely Truth and dark-haired Uncertainty. and jealous are they of the assault of belief on their souls. while some. and the Sea spews him forth on the dry Earth. where are Death and Wrath and troops of Dooms besides.

(137) And the father lifts up his own son in a changed form and slays him with a prayer.. 180. R. to eat the goodly limbs after tearing out the life.. P. no nor King Zeus nor Kronos nor Poseidon. he has no feet. 183. P. R. as I utter a pure discourse concerning the blessed gods. thou didst deign to take thought for my endeavor. and children their mother. nor hairy parts. 184 b. 184 a. R. P. (135) (This is not lawful for some and unlawful for others. twenty lifetimes of men. And the altar did not reek with pure bull's blood. both beasts and birds. (130) For all things were tame and gentle to man. (131) If ever. with painted figures and perfumes of cunning fragrancy. (127) Among beasts they become lions that make their lair on the hills and their couch on the ground. (133) It is not possible for us to set God before our eyes. R. R. with offerings of pure myrrh and sweet-smelling frankincense. through the wide-ruling air and the infinite light of heaven. R. (129) And there was among them a man of rare knowledge. (136) Will ye not cease from this ill-sounding slaughter? See ye not that ye are devouring one another in the thoughtlessness of your hearts? R. yea. 179. P. R. but he is only a sacred and unutterable mind flashing through the whole world with rapid thoughts. but Cypris the Queen.(126) (The goddess) clothing them with a strange garment of flesh. O Calliopea. (132) Blessed is the man who has gained the riches of divine wisdom. wretched he who has a dim opinion of the gods in his heart. and laurels among trees with goodly foliage. slaughters them in his halls and gets ready the evil feast. which is the broadest way of persuasion that leads into the heart of man. in ten. 115 . P. Her did they propitiate with holy gifts. begging mercy. or to lay hold of him with our hands. most skilled in all manner of wise works. 181 b. casting on the ground libations of brown honey. (128) Nor had they any Ares for a god nor Cydimus. but this was held in the greatest abomination among men. In like manner does the son seize his father. P. deaf to their cries. and friendly feelings were kindled everywhere. no swift knees. he easily saw everything of all the things that are. P. as regards the things of a day. while he. tear out their life and eat the kindred flesh. then stand by me once more as I pray to thee. 184. P.. 184 b. (134) For he is not furnished with a human head on his body. Infatuated fool! And they run up to the sacrificers. a man who had won the utmost wealth of wisdom. immortal Muse. P. (138) Draining their life with bronze. for whensoever he strained with all his mind. R. 179.) but the law for all extends everywhere. two branches do not sprout from his shoulders.

2). and princes. however.(139) Ah. but such an admission would not have served to explain anything. Empedocles speaks angrily of those who professed to have found the whole (fr. No doubt he is thinking of Parmenides. 106. Parmenides had held that what underlies the illusory world of the senses was a corporeal. that Empedocles too sets up a system which is to explain everything. reject the assistance of the senses. P. and immovable plenum. and his idea of the "Sphere" seems to be derived from the Parmenidean description of reality. and it is from this Empedocles starts. how are we to get from it to the world we know? How are we to introduce motion into the immovable plenum? Now Parmenides need not have denied the possibility of motion within the Sphere. he even calls this "madness" (fr. eternal. to find any trace of Heraclitean doctrine in it. 11-15). and will not unburden your souls of wretched sorrows. (146. 184 C. cutting the water from the five springs in the unyielding bronze R. It is not easy. they appear among mortal men as prophets. 181 c. P.. the 116 . nor yet the house of . 184 C. though he was bound to deny all motion of the Sphere itself.. If any part of the Sphere were to move. We soon discover. like Parmenides. however. 4). 184 b. continuous. at the last. Empedocles repeats. skeptical. keep your hands from beans! (142) Him will the roofed palace of aigis-bearing Zeus never rejoice. (148) . the Eleatic argument for the sole reality and indestructibility of "what is" (frs. free from human woes. (143) Wash your hands. physicians. and incapable of hurt. though that system is no longer a monistic one. It is often said that this system was an attempt to mediate between Parmenides and Heraclitus. Earth that envelops the man. 147) But. and it would be truer to say that it aimed at mediating between Eleaticism and the senses. almost in the same words. spherical. (144) Fast from wickedness! R. Empedocles and Parmenides At the very outset of his poem. And this means that we must not. He only deprecates the attempt to construct a theory of the universe off-hand instead of trying to understand each thing we come across "in the way in which it is clear" (fr. Given the sphere of Parmenides. P. sharing the hearth of the other gods and the same table. safe from destiny. and thence they rise up as gods exalted in honor.. utter wretches. 4). His own position is not.. song-writers. he seems to have said. (140) Abstain wholly from laurel leaves. (141) Wretches. woe is me that the pitiless day of death did not destroy me ere ever I wrought evil deeds of devouring with my lips! R. P. R. (145) Therefore are ye distraught by grievous wickednesses. however.

and is not to be identified with empty space on the one hand or rarefied mist on the other. Empedocles did not pray or sacrifice to the elements. Earth. 100). to use a later term. 117 . but something quite different. 6) which Empedocles assumed -. Nestis is said to have been a Sicilian watergoddess. This truth Empedocles demonstrated by means of the klepsydra. was found. that he does not call Air aêr. and Nestis" (fr. he says. and this must be because he wished to avoid confusion with what had hitherto been meant by the former word. We are already prepared to find that Empedocles called the elements gods. however. in fact. is exactly what Empedocles intended to prove. 6) -. He had. however. We must only remember that the word is not used in its religious sense. and the required formula follows at once. it could account for no change.seem to have been arrived at by making each of the traditional opposites " -. Aidoneus. We may then apply all that Parmenides says of What is to each one of these. They have no phusis of their own. Air. and the description of her shows that she stands for Water. but. They only prove. Anaxagoras seems to have been the first to use it of atmospheric air. This. would be of precisely the same kind as the body it had displaced. Nevertheless. but there is a conflict of opinion as to the other three. we cannot regard the numberless forms of being the senses present us with as ultimate realities. wet and dry -. The conception of "elements" (stoicheia). Empedocles also called the "four roots" by the names of certain divinities -." 107. it is true. The elements are immortal. That. so the only solution is to assume a limited number of ultimate forms of reality. 8). 17).into a thing which is real in the full Parmenidean sense of the word. we shall say with Parmenides that "what is" is uncreated and indestructible (fr.Fire. as our senses tell us. however. and the transitory forms of existence we know may be explained by their mingling and separation. lifebringing Hera. for there is no empty space. This.room of the displaced body must at once be taken by other body. So far as concerns particular things. The "Four Roots" The "four roots" of all things (fr. But is this assumption of perfect homogeneity in the Sphere really necessary? Evidently not. that they come into being and pass away. made the discovery that atmospheric air is a distinct corporeal substance. It will be convenient for us to translate the aithêr of Empedocles by "air". for all "that is" is one. Water is not liquid air. just as the single phusis of the Milesians was "ageless and deathless. The result of the motion would be precisely the same as that of rest. It is to be noticed.hot and cold. but we must be careful in that case not to render the word aêr in the same way. and we still possess the verses in which he applied his discovery to the explanation of respiration and the motion of the blood (fr."shining Zeus. it is simply the old unreasoned feeling that existence must be one. need not detain us. however. and are always passing away (fr. Aristotle laughs at those who try to show there is no empty space by shutting up air in water-clocks and torturing wineskins. and Water -. but aithêr. and it was one of the most important discoveries in the history of science. if we have regard to the ultimate elements of which they are composed. that air is a thing. for all the early thinkers had spoken in this way of whatever they regarded as the primary substance.though there is some doubt as to how these names are to be apportioned among the elements.

" to separate the elements. That is the stage we have now reached. from a physiological point of view. we can see for ourselves from his poem. but. we have seen. for they account for all the qualities presented by the world to the senses. that the very same Love men know in their bodies had a place among the elements. 12). nothing could ever arise from it. 118 . from an original state of the "four roots. he taught that they were unchangeable. Anaximander had no doubt regarded his "opposites" as things. when we come to the origin of the world (§ 112). the four elements are ultimate. he says. something else was needed to bring the elements together again. the four elements are all "equal. as was natural for the founder of a medical school. Empedocles starts. There is still no conception of quality. no one had fully realized how much was implied in saying that anything is a thing. were there nothing outside the Sphere which could enter in. and then nothing more could possibly happen. It is this that makes change and motion possible. Nothing can come from nothing or pass away into nothing (fr. he treats them as two. Above all. before the time of Parmenides. 23 sub fin. This Empedocles expressed by saying that "they are always alike. as we do. All other bodies might be divided till you came to the elements. This. but was quite intelligible in the days of Empedocles. but there is a clear apprehension of what is involved in saying a thing is.). and he gave it the name of Strife. but Empedocles could give no further account of these without saying (as he did not) that there is an element of which Fire and the rest are in turn composed. No mortal had yet marked." a statement which seemed strange to Aristotle. The "four roots" are given as an exhaustive enumeration of the elements (fr. 8). we shall find that Fire plays a leading part. When we find. So far as the general theory goes. which formed the theoretical foundation of its system. We must remember that the conception of quality had not yet been formed.Empedocles regarded the "roots of all things" as eternal. he says. but. Further." Again. like the Pythagorean "Air. He looks at it. which he regarded as the same impulse to union that is implanted in human bodies (fr. Aristotle tells us." which only differs from the Sphere of Parmenides in so far as it is a mixture. It is also true that in the biology (§§ 114-116) Fire fulfils a unique function. while the other three act more or less in the same way. we see at once how the theory is related to previous views of reality. 17). though. the moist and the dry. and there is no room for coming into being and passing away (fr. opposing Fire to all the rest. Aristotle twice makes the statement that. and this may be what Aristotle meant. But the effect of this would be to separate all the elements in the Sphere completely.. This Empedocles found in Love. 108. it is impossible to see anything of the sort. But we must remember that it has no pre-eminence over the rest: all are equal." the hot and the cold. Empedocles accordingly assumed the existence of such a substance. though Empedocles assumes four elements. in fact. not a homogeneous and continuous mass. Strife and Love The Eleatic criticism had made it necessary to explain motion. what is is. that the school of medicine which regarded Empedocles as its founder identified the four elements with the "opposites.

and sometimes put them on a level with the other four. The fragments leave no room for doubt that they were thought of as spatial and corporeal. while Strife is assumed as the cause of destruction. he asks. in fact. 17). 119 . They are active. of course. what becomes of the denial of the void? If full. When the Sphere is broken up by Strife. much the same size. but they are still corporeal. All the six are called "equal. on the ground that no room is thus left for design. what determines the direction of their motion? Empedocles seems to have given no further explanation than that each was "running" in a certain direction (fr. destroy the Sphere. Strife enters into the Sphere at a certain time in virtue of Necessity. it really gives birth to everything else in so doing. produces an attraction of unlikes. 109. that of Strife. The expression used by Empedocles to describe the movement of the elements is that they "run through each other" (fr. rightly points out that in another sense it is Love that divides and Strife that unites. it depends on the proper nature of each element. this really implies something like the atomic theory. Aristotle. to break it up again. indeed. At the time. As Aristotle says. "The Love of Empedocles. however. for instance. On the other hand. for it brings things together." Love is said to be "equal in length and breadth" to the others. Are the pores." The "pores" of like bodies are. The latter is not an element distinct from the others. or "the mighty oath" (fr." And Theophrastus expressed the same idea by saying that Empedocles sometimes gave an efficient power to Love and Strife. It follows that we must carefully distinguish between the Love of Empedocles and that "attraction of like for like" to which he also attributed an important part in the formation of the world. and Strife is described as equal to each of them in weight (fr. but we are told no more about that. when the elements are brought together once more by Love. 30). which was contained in it comes together and becomes one. The function of Love is to produce union. further explained.The Love and Strife of Empedocles are no incorporeal forces. empty or full? If empty. and does. 17). Plato severely condemns this in the Laws. Another question raised by Aristotle is even more instructive. and these bodies can therefore mingle easily. and again. Aristotle is puzzled by this characteristic of what he regarded as efficient causes. on the contrary." he says. why need we assume pores at all? These questions Empedocles would have found it hard to answer. and a material cause. the result is that all the Fire. the mass of each is divided. for it is a part of the mixture. "is both an efficient cause. 53). but there is no evidence that Empedocles himself was conscious of that." And this is the true explanation of the "attraction of like for like. and is only able to take effect when Strife divides the Sphere. of which he also spoke. nothing incorporeal had yet been dreamt of. Aristotle tells us that he explained mixture in general by "the symmetry of pores. Aristotle also blames him for giving no account of the Chance to which he ascribed so much importance. Naturally. a finer body will "run through" a coarse one without becoming mixed. Love. Mixture and Separation But. In another place. Nor is the Necessity. this was inevitable. and a coarse body will not be able to enter the pores of a finer one at all. he says that. when Strife has separated the elements.

but Aetius and the Plutarchean Stromateis have between them preserved a very fair tradition of what Theophrastus said on the point. I hope to show that we are in the second. in which the elements are separate. We must remember that Love itself is a part of this mixture. that when Strife is gaining the upper hand. First we have the Sphere. Lastly. This remark can only mean that Empedocles assumed the increase of Strife. 17). when. and Strife has given free play to the attraction of like for like. in other words. he tells us that Empedocles omits the generation of things in the period of Love. and the cycle begins afresh. Next came Earth. 30. highly compressed as it was by the impetus of its revolution. It seems to be generally supposed that we are in the fourth period. Thirdly comes the complete separation of the elements. whether the details of the system bear out this general view. This brings us back to the Sphere. is not boundless. in which all the elements are mixed together by Love. when Love is outside the world. Aristotle is clearly of opinion that in our world Strife is increasing. Strife begins to enter into the Sphere and Love to go out of it (frs. Secondly. The fragments by themselves throw little light on this." In another. however. That is what we should expect.110. and Strife is passing out. Formation of the World by Strife To begin with the Sphere. but equal in bulk to each of the four roots and to Love. At the appointed time. the elements are partially separated and partially combined. if we are right in supposing that the problem he set himself to solve was the origin of this world from the Sphere of Parmenides. and it is inconceivable that he had not made up his mind which of these worlds is ours. he says that Empedocles "holds that the world is in a similar condition now in the period of Strife as formerly in that of Love. we have the period when Love is bringing the elements together again. therefore. that he represented the course of evolution as the disintegration of the Sphere. and it is also in harmony with the tendency of such speculations to represent the world as getting worse rather than better. Water gushed forth. from which. while Strife surrounds or encompasses it on every side just as the Boundless encompasses the world in earlier systems. just because it is unnatural to represent this world. Our World the Work of Strife That a world of perishable things (thnêta) arises both in the second and fourth period is distinctly stated by Empedocles (fr. we note that it is called a god in the fragments just as the elements are. 111. We have only to consider. 112. The Four Periods It will be clear from what has been said that we must distinguish four periods in the cycle. as arising from things in a state of separation. not as the coming together of things from a state of separation. or. then. there is the period when Love is passing out and Strife coming in. In one place. and that Aristotle more than once refers to it in the same way. Now a world such as ours can exist only in the second and fourth of these periods. in which the "four roots of all things" are mixed together. 31). Strife. Empedocles held that Air was first separated out and secondly Fire. From the water Mist 120 .

In its upward rush Fire displaced a portion of the Air in the upper half of the concave sphere formed by the frozen sky. the nocturnal. Strom. In this way. The first of the elements to be separated out by Strife then. Aet. Ps. the fire in one hemisphere of the world. Fire in general had a solidifying power." but is intended to show that rapid motion may counteract a tendency to fall. that which is filled with air mingled with fire. 10 (Dox. probably. consisting of air with a little fire. We note that it was Fire which solidified the Air and turned it to ice. 582. the outer circle of the Air became solidified or frozen. This air then sunk downwards. filling the whole hemisphere always stationed opposite its own reflection. the archetype. two hemispheres were produced: one. The accumulation of Fire in the upper hemisphere disturbs the equilibrium of the heavens and causes them to revolve. The Sun. It appears that Empedocles regarded the heavens as shaped like an egg. What. The latter he supposed to be the Night.'" Aetius says: "Empedocles held that there were two suns: one. Day is the light of the fiery diurnal hemisphere. however. we have a trace of Orphic ideas. its reflection in the other hemisphere. carrying with it a small portion of the fire. the one altogether composed of fire. Stars.was produced by evaporation. take the statement that it surrounded the world "in a circle" too strictly. P. but a reflection of fire like that which comes from water. and not finding any other place. the other. ran up under the solid that surrounded the Air. the other. There were two hemispheres. R. Here. is the sun? The Plutarchean Stromateis again give us the answer: "The sun is not fire in substance. and once more 'flashes back to Olympus with untroubled countenance.-Plut. 3 (Dox. After the Air. At any rate. but by its rapidity keeps the heavens and the earth in their places. consisting entirely of fire. Empedocles held that the Air when separated off from the original mixture of the elements was spread round in a circle. which took the outermost position surrounding the world (cf. 48). and this revolution not only produces the alternation of day and night. fr. 6. while terrestrial things were condensed from the other elements." Plutarch himself makes one of his personages say: "You laugh at Empedocles for saying that the sun is a product of the earth. and we thus get a crystalline vault as the boundary of the world. P. 334. revolving round the earth. It has nothing to do with "centrifugal force. fr. This experimental illustration is much in the manner of Empedocles. p. 121 . The origin of their motion he derived from the fact of fire preponderating in one hemisphere owing to its accumulation there. produced by the reflection of the earth. p. the visible sun. R. 170). This was illustrated. 38). was Air. then. while night is the shadow thrown by the earth when the fiery hemisphere is on the other side of it (fr. ii. Aristotle tells us. 113. Moon. by the simile of a cup of water whirled round at the end of a string. We must not. The heavens were formed out of the Air and the sun out of the Fire. the diurnal hemisphere. the other of a mixture of air and a little fire. arising from the reflection of the light of heaven. 170 a). Fire running outwards. and Earth It will be observed that day and night have been explained without reference to the sun.

The earth was at first mixed with water." It is. it was frozen just like hail. 114.. and there is always a tendency to give any novel theory a wider application than it really admits of. and not a sort of exhalation. Organic Combinations Empedocles went on to show how the four elements. Diogenes says that Empedocles taught it was smaller than the sun. He also knew (fr. nor even the planets. which forced any water there might be in it out of its pores in the form of drops. though one day it will be. which. gave rise to perishable things. to sum it up shortly. are the work of Love. The saltness of the sea was explained by this analogy.C. It is taken for granted that the earth shares in the rotation of the vortex (dinê). and especially the last. The reflection we call the sun cannot be in the hemisphere opposite the fiery one. but this in no way contradicts the view taken above as to the period to which this world belongs. the planets moved freely. such as bones. it is still able to form combi122 . in other words. It follows that the appearance which we call the sun is the same size as the earth. It was probably in this connection that Empedocles announced that light takes some time to travel. the sun is a reflection of the terrestrial fire. Empedocles was acquainted (fr. of the same substance as the solid sky which surrounds the heavens. but the increasing compression causes by the velocity of its revolution made the water gush forth. for that is the nocturnal hemisphere. We must say rather that the light of the fiery hemisphere is reflected by the earth on to the fiery hemisphere itself in one concentrated flash. and carried round by the motion of the fiery hemisphere." a phrase to which Aristotle objects as a mere poetical metaphor. Empedocles did not explain the fixed stars by reflected light. was the great discovery of this period. "The moon was composed of air cut off by the fire.which is round. are by no means clear. so that the sea is "the sweat of the earth. At present. of course." These passages. and had its light from the sun. though its speed is so great as to escape our perception. some of the Pythagoreans held a similar view (§ 150). flesh. We may perhaps explain the origin of this view as follows. on the crystalline sun. Or. The fixed stars were attached to the frozen air. Lightning was fire forced out from the clouds in much the same way. and Aetius tells us it was only half as distant from the earth. and the like. Love is by no means banished from the world yet. In the early part of the fifth century B. It had just been discovered that the moon shone by reflected light. 48) that night is the conical shadow of the earth. Wind was explained from the opposite motions of the fiery and airy hemispheres. Rain was caused by the compression of the Air. They were made out of the fire which the air carried with it when forced beneath the earth by the upward rush of fire at the first separation. along with that of the moon's light. mingled in different proportions. a disc of frozen air. men saw reflected light everywhere. 42) with the true theory of solar eclipses. These.

and before day and night were distinguished. of course. they grow. and he rightly saw that the two sexes are combined in them. still moist with water and "running" down so as to "reach its own kind. perhaps. The text of Aetius is very corrupt here. Plants Plants and animals were formed from the four elements under the influence of Love and Strife. 172). Some of the fire still beneath the earth (fr. not to speak of Etna. Aet. before the sun was spread out. and those which have a deficiency of moisture shed their leaves when that is evaporated by the summer heat. we get a hint as to the reason. 115. It is strange that Empedocles never observed the 123 . rising up owing to the heat which is in the earth. v. His similes are nearly all drawn from human inventions and manufactures. they are all perishable. P. 52) meeting in its upward course with earth. The possibility of organic combinations depends on the fact that there is still water in the earth. Plants. just because Strife is ever increasing. we are there told. while those which have more moisture remain evergreen. we are told that Empedocles attributed desire. upwards and downwards. For "natural motions" we must. and even fire (fr. drawn this time from the heating of warm baths. At the beginning of the pseudo-Aristotelian Treatise on Plants. from the symmetry of their mixture. and these. but. and the palm." in fact. so that they are parts of the earth just as embryos are parts of the uterus. If we may so far trust that Byzantine translation from a Latin version of the Arabic. fruits are excretions of the water and fire in plants. enable us to make out pretty fully what the theory was. The fragments which deal with trees and plants are 77-81. under the influence of the Love still left in the world. as in the case of the laurel. at a time when Strife had not so far prevailed as to differentiate the sexes. 52). We shall see that the same thing applies to the original race of animals. and discussed in the pseudo-Aristotelian treatise. sensation. is to be regarded as an incident in the separation of the elements by Strife. 26. Theophrastus says much the same thing. substitute the attraction of like for like (§ 109). 4 (R. to form a temporary combination. This is mentioned by Aetius. The important part played by proportion (logos) here is no doubt due to Pythagorean influence. be rendered as follows: Empedocles says trees were the first living creatures to grow up out of the earth. The warm springs of Sicily were a proof of this. the differences in taste are due to variations in the particles contained in the earth and to the plants drawing different particles from it. then. but that of the soil which nourishes them. by the opposite natural motions of the earth and fire contained in them. which we call a tree or a plant. Aristotle finds fault with Empedocles for explaining the double growth of plants.nations of elements. came into being "in an imperfect state of the world. The growth of plants. but it may. for it is not the difference of the vines that makes wine good." unites with it. the olive. and the capacity for pleasure and pain to plants. These springs Empedocles appears to have explained by one of his characteristic images. as in the case of vines . taken along with certain Aristotelian statements and the doxographical tradition. they contain the proportion of male and female.

Evolution of Animals The fragments which deal with the evolution of animals (57-62) must be understood in the light of the statement (fr. and eyes without foreheads (fr. by which. "We may suppose. They are composed of earth and water. In both these processes of evolution. This was a favorable variation and so survived. Empedocles was guided by the idea of the survival of the fittest. arms without shoulders. but simply said they spontaneously "bore eggs" (fr. It is in accordance with this that he also says these scattered members were subsequently put together by Love. and we shall see that there is evidence for referring two of them to the second period of the world's history and two to the fourth. Vertebration was explained by saying that an early invertebrate animal tried to turn round and broke its back in so doing. Aristotle severely criticizes this. to that of Love. The first stage is that in which the various parts of animals arise separately. Certain things have been preserved because they had spontaneously acquired a fitting structure. according to Aristotle. and are produced by the upward motion of fire seeking to reach its like. There were oxen with human heads. Aristotle distinctly refers it to the period of Love. leaves too much to chance. 79). The four stages are accurately distinguished in a passage of Aetius. but are produced by generation. he means the period when Love is increasing. like the oxen with human heads. The third stage belongs to the period when the unity of the Sphere is being destroyed by Strife. that is to say. The second stage is that in which the scattered limbs are united. the first stage in the evolution of our world. 57)." he says. they were combined in all possible ways (fr.actual process of generation in plants. 17) that there is a double coming into being and a double passing away of mortal things. therefore. while those which were not so put together have perished and are perishing. It should be noted that it clearly belongs to the period of Strife. while the rest perished. that in which Love is coming in and Strife passing out. as we have seen. It is that of heads without necks. the sexes and species have been separated. It is clear that this must be the first stage in what we have called the fourth period of the world's history. 61). as Empedocles says of the oxen with human faces." This. The survival of the fittest was the law of evolution in both periods. In the fourth stage. 124 . One curious instance has been preserved. "that all things have fallen out accidentally just as they would have done if they had been produced for some end. creatures with double faces and double breasts. It is. and all manner of monsters (fr. and not. Those of them that were fitted to survive did so. That is how the evolution of animals took place in the period of Love. and new animals no longer arise from the elements. At first. It begins with "whole-natured forms" in which there is not any distinction of sex or species. fruit. 59). 116.

Aquatic animals are those in which water predominates. which either enter into fresh combinations. as modifying the appearance of the offspring. of course. however. These exceptions are only possible because there is still a great deal of Love in the world. to be explained from the attraction of like to like. as may be seen in the case of certain shellfish (fr. and take to the water to cool themselves. Empedocles paid great attention to respiration. because the day had been originally nine months long. we may see the attraction of like to like operating in animals just as it did in the upward and downward growth of plants. when the fluids round the foetus were withdrawn." Sleep was a temporary separation to a certain extent of the fiery element. through all the pores of the skin. which are very fiery. Those that have most fire in them fly up into the air. those in which earth preponderates take to the earth. and that males were conceived in the warmer part of the uterus (fr. At death the animal is resolved into its elements. Even in life. Physiology The distinction of the sexes was a result of the differentiation brought about by Strife.117. Respiration did not begin till the time of birth. and. Death was the final separation by Strife of the fire and earth in the body. the nails and such things last. 65). Empedocles held that the foetus was enveloped in a membrane. which was explained by the klepsydra. Milk arises on the tenth day of the eighth month (fr. or are permanently united with "their own kind. and from its absence Empedocles explained the sterility of mules. Each part of the body has pores into which the appropriate food win fit. Birth took place in the ninth or seventh month. The influence of statues and pictures was also noted. apply to fishes. The foetus was formed partly from the male and partly from the female semen (fr. We breathe. 76). Hair is the same thing as foliage (fr. the fiery part of animals tends upwards and the earthy downwards. 68). 63): and it was just the fact that the substance of a new being's body was divided between the male and the female that produced desire when the two were brought together by sight (fr. and that its formation began on the thirty-sixth day and was complete on the forty-ninth. though there are exceptions. he held. This does not. We also see the attraction of like for like in the habits of different species of animals. Empedocles differed from the theory given by Parmenides in his Second Part in holding that the warm element preponderated in the male sex. not merely through the organs of respiration. A certain symmetry of the pores in the male and female semen is necessary for procreation. The nutrition and growth of animals is. and afterwards seven. as did the dog which always sat upon a tile. generally speaking. The cause of the alternate inspiration and expiration of breath was the movement of the blood from the heart to the surface of the body and back again. The children resemble that parent who contributed most to their formation. each of which had all along been striving to "reach its own kind. 64). The heart was formed first. where the earthy part is above. 100). Twins and triplets were due to a superabundance and division of the semen. 82). Pleasure and pain were de125 ." There can be no question here of an immortal soul. and his explanation of it has been preserved in a continuous form (fr. however.

and the colors are carried to the sight by effluence. that sensation is produced by adaptation to the pores. He says that the interior of the eye consists of fire. P. Perception For the theory of perception held by Empedocles we have the original words of Theophrastus: Empedocles speaks in the same way of all the senses. Pleasure is produced by what is like in its elements and their mixture. But eyes are not all composed in the same way. 177 b. while round about it is earth and air.rived from the absence or presence of like elements. That is why some animals are keen-sighted by day and others by night. so to say. and why most smell comes from subtle and light bodies. of nourishment which would fit the pores. R. he does not lay down how nor by means of what they arise. He tries. ib. And this goes on till the water is separated off by the air. P. is produced by sound outside. in the opposite case. they were." When the air is set in motion it strikes upon the solid parts and produces a sound. the whey of the blood. which he calls a "fleshy sprout. suffer the same at night. by night. dark. when the air moved by the voice sounds inside the ear. Those eyes in which fire predominates will be dazzled in the daytime. Those which have less fire are keen-sighted in the daytime. for the passages of some of them are too wide and those of others too narrow for the sensible object. for the fire within is brought up to an equality by that without. he holds. he holds. except that he gives us an explanation applicable to all. But. for the fire will be obstructed by the water. so that the latter either hold their course right through without touching or cannot enter at all. those which have less of the opposite (i. Smell. R. he says. too. some have the fire in the center and some on the outside. P. Hearing. each will behave in the opposite manner. This is practically what he says about sight. by what is opposite. and says that perception is due to the "effluences" fitting into the passages of each sense. for in each case it is the opposite which is a remedy. for the sense of hearing is a sort of bell sounding inside the ear. And that is why one cannot judge the objects of another. since the fire being still further increased will stop up and occupy the pores of the water. to explain the nature of sight. The best tempered and the most excellent vision is one composed of both in equal proportions. water). As to touch and taste. The passages of the fire and water are arranged alternately. Those in which water predominates will. 126 . 118. through those of the fire we perceive light objects. arises from respiration. Tears and sweat arose from a disturbance which curdled the blood. pain. through which its rarity enables the fire to pass like the light in lanterns (fr. that is. 84). through those of the water. and that is why those smell most keenly whose breath has the most violent motion. ib. each class of objects fits into each class of passages. for then their deficiency is supplemented. R. some are composed of like elements and some of opposite.e.

to be composed of fire and water. P. too. 89). 178. The theory of vision is more complicated. All.And he gives a precisely similar account of thought and ignorance. as by Alcmaeon (§ 96). Those who are in the opposite condition are the most foolish. and it is by these men think and feel pleasure and pain" (fr. and the former in their tongues. And for this reason we think chiefly with our blood. and so with all other special capacities. Sight is produced by the fire inside the eye going forth to meet the object. it is of great importance in the history of philosophy. Empedocles was aware. R. for he defined colors as "effluences from forms (or 'things') fitting into the pores and perceived. or nearly the same. how127 . for in it of all parts of the body all the elements are most completely mingled. Empedocles proved this by the example of people with a cold in their head. Hearing was explained by the motion of the air which struck upon the cartilage inside the ear and made it swing and sound like a bell." as he called them. a remark already made by Aristotle." It is not quite clear how these two accounts of vision were reconciled. P. and. as Plato makes his Timaeus adopt most of it. and those who come next to them are wise in proportion. For after enumerating how we know each thing by means of itself. he adds. Theophrastus tells us that Empedocles made no distinction between thought and perception. ib. just because they have a difficulty in breathing. so the fire in the iris is protected from the water which surrounds it in the pupil by membranes with very fine pores. who cannot smell. Smell was explained by respiration. Perception. Those who have a wellproportioned mixture in some one part of their bodies will be clever in that respect. as perception. R. We also see from fr. "for all things are fashioned and fitted together out of these. in whom the mixture is equal or nearly so. that "effluences. in which the four elements are most evenly mixed. Empedocles seems to have given no detailed account of smell. then. so that. are the wisest and have the most exact perceptions. 84). or how far we are entitled to credit Empedocles with the theory of Plato's Timaeus. 105). Thought arises from what is like and ignorance from what is unlike. That is why some are good orators and some good artificers. the water cannot get in. The eye was conceived. and in whom the elements are neither at too great intervals nor too small or too large. came from things to the eyes as well. thus implying that thought is the same. The chief seat of perception was the blood. 107). and did not refer to touch at all. those in whom they are closely packed and broken into minute particles are impulsive. This takes place when the pores of the organ of sense are neither too large nor too small for the "effluences" which all things are constantly giving off (fr. The statements quoted seem to imply something very like it. and especially the blood near the heart (fr. then. they attempt many things and finish few because of the rapidity with which their blood moves. Just as in a lantern the flame is protected from the wind by horn (fr. is due to the meeting of an element in us with the same element outside. 101 that the scent of dogs was referred to in support of the theory. This does not. while the fire can pass out. The breath drew in along with it the small particles which fit into the pores. Those whose elements are separated by intervals and rare are dull and laborious. The latter have a good mixture in their hands.

The elements and the Sphere are also called gods. "daemons" who have sinned are forced to wander from their home in heaven for three times ten thousand seasons (fr. but even a fish. The four elements toss him from one to the other with loathing. But the blood was specially sensitive because of its finer mixture. we find that everything turns on the doctrine of transmigration. if they had any. and their cosmological views. and the elements do not pass away.ever. and Cypris as queen in the Golden Age (fr. The only way to purify oneself from the taint of original sin is by the cultivation of ceremonial holiness. In all this there are certain points of contact with the cosmology. Hate as the source of original sin. For the animals are our kinsmen (fr. 128). the four elements. 115. 119. 16). If we turn to the religious teaching of the Purifications. exclude the idea that other parts of the body may perceive also. On the general significance of this enough has been said above (§ 42). 128 . fr. but that is in quite another sense of the word. and the cosmological system of Empedocles leaves no room for an immortal soul. there seems to have been a gulf between men's religious beliefs. 21). by purifications. and that therefore though they "live long lives" they must pass away (fr. and it is parricide to lay hands on them. that our knowledge varies with the varying constitution of our bodies (fr. 103). He himself is such an exiled divinity. 30). which is presupposed by the Purifications. and abstinence from animal flesh. 106). The few points of contact we have mentioned may have been enough to hide this from Empedocles himself. already maintained in the Second Part of the poem of Parmenides (fr. 115). and has fallen from his high estate because he put his trust in raving Strife. indeed. his practical religious teaching of Pythagoras and the Orphics. But these points are not fundamental. According to a decree of Necessity. From this it naturally follows that Empedocles adopted the view. All through this period. Empedocles held that all things have their share of thought (fr. Theology and Religion The theoretical theology of Empedocles reminds us of Xenophanes. and so he has not only been a human being and a plant. the details given by Empedocles are peculiar. We are told in the earlier part of the poem that certain "gods" are composed of the elements. 137). cf. We have the "mighty oath" (fr.

8 ANAXAGORAS OF CLAZOMENAE .

C.120. But it is not enough to say that the statement arose from the fact that the name of Anaxagoras followed that of Anaximenes in the Successions. It is certain. of doubtful origin.C. Date All that Apollodorus tells us with regard to the date of Anaxagoras seems to rest on the authority of Demetrius Phalereus. the fall of a huge meteoric stone into the Aegospotami in 468-67 B. At all events. LXXXVIII. 122.C. but probably due also to Demetrius. Relation to the Ionic School The doxographers speak of Anaxagoras as the pupil of Anaximenes.). that already in the fourth century he was regarded as the type of the man who leads the "theoretic life.). He doubtless thought it natural that he should not survive Pericles. 121. in his Register of Archons. This date was probably derived from a calculation based on the philosopher's age at the time of his trial. If it is correct. namely. The tradition was that he neglected his possessions to follow science. the fall of the stone made a profound impression at the time. and Theophrastus tells us that his father's name was Hegesibulus." Now this expression has a very distinct meaning if we accept the view as to "schools" of science set forth in the Introduction (§ XIV). who said of him. that Anaxagoras lived at Athens for thirty years. (§ 98). Anaximenes most probably died before Anaxagoras was born. This can hardly be correct." Of course the story of his contempt for worldly goods was seized on later by the historical novelist and tricked out with the usual apophthegms. LXX. Early Life Anaxagoras was from Clazomenae. said that he himself was a young man in the old age of Anaxagoras. and it was still shown to tourists in the days of Pliny and Plutarch. at any rate. One incident belonging to the early manhood of Anaxagoras is recorded. We have its original source in a fragment of Theophrastus himself. and he adds that he died at the age of seventy-two in 01.C.C. Apollodorus inferred that Anaxagoras was born in 01. as the time he lived there. (500-496 B. that he "began to be a philosopher" at Athens at the age of twenty. Aristotle tells us that Anaxagoras was older than Empedocles.C. too. We have a further statement. Our authorities tell us he predicted this phenomenon.C. and that he should die the year Plato was born. These do not concern us here.C. which is plainly absurd. and continued to flour130 . which Demetrius had every opportunity of learning from sources no longer extant. we get from about 480 to 450 B. There can be no doubt that these dates are very nearly right. in the archonship of Callias or Calliades (480-79 B. I (428-27 B. and led to his adoption of the very view for which he was condemned at Athens. But we shall see reason to believe that it may have occasioned one of his most striking departures from the earlier cosmology. and he must have been born about 460 B. It means that the old Ionic school survived the destruction of Miletus in 494 B." Democritus.). and Theophrastus said that Empedocles was born "not long after Anaxagoras. who was probably born before 490 B.. which states that Anaxagoras had been "an associate of the philosophy of Anaximenes.

Anaxagoras at Athens Anaxagoras was the first philosopher to take up his abode at Athens. So too Isocrates says that Pericles was the pupil of two "sophists. He fell in.C. it is only necessary to call the reader's attention to the fact that the old Ionic Philosophy now forms a sort of background to our story. it was now powerless to keep them." The famous fragment on the blessedness of the scientific life might just as well refer to any other cosmologist as to Anaxagoras. then. for Clazomenae had been reduced after the suppression of the Ionian Revolt. and. he drew from that source whatever was of a nature to further him in the art of speech. He was. and it is to be inferred that the same is true of that of Anaxagoras." Anaxagoras and Damon. Pericles added this very acquirement to his original gifts. who was a scientific man. and it seems likely enough that he was in the Persian army. it seems. it may be well to indicate briefly the conclusions we shall come to in the next few chapters with regard to the development of philosophy during the first half of the fifth century B. a Persian subject. it is likely 131 . We shall find that. Anaxagoras went his own way. The oldest authority for it is Alexander of Aitolia. there is need of talk and discussion on the parts of natural science that deal with things on high. The details of this anticipatory sketch will become clearer as we go on. though they still retained enough of the old views to bear witness to the source of their inspiration. Anaxagoras is said to have been the teacher of Pericles. poet and librarian. He referred to Euripides as the "nursling of brave Anaxagoras. that it produced no man of distinction after its third great representative. We are not informed what brought him there in the year of Salamis. however. for the present. further. There can be no doubt that the teaching of Damon belongs to the youth of Pericles. and the fact is placed beyond the reach of doubt by the testimony of Plato. 280 B. and having attained to a knowledge of the true nature of mind and intellect. It was left to second-rate minds like Diogenes to champion the orthodox system. A more difficult question is the alleged relation of Euripides to Anaxagoras. while third-rate minds like Hippon of Samos went back to the cruder theory of Thales. which was just what the discourses of Anaxagoras were mainly about. for that seems to be the source which inspires high-mindedness and effectiveness in every direction. satiating himself with the theory of things on high. who lived at the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus (c.). 123.C. and that "the philosophy of Anaximenes" was still taught by whoever was now at the head of the society. and indeed suggests more naturally a thinker of a more primitive type. with Anaxagoras.ish in the other cities of Asia. On the other hand. while the old Ionic school was still capable of training great men. were too strongly influenced by the Eleatic dialectic to remain content with the theories of Anaximenes. It means. In the Phaedrus he makes Socrates say: "For all arts that are great. At this point. Melissus and Leucippus." This clearly means that Pericles associated with Anaxagoras before he became a prominent politician. just as Orphic and Pythagorean religious ideas have done in the preceding chapters.

In the sixth century A. which comes ultimately from the librarians of Alexandria. and that the book was of some length may be gathered from the way in which Plato makes Socrates go on to speak of it. where at least he would be free to teach what he pleased. referred to above. so that we are left somewhat in the dark as to the treatment of details. For the rest. 126. Writings Diogenes includes Anaxagoras in his list of philosophers who left only a single book. We learn from the passage in the Apology. son of Melesias. As Thucydides was ostracized in 443 B. The story that Anaxagoras wrote a treatise on perspective as applied to scene painting is most improbable. that would make it probable that the trial of Anaxagoras took place about 450 B. however. Driven from his adopted home. with one or two very doubtful exceptions. what the charge of impiety was based on. if we adopt the chronology of Demetrius of Phalerum. The Trial It is clear that.enough that Anaxagoras did not develop his system all at once.. The Fragments 132 . and it is to him we owe the preservation of all our fragments. and the statement that he composed a work dealing with the quadrature of the circle is a misunderstanding of an expression in Plutarch. we understand at once why Plato never makes Socrates meet with Anaxagoras. and we shall see that he certainly did hold these views (§ 133).C. who says that the accuser was Thucydides. That is the tradition preserved by Satyrus. that dealing with general principles. The Lampsacenes erected an altar to his memory in their market-place." There is no evidence of any weight to set against this testimony. and that the charge was impiety and Medism. he must have lived at Lampsacus for some time before his death. 125. Besides there is one fragment which distinctly expounds the central thought of Anaxagoras. and would bring it into connection with the ostracism of the other teacher of Pericles. If so. Anaxagoras naturally went back to Ionia. He settled at Lampsacus. and he has also preserved the accepted criticism of it. and the anniversary of his death was long kept as a holiday for school-children. 124. We do learn from Plato. doubtless in the library of the Academy. If that is so.C. dedicated to Mind and Truth. the trial of Anaxagoras must be placed early in the political career of Pericles. Unfortunately his quotations seem to be confined to the First Book. namely. and we shall see reason to believe that he founded a school there. and he doubtless began by teaching that of Anaximenes. He had handed his school over to Archelaus before Socrates was old enough to take an interest in scientific theories. and the moon earth. Damon. the most likely account is that he was got out of prison and sent away by Pericles.. Simplicius had access to a copy. a colony of Miletus.D. It was that Anaxagoras taught the sun was a red-hot stone. that the works of Anaxagoras could be bought at Athens for a drachma. that it was written "in a lofty and agreeable style. We know that such things were possible at Athens. and could hardly be referred to anyone else. it was said at his own request.

ib. and the other animals that have life. each thing is both great and small. (3) Nor is there a least of what is small. just as they were in the beginning. R. 160 b). and. seeds of all things. for it is not possible for them to be more than all. And in all things many things are contained. for this reason. not even was any color distinguishable: for the mixture of all things prevented it -. all together. (6) And since the portions of the great and of the small are equal in amount.. R. P. P. P. and the light and the dark. but all things have a portion of everything. and the surrounding mass is infinite in quantity. we must know that all of them are neither more nor less. And. R. none of them could be distinguished for their smallness. when all things were together. (7) . P. R. (5) And those things having been thus decided. And these things being so. infinite both in number and in smallness. nor come to be by themselves. P. being both of them infinite. compared with itself. 159 a. and that their earth brings forth for them many things of all kinds of which they gather the best together into their dwellings. Since it is impossible for there to be a least thing. P. when all things were together. For air and aether prevailed over all things. nor is it possible for them to be apart. for amongst all things these are the greatest both in quantity and size. and of a multitude of innumerable seeds in no way like each other.).. R. we must hold that all things are in the whole. 151. 133 . too. we must suppose that there are contained many things and of all sorts in the things that are uniting. and that men have been formed in them. and an equal number both in the greater and in the smaller of the things that are separated off.of the moist and the dry. For none of the other things either is like any other. either in word or deed. Thus much have I said with regard to separating off. but they must be now. So that we cannot know the number of the things that are separated off. but there is always a smaller. they cannot be separated. all things will be in everything. and all are always equal. P. for the small too was infinite. 151. ib. for it cannot be that what is should cease to be by being cut. to show that it will not be only with us that things are separated off. (2) For air and aether are separated off from the mass that surrounds the world. and it is equal to the small in amount. But there is also always something greater than what is great. and of much earth that was in it. and that these men have inhabited cities and cultivated fields as with us.I give the fragments according to the text and arrangement of Diels: (1) All things were together. with all sorts of shapes and colors and savors (R. and use them (R. 151. but elsewhere too. and the warm and the cold. and that they have a sun and a moon and the rest as with us. (4) And since these things are so. But before. they were separated off.

P. P. P. that have life. the warm from the cold.(8) The things that are in one world are not divided nor cut off from one another with a hatchet. (13) And when Nous began to move things. P. and there are some things in which there is Nous also. and will extend over a larger still. and it has all knowledge about everything and the greatest strength. 155 e. separating off took place from all that was moved. and the dry from the moist. 134 . f. both the greater and the smaller. 155. And Nous had power over the whole revolution. And Nous set in order all things that were to be. or flesh from what is not flesh? R. And this revolution caused the separating off. so that it began to revolve in the beginning. (10) How can hair come from what is not hair. R. (12) All other things partake in a portion of everything. And the swiftness makes the force. while Nous is infinite and self-ruled. as has been said by me in what goes before. but in every way many times as swift. but the revolution now extends over a larger space. both greater and smaller. And as things were set in motion and separated. the light from the dark. and so much as Nous set in motion was all separated. and the rare is separated off from the dense. is certainly there. for in everything there is a portion of everything. in the surrounding mass. n. (15) The dense and the moist and the cold and the dark came together where the earth is now. (14) And Nous.. 156. and all things that were and are not now and that are. and in what has been united with it and separated off from it. 155. while nothing else is like anything else. R. while the rare and the warm and the dry (and the bright) went out towards the further part of the aether. but were mixed with anything else. R. And all Nous is alike. R. and the air and the aether that are separated off. P. I.. it would partake in all things if it were mixed with any. And all the things that are mingled together and separated off and distinguished are all known by Nous. neither the warm from the cold nor the cold from the warm. (11) In everything there is a portion of everything except Nous. And it began to revolve first from a small beginning. but each single thing is and was most manifestly those things of which it has most in it. so that it would have power over nothing in the same way that it has now being alone by itself. and the things mixed with it would hinder it. itself by itself. But no thing is altogether separated off nor distinguished from anything else except Nous. the revolution caused them to be separated much more. And there are many portions in many things. For if it were not by itself. and this revolution in which now revolve the stars and the sun and the moon. 160 b. where everything else is. and Nous has power over all things. but is alone. Their swiftness is not like the swiftness of any of the things that are now among men. For it is the thinnest of all things and the purest. and is mixed with nothing. (9) . as these things revolve and are separated off by the force and swiftness. which ever is.

were things. 127. 156. Anaxagoras regarded this as inadequate. Everything changes into everything else. R. 8) in this way. 11). we have seen that the opinions of the latter were known at Athens before the middle of the fifth century. for there cannot be more than all. In any case. Now it is a sign of storm. Nothing can be added to all things. for nothing comes into being or passes away. From the earth stones are solidified by the cold.hot and cold. It is hidden for forty days and nights. the true formula must be: There is a portion of everything in everything (fr. What men commonly call coming into being and passing away is really mixture and separation (fr. whose poem may have been published before his own treatise. (19) We call rainbow the reflection of the sun in the clouds. So they would be right to call coming into being mixture.(16) From these as they are separated off earth is solidified for from mists water is separated off. aimed at reconciling the Eleatic doctrine that corporeal substance is unchangeable with the existence of a world which everywhere presents the appearance of coming into being and passing away. 150. and these rush outwards more than water. the things of which the world is made are not "cut off with a hatchet" (fr. (21) From the weakness of our senses we are not able to judge the truth. each one of which was real in the Parmenidean sense. and from water earth. P. (22) What is called "birds' milk" is the white of the egg. We have seen how Empedocles sought to save the world of appearance by maintaining that the opposites -. P. (20) With the rise of the Dogstar (?) men begin the harvest. Nor can anything pass away. for the water that flows round the cloud causes wind or pours down in rain. R. but there is mingling and separation of things that are. and all is always equal (fr. The conclusions of Parmenides are frankly accepted and restated. On the contrary. 5). moist and dry -. (17) The Hellenes follow a wrong usage in speaking of coming into being and passing away. (18) It is the sun that puts brightness into the moon. (21b) (We can make use of the lower animals) because we use our own experience and memory and wisdom and art. It is in every way probable that Anaxagoras derived his theory of mixture from his younger contemporary. like that of Empedocles. "Everything in Everything" 135 . with its setting they begin to till the fields. 17). (21a) What appears is a vision of the unseen. 128. and passing away separation. Anaxagoras and His Predecessors The system of Anaxagoras.

A smaller particle of matter could only contain a smaller number of portions. it is impossible that mere division should make it cease to be (fr. has an equal number of "portions" (fr. blood." that is. On the contrary. Every particle. The statement that there is a portion of everything in everything. We shall find a similar train of reasoning in Diogenes of Apollonia (fr. 129. it contains just the same number of "portions. "when we eat the fruit of Demeter or drink water. Anaxagoras affirmed. But however great or small a body may be. mention is made of the other traditional "opposites. But how can hair be made of what is not hair. they may either be one in kind. but if anything is. for there is no least thing. 2).A part of the argument by which Anaxagoras sought to prove this point has been preserved in a corrupt form by Aetius. contained small particles of flesh. This difficulty can only be solved in one way. 10). any more than there is a greatest. however large or however small. however minute." he said. that is. is not to be understood as referring simply to the original mixture of things before the formation of the worlds (fr. That is fatal to the old view." and everything. we can never reach anything "unmixed. However far we carry division. 130. was black. even now "all things are together. Simplicius." Aristotle says that. 1). Matter is infinitely divisible. and the like. That is just the sort of question the early Milesians must have asked. only the physiological interest has now definitely replaced the meteorological. 8 the examples given of things which are not "cut off from one another with a hatchet" are the hot and the cold. then. as with Democritus. or flesh of what is not flesh?" (fr. Even snow. and not of the different forms of matter. a portion of everything. "We use a simple nourishment. and Aristotle himself implies that the opposites of Anaxagoras had as much right to be called first principles as the homoeomeries. contains every one of those opposite qualities. even the white contains a certain portion of the opposite quality." It is of those opposites. however small and however great. but we have just seen that matter is infinitely divisible (fr. 4. and that there are as many "portions" in the smallest particle as in the greatest (fr. 3). bones. if one of those portions ceased to be. In fr. if we suppose the first principles to be infinite. That which is hot is also to a certain extent cold. The Portions What are these "things" of which everything contains a portion? It once was usual to represent the theory of Anaxagoras as if he had said that wheat. 15). Seeds 136 . Gregory Nazianzene. and elsewhere (frs. and Diels has recovered some of the original words from the scholiast on St." so there can be no such thing as a particle of simple nature. 6). following Porphyry and Themistius. in the full Parmenidean sense. that everything contains a portion. 3). or opposite. refers the latter view to Anaxagoras. It is enough to indicate the connection of this with the views of Heraclitus (§ 80). for instance. 6).

Here. We have seen that the term stoicheion is of later date than Anaxagoras. between the theory of Anaxagoras and that of Empedocles is this. 12 sub fin.and they are infinitely divisible -. The primary condition of things." In his own system.i. which are composed of them. especially in the case of earth. Though everything has a portion of everything in it. 12 sub fin.The difference. if you divide the various things which make up this world. of each form of matter contain a portion of everything. bones. and so on. which are. then. and in particular the parts of the body. before the formation of the worlds. That being so. when "all things were together. Anaxagoras attaches himself to Anaximenes. and it is natural to suppose that the word homoiomerê is also only Aristotle's name for the "seeds.e. a panspermia. and the organs (organa). Empedocles had taught that. We may say." and when the different seeds of things were mixed together in infinitely small particles (fr. but there is no reason for supposing that Anaxagoras expressed himself in that particular way. Anaxagoras was not obliged by his theory to regard the elements of Empedocles as primary. The heart cannot be divided into hearts. If Anaxagoras had used the term "homoeomeries" himself. everything can pass into everything else just because the "seeds. is much the same in both. were not the opposites in a state of separation. the appearance presented would be that of one of what had hitherto been regarded as the primary substances.). it is these seeds that are the elements in the system of Anaxagoras. things appear to be that of which there is most in them (fr. you come to the four "roots" or elements. they did present the appearance of "air and aether". with 137 . a view to which there were obvious objections. 1). then. without giving up the view that there is a portion of cold in the fire and a portion of heat in the air. the ultimate reality. "All Things Together" From all this it follows that. The difference between the two systems may also be regarded from another point of view.). As a matter of fact. and the like." which he substituted for the "roots" of Empedocles. and everything is most obviously that of which it has most in it (fr. the hot and the cold. Aristotle's statement is quite intelligible from his own point of view." as he called them. Fire that in which there is most heat. however far you may divide any of these things -. but the parts of flesh are flesh. The great masses which Empedocles had taken for elements are really vast collections of all manner of "seeds. it would be very strange that Simplicius should quote no fragment containing it." Each of them is. far enough.you never come to a part so small that it does not contain portions of all the opposites. that Air is that in which there is most cold. though in different proportions. He explained them in quite another way. prevail in quantity over all other things in the universe. for the qualities (things) which belong to these -. of all the opposites. only. such as flesh. Anaxagoras held that. accordingly. of which they are composed. that is. On the other hand. If we are to use the word "element" at all. All we are entitled to infer is that he said the "seeds. Aristotle expresses this by saying that Anaxagoras regards the homoiomerê as stoicheia. then. in fact. but each contained a portion of them all. the homoiomerê are intermediate between the elements (stoicheia). 131.

and light in them. make us pause to reflect before accepting too exalted a view of it. and does not. of Anaxagoras. worthy of note that Anaxagoras added an experimental proof of this to the purely dialectical one of the Eleatics. and a host of other strange things. and I thought he really was right. and saying it was Mind that ordered the world and was the cause of all things.. as the innumerable seeds may be divided into those in which the portions of cold. he drags it in. like the air of Anaximenes. Anaxagoras required some external cause to produce motion in the mixture. it causes things to move. The result of its being unmixed is that it "has power over" everything. I was delighted to hear of this cause. and it supports itself. dry. and waters. as the Milesians had assumed. 1). but a mixture of innumerable seeds divided into infinitely small parts." These utterances may well suggest that the Nous of Anaxagoras was something on the same level as the Love and Strife of Empedocles. Plato makes Socrates say: "I once heard a man reading a book. moist. It was this which made Aristotle say that he "stood out like a sober man from the random talkers that had preceded him. no one would suppose that to be hot or cold. of course. Anaxagoras called the cause of motion by the name of Nous. but we regard everything as being that of which it has most in it. there is no void in this mixture. This mass is infinite. 12). an addition to the theory made necessary by the arguments of Parmenides. it is the "thinnest" of all things. but so.. and this will be confirmed when we look at what he has to say about it. and certainly the Air of Diogenes. Parmenides had shown. Lastly. and whenever he is at a loss to explain why anything necessarily is. He used the klepsydra experiment as Empedocles had done (fr. contain a portion of everything. Nous Like Empedocles. did the Fire of Heraclitus. Zeller 138 . It is. says: "Anaxagoras uses Mind as a deus ex machine to account for the formation of the world. and it would be meaningless to say that the immaterial is "thinner" than the material. and those which have most of the warm. so that it can penetrate everywhere. It is true that Nous also "knows all things". 100). the original mass is no longer the primary substance. and dark prevail. and Empedocles of Strife. Body. The seeds of Air. Nous is unmixed (fr. He ascribed no causal power whatever to if in the ordering of things. however. in the language of Anaxagoras. perhaps. as he said. contain portions of the "things" that predominate in Fire. the "seeds" of all things which it contains are infinite in number (fr. of course with this passage in mind. Further. however. but to airs. The disappointment expressed by Socrates in the Phaedo as to the way in which Anaxagoras worked out the theory should. This would hardly be worth saying of an immaterial mind. But in other cases he makes anything rather than Mind the cause." Aristotle. Further. would never move itself. and vice versa. dense. Heraclitus had said as much of Fire. But.Anaxagoras. like other things. But my extravagant expectations were all dashed to the ground when I went on and found that the man made no use of Mind at all.. since there is nothing surrounding it. 132. rare. and aethers. we may say that the original mass was a mixture of infinite Air and of infinite Fire. In the first place." and he has often been credited with the introduction of the spiritual into philosophy. that is to say. and also showed the corporeal nature of air by means of inflated skins.

the cold and the hot. the dark and the light. earth. This separation produces two great masses. Perhaps the fall of the meteoric stone at Aegospotami had something to do with the origin of this theory. Cosmology 139 . Its rapidity (fr. Nous is certainly imagined as occupying space. the other. Zeller's reference of the words to the moon is very improbable. but elsewhere too" can only mean that Nous has caused a rotatory movement in more parts of the boundless mixture than one. that Anaxagoras meant to speak of something incorporeal. Is it likely that anyone would say that the inhabitants of the moon "have a sun and moon as with us"? 135. called "Air" (fr. for we hear of greater and smaller parts of it (fr. The next stage is the separation of the air into clouds. 16 that stones "rush outwards more than water. but he admits that he did not succeed in doing so. indeed. The words "that it was not only with us that things were separated off. 4. 12). 15). We read at the end of fr. the one consisting mostly of the rare. the originality of Anaxagoras lies far more in the theory of substance than in that of Nous. Innumerable Worlds That Anaxagoras adopted the ordinary Ionian theory of innumerable worlds is clear from fr. The truth probably is that Anaxagoras substituted Nous for the Love and Strife of Empedocles. too. 133. In this Anaxagoras follows Anaximenes closely. 9) produced a separation of the rare and the dense. because he wished to retain the old Ionic doctrine of a substance that "knows" all things.holds. called the "Aether". but this testimony cannot be considered of the same weight as that of the fragments. 16)." and we learn from the doxographers that the heavenly bodies were explained as stones torn from the earth by the rapidity of its rotation and made red-hot by the speed of their own motion. The former word certainly suggests to the Greek an intimate connection with the living body which the latter does not. in which the opposite qualities predominate. and stones (fr. It will also be observed that it necessarily implies the rotation of the flat earth along with the "eddy" (dinê). Perhaps. which we have no right to regard as other than continuous. Of these the Aether or Fire took the outside while the Air occupied the center (fr. 15). it was his increased interest in physiological as distinguished from purely cosmological matters that led him to speak of Mind rather than Soul. Formation of the Worlds The formation of a world starts with a rotatory motion which Nous imparts to a portion of the mixed mass in which "all things are together" (fr. and that is historically the important point. to identify that with the new theory of a substance that "moves" all things. 134. water. and this rotatory motion gradually extends over a wider and wider space. 1). he showed himself more original. and. light. 13). But. In his account of the origin of the heavenly bodies. however. hot. Aetius certainly includes Anaxagoras among those who held there was only one world. in any case. and dry. the moist and the dry (fr.

The course of the stars goes under the earth. (5) Rivers take their being both from the rains and from the waters in the earth. The Milky Way was the reflection of the light of the stars that were not illuminated by the sun. and supports the earth which is borne up by it. because it cannot prevail over the cold. and remains suspended because of its size and because there is no vacuum. that Anaxagoras had belonged to the school of Anaximenes. And the Nile rises in summer owing to the water that comes down from the snows in Ethiopia. (12) Earthquakes were caused by the air above striking on that beneath the earth. Shooting stars were sparks. Both the sun and the moon turn back in their courses owing to the repulsion of the air. (10) Anaxagoras was the first to determine what concerns the eclipses and the illumination of the sun and moon. and also certain bodies which revolve with them. The sun is eclipsed at the new moon.The cosmology of Anaxagoras is clearly based upon that of Anaximenes. for the movement of the latter caused the earth which floats on it to rock. (9) The moon is eclipsed by the earth screening the sun's light from it. but are invisible to us. And he said the moon was of earth. and. and from the rivers which flow into it. (6) The sun and the moon and all the stars are fiery stones carried round by the rotation of the aether. but gets it from the sun. when the moon screens it from us. Under the stars are the sun and moon. too. and nearer us. the explanation of the sol140 . (8) The sun surpasses the Peloponnesus in size. For this reason the air is very strong. All this confirms the statement of Theophrastus. and sometimes. and when things were burned and made their way to the vault of heaven and were carried off. The moon turns back frequently. (4) Of the moisture on the surface of the earth. 1. and had plains and ravines in it. the sea arose from the waters in the earth (for when these were evaporated the remainder turned salt). further. as it were. because they occupy a colder region. for the earth is hollow and has waters in its cavities. (§ 29): (3) The earth is flat in shape. they are not so warm as the sun. by the bodies below the moon coming before it. which leapt out owing to the motion of the heavenly vault. The flat earth floating on the air. (11) Winds arose when the air was rarefied by the sun. Thunder and lightning were produced by heat striking upon clouds. The moon is below the sun. The moon has not a light of her own. the dark bodies below the moon. (7) We do not feel the heat of the stars because of the greatness of their distance from the earth. as will be seen from a comparison of the following passage of Hippolytus with the quotations given in Chap.

Biology "There is a portion of everything in everything except Nous. and there are some things in which there is Nous also" (fr. but it had more opportunities in one body than another. and there is sufficient evidence that they are really Pythagorean. And an image is cast on the pupil by day. Like Anaximander. are all derived from the Milesian. the explanations of wind and of thunder and lightning. though with some this is so by night. it seems very unlikely that they were made by a believer in a flat earth. This is in accordance with the previous development of thought upon the subject. a detailed enumeration of the particular senses. Anaxagoras argued that they must feel pleasure and pain in connection with their growth and with the fall of their leaves. because 141 . As all Nous is the same. If we may trust the pseudo-Aristotelian Treatise on Plants so far. Speaking generally." that is. 11). and animals originated in a similar way. 12). Parmenides. As to the moon's light and the cause of eclipses. 16). sets in motion. The Nous in living creatures is the same in all (fr. but because he had hands. night is more of the same color with the eyes than day. He tells us that it is the same Nous that "has power over. both the greater and the smaller (fr. especially in the view that perception is of contraries. it was natural that Anaxagoras should be credited at Athens with these discoveries. Perception In these scanty notices we seem to see traces of a polemical attitude towards Empedocles. 136. We see by means of the image in the pupil. not because he had a better sort of Nous.stices and the "turnings back" of the moon by the resistance of air. 12). Man was the wisest of animals. The Nous was the same. however. all things that have life. and from this it followed that the different grades of intelligence we observe in the animal and vegetable worlds depend entirely on the structure of the body. Anaxagoras held that animals first arose in the moist elements 137. In these words Anaxagoras laid down the distinction between animate and inanimate things. and the same may be observed in what we are told of the theory of perception adopted by Anaxagoras. for like things cannot be effected by like. The account which Theophrastus gives of this is as follows: But Anaxagoras says that perception is produced by opposites. On the other hand. but only on what is different. we are not surprised to find that plants were regarded as living creatures. had already made the thought of men depend on the constitution of their limbs. He attempts to give. and these are accordingly keen-sighted at that time. in his Second Part (fr. Plants arose when the seeds of them which the air contained were brought down by the rain-water. but no image is cast upon what is of the same color. Plutarch says that he called plants "animals fixed in the earth." Both plants and animals originated in the first instance from the panspermia. With most living creatures things are of a different color to the pupil by day.

That which is just as warm or just as cold as we are neither warms us nor cools us by its contact. for the bone which surrounds this is hollow. and to connect it with pain. Large animals can hear great and distant sounds. which is the very opposite of scepticism (fr. as likely as not. 21a). while less sounds pass unperceived. small animals perceive small sounds and those near at hand. a view which would seem to be the consequence of the first assumption. we do not apprehend the sweet and the sour by means of themselves. For smell is better perceived when it is near than when it is far by reason of its being more condensed. and because the prevailing color casts an image more readily upon its opposite. And this pain is made perceptible by the long continuance or by the excess of a sensation. It comes from some collection of apophthegms. the latter by the sound penetrating to the brain. for. for instance. turn him into a sceptic. And it is the same with hearing. when air is heated and rarefied. and sweet by sour. Those animals which have large. Rarefied air has more smell. and it had. Many modern theories are based upon a similar idea. for all these are in us to begin with. The larger animals are the more sensitive. But. large animals do not perceive a rarefied smell. He did say (fr. nor small animals a condensed one. roughly speaking." but this meant simply that we do not see the "portions" of everything which are in everything. the former by means of the accompanying respiration. We know cold by warm.light is a concomitant cause of the image. while a small one draws in the rarefied by itself. and we cannot dwell long on the same things. That Anaxagoras regarded the senses as incapable of reaching the truth of things is shown by the fragments preserved by Sextus. pure. for all unlike things produce pain by their contact. It is the same too with smell. not from the treatise of Anaxagoras himself. and. a moral application. for all that. while when dispersed it is weak. it smells. generally. But we must not. in the same way. fresh by salt. 142 . and bright eyes. and contrariwise. This theory marks in some respects an advance on that of Empedocles. The saying preserved by Aristotle that "things are as we suppose them to be. A large animal when it breathes draws in the condensed air along with the rarefied. so the large one perceives more. It is in the same way that touch and taste discern their objects. and. in virtue of our deficiency in each. He also said that the things which are seen give us the power of seeing the invisible. sensation is proportionate to the size of the organs of sense. And all sensation implies pain. And we smell and hear in the same manner. It was a happy thought of Anaxagoras to make sensation depend upon irritation by opposites. and it is upon it that the sound falls. the portions of black which are in the white. see large objects and from a great distance. Our senses simply show us the portions that prevail. Brilliant colors and excessive noises produce pain. 21) that "the weakness of our senses prevents our discerning the truth." has no value at all as evidence.

9 THE PYTHAGOREANS .

He ruled Taras for years. Diocles. the latter of whom had escaped as a young man from the massacre of Croton. had already found their way to Thebes. and only Archytas stayed behind in Italy. the chief seat of the school is the Dorian city of Taras. for Speusippus followed him in the account he gave of the Pythagorean theories on that subject. They were all. and Polymnastus of Phlius. were able to return to Italy later. to a later period. He gives it as the theory of "the Pythagoreans" or of "some Pythagoreans. We know from Plato that Philolaus was there towards the close of the fifth century. and lived in perfect health at Athens to the age of a hundred and five. however. Philolaus certainly did so. Some of the Pythagoreans.C. that the Pythagorean elements of Plato's Phaedo and Gorgias come mainly from Philolaus. We know further that Philolaus wrote on "numbers". and Aristoxenus tells us that he was never defeated in the field of battle. and Plato implies that he had left Thebes some time before 399 B. and Lysis was afterwards the teacher of Epaminondas. Xenophilus was the teacher of Aristoxenus. who is far the best authority we have.138. He was also the inventor of mathematical mechanics. and mentioned by name Xenophilus the Chalcidian from Thrace. the Pythagoreans concentrated themselves at Rhegion. That is the impression we get from Plato. Plato makes Socrates express surprise that Simmias and Cebes had not learnt from him why it is unlawful for a man to take his life. The Pythagorean School After losing their supremacy in the Achaean cities. however. but Aristotle never mentions his name in connection with that. ascribe to him an elaborate theory of the planetary system. Philolaus This generation of the school really belongs. and we learn from Plato that Simmias and Cebes of Thebes and Echecrates of Phlius were also associates of Socrates. he said. We seem to be justified. and it seems to be implied that the Pythagoreans at Thebes used the word "philosopher" in the special sense of a man who is seeking to find a way of release from the burden of this life. with Phanton. the year Socrates was put to death." It seems natural to suppose. 139. Lysis remained at Thebes. The doxographers. however. while the remnant of the Pythagorean school of Rhegion settled at Phlius. The facts we know about his teaching from external sources are few in number. Pythagoreanism had taken root in the East. but the school founded there did not maintain itself for long. and we find the Pythagoreans heading the opposition to Dionysius of Syracuse.. and almost realized the ideal of the philosopher king. It is probable that he busied himself mainly with 144 . and that he laid special stress on knowledge as a means of release. it is with Philolaus we have now to deal. indeed. It is to this period that the activity of Archytas belongs. in holding that he taught the old Pythagorean religious doctrine in some form. then. He was the friend of Plato. At the same time. It is probable that Philolaus spoke of the body (sôma) as the tomb (sêma) of the soul. where Simmias and Cebes had heard Philolaus. Echecrates. Aristoxenus was personally acquainted with the last generation of this school. In the fourth century. Philolaus and Lysis. disciples of Philolaus and Eurytus.

though he is usually represented in a very different light and has even been called a predecessor of Copernicus. as he had fallen into great poverty. we must turn our attention to the story of a literary conspiracy. and. he had to deny that the phlegm was cold. 140. the "three books" had come into the possession of Philolaus. in accordance with this theory. Dion was able to buy them from him. was the historical Philolaus. the pupil of Callimachus. and he seems also to be the original source of the story that Plato bought "three Pythagorean books" from Philolaus and copied the Timaeus out of them. the Aristarchean. In particular. did the desire of discipleship lay hold. at Plato's request. Philolaus made bile. says he got it through Dion for a hundred minae. but these hardly suggest that he played an important part in the development of Pythagorean science. Plato and the Pythagoreans Such.arithmetic. or at any rate authentic notes of his teaching. However. that this story was already current in the third century. he said that our bodies were composed only of the warm. while apparently influenced by the theories of the Sicilian school. We have seen that there are one or two references to Philolaus in Plato. It was only after birth that the cold was introduced by respiration. The connection of this with the old Pythagorean theory is clear. or from his relatives. Plato had many enemies and detractors. at any rate. Just as the Fire in the macrocosm draws in and limits the cold dark breath which surrounds the world (§ 53). blood. and. and we have seen (§ 47) that his views were still very crude. of whom we know no more than he has chosen to tell us. Its etymology proved it to be warm. so far as I can judge. and phlegm the causes of disease. The most elaborate account we have of this is put by Plato into the mouth of Timaeus the Locrian. it was generally supposed that 145 . To understand this. and Aristoxenus was one of them. said that "some writer" said Plato himself bought the books from the relatives of Philolaus for forty Alexandrian minae and copied the Timaeus out of it. and that. and we can hardly doubt that his geometry was of the primitive type described in an earlier chapter. We know he made the extraordinary statement that most of the Republic was to be found in a work by Protagoras. and that he must have been practically a contemporary of Philolaus. for the sillographer Timon of Phlius addresses Plato thus: "And of thee too. In later times. It is certain. We shall see that it was probably this preoccupation with the medicine of the Sicilian school that gave rise to some of the most striking developments of later Pythagoreanism. he opposed them from the Pythagorean standpoint. they imply rather that what Plato bought was either a book by Pythagoras. so do our bodies inhale cold breath from outside. It hardly seems likely that Plato should have given him the credit of discoveries which were really due to his better known contemporary. Plato. For many pieces of silver thou didst get in exchange a small book. and starting from it didst learn to write Timaeus. while Satyrus. and did not participate in the cold. We also know now that Philolaus wrote on medicine." Hermippus. Eurytus was his disciple. for a hundred minae. According to this. There is no suggestion in any of these accounts that the book was by Philolaus himself. as the Sicilian school held. It is clear at least that he is supposed to have visited Athens when Socrates was still in the prime of life. which had come into the hands of Philolaus.

and that it was written in order to bolster up the story of Plato's plagiarism. many scholars still maintain the genuineness of most of the fragments. Demetrius Magnes professes to quote the opening words of the work published by Philolaus. present the appearance of a vicious circle at this stage. Boeckh saw there was no ground for supposing that there ever was more than a single work. was composed in the Ionic dialect and attributed to Pythagoras. It does not. It cannot be said that this position is plausible. Phusikon. 141. It must surely be confessed that the whole story is very suspicious. We are told that the other book which passed under the name of Pythagoras was really by Lysis. and Proclus referred to it as the Bacchae. a fanciful Alexandrian title which recalls the "Muses" of Herodotus. that was not quite in accordance with the original story. it is plain that it is based on Plato's Timaeus itself. As. Two of the extracts in Stobaeus bear it. which may be mentioned at once. Arguments based on their doctrine would. Demetrius does not actually say this work was written by Philolaus himself. which goes by the name of Timaeus the Locrian. however. that of being in three books. Diels has shown how a treatise in three sections. though it is no doubt the same from which a number of extracts are preserved under his name in Stobaeus and later writers. and he drew the conclusion that we must accept all the remains as genuine or reject all as spurious. Alcmaeon of Croton seems to have written in Ionic. but no one will now go so far as that. Pythagoras was himself an Ionian. but it has now been proved that this cannot have existed earlier than the first century A. Nor did Archytas write in the Laconian dialect of Taras. Ionic 146 . The "Fragments of Philolaus" Boeckh argued that all the fragments preserved under the name of Philolaus were genuine. Moreover. but Philolaus can hardly be said to have had a home. Boeckh has shown that the work ascribed to Philolaus probably consisted of three books also. however. In the first century B.. was meant. however. which is always an essential feature of that story. and there is no reason to suppose the early Pythagoreans used any other. In the time of Philolaus and later.D. fulfil the most important requirement. In the first place.C. which makes a great difference. but its date is uncertain. These. entitled Paideutikon. Politikon. but there are two serious objections to the fragments. Not one of the writers just mentioned professes to have seen these famous "three books". and it is hard to see why an Achaean refugee at Thebes should write in Doric. The lengthy extract on the soul is given up even by those who maintain the genuineness of the rest. we cannot ignore them altogether. but at a later date there were at least two works which claimed to represent them. If it professed to be by Philolaus. It was largely based on the Puthagorikai apophaseis of Aristoxenus. we must ask whether it is likely that Philolaus should have written in Doric? Ionic was the dialect of science and philosophy till the time of the Peloponnesian War. Diels says that Philolaus and then Archytas were the first Pythagoreans to use the dialect of their homes. and it is not likely that in his time the Achaean states in which he founded his Order had adopted the Dorian dialect. are in Doric.the forgery entitled The Soul of the World. but in what may be called "common Doric. it is true." and he is a generation later than Philolaus. but it is easy to see how his name may have become attached to it.

then. The Syracusan historian Antiochus wrote in Ionic. though that is not the doctrine of the fragments of "Philolaus. and secondly. and then to consider how the doctrine we thus arrive at is related to the systems which preceded it. there can be no doubt that one of the fragments refers to the five regular solids. things have number. it will be clear that it is above all from Plato we can learn to regard Pythagoreanism sympathetically. which makes them knowable. were discovered in the Academy. What we have to do. This was because they played so great a part in the philosophy of Plato and his successors. The world. no doubt. was in Ionic. Zeller has cleared the ground by eliminating the Platonic elements which have crept into later accounts of the system. In the second place. we have genuine Academic formulae. This sufficiently justifies us in regarding the "fragments of Philolaus" with suspicion. which shows that. Now Plato tells us in the Republic that stereometry had not been adequately investigated at the time that dialogue is supposed to take place. and he had to make the relation of the two doctrines as clear as he could to himself and his disciples. is to interpret what Aristotle tells us in the spirit of Plato." as they were called. These are of two kinds. according to them. We have seen reason for believing that Pythagoras himself said Things are numbers (§ 52). while their real essence is something unknowable." It will not do to dismiss this as mys147 . four of which are identified with the elements of Empedocles. there is the Neoplatonic doctrine which represents the opposition between them as one between God and Matter. but it has been made much safer by recent discoveries in the early history of mathematics and medicine. According to Aristotle. 142. and so was the book on the Akousmata attributed to Androcydes. the Pythagoreans said Things are numbers. and the dodecahedron. First of all. The forged work of Pythagoras. while the octahedron and the icosahedron were discovered by Theaetetus. and we have express testimony that the five " Platonic figures. and there is no doubt as to what his followers meant by the formula. The Problem We must look. It is a delicate operation. even in Alexandrian times." According to them. the pyramid (tetrahedron). Aristotle was out of sympathy with Pythagorean ways of thinking. such as the identification of the Limit and the Unlimited with the One and the Indeterminate Dyad. as no one will now attribute the doctrine in that form to the Pythagoreans.was still used even by the citizens of Dorian states for scientific purposes. It is not necessary to repeat Zeller's arguments here. but he took great pains to understand them. then. which some ascribed to Lysis. This simplifies the problem. for Aristotle says they used it in a cosmological sense. From what has been said. for other evidence. was made of numbers in the same sense as others had said it was made of "four roots" or "innumerable seeds. and so did the medical writers of Dorian Kos and Cnidos. it was believed that Ionic was the proper dialect for Pythagorean writings. In the Schoha to Euclid we read that the Pythagoreans only knew the cube. and all the more so as Aristotle does not appear to have seen the work from which these fragments come. but it is still very difficult.

or anything else of that sort. if we can discover what it means. We find. the numbers were intended to be mathematical numbers. yet all their discussions and studies had reference to nature alone. and must have meant something quite definite. "Though the Pythagoreans. Aristotle on the Numbers In the first place. the "elements of number" are the Odd and the Even. which the Pythagoreans described in detail. Further. 144. which we have seen reason to re148 . and is contained within the compass of the heavens." he tells us. They describe the origin of the heavens." The doctrine is more precisely stated by Aristotle to be that the elements of numbers are the elements of things. "agreeing apparently with the other natural philosophers in holding that reality was just what could be perceived by the senses. not only the formal. Let us consider these statements in detail. We shall start. water. 143. which were also the elements of things. Aristotle notes that the point in which the Pythagoreans agreed with Plato was in giving numbers an independent reality of their own. but that does not seem to help us much. the bodies of which the world is constructed. no doubt. On the other hand. however. and that therefore things are numbers. but such veneration is often accompanied by a singular licence of interpretation. in Aristotle's own language." They apply their first principles entirely to these things. and indeed that they are bodies. and that is why they said that number was the reality of everything. and they observe the phenomena of its parts." Accordingly the numbers are. then. all that happens to it and all it does. though they were not separated from the things of sense. The Elements of Numbers Aristotle speaks of certain "elements" (stoicheia) of numbers. This construction of the world out of numbers was a real process in time. "made use of less obvious first principles and elements than the rest. but there is no difficulty in that. but also the material. He is equally positive that these "things" are sensible things. while Plato differed from the Pythagoreans in holding that this reality was distinguishable from that of sensible things.. from what Aristotle tells us about the numbers. seeing that they did not derive them from sensible objects. such as fire. "They did not hold that the limited and the unlimited and the one were certain other substances. have to say that they used the words Things are numbers in a somewhat non-natural sense. they were not mere predicates of something else. We shall. The Pythagoreans had a great veneration for the actual words of the Master (autos epha). but had an independent reality of their own. Aristotle is quite clear that Pythagoreanism was intended to be a cosmological system like the others. but that the unlimited itself and the one itself were the reality of the things of which they are predicated. The Pythagoreans of the fifth century were scientific men. Lastly.ticism. cause of things. Primarily. That is clearly the key to the problem. that the Odd and Even were identified with the Limit and the Unlimited." though "the first principles and causes they made use of were really adequate to explain realities of a higher order than the sensible.

or the void. They get into difficulties. showing that it is defective and incomplete." and accounted for it otherwise. Xouthos. leaves as it were within itself . As the Unlimited is spatial. argued that rarefaction and condensation implied the void. however. where we read that "even numbers are those which are divided into equal parts. it is at once arrested. and what is divided into equal parts is unlimited in respect of bipartition. they adopted the theory of Empedocles as to that "element." This is still further elucidated by a passage which is quoted in Stobaeus and ultimately goes back to Posidonius. Aristotle certainly regarded it so. as we shall see. whether he was earlier than the Atomists or not." Now it is plain that we must not impute to the Pythagoreans the view that even numbers can be halved indefinitely. It is enough to say that the Pythagoreans meant by the Unlimited the res extensa. The Numbers Spatial Now there can be no doubt that by his Unlimited Pythagoras meant something spatially extended. The division must fall between these. for it prevents its division into equal parts. and not merely the predicate of some other reality." It is clear that all these passages refer to the same thing. They must have known that the even numbers 6 and 10 can only be halved once. But. to the effect that they called the even number unlimited "because every even is divided into equal parts. but as the first product of the Limit and the Unlimited.gard as the original principles of the Pythagorean cosmology (§ 53). and we should expect to find that the point. and the surface were regarded as forms of the Limit. Plutarch says: "In the division of numbers. when the same thing is done to the odd. but. Aristotle tells us that it is the Even which gives things their unlimited character when it is contained in them and limited by the Odd. in all probability Alexander's.. the even. however. That was the later doctrine. One of them. without a master and without a number. a unit is left over in the middle. We do not know. but the characteristic feature of Pythagoreanism is just that the point was not regarded as a limit. for. Philolaus and his followers cannot have regarded the Unlimited as Air. a field. Further than this. It runs: "When the odd is divided into two equal parts. the line. without it the universe would overflow. for he identified it with air. for division into equals and halves goes on ad infinitum. We are prepared. an empty field is left. and was identified with the arithmetical unit instead of with 149 . to find that his followers also thought of the Unlimited as extended. but when the even is so divided. The explanation is rather to be found in a fragment of Aristoxenus. when the odd is added. The same thing is implied in his statement that the Pythagorean Unlimited was outside the heavens. 145.. there is always a middle left over from the division. if it meets with an indivisible unit. Simplicius has preserved an explanation. when they try to show how this can be. then every part of it must be unlimited too. night. it is not safe to go. and the commentators are at one in understanding this to mean that the Even is in some way the cause of infinite divisibility. when parted in any direction. if the Unlimited is itself a reality. while odd numbers are divided into unequal parts and have a middle term." Again. then. it limits it. and that can hardly be anything else than the "terms" or dots with which we are already familiar (§ 47). the Limit must be spatial too. just as every part of air is air. He argues that. for.

zero. According to this view, then, the point has one dimension, the line two, the surface three, and the solid four. In other words, the Pythagorean points have magnitude, their lines breadth, and their surfaces thickness. The whole theory, in short, turns on the definition of the point as a unit "having position" (monas thesin echousa). It was out of such elements that it seemed possible to construct a world. 146. The Numbers as Magnitudes This way of regarding the point, the line, and the surface is closely bound up with the practice of representing numbers by dots arranged in symmetrical patterns, which we have seen reason for attributing to the Pythagoreans (§ 47). Geometry had already made considerable advances, but the old view of quantity as a sum of units had not been revised, and so the point was identified with 1 instead of with 0. That is the answer to Zeller's contention that to regard the Pythagorean numbers as spatial is to ignore the fact that the doctrine was originally arithmetical rather than geometrical. Our interpretation takes full account of that fact, and indeed makes the peculiarities of the whole system depend on it. Aristotle is very decided as to the Pythagorean points having magnitude. "They construct the whole world out of numbers," he tells us, "but they suppose the units have magnitude. As to how the first unit with magnitude arose, they appear to be at a loss." Zeller holds that this is only an inference of Aristotle's, and he is probably right in this sense, that the Pythagoreans never felt the need of saying in so many words that points had magnitude. It does seem probable, however, that they called them onkoi. Zeller, moreover, allows, and indeed insists, that in the Pythagorean cosmology the numbers were spatial, but he raises difficulties about the other parts of the system. There are other things, such as the Soul and Justice and Opportunity, which are said to be numbers, and which cannot be regarded as constructed of points, lines, and surfaces. Now it appears to me that this is just the meaning of a passage in which Aristotle criticizes the Pythagoreans. They held, he says, that in one part of the world Opinion prevailed, while a little above it or below it were to be found Injustice or Separation or Mixture, each of which was, according to them, a number. But in the very same regions of the heavens were to be found things having magnitude which were also numbers. How can this be, since Justice has no magnitude? This means surely that the Pythagoreans had failed to give any clear account of the relation between these more or less fanciful analogies and their geometrical construction of the universe. 147. The Numbers and the Elements We seem to see further that what distinguished the Pythagoreanism of this period from its earlier form was that it sought to adapt itself to the new theory of "elements." This is what makes it necessary to take up the consideration of the system once more in connexion with the pluralists. When the Pythagoreans returned to Southern Italy, they would find views prevalent there which demanded a partial reconstruction of their own system. We do not know that Empedocles founded a philosophical society,
150

but there can be no doubt of his influence on the medical school of these regions; and we also know now that Philolaus played a part in the history of medicine. This gives us the clue to what formerly seemed obscure. The tradition is that the Pythagoreans explained the elements as built up of geometrical figures, a theory we can study for ourselves in the more developed form it attained in Plato's Timaeus. If they were to retain their position as the leaders of medical study in Italy, they were bound to account for the elements. We must not take it for granted, however, that the Pythagorean construction of the elements was exactly the same as that we find in Plato's Timaeus. As we have seen, there is good reason for believing they only knew three of the regular solids, the cube, the pyramid (tetrahedron), and the dodecahedron. Now Plato makes Timaeus start from fire and earth, and in the construction of the elements he proceeds in such a way that the octahedron and the icosahedron can easily be transformed into pyramids, while the cube and the dodecahedron cannot. From this it follows that, while air and water pass readily into fire, earth cannot do so, and the dodecahedron is reserved for another purpose, which we shall consider presently. This would exactly suit the Pythagorean system; for it would leave room for a dualism of the kind outlined in the Second Part of the poem of Parmenides. We know that Hippasus made Fire the first principle, and we see from the Timaeus how it would be possible to represent air and water as forms of fire. The other element is, however, earth, not air, as we have seen reason to believe that it was in early Pythagoreanism. That would be a natural result of the discovery of atmospheric air by Empedocles and of his general theory of the elements. It would also explain the puzzling fact, which we had to leave unexplained above, that Aristotle identifies the two "forms" spoken of by Parmenides with Fire and Earth. 148. The Dodecahedron The most interesting point in the theory is, however, the use made of the dodecahedron. It was identified, we are told, with the "sphere of the universe," or, as it is put in the Philolaic fragment, with the "hull of the sphere." Whatever we may think of the authenticity of the fragments, there is no reason to doubt that this is a genuine Pythagorean expression, and it must be taken in close connection with the word "keel" applied to the central fire. The structure of the world was compared to the building of a ship, an idea of which there are other traces. The key to what we are told of the dodecahedron is also given by Plato. In the Phaedo, which must have been written before the doctrine of the regular solids was fully established, we read that the "true earth," if looked at from above, is "many-colored like the balls that are made of twelve pieces of leather." In the Timaeus the same thing is referred to in these words: "Further, as there is still one construction left, the fifth, God made use of it for the universe when he painted it." The point is that the dodecahedron approaches more nearly to the sphere than any other of the regular solids. The twelve pieces of leather used to make a ball would all be regular pentagons; and, if the material were not flexible like leather, we should have a dodecahedron instead of a sphere. That proves that the dodecahedron was well known before Theaetetus, and we

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may infer that it was regarded as forming the "timbers" on which the spherical hulk of the heavens was built. The tradition confirms in an interesting way the importance of the dodecahedron in the Pythagorean system. According to one account, Hippasus was drowned at sea for revealing "the sphere formed out of the twelve pentagons." The Pythagorean construction of the dodecahedron we may partially infer from the fact that they adopted the pentagram or pentalpha as their symbol. The use of this figure in later magic is well known; and Paracelsus still employed it as a symbol of health, which, is exactly what the Pythagoreans called it. 149. The Soul a "Harmony" The view that the soul is a "harmony," or rather an attunement, is intimately connected with the theory of the four elements. It cannot have belonged to the earliest form of Pythagoreanism; for, as shown in Plato's Phaedo, it is quite inconsistent with the idea that the soul can exist independently of the body. It is the very opposite of the belief that "any soul can enter any body." On the other hand, we are told in the Phaedo that it was accepted by Simmias and Cebes, who had heard Philolaus at Thebes, and by Echecrates of Phlius, who was the disciple of Philolaus and Eurytus. The account of the doctrine given by Plato is quite in accordance with the view that it was of medical origin. Simmias says: "Our body being, as it were, strung and held together by the warm and the cold, the dry and the moist, and things of that sort, our soul is a sort of temperament and attunement of these, when they are mingled with one another well and in due proportion. If, then, our soul is an attunement, it is clear that, when the body has been relaxed or strung up out of measure by diseases and other ills, the soul must necessarily perish at once." This is clearly an-application of the theory of Alcmaeon (§ 96), and is in accordance with the views of the Sicilian school. It completes the evidence that the Pythagoreanism of the end of the fifth century was an adaptation of the old doctrine to the new principles introduced by Empedocles. It is further to be observed that, if the soul is regarded as an attunement in the Pythagorean sense, we should expect it to contain the three intervals then recognized, the fourth, the fifth and the octave, and this makes it extremely probable that Posidonius was right in saying that the doctrine of the tripartite soul, as we know it from the Republic of Plato, was really Pythagorean. It is quite inconsistent with Plato's own view of the soul, but agrees admirably with that just explained. 150. The Central Fire The planetary system which Aristotle attributes to "the Pythagoreans" and Aetius to Philolaus is sufficiently remarkable. The earth is no longer in the middle of the world; its place is taken by a central fire, which is not to be identified with the sun. Round this fire revolve ten bodies. First comes the Antichthon or Counter-earth, and next the earth, which thus becomes one of the planets. After the earth comes the moon, then the sun, the planets, and the heaven of the fixed stars. We do not see the central fire and the antickthon because the side of the earth on which we live is always turned away from
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Such a theory would. from our point of view. kept in the middle of the world by its equilibrium." or "watch-tower" of Zeus. The natural inference from the Phaedo would certainly be that the theory of a spherical earth. It is not easy to accept the statement of Aetius that this system was taught by Philolaus. so that men living on the other side of it would never see the earth. and it was certainly Aristotle's successful reassertion of the geocentric theory which made it necessary for Copernicus to discover the truth afresh. We saw that Empedocles gave two inconsistent explanations of the alternation of day and night. The central fire received a number of mythological names. We have his own word for it that he started from what he had read about the Pythagoreans. be the natural issue of recent discoveries as to the moon's light and the cause of its eclipses. was that of Philolaus himself. Indeed. It is clear too that Socrates states it as something of a novelty that the earth does not require the support of air or anything of the sort to keep it in its place. but is accepted without demur by Simmias the disciple of Philolaus. It was a great thing to see that the phenomena could best be "saved" by a central luminary. who says that Empedocles believed in two suns. It seems probable that the theory of the earth's revolution round the central fire really originated in the account of the sun's light given by Empedocles." the "house. but they seem to justify us in holding that Theophrastus regarded the theories as akin. and in the Phaedo Socrates gives a description of the earth and its position in the world which is entirely opposed to it.them. The two things are brought into close connection by Aetius. His words are obscure. This is to be explained by the analogy of the moon. if these were extended to the sun. It is probable. we are tempted to say that the identification of the central fire with the sun was a detail in comparison. the doctrine of the central fire would belong to a later generation. that this theory started the train of thought which made it possible for Aristarchus of Samos to reach the heliocentric hypothesis. In the form in which it was now stated. and Democritus still held it along with the theory of a flat earth. (§ 113) and it may well have seemed that the solution of the difficulty was to make the sun shine by reflected light from a central fire. so that it is always in opposition to it. such as the "hearth of the world. It is clear from Aristotle that its critics raised the objection that it failed to "save the phenomena" inasmuch as the assumed revolution of the earth would pro153 . It is undoubtedly a Pythagorean theory. and it did not maintain itself for long. that these bodies rotate on their axes in the same time as they revolve round the central fire. Aristotle nowhere mentions him in connection with it. and "the mother of the gods. which always presents the same face to us. as they would almost inevitably be. however. the theory raised almost as many difficulties as it solved. and marks a noticeable advance on the Ionian views current at Athens. while "Philolaus" believed in two or even in three. at any rate. If so. of course. Even Anaxagoras had not been able to shake himself free of that idea." That was in the manner of the school. but it must not blind us to the fact that we are dealing with a scientific hypothesis. and that the antichthon revolves round the central fire in the same time as the earth. This implies. in fact. however. and that the earth must therefore be a revolving sphere like the other planets.

Apparently they regarded the heaven of the fixed stars as stationary. it is quite impossible for me to follow him. it would be shared by every particle of earth. however. and in that case the earth could once more be regarded as in the center. A truer view of the earth's dimensions would naturally suggest that the alternation of night and day was due to the earth's rotation on its own axis. to which the Pythagoreans certainly adhered. and that 154 . In discussing the views of those who hold the earth to be in motion. So far. It is clear. According to this the earth is not one of the planets but "at the center. for. Boeckh and his followers appear to be in the right. and there is no reason why its orbit should have been thought to have an appreciably greater diameter than we now know the earth itself to have. It does not appear that Aristotle knew of anyone who had held this view." i. this interpretation makes nonsense of Aristotle's line of argument. then. that Aristotle regarded the second theory of the earth's movement as involving a motion of translation equally with the first.duce parallaxes too great to be negligible. for the whole cosmology of the Timaeus implies that the alternation of day and night is due to the diurnal revolution of the heavens. but that it means "globed" or "packed" round. and we see that the natural motion of every clod of earth is "down." that cannot be a "natural motion". and he says that it is that of the Timaeus. if the earth is in motion. very difficult to account for. but Theophrastus seems to have attributed it to Hicetas and Ecphantus of Syracuse. The fact that the earth is referred to a little later as "the guardian and artificer of night and day" proves nothing to the contrary. Aristotle has no clear account of the arguments on either side. towards the center. which there are not. of whom we know very little otherwise. and that the Pythagoreans gave some reason for the belief that they were negligible." it must have two motions like everything else but the "first sphere. They must either be stationary or their motion must be something quite different from the diurnal revolution. had the effect of making the revolution of the fixed stars." while at the same time it has some kind of motion relatively to the axis of the universe." and therefore there would be excursions in latitude (pairodoi) and "turnings back" (tropai) of the fixed stars. a thing Aristotle would almost have been bound to mention if he had ever heard of it. but it may be pointed out that the earth was probably supposed to be far smaller than it is. if it were. since night is in any case the conical shadow of the earth.e. It was probably this that led to the abandonment of the theory. Apart from all philological considerations. whether "outside the center" or "at the center. which is thus the cause of the alternation of day and night. if the earth is in motion. He also says that. Both theories. that of the earth's revolution round a central fire and that of its rotation on its own axis. When. Now this motion can hardly be an axial rotation. whether "outside the center" or "at the center. Aristotle only mentions one theory as alternative to that of its revolution round the central fire. since his own system turns entirely on the diurnal revolution. as was held by Grote. Boeckh goes on to argue that the word illomenên in the Timaeus does not refer to motion at all. He says that.

To avoid misunderstanding." and there seems to be nothing left but a motion up and down (to speak loosely) on the axis of the universe itself. It may have seemed worth while to them to explain the phenomena by a regular motion of the earth rather than by any waywardness in the planets. he said that eclipses of the moon were caused sometimes by the intervention of 155 . but that is a mere sally. it is enough if it can be made probable that the fifth-century Pythagoreans thought it could. if we may judge from the description of the waters in the earth given by Socrates in the Phaedo on the authority of some unnamed cosmologist. all the planets should either move in the ecliptic or remain at an invariable distance from it. though we have no information as to what he supposed to be in the center of our system. Now the only clearly attested meaning of the rare word illomai is just that of motion to and fro." So far as they go. and. the equator and the ecliptic. is quite incredible. It is impossible to believe that he can have been mistaken on such a point. We are not bound to show in detail that a motion of the kind suggested would account for these apparent irregularities. the direct and retrograde movements of the planets are clearly referred to in the Timaeus a few lines below. We have therefore to ask what motion of translation is compatible with the statement that the earth is "at the center. When we turn to the passage in the Timaeus itself. It may be added that a motion of this kind was familiar to the Pythagoreans. that he had then abandoned the geocentric hypothesis.e. to me at least. when the text is correctly established. Moreover. indeed. i. and that Boeckh's rendering is inadmissible on grammatical and lexicological grounds. moreover. they were at least on the right track. The Antichthon The existence of the antichthon was also a hypothesis intended to account for the phenomena of eclipses. We know. and this is far from being the case.he supposed it to be the theory of Plato's Timaeus. is one which. Aristotle says the Pythagoreans invented it in order to bring the number of revolving bodies up to ten. but it is clear that the motions of the circles of the Same and the Other. In one place. if so. Some explanation is required of their excursions in latitude. The idea that Plato expounded his own personal views in a dialogue obviously supposed to take place before he was born. 151. and Aristotle really knew better. we find that. are inadequate to "save the appearances. We have seen (§ 19) that Anaximander already busied himself with the "turnings back" of the moon. I would add that I do not suppose Plato himself was satisfied with the theory which he thought it appropriate for a Pythagorean of an earlier generation to propound. What was this motion intended to explain? It is impossible to be certain. In his work on the Pythagoreans. from the unimpeachable authority of Theophrastus. It seems clear too from the Laws that he must have attributed an axial rotation to the earth. i. their alternate approaches to the ecliptic and departures from it. who was a member of the Academy in Plato's later years. it completely corroborates Aristotle's statement that a motion of translation is involved.e. backwards and forwards.

and the next stage was to reduce them to a single body. and that they accounted in this way for there being more eclipses of the moon than of the sun. comes next. and the prevailing tradition gives the high note of the octave to the heaven of the fixed stars. which revolves in twenty-four hours. We have the express testimony of Aristotle that the Pythagoreans whose doctrine he knew believed that the heavenly bodies produced musical notes in their courses. of course. Anaximenes had assumed the existence of dark planets to account for lunar eclipses (§ 29). He tells us that some thought there might be a considerable number of bodies revolving round the center. that things were "like numbers. which gives the highest note to the Moon and the lowest to the fixed stars. and these in turn by their distances. though it has a slow motion of its own in a contrary direction. which were in the same ratios as the consonant intervals of the octave. is probably due to the theory which substituted an axial rotation of the earth for the diurnal revolution of the heavens. Here again we see how the Pythagoreans tried to simplify the hypotheses of their predecessors. known as the "harmony of the spheres" may have originated with Pythagoras. the pitch of the notes was determined by the velocities of these bodies. however. We are also told that the slower bodies give out a deep note and the swifter a high note. but its elaboration must belong to a later generation: and the extraordinary variations in our accounts of it must be due to the conflicting theories of the planetary motions which were rife at the end of the fifth and the beginning of the fourth centuries B. Certain Pythagoreans had placed these dark planets between the earth and the central fire in order to account for their invisibility. which Aristotle sometimes attributes to the Pythagoreans. that Aristoxenus represented the Pythagoreans as teaching that things were like numbers and there are other traces of an attempt to make out that this was the original doctrine. a very competent authority on the matter. so great in magnitude and in number as they are. Things Likenesses of Numbers We have still to consider a view. the moon. Aristotle distinctly implies that the heaven of the fixed stars takes part in the celestial symphony. and the same statement was made by Philip of Opus. The other view. whereas he really said they were made according to number. in which she says that she hears many of the Hellenes think Pythagoras said things were made of number. The history of the theory seems to be this." a phrase which cannot refer solely or chiefly to the five planets. 153. and Anaxagoras had revived that view (§ 135). Further. 156 . Aristotle shows in another passage how the theory originated. Indeed. though it is hard to see how he could reconcile the two. This is mentioned in close connection with the antickthon." He does not appear to regard this as inconsistent with the doctrine that things are numbers. for. 152. purporting to be by Theano. but incorrectly. for he mentions "the sun. and the stars. that is "mastered" (krateitai) by the diurnal revolution. the wife of Pythagoras. A letter was produced. though invisible to us because of the intervention of the earth. so Aristotle clearly regarded the two hypotheses as of the same nature. There is no doubt.C. Saturn.the earth and sometimes by that of the antichthon. The Harmony of the Spheres We have seen (§ 54) that the doctrine commonly.

and he is finally convinced of the immortality of the soul just because Socrates makes him see that the theory of forms implies it. ideai) originally took shape in Pythagorean circles. Aristoxenus is not likely to have been mistaken with regard to the opinions of the men he had known personally." and they are explained in a peculiar vocabulary which is represented as that of a school. Did any philosopher ever propound a new theory of his own by representing it as already familiar to a number of distinguished living contemporaries? It is not easy to believe that. It would be rash. that the use of the words eidê and ideai to express ultimate realities is pre-Platonic. but it was necessary to do so in order to put the statements of our authorities in their true light. in any case." and say that he modified it profoundly in later life. Aristotle seems to find only a verbal difference between Plato and the Pythagoreans. It is certain. It is also to be observed that Socrates does not introduce the theory as a novelty. Plato is very careful to tell us that he was not present at the conversation recorded in the Phaedo. more "friends of the ideas" than we generally recognize. and it seems most natural to regard it as of Pythagorean origin. but it must be pointed out that Aristotle's ascription of the doctrine of "imitation" to the Pythagoreans is abundantly justified by the Phaedo. The reality of the "ideas" is the sort of reality "we are always talking about. he asks for no explanation of it.When this view is uppermost in his mind." Whose theory is it? It is usually supposed to be Plato's own. We have really exceeded the limits of this work by tracing the history of Pythagoreanism down to a point where it becomes practically indistinguishable from the theories which Plato puts into the mouth of Socrates. It is a historical fact that Simmias and Cebes were not only Pythagoreans but disciples of Socrates. But there are serious difficulties in this view. no doubt." This is not the place to discuss the meaning of the so-called "theory of ideas". to ascribe the origin of the theory to Socrates. and that what we call equal things are imperfect imitations of it. and there were. When Simmias is asked whether he accepts the doctrine. though some call it his "early theory of ideas. There is nothing startling in this. The metaphor of "participation" was merely substituted for that of "imitation. and Aristotle's statements must have had some foundation. but replies at once and emphatically that he does. The view that the equal itself is alone real. 157 . on the other hand. though it was further developed by Socrates. The technical terms are introduced by such formulas as "we say. is quite familiar to him. and there seems nothing for it but to suppose that the doctrine of "forms" (eidê.

10 THE YOUNGER ELEATICS .

and change (§ 97). Melissus. Parmenides.. Relation to Predecessors The systems we have just been studying were all fundamentally pluralist. (464-460 B. that must mean the Pythagoreans. Plato further tells us. Now it was just this prevailing pluralism that Zeno criticized from the Eleatic standpoint. This date is arrived at by making him forty years younger than Parmenides. There is no evidence indeed. 155. but it has been shown (§ 147) how the later form of their system was based on the theory of Empedocles.154. we have seen. was originally a Pythagorean. motion. whose name is differently given. this must mean that the book was written before 460 B. and they were so because Parmenides had shown that." and Souidas gives some titles which probably come from the Alexandrian librarians through Hesychius of Miletus. 127).. some twenty-five years after Parmenides. Strabo.).C. have been born about 489 B. too. This statement can easily be explained.C.C. if we take a corporeal monism seriously. The four "roots" of Empedocles and the innumerable "seeds" of Anaxagoras were both of them conscious attempts to solve the problem Parmenides had raised (§§ 106. We have seen already (§ 84) that the meeting of Parmenides and Zeno with the young Socrates cannot well have occurred before 449 B. 156. and it is very possible that he wrote others after it. If he wrote a work against the " philosophers. In the Parmenides Plato makes Zeno say that the work by which he is best known was written in his youth and published against his will. we must ascribe to reality a number of predicates inconsistent with our experience of a world which everywhere displays multiplicity. Life of Zeno According to Apollodorus. who. Like Parmenides. We hear also that Zeno conspired against a tyrant.C. He was the son of Teleutagoras. and his arguments were especially directed against Pythagoreanism. and Plato tells us that Zeno was at that time "nearly forty years old." as Souidas says. made use of 159 . though with varying details. but he tries to find a common ground with his adversaries by maintaining the old Ionian thesis that reality is infinite.. and the school of Elea was naturally regarded as a mere branch of the larger society. that the Pythagoreans were directly influenced by Parmenides. and says that he was a Pythagorean. and the story of his courage under torture is often repeated. Zeno flourished in 01. no doubt on the authority of Timaeus. Writings Diogenes speaks of Zeno's "books. He was. LXXIX. criticizes Pythagoreanism. Zeno played a part in the politics of his native city. which is in direct conflict with the testimony of Plato. then. tall and of a graceful appearance. ascribes to him some share of the credit for the good government of Elea. As he is supposed to be forty years old at the time of the dialogue. as we have seen." He must. and the statement of Apollodorus that he had been adopted by Parmenides is only a misunderstanding of an expression of Plato's Sophist.

158.the term in a sense of their own. though the beginnings at least of this method of arguing were contemporary with the foundation of the Eleatic school. is substantially true. not from true premisses. and Simplicius illustrates this by quoting a passage from a dialogue between Zeno and Protagoras. This is what Aristotle meant by calling him the inventor of dialectic. In another place Aristotle refers to a passage where "the answerer and Zeno the questioner" occurred. if reality is one. We owe the preservation of Zeno's arguments on the one and many to Simplicius. that any part of a heap of millet makes a sound. 157. but simply to show that his opponents' view led to contradictions of a precisely similar nature. a reference which is most easily to be understood in the same way. which is just the art of arguing. which he puts into his own mouth: In reality." and these discourses were subdivided into sections. In the Physics we hear of an argument of Zeno's. Alcidamas seems to have written a dialogue in which Gorgias figured. It contained more than one "discourse. no doubt. If our chronology is right. Plato gives us a spirited account of the style and purpose of Zeno's book. the argument becomes involved in many absurdities and contradictions. This writing argues against those who uphold a Many. That was a later fashion. if it is sufficiently worked out. It is not likely that Zeno wrote dialogues. to take one of his adversaries' fundamental postulates and deduce from it two contradictory conclusions. in fact. and Zeno's object was not to bring fresh proofs of the theory itself. its aim is to show that their assumption of multiplicity will be involved in still more absurdities than the assumption of unity. Zeno and Pythagoreanism 160 . The theory of Parmenides had led to conclusions which contradicted the evidence of the senses. but it is most unlikely that Zeno should have made himself a personage in a dialogue of his own. Those relating to motion have been preserved by Aristotle. this writing is a sort of reinforcement for the argument of Parmenides against those who try to turn it into ridicule on the ground that. each dealing with some one presupposition of his adversaries. it is quite possible that they may have met. be the same as the book described in Plato's Parmenides. but from premisses admitted by the other side. and gives them back as good and better than they gave. and that. The Disputations (Erides) and the Treatise on Nature may. but he has restated them in his own language. The method of Zeno was. and the exposition of Zeno's arguments in dialogue form must always have been a tempting exercise. though certain references in Aristotle have been supposed to imply this. or may not. Dialectic Aristotle in his Sophist called Zeno the inventor of dialectic. Plato gives us a clear idea of what Zeno's youthful work was like.

and so great as to be infinite. Eudemus. for it." he says. which is what Zeno denied. seeing that there was no unit in things.. R. It will be noted how much clearer the historical position of Zeno becomes if we follow Plato in assigning him to a later date than is usual. 160. in his Physics.. P. if things are a many. What Is the Unit? The polemic of Zeno is clearly directed in the first instance against a certain view of the unit. It follows that he must have written it in Italy. preserved by Simplicius. This. and the postulate from which all his contradictions are derived is the view that space.That Zeno's dialectic was mainly directed against the Pythagoreans is certainly suggested by Plato's statement. for no such part of it will be the last. each one must have a certain magnitude and a certain thickness. which is just the Pythagorean doctrine. if. quoted from him the saying that "if any one could tell him what the unit was. that it was addressed to the adversaries of Parmenides. So." Zeller holds. they must be both small and great. if it is. nor will one thing not be as compared with another. it would not even be. then the pluralists. and thus it follows at once that what was added was nothing. he would be able to say what things are. I give them according to the arrangement of Diels. and the Pythagoreans are the only people who can have criticized the views of Parmenides there and at that date.. and something will be in front of it. and therefore body. is quite satisfactory. but it is surely not true that ordinary people believe things to be "a many" in the sense required. 134. that thing is no less. "Zeno the disciple of Parmenides tried to show that it was impossible that things could be a many. and again. But. (1) If what is had no magnitude. when this is taken away from another thing. 159. and must be at a certain distance from another. We have first Parmenides. seems to have been the view Aristotle took of the historical development. But if. too. 161 . whereas 'many' means a number of units. who held that things were "a many." Here we have a clear reference to the Pythagorean view that everything may be reduced to a sum of units. is made up of a number of discrete units. so small as not to have any magnitude at all. and then the criticism of Zeno. We know from Plato that Zeno's book was the work of his youth. that it was merely the popular form of the belief that things are many that Zeno set himself to confute. (2) For if it were added to any other thing it would not make it any larger. Plato tells us that the premisses of Zeno's arguments were the beliefs of the adversaries of Parmenides. It is all the same to say this once and to say it always. and the same may be said of what is in front of it. will have magnitude. for nothing can gain in magnitude by the addition of what has no magnitude. The Fragments The fragments of Zeno himself also show that this was his line of argument. "As Eudemus relates." The commentary of Alexander on this. at any rate. indeed.

So space will be in space. and this goes on ad infinitum. If things are a many." and that is just the Pythagorean unit. This is a "reinforcement" of the Parmenidean denial of the void. for there will always be other things between them. they must be just as many as they are. And. P. nor smaller by its subtraction from it.when it is added to another thing. a real thing at all. If we insist that body must be in space. for that is corporeal which is in every dimension. they will be finite in number. if they are as many as they are. then we must go on to ask what space itself is in. is not. What Zeno is really arguing against here is the attempt to distinguish space from the body that occupies it. if added in one way will make things larger. Nothing made up of units without magnitude can itself have any magnitude. The line is infinitely divisible. and others again between these. it will be made up of an infinite number of units. (3) If things are a many. R. each of which has some magnitude. i. From all this it seems impossible to draw any other conclusion than that the "one" against which Zeno argued was the "one" of which a number constitute a "many.and this is required by what Aristotle calls the argument from dichotomy. The Unit If we hold that the unit has no magnitude -.e. P. R. -. On the other hand. for all that is is in something. 162. and Simplicius quotes it in this form: If there is space. added in another they will produce no effect. according to this view. that does not increase. R. it will be in something.then everything must be infinitely small. That this argument refers to points is proved by an instructive passage from Aristotle's Metaphysics. The other things. 135. 133. And so things are infinite in number. if we insist that the units of which things are built up are something and not nothing. and neither more nor less. for clearly what is real must be a magnitude. 161. it is plain that what was added was nothing. they will be infinite in number. therefore there is no space. and what was taken away was nothing. Possibly the argument that everything 162 . Space Aristotle refers to an argument which seems to be directed against the Pythagorean doctrine of space. it will. we must hold that everything is infinitely great. the plane and the line. P. he says. but the point and the unit cannot make things larger in any way. and what is in something is in space. be nothing. We read there -If the unit is indivisible. according to the proposition of Zeno. if it is a magnitude. it is corporeal. and. That which neither makes anything larger by its addition to it. 132. Now.

The system of Parmenides made all motion impossible. For. it will traverse an infinite distance. This goes on ad infinitum. and what is in flight at any given moment always occupies a space equal to itself. is just as unable to explain it as was that of Parmenides. on this hypothesis. Zeno's arguments are no mere quibbles. [FIGURE] 163 . and you cannot touch an infinite number one by one in a finite time. and its successive positions are not points but lines. all he does is to show that a pluralist theory. no moving object can ever traverse any distance at all. accordingly. (4) Half the time may be equal to double the time. and the half of that again before you can traverse it. but diminishes in a constant ratio. one of which (A) is at rest while the other two (B. By the time they are all in the same part of the course. is not a half every time. the second emphasizes the fact that. had been used against the Parmenidean theory of a finite sphere with nothing outside it. and again the tortoise will be ahead. By that time the tortoise will have got some way ahead. Here a further complication is introduced. Again. so that there are an infinite number of points in any given space. this argument and the next deal with the hypothesis that it consists of a finite number of indivisibles. Looked at in this way. 1).must be "in" something. He must first reach the place from which the tortoise started. it cannot move. Zeno does not bring any fresh proofs of the impossibility of motion. The first two arguments are intended to destroy the hypothesis that a line consists of an infinite number of indivisibles. The "hypothesis" of the second argument is the same as that of the first. (3) The arrow in flight is at rest. that the line is a series of points. and his successors had been driven to abandon the monistic hypothesis in order to avoid this very consequence. the first argument shows that. however slowly it moves. such as the Pythagorean. You cannot traverse an infinite number of points in a finite time. B will have passed twice as many of the bodies in C as in A (Fig. (2) Achilles will never overtake the tortoise. The difference. C) are moving with equal velocity in opposite directions (Fig.2). The moving object itself has length. Let us suppose three rows of bodies. Achilles must then make up that. or must have something beyond it. Motion Zeno's arguments on the subject of motion have been preserved by Aristotle himself. but he never makes up to it. He is always coming nearer. however fast it may move. but the reasoning is complicated by the introduction of another moving object. but mark a great advance in the conception of quantity. You must traverse the half of any given distance before you traverse the whole. namely. if everything is at rest when it occupies a space equal to itself. 163. They are as follows: (1) You cannot cross a race-course.

and what Zeno has really done is to establish the conception of continuous quantity by a reductio ad absurdum of the other hypothesis. 8). LXXXIV. in fact. The Fragments The fragments which we have come from Simplicius. as he was a Samian. on the authority of Aristotle. If we remember that Parmenides had asserted the one to be continuous (fr. which was secured by the supremacy of Athens. like Zeno. But the time which B and C take to reach the position of A is the same. 165. but we are not to suppose that this assumption is Zeno's own. whether the magnitude with which it is equal is at rest or in motion. we really know nothing about his life. and it was no doubt for this reason that Apollodorus fixed his floruit in 01. are represented as a series of units. this argument adds a second moving line to the single moving line of the arrow in flight. if lines are a sum of discrete units. what can be said of it as of something real? 164 .). The Achilles adds a second moving point to the single moving point of the first argument. Life of Melissus In his Life of Pericles. and renounced the Ionic doctrine insofar as it was inconsistent with that. son of Ithagenes. the paralogism here depends on the assumption that an equal magnitude moving with equal velocity must move for an equal time. that the philosopher Melissus. On the other hand. with the exception of the first. (444-41 B.C. was the Samian general who defeated the Athenian fleet in 441/0 B. and time is similarly a series of discrete moments. and are given. Beyond this. related to the third just as the second is to the first. from the text of Diels. it is possible that he was originally a member of the Ionic school. and it is quite true that. there is no other measure of motion possible than the number of units which each unit passes. and we shall see that certain features of his doctrine tend to bear out this view. we shall see how accurate is the account of Zeno's method which Plato puts into the mouth of Socrates. We note here the effect of the increased facility of intercourse between East and West.Therefore the time which it takes to pass C is twice as long as the time it takes to pass A. Plutarch tells us. however. like the others. According to Aristotle. but.C. Therefore double the time is equal to the half. This argument. is intended to bring out the absurd conclusions which follow from the assumption that all quantity is discrete. a disciple of Parmenides.. The fourth argument is. he was certainly convinced by the Eleatic dialectic. That is certainly so. which is just how the Pythagoreans represented them. 164. He is said to have been. (1a) If nothing is. The lines.

it has no beginning or end. it is not possible either that its order should be changed. but is without limit. R. for it is only from the addition or subtraction of something that it could feel pain. P. Now. it has no beginning or end. For. P. but. (6) For if it is (infinite). For if there were aught empty. And the same argument applies to grief as to pain. R. 144 a. and then it would no longer be alike. 144. and what was not must come into being. if it neither began nor ended. then. since nothing is either added to it or passes away or is altered. (6a) (And. 143. 143. But. R. if it were in pain. Nor does it move. and what was not would come into being. for then what was whole and what was real would pass away. since there is naught empty. for then they would be bounded by one another. P. and ever was and ever shall be.) (7) So then it is eternal and infinite and one and all alike. (2) Since. (5) If it were not one. if it had come into being. and ever shall be. it is alike throughout. P. For what is empty is nothing. if it had come into being. (4) But nothing which has a beginning or end is either eternal or infinite. For. it would be many and not one. so it must ever be infinite in magnitude. for it has nowhere to betake itself to. But. for if it were two. Nor would it be alike. was ever. For a thing in pain could not be ever. Nor could what is whole feel pain. for a thing in pain could not all be. Further. for it is not possible for anything to be ever without all being. P. if it were nothing. if it changed by so much as a single hair in ten thousand years. how can any real thing have had its order changed? For if anything became different. nor does it suffer pain or grief. What is nothing cannot be. but is full. nor does that which was not come into being. if any of these things happened to it. 142. For if it is altered. And it cannot perish nor become greater. since it is one. For. R. for the order which it had before does not perish. P. it needs must have been nothing before it came into being. it must be one. 143. it has not come into being. it would have had a beginning (for it would have begun to come into being at some time or other) and an end (for it would have ceased to come into being at some time or other). in no wise could anything have arisen out of nothing. it would be bounded by something else. R. (3) Further. it would all perish in the whole of time. that would amount to a change in its order. Nor is anything empty. it has nowhere to betake itself to.(1) What was was ever. then the real must needs not be all alike. but what was before must pass away. Now. it could not be infinite. R. and ever shall be. 165 . it would betake itself to the empty. and since it is. Nor does it suffer pain. just as it ever is. for if it were unlike. it would no longer be one. nor has it the same power as what is whole.

that we did not see aright after all. and would no longer be one. and yet we fancy that they all suffer alteration. R. eve166 . P. We said that there were many things that were eternal and had forms and strength of their own. that what is hard turns soft. and yet we believe that what is warm becomes cold. 166. and that what they were and what they are now are in no way alike. (9) Now. for it is not possible for what is rare to be as full as what is dense. as With Parmenides. and the arguments by which he supported this view are those with which we are already familiar (fr. for. If there were a many. but each thing would be just what we believed it to be. But if it has changed. If a thing has room for anything else. So then. if it had body it would have parts. 146. They would not change if they were real. and if things are black and white and all that men say they really are. Now. which is hard. R. nor are we right in believing that all these things are many.And it cannot be dense and rare. P. -. (8) This argument. so that it turns out that we neither see nor know realities. if there were many things. what was has passed away. 144 a. it is not full. it must needs be one. and they cannot be changed or altered. 1). and takes it in. and what is cold warm. but the following are proofs of it also. 147. and that things are born from what lives not. but if it has no room for anything and does not take it in. P. R. these would have to be of the same kind as I say that the one is. and what was not is come into being. It is clear. as it is. but he certainly adopted all the views of Parmenides as to the true nature of reality with one remarkable exception. is rubbed away by contact with the finger. each one of these must be such as we first decided. we say that we see and hear and understand aright. a point which Melissus expressed in a way of his own. but if it moves. but what is rare is at once emptier than what is dense. it does not move. P. then. and air and iron. it cannot be. it cannot have body. and if one thing is living and another dead. and that earth and stone are made out of water. then. This is the way in which we must distinguish between what is full and what is not full. is the greatest proof that it is one alone. Theory of Reality It has been pointed out that Melissus was not perhaps originally a member of the Eleatic school. and if we see and hear aright. but each must be just as it is. (10) If what is real is divided. Now these things do not agree with one another. and what is soft hard. is eternal. For if there is earth and water.if that is so. R. and if it is full. Reality. and gold and fire. and that all those things are changed. it must needs be full if there is naught empty. 1a). But. He argued that since everything that has come into being has a beginning and an end. it is full. He appears to have opened his treatise with a reassertion of the Parmenidean "Nothing is not" (fr. if it were to exist. it moves. 145. that what is living dies. for nothing is stronger than true reality. We think that iron. and that they change from what we see each time. they would have to be just of the same nature as the one. and so with gold and stone and everything which we fancy to be strong. but if it is one.

Reality. and as. From the infinity of reality. and had no need to support it by such an extraordinary argument. 167 . Opposition to Ionians Eleaticism was always critical. but it would have been difficult for him to work out this view in detail. and I cannot see anything to justify Aristotle's assumption that the expression "without limit" means without limit in space. in common with the rest of the school. because it had neither beginning nor end in time. homogeneous. 168. as Anaximander. you cannot maintain that it is eternal. if it were not one. It is not easy to be sure what this refers to. being one. any such change necessarily involves a coming into being and passing away. he says. as he seems to have done. cannot feel sorrow or pain. 2). Reality.rything that has not come into being has no beginning or end. 3). Aristotle is very hard on him for this simple conversion of a universal affirmative proposition. for instance. What he said was that. As. He would have had to say there was nothing outside the sphere. which is impossible. It would be more serious if Aristotle were right in believing. they all allowed the possibility of change. He had thought it possible to regard reality as a finite sphere. 5). that Melissus inferred that what is must be infinite in space. Perhaps it is to the theory by which Anaxagoras explained perception. it must be homogeneous throughout (fr. if all things are one. it follows that it must be one. If you admit that a thing can change. but he gave an excellent reason for this belief. if it were limited. Nor can the arrangement of the parts of reality alter. it would be limited by empty space. he was forced to say reality was spatially infinite (fr. had held. for. his belief was not founded on that. but. but no one knew better than he that there is no such thing as nothing. it would be bounded by something else (fr. for that is what we mean by one. Reality Spatially Infinite Melissus did indeed differ from Parmenides in holding that reality was spatially as well as temporally infinite. stretching out to infinity in space. change must be a form of coming into being and passing away. This we know from Aristotle himself. It is possible that he was influenced in this by his association with the Ionic school. and it marks a real advance upon Parmenides. we are quite entitled to understand it for ourselves. corporeal plenum. which was a real inconsistency. 167. His whole conception of reality made it necessary for him to regard it as eternal. of course. but. and we are not without indications of the attitude taken up by Melissus towards contemporary systems. we have the fragment which Aristotle interprets in this way (fr. The next point made by Melissus is somewhat peculiar. And. then. is a single. Melissus saw that you cannot imagine a finite sphere without regarding it as surrounded by an infinite empty space. for that is always due to the addition or subtraction of something. however. and going backwards and forwards to infinity in time. Further. he denied the void (fr. The flaw which he found in the Ionian theories was that they all assumed some want of homogeneity in the One. 6a). 7).

they do not agree with his theory. the Eleatics were obliged to disprove it in the second. We have seen that the very same difficulty was felt about Zeno's denial of the "one. His greatness consisted in this. 8). it meant either the whole of reality or the point as a spatial unit.. Anaxagoras had admitted (§ 137. who twice quotes the fragment. the statement must seem incredible. which is certainly quoted by Simplicius to prove this very point. and he could easily have made his reasoning formally correct without modifying his system. but he was also able to see.) that. The only possible objection is that Simplicius. Now the fragment. while the unity of Parmenides seemed to be ideal. This cannot refer to the Eleatic One. that things are a many. Opposition to Anaxagoras The most remarkable fragment of Melissus is. as the argument is almost verbally the same as one of Zeno's. it is natural to suppose that it also was directed against the Pythagorean assumption of ultimate units. To maintain it in the first sense. as it stands in the MSS. -. taking advantage of this admission. so far as our perceptions go. with Anaxagoras. With wonderful penetration he points out that if we are to say. in which Melissus himself believed. we have seen.C. we are not entitled to reject the Eleatic theory. fin. the last (fr. and. are based mainly on a somewhat pedantic objection to the false conversion in the early part of the argument. though he held this was due solely to their weakness." 170. Melissus has been unduly depreciated owing to the criticisms of Aristotle. puts a purely hypothetical case. and so it sometimes seemed that they were speaking of their own "One" when they really meant the other. at least the language seems more applicable to him than any one else. certainly took it in the sense usually given to it. "The One" was an expression that had two senses in the middle of the fifth century B. But it was very natural for him to make this mistake. Opposition to Pythagoreans In nearly all accounts of the system of Melissus. and would most naturally be understood as a disproof of the existence of something on the ground that. we find it stated that he denied the corporeality of what is real. In other words. And it will seem even more surprising when we find that in the Metaphysics Aristotle says that. for both imply the existence of empty space. Melissus.an opinion which is supported by a reference to fr. urges that. but these. the only way in which the theory that things are a many could be consistently worked 168 . before the pluralists saw it themselves.Motion in general and rarefaction and condensation in particular are impossible. 169. it would have to be both corporeal and one. Melissus knew nothing about the rules of conversion. It seems to be directed against Anaxagoras. of Simplicius. we are bound also to say that each one of them is such as the Eleatics declared the One to be. perhaps. if we give up the senses as the test of reality. that of Melissus was material. if it existed. the only consistent pluralism is the atomic theory. however. 9. our general view as to the character of early Greek philosophy is correct. that not only was he the real systematizer of Eleaticism. These are the same arguments as Parmenides employed. Divisibility is excluded for the same reason. If.

reproaches those "sophists" who taught there was only one primary substance with "putting the doctrine of Melissus on its feet. It is significant that Polybus.out. the nephew of Hippocrates." 169 .

11 LEUCIPPUS OF MILETUS .

though they had confused it with atmospheric air.. the works of its founder. and the same thing has been maintained in quite recent times. It was the Great Diacosmas usually attributed to Democritus. Further. The early Pythagoreans had spoken of a void too. Theophrastus also appears to have said that Leucippus "heard" Zeno.C. What that work was. and it was no more possible to distinguish the authors of the different treatises in the one case than it is in the other. Leucippus and Democritus We have seen (§§ 31. On the other hand. that the influence of Zeno on his thinking is unmistakable. the seat of the Atomist school. In any case.C. It is true that he denied the existence of the void. Theophrastus found Leucippus described as an Eleate in some authorities. Aristotle was specially interested in Democritus. and the experiments of Anaxagoras with the 171 . Aristotle and Theophrastus certainly made him the originator of the atomic theory. Diogenes is parodied in the Clouds of Aristophanes. and his native Stageirus is not very far from Abdera. as was natural. and it is a striking fact that the man who gave the most complete answer to the question first asked by Thales was a Milesian. who said that he himself was a young man in the old age of Anaxagoras. Now Theophrastus stated that Diogenes of Apollonia borrowed some of his views from Anaxagoras and some from Leucippus. and they can hardly have been mistaken on such a point. if we may trust analogy. but the case is strong enough without that assumption. which must mean that there were traces of the atomic theory in his work. It has become part of the case for the historical reality of Leucippus to say that there are traces of atomism in the systems of these men. 122) that the school of Miletus did not come to an end with Anaximenes. The chief argument for the view that Leucippus influenced Empedocles is that drawn from the doctrine of "pores". and included. Theophrastus says distinctly that he had been a member of the school of Parmenides. but it does not follow that anyone had already maintained that doctrine in the atomist sense.C. and his words suggest that the founder of that school was then still at its head. in fact. which is very credible. Epicurus is reported to have said there never was such a philosopher. but we have seen that this originated with Alcmaeon. He may quite well have been so. Theophrastus also tells us. The relations of Leucippus to Empedocles and Anaxagoras are more difficult to determine. We shall see. if we accept Plato's chronology. a statement which makes it unlikely that he founded his school at Abdera much before 420 B. from which it follows that the work of Leucippus must have become known before that date. They formed. It is possible that his emigration was connected with the revolution at Miletus in 450-49 B. Nor is it at all probable that Anaxagoras knew anything of the theory of Leucippus. The question is intimately bound up with that of the date of Democritus. This means further that what were known later as the works of Democritus were really the writings of the school of Abdera. and it is therefore more probable that Leucippus derived it from Empedocles. a corpus like that which has come down to us under the name of Hippocrates.171.. and. which was produced in 423 B. It is true that the very existence of Leucippus has been called in question. at any rate. that means he had settled at Elea. the date given by Apollodorus for his floruit.

he assumed innumerable and ever-moving elements. while. and therefore no many. the atoms. for. taking as their starting-point what naturally comes first. 185). and finite." coupled with a great reluctance to admit that so scientific a hypothesis as the atomic theory can have had a "metaphysical" origin. nor. 172. empty space is not real. and because he saw that there was unceasing becoming and change in things. further. but discrete. Theophrastus on the Atomic Theory Theophrastus wrote of Leucippus as follows in the First Book of his Opinions: Leucippus of Elea or Miletus (for both accounts are given of him) had associated with Parmenides in philosophy. while they moved in the void which he called what is not. to all appearance. If he had really wished to refute Leucippus. namely. he would have had to use arguments of a very different kind. He did not. Leucippus and the Eleatics It will be observed that Theophrastus. instead of holding that reality is many. uncreated. 194. that what is is no more real than what is not. And it makes no difference if any one holds that the All is not continuous. R. if there were nothing to separate things. said they. As this is really the most important point in the history of early Greek philosophy. while the rest is discrete? And. He held. Some of the ancients had held that the real must necessarily be one and immovable. 172 . And he made their forms infinite in number. on the same grounds. Some have been led by this to deny the Eleaticism of Leucippus altogether. further. but. follow the same path in his explanation of things as Parmenides and Xenophanes did. rightly understood. and he called them what is. however. P. it is worth while to transcribe a passage of Aristotle which explains the historical connection in a way that leaves nothing to be desired. since there was no reason why they should be of one kind rather than another. it furnishes the key to the whole development. P. points out that his theory is. for up to what point and for what reason will part of the Whole be in this state and be full. but affirmed to be just as real as what is. and we must not suppose Theophrastus himself believed the two theories to be so far apart as they seem. and motion would be impossible without empty space separated from matter. but this denial is really based on the view that the system of Parmenides was "metaphysical. This is merely a prejudice. with its parts in contact (the Pythagorean view). and as. if it is divisible at every point there is no one. immovable. They made the All one. and did not even permit us to search for what is not. this looks like an arbitrary fiction. the very opposite (R. while noting the affiliation of Leucippus to the Eleatic school. 173. and that both are alike causes of the things that come into being for he laid down that the substance of the atoms was compact and full. and that there is empty space. and the Whole is empty (Zeno). just the opposite of that maintained by Parmenides. Leucippus and Democritus have decided about all things practically by the same method and on the same theory. if we say it is divisible in one place and not in another.klepsydra and the inflated skins would only have had any point if they were directed against the Pythagorean theory. For. prima facie. could reality be a many. not one.

physically indivisible. they say that the All is one and immovable (Parmenides). it is. Zeno had shown that all pluralist systems yet known. We are therefore justified by Aristotle's words in explaining the genesis of Atomism and its relation to Eleaticism as follows. virtually make all things out of numbers. were unable to stand before the arguments from infinite divisibility which he adduced. but the plenum is not one. that. He conceded this to experience. however. it contains no empty space." said he. that based on dichotomy (Zeno). going beyond perception and overlooking it in the belief that we ought to follow the argument. and by their coming together they effect coming into being. this conclusion does seem to follow. Each atom 173 . nor the multiplicity of things. for Parmenides had shown that if it is." we are there told. "For. but. while he conceded. if the word is is used in one sense only (Parmenides). Leucippus. They move in the void (for there is a void). to the second. by affirming the reality of what is not. it is only by regarding the matter in this way that we can attach any meaning to another statement of Aristotle's that Leucippus and Democritus. and that nothing of what was real was not real. "Why not?" He admitted the force of Zeno's arguments by setting a limit to divisibility. in fact. nor motion. "that which is strictly speaking real is an absolute plenum. "surrendered to both arguments. and some of them that it is infinite (Melissus). because. there are an infinite number of them. In consequence of these reasonings. The argument of Zeno against the Pythagoreans is clearly given. by introducing indivisible magnitudes. for any limit would be bounded by empty space. 174. passing away. that the void was not real. and especially Pythagoreanism. thought he had a theory which was in harmony with sense. "Some. then. gave the Pythagorean monads the character of the Parmenidean One. and these are the reasons which led them to do so. if we appeal to facts. and had added. is the opinion they expressed about the truth. a point which is distinctly mentioned. in which madness makes some people see no difference. To this Leucippus answers. Now." In this passage Zeno and Melissus are not named. and Melissus was the only Eleatic who made reality infinite. on the other hand. as a reductio ad absurdum. but the reference to them is unmistakable. On the contrary. if there were many things. and to each of the "atoms" which he thus arrived at he ascribed all the predicates of the Eleatic One." Finally. and things that appear right from habit. as well as the Pythagoreans. Leucippus. the argument that all things are one. by their separation. to hold such a view looks like madness. then. No one who is mad is so far out of his senses that fire and ice appear to him to be one. to those who invented the One that motion was impossible without the void. for it has magnitude. however. it must have these predicates somehow. This. like the One of Parmenides. to the first. The same view is implied in a passage of Aristotle's Physics. each one of them must be such as the Eleatics held the One to be. and they are invisible owing to the smallness of their bulk. so far as arguments go. Melissus had used the same argument against Anaxagoras. and did not do away with coming into being and passing away. it is only things that are right. Atoms We must observe that the atom is not mathematically indivisible.they further say that there can be no motion.

which kept the units apart. he says. which Empedocles had shown to be a corporeal substance (§ 107). indeed. order. The worlds come into being thus. The Void Leucippus affirmed the existence both of the Full and the Empty. He hardly. it is true. There were borne along by "abscission from the infinite" many bodies of all sorts of figures "into a mighty void. in the long run. indeed. in order to make his explanation of the nature of body possible. that is to say. That they are also called phusis is quite intelligible if we remember what was said of that word in the Introduction (§ VII). but that very fact affords a valuable clue. why the atoms are called "forms" or "figures. is as follows: He says that the All is infinite. From them arise innumerable worlds and are resolved into them. position. shape. and part empty. 175. But. those which were alike were separated apart and came to their likes." a way of speaking which is clearly of Pythagorean origin. He had to assume empty space. If we follow this up. which comes from an epitome of Theophrastus. too. He admitted. corporeal. No one later than Theophrastus was able to distinguish their doctrines. as they came into collision with one another and were whirled round in all manner of ways. were already distinguished by Leucippus. go back to him. as they were no longer able to re174 . The differences in shape. and we shall even come across some views which are peculiar to Leucippus and were not adopted by Democritus. and position just referred to account for the "opposites. This explains. but they had not distinguished it from atmospheric air (§ 53). terms which he may have borrowed from Melissus. namely. but only to deny its reality. for Aristotle mentions his name in connection with them. It seems probable that the three ways in which differences arise. and it follows that all definite statements about Leucippus in later writers must. 176. In it. Leucippus started from this. But he did his best to make his meaning clear by saying that "what is not" (in the old corporealist sense) "is" (in another sense) just as much as " what is. and that it is part full. Parmenides. which the Eleatics had denied.has extension. with which it is generally identified. and all atoms are exactly alike in substance." and they being gathered together produce a single vortex. we shall be able to give a fairly clear account of the system. The Pythagoreans had spoken of the void. Here again he is developing a Pythagorean view." The void is as real as body. as by Anaxagoras. for the verb "to be" had hitherto been used by philosophers only of body. These (the full and the empty)." the "elements" being regarded rather as aggregates of these (panspermiai). Cosmology It might seem a hopeless task to disentangle the cosmology of Leucippus from that of Democritus. had formed a clearer conception of space. and arrangement." Therefore all differences in things must be accounted for either by the shape of the atoms or by their arrangement. are the elements. that space was not real. but he maintained that it existed all the same. had words to express his discovery in. The fuller of the doxographies in Diogenes.

though there are traces of Empedocles and Anaxagoras too. And the sun is eclipsed rarely. because their circles are unequal. Relation to Ionic Cosmology The general impression we get from the cosmology of Leucippus is that he either ignored or had never heard of the great advance in the general view of the world which was due to the later Pythagoreans. this passage is good evidence for the cosmology of Leucippus. And. it will 175 . And all the heavenly bodies are ignited because of the swiftness of their motion.volve in equilibrium owing to their multitude. while the sun is also ignited by the stars. 177. He believed the earth was flat and rested on the air. ran down together. give a specially Epicurean turn to some of the doctrines. Some of these becoming entangled. This is what gives plausibility to Gomperz's statement that Atomism was "the ripe fruit on the tree of the old Ionic doctrine of matter which had been tended by the Ionian physiologists. and becoming entangled with one another. produced a structure. (And the obliquity of the zodiac is produced) by the earth being inclined towards the south. they were then ignited and produced the substance of the heavenly bodies. He is as reactionary in his detailed cosmology as he was daring in his general physical theory. that of the moon is nearest to the earth. the containing membrane was increased by the further separating out of bodies from outside. and it is confirmed by certain Epicurean extracts from the Great Diacosmas. Moreover. The explanation is not hard to see. And in this way the earth came into being. even when he found it possible to construct one without giving up the Parmenidean view of reality. These. and made a first spherical structure. being itself carried round in a vortex. those of them that were fine went out to the external void. but the atomic theory proper. and the moon continually. so there are growths and decays and passings away in virtue of a certain necessity.. the rest stayed together. and it was possibly over-ripe. of the nature of which he gives no clear account. in which the real greatness of Leucippus comes out." The detailed cosmology was certainly such a fruit. This was in substance like a membrane or skin containing in itself all kinds of bodies. as if passed through a sieve. he was thrown back upon the older systems of Ionia. was wholly Eleatic in its origin. But the moon only receives a small portion of fire. The astronomy of Democritus was still of this childish character. and the northern parts of it have constant snow and are cold and frozen. And just as there are comings into being of the world. As it comes substantially from Theophrastus. but. and must therefore be used with caution. and those of the others are between these. when they had been dried and were revolving along with the vortex of the whole. Nevertheless. The sun and the moon are eclipsed . and. and. in virtue of the resistance of the middle.. which was at first moist and muddy. as these bodies were borne round in a vortex. We seem to be reading once more of the speculations of Anaximenes or Anaximander. the surrounding membrane became thin. however. The circle of the sun is the outermost. The result was unfortunate. it further got possession of all with which it had come in contact. as the contiguous bodies kept flowing together from contact with the vortex. those things which had been borne towards the middle abiding there. Leucippus would not learn a cosmology from his Eleatic teachers.

we are told. They neither ascribed to them a natural motion like the circular motion of the heavens and the rectilinear motion of the four elements in the sublunary region. so we must now consider whether and in what sense weight is a property of the atoms. This. Epicurus held that the atoms were naturally heavy. is what seems to follow from the criticisms of Aristotle and from the nature of the case. but it is not consistent with Zeller's opinion that the original motion of the atoms is a fall through infinite space. 176 . who started with an infinite number of Parmenidean "Ones. and that weight is the tendency of bodies to fall. This view depends." he said. and did not say what sort of motion it was. they did not decide whether it was a "natural motion" or impressed on them "contrary to their nature. for such an examination will serve to bring out the true nature of the historical development of which it was the outcome. On the other hand. 179. this seems to be explained by the statement of Theophrastus that. He had to account for their coming together. "but everything from a ground and of necessity." a remark which has given rise to the erroneous view that they held it was due to chance." and they therefore required something to break up this unity." Speaking historically. In other words. and there was nothing so far to prevent his return to the old idea that motion does not require any explanation at all. as in the system of Epicurus. however. Aristotle puts this in his own way. they had not broken so radically as Leucippus with the Parmenidean One. but only that the atomists did not explain the motion of the atoms in any of the ways in Which he himself explained the motion of the elements. find it necessary to assume a force to originate motion." and. Democritus. "Naught happens for nothing. 178. like the upward motion that may be given to the heavy elements and the downward that may be given to the light. then. nor did they give them a forced motion contrary to their own nature. assigned two properties to atoms." so to speak. magnitude and form. The only fragment of Leucippus which has survived is an express denial of chance. Both started with a condition of matter in which the "roots" or "seeds" were mixed so as to be "all together. however. weight. that the "natural weight" of the atoms was an addition made by Epicurus himself to the original atomic system. all this means that Leucippus did not. The Eternal Motion Leucippus represented the atoms as having been always in motion. of course. The Weight of the Atoms As is well known. What he had to do was just the opposite. according to him. The school tradition is. He had no need of Love and Strife or Mind. on the further belief that the atoms have weight. "indolently" left it unexplained what was the source of motion. required no external agency to separate them. and therefore fell continually in the infinite void." He even said that they made it "spontaneous. Leucippus. to which Epicurus added a third. he says. Aristotle does not say that. and the reason is clear. Aristotle distinctly says that Democritus held the atoms were heavier "in proportion to their excess.repay us to examine the cosmology too. The atomists. Though Empedocles and Anaxagoras had tried to explain multiplicity and motion. like Empedocles and Anaxagoras.

which are. only popular names for facts which can be further analyzed. warmth and cold are. and this will amply account for everything Aristotle and Theophrastus say." The middle of the world is not "down" but "just in the middle. It is really the tendency of bodies towards their kin that makes us call a falling body heavy and the place to which it falls "below. Aristotle identified the circumference of the heavens with "up" and the middle of the world with "down. It is clear that lightness and weight would be among the very first properties of body to be distinctly recognized as such. As.weight depended on magnitude. It seems to me that the nightmare of Epicurean atomism can only be explained on the assumption that an Aristotelian doctrine was violently adapted to a theory which really excluded it. It is the finer atoms that are forced to the circumference. The necessity of lifting burdens must very soon have led men to distinguish them. or even to say anything about it. it is not represented as a primary property of the atoms in the same sense as magnitude. Here we seem to see the influence of Empedocles. as "up" or "down. This suggests at once that it is only in the vortex that the atoms acquire weight and lightness. We may express that by saying that the larger are heavy and the smaller light. though no doubt in a crude form. The motions and resistances which popular theory ascribes to weight are all explained in some other way. It is impossible to solve this apparent contradiction without referring briefly to the history of Greek ideas about weight. It is totally unlike anything we meet with in earlier days. Now it is a remarkable feature of early Greek philosophy that from the first it was able to shake itself free from this idea. for there is no passage where the atoms outside the vortex are distinctly said to be heavy or light. and. while the larger tend to the center. Even so. Both weight and lightness would be thought of as things that were in bodies." and equipped the elements with natural weight and lightness that they might perform their rectilinear motions between them. after all. Aristotle distinctly declares that none of his predecessors had said anything of absolute weight and lightness. This way of regarding the notions of weight and lightness is clearly formulated for the first time in Plato's Timaeus. They had only treated of the relatively light and heavy. 177 . For reasons which do not concern us here. and did not ascribe weight to the heavens proper. Aristotle believed there was only one world. Weight is never called a "thing" as. the effect of this reactionary theory on his cosmical system was not great. however. There is no such thing in the world." and there is no reason why any point in the circumference should be said to be "above" or "below" another. and it is not till the time of Aristotle that it is questioned. not one of the thinkers we have studied hitherto thought it necessary to give any explanation of it at all. though the "likeness" is of another kind. for instance. we are told there. so far as we can see." Here Plato is really giving the view taken more or less consciously by his predecessors. it was only when Epicurus tried to combine it with the infinite void that its true character emerged. We are told that Leucippus held one effect of the vortex to be that like atoms were brought together with their likes. however.

It is also significant that the point of the comparison appears to have been the fact that the motes in the sunbeam move even when there is no wind. Now. The fact that it is also a Pythagorean comparison so far confirms this. and it is quite in accordance with this that.There is a striking confirmation of this view in the atomist cosmology quoted above." Are we to suppose that Leucippus was ignorant of this fact. and in this way they make their way to the center where the motion is least. The Vortex But what are we to say of the vortex itself which produces these effects? Gomperz observes that they seem to be "the precise contrary of what they should have been by the laws of physics". the slower is its revolutions That is just the point which. The larger bodies are more able to resist this communicated motion than the smaller." Now the word isorropia has no necessary implication of weight in Greek. It is safest to say that it is simply a confused motion this way and that. There is no question of "centrifugal force" at all." which implies that they had previously been in a state of "equilibrium" or "equipoise. there is no reason for describing it as a fall. and that it is just this contact (epipsausis) by which the motion of the outermost parts is communicated to those within them. on the atomist theory. and force the smaller bodies out. It is possible that the comparison of the motion of the atoms of the soul to that of the motes in a sunbeam coming through a window. "as every centrifugal machine would show. We must remember that all the parts of the vortex are in contact. it is the heaviest substances which are hurled to the greatest distance. and the analogy of eddies in air and water is in reality quite satisfactory. 178 . We are told there that the separation of the larger and smaller atoms was due to the fact that they were "no longer able to revolve in equilibrium owing to their number. Anaximander would seem not to have observed. which was known to Empedocles and Anaxagoras? We know from Aristotle that all those who accounted for the earth being in the center of the world by means of a vortex appealed to the analogy of eddies in wind or water and Gomperz supposes that the whole theory was an erroneous generalization of this observation. which Aristotle attributes to Democritus. the nearer a heavenly body is to the center. we can see. if we no longer regard the "eternal motion" of the premundane and extramundane atoms as due to their weight. If we look at the matter more closely. I think. for we have seen that there is a real connection between the Pythagorean monads and the atoms. is really intended as an illustration of the original motion of the atoms still surviving in the soul. that there is no error at all. This resistance is surely just the antereisis tou mesou which is mentioned in the doxography of Leucippus. The state of isorropia is therefore that in which the tendency in one direction is exactly equal to the tendency in any other. which is the cause rather than the effect of weight. 180. nor do they tell us in any way what it was. so that it would be a very apt illustration indeed of the motion inherent in the atoms apart from the secondary motions produced by impact and collision. A ropê is a mere leaning or inclination in a certain direction. None of our authorities do as a matter of fact so describe it. for. as we have seen. and such a state is more naturally described as the absence of weight than as the presence of opposite weights neutralizing one another.

21a) Democritus is said to have quoted with approval. as we have seen. By this time the occultation of the planets by the moon must have been observed. it was a pure development of Ionian science. all later writers quote Democritus only. while the ice and cold of the north made it denser and more able to support the earth. Leucippus appears to have known the theory of eclipses as given by Anaxagoras. from a consideration of the Eleatic theory of reality. for. these do not make Leucippus a sceptic any more than Empedocles or Anaxagoras. Parmenides had already declared the senses to be deceitful. Perception Aetius expressly attributes to Leucippus the doctrine that the objects of sense-perception exist "by law" and not by nature. So far as his general theory of the physical constitution of the world 179 . though he also held that these were farther away than the moon. 182. The Earth and the Heavenly Bodies When we come to details. There seems to be no very clear distinction between the planets and the fixed stars. as Theophrastus tells us. to Leucippus. It would probably be wrong to credit him with Democritus's clear distinction between "true-born" and "bastard" knowledge. It hardly seems likely. A further proof of the correctness of the statement is that we also find it attributed to Diogenes of Apollonia. who. It is not likely that Leucippus went much further than this. or that between the primary and secondary qualities of matter. There appear to be sufficient grounds for ascribing the theory of perception by means of simulacra or eidôla. or whether. the doctrine of Leucippus was not the same as that taught afterwards by Democritus. Of course. however. This must come from Theophrastus. which played such a part in the systems of Democritus and Epicurus. There is nothing surprising in this. and floated on the air." that is. It is a natural development of the Empedoclean theory of "effluences" (§ 118). and all we are entitled to say is that the germs of it were already to be found in the writings of Leucippus and his predecessors. These distinctions imply a definite theory of knowledge. and said that color and the like were only "names.181. and it is safer to credit Democritus with the elaboration of the theory. the reactionary character of the atomist cosmology is very manifest. It was inclined towards the south because the heat of that region made the air thinner. The earth was shaped like a tambourine." and Empedocles had also spoken of coming into being and passing away as only a name. The question at issue is really whether Leucippus reached his theory on what are called "metaphysical grounds. Importance of Leucippus We have seen incidentally that there is a wide divergence of opinion among recent writers as to the place of Atomism in Greek thought. Like Anaximander (§ 19). 183. in some important respects. on the contrary. whose remark on this subject (fr. This accounts for the obliquity of the zodiac. Such other pieces of information as have come down to us are mainly of interest as showing that. that he went into detail on the subject. The foregoing exposition will suggest the true answer. derived some of his views from Leucippus. Leucippus held that the sun was farther away than the stars.

In any case. while the detailed cosmology was in the main a more or less successful attempt to make the older Ionian beliefs fit into this new physical theory.is concerned. I think. Even Anaxagoras took account of Zeno's arguments about divisibility (§ 128). 180 . but of course rarefaction and condensation cannot be clearly represented except on the hypothesis of molecules or atoms coming closer together or going farther apart in space. but his system of qualitatively different "seeds. lacks that simplicity which has always been the chief attraction of atomism. and it was the Eleatic criticism which forced Leucippus to formulate his system as he did. 2). his greatness consisted in his having been the first to see how body must be regarded if we take it to be ultimate reality. The old Milesian theory had found its most adequate expression in the system of Anaximenes (§ 31). Parmenides had seen that very clearly (fr. it has been shown. that it was derived entirely from Eleatic and Pythagorean sources." though in some respects it goes deeper.

12 ECLECTICISM AND REACTION .

for he had answered the question first asked by Thales. and Aristotle mentions him in the enumeration of early philosophers given in the First Book of the Metaphysics. But as it is. but a single one has now been recovered from the Geneva Scholia on Homer. and what we have to consider in this chapter is really one of the periodical "bankruptcies of science" which mark the close of one chapter in its history and announce the beginning of a new one. From a scholiast on Aristophanes we learn that Cratinus satirized him in his Panoptae. Leucippus had shown that "the doctrine of Melissus." which seemed to make all science impossible. and this seems to have prevented the recognition of the atomic theory for what it really was. 182 . It is to the effect that he held the primary substance to be Moisture. though only to say that the inferiority of his intellect deprives him of all claim to be reckoned among them. the sea is deeper than the waters. Till quite recently no fragment of Hippon was known to exist. and runs thus: The waters we drink are all from the sea. We have the authority of Aristotle and Theophrastus. the most precise statement is that of Alexander. We have seen. though his theory of matter was of a most original and daring kind. and the consequent substitution of an interest in detailed investigation for the larger cosmological views of an earlier time. His other views belong to the history of Medicine. We know very little indeed of him except that he was a contemporary of Pericles. P. he was not equally successful in his attempt to construct a cosmology. for then the water would not be from the sea. The "Bankruptcy of Science" With Leucippus our story should come to an end. who doubtless follows Theophrastus. however. but from some other source. With regard to his views. that. and there are several treatises in the Hippocratean corpus which give us a clear idea of the interest which now prevailed. The result at first was simply that all the old schools revived and had a short period of renewed activity. so all the waters that are above the sea come from it. and he had gone on to give a cosmology which was substantially of the old Ionic type. 219 b. was not the only conclusion that could be drawn from the Eleatic premisses. represented by Hippolytus. None of these attempts had any lasting importance or influence. It is directed against the old assumption that the "waters under the earth" are an independent source of moisture. Moisture Hippon of Samos or Croton or Rhegion belonged to the Italian school of medicine. We have noted the growing influence of medicine. doubtless. or to make them more available for scientific purposes by combining them in an eclectic fashion. 185.184. for if wells were deeper than the sea. R. for saying that this theory was supported by physiological arguments of the kind common at the time. be from the sea that we drink. without deciding whether it was Water or Air. then it would not. while at the same time some new schools arose which sought to accommodate the older views to those of Leucippus. and the arguments tentatively ascribed to Thales by Aristotle are of this kind (§ 10).

He. that all things are differentiations of the same thing. and the other things which we see existing in this world -. rarefaction. and is not to be lightly rejected. were different from any other. 206 a. that is. by having a substance peculiar to itself. The Fragments The work of Diogenes seems to have been preserved in the Academy.if any one of these things.earth. 207. not to sink into it. 187. This would be a physiological or medical treatise. In particular. the Peri phuseôs. if the things which are now in this world -. That he wrote a Meteorology and a book called The Nature of Man. R. and change of state. and air and fire. wrote most of his work in an eclectic fashion. from which by condensation. Idaeus of Himera may just be mentioned. Date of Diogenes of Apollonia After discussing the three great representatives of the Milesian school. This passage shows that the Apolloniate was somewhat later in date than the statement in Laertius Diogenes that he was contemporary with Anaxagoras would lead us to suppose. for. P. and are the same thing. is also quite probable. Theophrastus went on to say: And Diogenes of Apollonia. however. who says he held air to be the primary substance. and one's expression simple and dignified. P. The fact that he was a Sicilian is. to sum it all up. it is very credible that he wrote a tract Against the Sophists. (2) My view is. namely. and if it were not the 183 . the pluralist cosmologists of the day. We know nothing of him except from Sextus. practically all the fairly extensive fragments which we still have are derived from Simplicius. And this is obvious. I give them as they are arranged by Diels: (1) In the beginning any discourse. R. too. Along with Hippon. that is to say. too. it seems to me that one should make one's starting-point something indisputable. who was almost the latest of those who gave themselves up to these studies. 188. I say. says that the primary substance of the universe is Air infinite and eternal. different. and the fact that his views are satirized in the Clouds of Aristophanes points in the same direction. Writings Simplicius affirms that Diogenes wrote several works. 186. and perhaps the famous fragment about the veins comes from it. This statement is based upon references in the surviving work itself. the form of everything else arises. agreeing in some points with Anaxagoras and in others with Leucippus.We observe here the universal assumption that water tends to rise from the earth. and water. though he allows that only one survived till his own day. suggestive.

same thing that is often changed and differentiated, then things could not in any way mix with one another, nor could they do one another good or harm. Neither could a plant grow out of the earth, nor any animal nor anything else come into being unless things were composed in such a way as to be the same. But all these things arise from the same thing; they are differentiated and take different forms at different times, and return again to the same thing. R. P. 208. (3) For it would not be possible for it without intelligence to be so divided, as to keep the measures of all things, of winter and summer, of day and night, of rains and winds and fair weather. And any one who cares to reflect will find that everything else is disposed in the best possible manner. R. P. 210. (4) And, further, there are still the following great proofs. Men and all other animals live upon air by breathing it, and this is their soul and their intelligence, as will be clearly shown in this work; while, when this is taken away, they die, and their intelligence fails. R. P. 210. (5) And my view is, that that which has intelligence is what men call air and that all things have their course steered by it, and that it has power over all things. For this very thing I hold to be a god, and to reach everywhere, and to dispose everything, and to be in everything; and there is not anything which does not partake in it. Yet no single thing partakes in it just in the same way as another; but there are many modes both of air and of intelligence. For it undergoes many transformations, warmer and colder, drier and moister, more stable and in swifter motion, and it has many other differentiations in it, and an infinite number of colors and savors. And the soul of all living things is the same, namely, air warmer than that outside us and in which we are, but much colder than that near the sun. And this warmth is not alike in any two kinds of living creatures, nor, for the matter of that, in any two men; but it does not differ much, only so far as is compatible with their being alike. At the same time, it is not possible for any of the things which are differentiated to be exactly like one another till they all once more become the same. (6) Since, then, differentiation is multiform, living creatures are multiform and many, and they are like one another neither in appearance nor in intelligence, because of the multitude of differentiations. At the same time, they all live, and see, and hear by the same thing, and they all have their intelligence from the same source. R. P. 211. (7) And this itself is an eternal and undying body, but of those things some come into being and some pass away. (8) But this, too, appears to me to be obvious, that it is both great, and mighty, and eternal, and undying, and of great knowledge. R. P. 209. That the chief interest of Diogenes was a physiological one, is clear from his elaborate account of the veins, preserved by Aristotle. It is noticeable, too, that one of his arguments for the underlying unity of all substances is that without this it would be impossible to understand how one thing could do good or harm to another (fr. 2). In fact, the writing of Diogenes is essentially of the same character as a
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good deal of the pseudo-Hippocratean literature, and there is much to be said for the view that the writers of these curious tracts made use of him very much as they did of Anaxagoras and Heraclitus. 189. Cosmology Like Anaximenes, Diogenes regarded Air as the primary substance; but we see from his arguments that he lived at a time when other views had become prevalent. He speaks clearly of the four Empedoclean elements (fr. 2), and he is careful to attribute to Air the attributes of Nous as taught by Anaxagoras (fr. 4). The doxographical tradition as to his cosmological views is fairly preserved: Diogenes of Apollonia makes air the element, and holds that all things are in motion, and that there are innumerable worlds. And he describes the origin of the world thus. When the All moves and becomes rare in one place and dense in another, where the dense met together it formed a mass, and then the other things arose in the same way, the lightest parts occupying the highest position and producing the sun. [Plut.] Strom. fr. 12 (R. P. 215). Nothing arises from what is not nor passes away into what is not. The earth is round, poised in the middle, having received its shape through the revolution proceeding from the warm and its solidification from the cold. Diog. ix. 57 (R. P. 215). The heavenly bodies were like pumice-stone. He thinks they are the breathing-holes of the world, and that they are red-hot. Aet. ii. 13, 5 = Stob. i. 508 (R. P. 215). The sun was like pumice-stone, and into it the rays from the aether fix themselves. Aet. ii. 20, 10. The moon was a pumice-like conflagration. Ib. ii. 25, 10. Along with the visible heavenly bodies revolve invisible stones, which for that very reason are nameless; but they often fall and are extinguished on the earth like the stone star which fell down flaming at Aegospotami. Ib. ii. 13, 9. We have here nothing more than the old Ionian doctrine with a few additions from more recent sources. Rarefaction and condensation still hold their place in the explanation of the opposites, warm and cold, dry and moist, stable and mobile (fr. 5). The differentiations into opposites which Air may undergo are, as Anaxagoras had taught, infinite in number; but all may be reduced to the primary opposition of rare and dense. We may gather, too, from Censorinus that Diogenes did not, like Anaximenes, speak of earth and water as arising from Air by condensation, but rather of blood, flesh, and bones. In this he followed Anaxagoras (§ 130), as it was natural that he should. That portion of Air, on the other hand, which was rarefied became fiery, and produced the sun and heavenly bodies. The circular motion of the world is due to the intelligence of the Air, as is also the division of all things into different forms of body and the observance of the "measures" by these forms. Like Anaximander (§ 20), Diogenes regarded the sea as the remainder of the original moist state, which had been partially evaporated by the sun, so as to separate out the remaining earth. The earth
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itself is round, that is to say, it is a disc: for the language of the doxographers does not point to the spherical form. Its solidification by the cold is due to the fact that cold is a form of condensation. Diogenes did not hold with the earlier cosmologists that the heavenly bodies were made of air or fire, nor yet with Anaxagoras, that they were stones. They were, he said, pumice-like, a view in which we may trace the influence of Leucippus. They were earthy, indeed, but not solid, and the celestial fire permeated their pores. And this explains why we do not see the dark bodies which, in common with Anaxagoras, he held to revolve along with the stars. They really are solid stones, and therefore cannot be penetrated by the fire. It was one of these that fell into the Aegospotami. Like Anaxagoras, Diogenes affirmed that the inclination of the earth happened subsequently to the rise of animals. We are prepared to find that Diogenes held the doctrine of innumerable worlds; for it was the old Milesian belief, and had just been revived by Anaxagoras and Leucippus. He is mentioned with the rest in the Placita; and if Simplicius classes him and Anaximenes with Heraclitus as holding the Stoic doctrine of successive formations and destructions of a single world, he has probably been misled by the "accommodators." 190. Animals and Plants Living creatures arose from the earth, doubtless under the influence of heat. Their souls, of course, were air, and their differences were due to the various degrees in which it was rarefied or condensed (fr. 5). No special seat, such as the heart or the brain, was assigned to the soul; it was simply the warm air circulating with the blood in the veins. The views of Diogenes as to generation, respiration, and the blood, belong to the history of Medicine; his theory of sensation too, as it is described by Theophrastus, need only be mentioned in passing. Briefly stated, it amounts to this, that all sensation is due to the action of air upon the brain and other organs, while pleasure is aeration of the blood. But the details of the theory can only be studied properly in connection with the Hippocratean writings; for Diogenes does not really represent the old cosmological tradition, but a fresh development of reactionary philosophical views combined with an entirely new enthusiasm for detailed investigation and accumulation of facts. 191. Anaxagoreans The last of the early cosmologists was Archelaus of Athens, who was a disciple of Anaxagoras. He is also said, by Aristoxenus and Theophrastus, to have been the teacher of Socrates, and there is not the slightest reason for doubting it. There is no reason either to doubt the tradition that Archelaus succeeded Anaxagoras in the school at Lampsacus. We certainly hear of Anaxagoreans, though their fame was soon obscured by the rise of the Sophists, as we call them. 192. Cosmology On the cosmology of Archelaus, Hippolytus writes as follows:
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The former was in motion. but some quicker and some slower. 84) that you cannot step twice into the same river. and especially men. namely. has all the characteristics of the age to which it belonged -. and cities. It lies in the center. and there being burnt up it turned to earth and air. And he says that Nous is implanted in all animals alike.Archelaus was by birth an Athenian. like that of Diogenes. so Archelaus sought to bring Anaxagoreanism nearer to the old Ionic views by supplementing it with the opposition of warm and cold. did little but exaggerate its paradoxes and develop its more fanciful side. 193. and from its original combustion comes the substance of the heavenly bodies. It is clear from this that. they did not live long. and deriving their sustenance from the slime. The Heracliteans at Ephesus. And he held that there were two efficient causes which were separated off from one another. makes use of Nous. eclecticism. however. the warm and the cold. and of the first principles likewise. then. he believed in innumerable worlds. Hippon of Samos and Idaeus of Himera represent nothing more than the feeling that philosophy had run into a blind alley. for it was originally a pond. It may be added that this twofold relation of Archelaus to his predecessors makes it very credible that. both Anaxagoras and the older Ionians upheld that doctrine. Of these the sun is the largest. so long as it 187 . Conclusion The cosmology of Archelaus. you could not do so even once. are the reasons why the earth is at rest. too.. that Nous was no longer regarded as the maker of the world. He held. and arts. impenetrably wrapped up as they were in their own system. He adduces as a proof of this hollowness that the sun does not rise and set at the same time for all peoples. These. the latter of which was borne upwards. and set up leaders. and later on generation from one another began. being practically no appreciable part of the universe. and why it came into being. the rest are of various sizes. many living creatures appeared. he says that when the earth was first being warmed in the lower part where the warm and the cold were mingled together. and that then the sun made light upon the earth. It was probably for this reason. from which it could only escape by trying to get back. being high at the circumference and hollow in the center. and by stripping Nous of that simplicity which had marked it off from the other "things" in his master's system. and laws. while the former took up its position below. being produced by the burning of the fire. He spoke of the mixture of matter in a similar way to Anaxagoras. as Aetius tells us. Leucippus had made such a force unnecessary. and the son of Apollodorus. It was not enough for Cratylus to say with Heraclitus (fr. the latter at rest. for each of the animals. made the air transparent. all having the same manner of life. He says that the heavens were inclined. as well as man. The fact is that philosophy. As to animals. and investigation of detail. (But the air rules over all things).an age of reaction. that there was a certain mixture immanent even in Nous. and so forth. When the water was liquefied it flowed to the center. just as Diogenes had tried to introduce certain Anaxagorean ideas into the philosophy of Anaximenes. rare and dense. And men were distinguished from the rest. as it ought to do if the earth were level. and the earth dry. and the moon second.

On any view of him. and the list of problems there given is one that can only have occupied men's minds at Athens and at that date. and there alone that the divergent theories of Ionia and the West came into contact. and whether "what we think with" was Air or Blood. however remote they may have seemed to him in later life.clung to its old presuppositions. All the scientific schools end at Athens. Now. Such questions as whether the earth was round or flat. must have been hotly debated at Athens about the middle of the fifth century B. it is surely incredible that he was not interested in these controversies at the time. in the Phaedo. and it was there. Plato has put into his mouth an autobiographical statement in which he tells us that this was actually the case. and it was the Athenian Socrates who saw that the questions they had raised could only be met by making a fresh start from another point of view. It will be observed that all these warring systems found their way to Athens.C. for the answer of Leucippus to the question of Thales was really final. when Socrates was young.. had nothing more to say. 188 .

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