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CERTIFICATE
CERTIFIED THAT SUCH OF THE PROJECT ON ‘SOLARIS’ FOR SUBJECT OPERATING SYSTEM AS HAVE BEEN DULY SIGNED WERE PERFOMED BY Mr AMIT SALUNKE ROLL NO 180 OF BscIT OF CLASS SECOND YEAR DIVISION B .IN GUIDENCE OF PROFESSOR AMOL NIMGULKAR.

DATE :EXAMINER SIGNATURE

INDEX
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1.) INTRODUCTION ------------------------- 4 a.) HISTORY------------------------------------ 4-11 b.) TEAM INVOLVMENT------------------- 11-12 c.) TIME PERIOD----------------------------- 13-16 d.) DIFFERENT VERSIONS---------------- 16-18 2.) FEATURES--------------------------------- 19-20 3.) BUSINESS STRATEGY----------------- 20-23 4.) ARCHITECTURE------------------------ 24-27 a.) Process Management --------------------- 28-31 b.) Process Scheduling ---------------------- 32-34 c) Memory Management--------------------- 35-36 d) Deadlock Management-------------------- 37-38 5.) PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION-- 39-57 a.) PROCESS OF INSTALLATION------- 39-55 b.) COMMANDS------------------------------ 55-57 6.) COMPARISION WITH OTHER OS 58-59 7.) FUTURE SCOPE -----------------------60 8.) CONCLUSION---------------------------- 61 9.) BIBLOGRAPHY-------------------------- 62

From Solaris Version 2. Sun has launched a Version 2. and Xenix. Solaris is certified against the Single UNIX Specification. with one based on SVR4. This would become UNIX System V Release 4 (SVR4). but not yet multithreading. Beginning with Version 2.1. 64-bit processors and the use of Ultra-Creator graphics for 2-D and 3-D applications are supported. It is sold together with the OPENLOOK user interface OpenWindows.5 onward. This was identified internally as SunOS 5. it is supported on systems manufactured by all major server vendors. 1991. AT&T and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular UNIX variants on the market at that time: BSD. SunOS 4. This bundle is known as Solaris. This is an implementation of System V. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors.x. SunOS 4. The allocation of the processors is done automatically. Sun Solaris also known as SunOS or Sun is the name of the Sun Company’s UNIX variant operating system that was originally installed on SPARC computers. . Further development of Solaris 1 was discontinued at the end of 1998. Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSDderived UNIX. and supports multiprocessing.) HISTORY:In 1987. OpenSolaris project. especially on SPARC systems.x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun.0 and later. Solaris is known for its scalability. but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2.) INTRODUCTION:Solaris is a UNIX-based operating system introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as the successor to SunOS.x (as part of Solaris 1. In parallel to Solaris 1.x on the market. a.1.2 it also supports multithreading. Although it was historically developed as proprietary software. On September 4. While SunOS 4. and the majority of its codebase is now open source software. the distribution of threads among various processors. the Solaris name is almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5.x) is a BSD UNIX system. with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. that is to say. System V. and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace and ZFS. so that the user does not have to be involved.1.

simply "Enterprise") servers. the company used its own processor architecture. Sun originally used the Motorola 68000 CPU family for the Sun-1 through Sun-3 computer series. of its SunOS (and later Solaris) versions of Unix. UltraSPARC-II. the Sun Blade workstations and the Sun Fire servers. UltraSPARC-IIe. An x86 port of Solaris for PC compatibles was introduced in 1993. Solaris 2. Currently. the company was predominantly a vendor of technical workstations. The SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number. See UNIX wars. Sun has implemented multiple high-end generations of the SPARC architecture. UltraSPARC-IIi. Sun has developed several generations of workstations and servers. MicroSPARC-II. UltraSPARC-III. The Sun-1 employed a 68000 CPU. including SPARC. For a short period in the late 1980s. the Sun386i. Sun Ultra series the Ultra Enterprise (later. 51% of Sun stock was held by AT&T as a partner in their computer business AT&T Computer Systems. with the later Sun-3x variant using the 68030. but its customer base has been fairly loyal due to the popularity. Starting with the Sun-4 line.7. for example. . and the latest release Sun's logo with interleaved copies of the word sun. who named their version Solaris 2. and legendary stability. SuperSPARC. The initial version of the logo with sides oriented horizontally/vertically was later changed to the box appearing to stand on one corner.The justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS. competing successfully as a low-cost vendor during the Workstation Wars of the 1980s. After Solaris 2. and currently UltraSPARC-IV." from the number. and UltraSPARC-IIIi. A 64-bit extension of the SPARC architecture (SPARC V9) was later introduced. For the first decade of Sun's history. The AT&T partnership later fell apart when the rival group OSF (Open Software Foundation) appeared. Sun has had a difficult time keeping up with its competitors' processors' clock speed and computing power. UltraSPARC-I. For a short period in the mid-1980s. UNIX System V Release 4 was jointly developed by AT&T and Sun.6. SPARC.4 incorporated SunOS 5. a 68010. Sun also has a second line of lower cost processors meant for low-end systems which included the MicroSPARC-I. The Sun-3 series was based on the 68020. was designed by Stanford University professor Vaughan Pratt. including the SPARCstation series.4. a 32-bit RISC architecture which was later to become the IEEE 1754 standard for microprocessors. they sold a hybrid Intel 80386-based machine. the Sun-2 series. but also the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing (ONC) functionality. Sun dropped the "2. so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5. Sun is again selling x86 and AMD64 hardware and has introduced a 64bit version of Solaris for AMD64 systems.

Up through version 4.. 8. Driven by the increased prominence of web-serving database-searching applications. while old version of SunOS up to 4 are referred as for Solaris 1).g. In the late '80s.x) releases. blade servers (high density rack-mounted systems) were also emphasized. as Sun's workstations were lagging in performance when compared to that of their competitors and especially to Wintel Personal Computers. which was then developing the other major UNIX flavor. Subsequently. To further confuse the naming scheme.g.sys.7. The Sun 1 was shipped with Unisoft V7 UNIX.8.In the mid-1990s. and purchasing information try Google.sun. System V. Solaris 7. For more information about SunOS and Solaris.solaris alt.x86 Those in the comp.* hierarchy Sun Hardware Timelines:-Chronology of Workstation Computers 1982 . or 2. NFS). 2. History of Sun and Solaris from 1991 till 2001 is partially reflected in Sun under the Linux siegeYou can also consult the following newsgroups: • • • comp. with its version 5. To confuse things Sun Solaris is sometimes called SunOS 5. Sun entered into a partnership with AT&T. The Cray CS6400 server line was transformed into the very successful Sun Enterprise 10000 large-scale servers. SunOS remained a heavily BSD-influenced UNIX implementation.x (Solaris 2. including FAQs. Sun also marketed a network computer (diskless workstation.unix. SunOS shifted from its BSD origins to SVR4.solaris. The result was System V release 4 (SVR4).1BSD UNIX called SunOS as an operating system for its workstations. upgrade.x). Sun acquired Diba and Cobalt Networks with the aim of building network appliances (single function computers meant for consumers). which incorporated BSD as well as SunOS extensions (e. as popularized by Oracle Corporation CEO Larry Ellison). Sun now refers to Solaris by just its point release (e. None of these business initiatives were particularly successful.1. This transition was enabled by technology that was acquired from Silicon Graphics and Cray Research. In the late-1990s.x (Solaris 1.9). Later Bill Joy. the company successfully transformed itself to a vendor of large-scale Symmetric multiprocessing servers. white papers.. the key figure of the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) and one of four founders of Sun produced a customized 4. or 9 instead of 2.

1984 February 14 • Scott McNealy is appointed president and chief operating officer of Sun Microsystems. Silicon Graphics introduces its first workstation. Uses a parallel microswitch keyboard and parallel mouse. Used the original Stanford-designed video board. Used design similar to original SUN (Stanford University Network) CPU. and Vinod Khosla found Sun Microsystems. a 32-bit version of the 68000. and begins developing its RISC architecture. with on-board cache. version 1. *) SUN HARDWARE:Sun 1’s These are the large black desktop boxes with 17" monitors. Andreas Bechtolsheim.February • Scott McNealy. Pre-dates Sun's 4. May • Sun Microsystems begins shipping the Sun 1 workstation computer. Bill Joy.2 port (ran Unisoft V7) (68010 CPU instead of SUN's 68000) 10 MHz.5 CPU could take larger RAMS. . "SUN" originally stood for Stanford University Network. in CMOS. IRIS 1400. Sun Microsystems co-founder Vinod Khosla resigns. (Later) • • • MIPS Computer Systems is founded. April • Silicon Graphics begins shipping its first 3-D graphics workstations. June • Motorola introduces the 16 MHz 68020 processor.

ethernet board. 1 or 4 Meg memory board. on ECL. Mouse Systems Optical mouse. SunOS 4. (Still has parallel kb/mouse intf so old kbds would work. First machine to use 12 slot desk-side VME chassis. thus cooling problems with lots of cards. The (type-2) keyboard and mouse attached via an adapter that accepted 2 modular plugs and attached to the DB15 port. ethernet. 2. Many have CPU upgrades to 3/160's. Replaces CPU and memory card with first-generation Sun2 CPU and memory boards so original customers could run SunOS V1. which is used in lots of other Sun3 variants. one generated TTL-level video. 2 or 4 Megs as well. Uses "Carrera" CPU. CPU has 2 serial. 10Mhz 68010 CPU. SCSI was optional. ethernet. other version sat in slot7 of the backplane and ran the SCSI out the back of the backplane to the internal disc/tape. 2/1xx with a monochrome display can only have 7megs max.. . third parties had up to 32 Megs on one card. Also only had 4 P2 memory connectors bussed instead of 6. CPU board had 1. VME Sun2 style CPU 2 slot chassis. since the frame buffer appears in the 8th Meg Sun 3's First 68020 based Sun machine. 16 port serial mux (ALM-1) Two variants of video board. 8Mb memory max. One variant of the memory card held the 6u VME SCSI board. Memory expansion boards are 1. two serial ports. First machines that had desk-side chassis Serial Microswitch keyboard.0.) Rack-mounted server. Later video boards ("2prime") could generate either levels. Optional SCSI board (model name is SCSI-2."Brain transplant" for 100 series. monochrome video board. 640 * 480 color board. or 4 Megs mem. Slightly different chassis design than 2/170's Sun 2's Multibus-based 68010 10 MHz. first was for 2/1xx's) sat on mem expansion board in 2nd slot. 2'nd SCSI design. SCSI board. Had 4 fans cooling tray instead of 6 in later machines.3 was the last release with Sun2 support. Cards are CPU. SMD controller. tape controller. Early 19" mono monitors (Philips or moniterm) could be switched as well. Sun's mem expansion goes on 4 Meg memory expansion boards. 4Mb on-board memory. kbd ports.

though in a disturbingly regressive manner. I am not here to argue.Terminal Condition PBS Why Sun's Aggressive New Workstations Are Really Just a Blast from the PastBy Robert X. this time I'll just congratulate all concerned with those events back at UCLA: It has been quite a ride. This is all marketing talk here. You couldn't configure it if you wanted to. . since there are obvious developments in the news as well as the 30th anniversary of the first Arpanet node coming to life. having done three hours of Internet history for television and written several columns on the subject already. In the early 1980s. the Internet building block of choice came to be logic boards for Sun workstations. and how this would put a virtually free office suite up against Microsoft for both PC. for example. All of these companies were founded in the same building and all are still on the scene. but choosing one from the many obvious candidates. Last week. The Sun Ray. 1999 . That's a computer terminal where I come from. A few times. The Sun Ray looks to be a successor to Sun's own unpopular JavaStation and the logical heir to the network computing crown. then use an Ethernet connection to the world. If the box breaks. As for the Arpanet birthday. is not a computer at all or even a computing device. and it is ready to go. the first Silicon Graphics workstations were Sun workstations with extra 3D capability added-in by Jim Clark. Well. you replace it with another. but reading it I came to have an unsettling feeling. but this week. so they win. September 9. were built from Sun logic boards designed by Andy Bechtolscheim when he was a graduate student at Stanford. It is a computer terminal. The only application that runs in the Sun Ray is whatever paints the screen and accepts keyboard and mouse input. since it requires no configuration at all. That first Arpanet Interface Message Processor (IMP) was built from a Honeywell computer used by the military. Or I could even try to explain why last Week. But this week I am torn. The first Cisco routers. Or is it? The Sun Ray is great from a configuration standpoint. Then it came to me. for all its high design and ease of use. So too. I wrote about Sun's acquisition of Star Office. but there is a firm nerd contingent among my readers who think we have a contract allowing only a single topic per week. I'd say Sun has been making the most news. The problem is not finding a topic. Plug it into power and Ethernet. I've tried to cover more than one topic. I have to decide a topic for this column. It is a funny little box called the Sun Ray 1 Enterprise Appliance. mouse and screen.Cringely. into which you attach a keyboard. this week the other shoe dropped as Sun introduced its candidate workstation for the server-based version.and server-based versions. Sun's answer to Microsoft is to take corporate America back to a souped-up version of 1970's minicomputing. Cringely Each week." The answer to this last mystery is easy — dementia. I thought former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara's first name was "George.

the world of corporate computing has come to fixate on Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). Rather. NCD boxes were all connected through Ethernet to a Sun server. a time that wasn't particularly happy since X-terminals were being rapidly replaced with cheap PCs running X-server software. a husband and wife team who also founded Bridge Communications (later part of 3Com) and Precept Software (later part of Cisco). In the world of X. And in the last few years. because it's only at those scales that the costs begin to come into line. Instead.Presumably. all the real computing is done back on a hefty Sun server and only screen rendering happens in the Sun Ray. they saw the end coming. what we would normally call a "client" — that part of the application that runs on the workstation rather than on that big box in the computer room — is called a "server. And don't even think of using a Sun Ray unless you want at least 25 of them. Running over a 56K modem won't work at all. Why? Because PCs were cheaper than X-terminals and they could run local applications. . There is another outfit called Network Computing Devices that makes boxes like this. the Sun Ray is damned cheap. though Sun does an excellent job of not telling us that. Still. On a TCO basis. but sure didn't cost 25-50 times as much. NCD was founded by Bill Carrico and Judy Estrin. so that's an enormous difference. but from the big iron it sells to support both. dwarfed by the human cost of setting-up and shifting and training. and Sun does. which includes everything from the cost of training users to replacing busted boxes." The wonderful thing about an X-terminal is that it does an end-run around user ego. Judy is now the Chief Technical Officer at Cisco. all of which are minimized by the Sun Ray/Star Office combo. I remember visiting Bill and Judy late in their tenure at NCD. They just keep changing jobs. and with Sun offering leases at under $10 per month. How many Xterminals could a Sun server serve? Lots. etc. which fits perfectly into my theory that there are really only 25 people in the computer business. didn't sell servers. what has changed to make Bill and Judy wrong and Sun happy to enter this new business? Well NCD. it is still a very good business. With PCs even cheaper today. What this means. then. But don't expect to run your Sun Ray at home because its sparkling performance has more than anything to do with that 100 megabits-per-second Ethernet connection. too. But for Sun. Sun makes its dough on this deal not from the Sun Rays or from Star Office. there is a TCP/IP stack and something like an X-Window server. Typically 25-50 terminals could be run by a single server that cost a lot more than a PC. the original purchase price of a PC is almost insignificant. which Sun has finally figured out isn't up to the task. it is a good deal for many businesses. What's definitely NOT happening in the box is anything like Java. it is a Microsoft annoyance. is that the Sun Ray is far from a Microsoft killer. that day I visited Bill and Judy. which it calls X-terminals. In the grand scheme of TCO.. which is still very much in business.

Sun Microsystems is founded by Vinod Khosla.The company was incorporated in 1982 and 1986.Solaris 2.About 100. Of these men. Bill Joy and Andy Bechtolsheim.Novell buys UNIX from AT&T. a unified version of UNIX. release 4. 1990 . will be phased out. Sun now has 400 employees and $39 million in annual sales.The nerds will say this is obvious and that I'm again wasting their time.000 UNIX sites exist worldwide.Sun went public in 1986 1988 . 1986 . 1988 .AT&T releases System V. 1992 . Andy Bechtolsheim. They'll say. 1994 .OSF and UI are formed. which is based on BSDF UNIX.AT&T and Sun start work on SVR4." b) TEAM INVOLVMENT:1979 . Sun now has more than 12. 1982 . 1989 . 1995 • Santa Cruz Operation buys UnixWare from Novell. release 4. SunOS.Sun Microsystems introduces SunOS.4 is available.5 is available -the first stable version of Solaris 2 . 1983 . only McNealy and Bechtolsheim remain with Sun. which is based on System V. but most of the people who read this column aren't nerds. and Scott McNealy with $4 million in venture capital with four employees.500 employees and more than $3. SCO and HP announce a relationship to develop a 64-bit version of UNIX.Sun introduces Solaris. "Now I get it.OSF releases OSF/1. 1993 . 1984 . Solaris 2.1. Founders include Vinod Khosla.Bill Joy introduces "Berkeley enhancements" as BSD 4.5 billion in sales. Scott McNealy.

No. which built 1gigabit-per-second networking technology and which Cisco acquired in 1996.SUN MICROSYSTEMS ANNOUNCES CHIEF SCIENTIST BILL JOY TO LEAVE COMPANY 2004 February Nine years after leaving the server maker he co-founded in 1982.6 to 2.Solaris 8 is available. CTO. moving on to "different challenges". Andy Bechtolsheim is returning to Sun Microsystems. 1997 . -. See09-09-03 .This was not very successful version. is leaving the company.Solaris 2.• Bechtolsheim. It soon became the most popular version of Solaris for the next three years 1998 .Solaris 7 is available. he's not saying yet what those different challenges are. left Sun in 1995 to start Granite Systems. 48.6 directly to Solaris 8 2003 September Bill Joy. Few moved from 2. Sun Microsystems chief scientist and co-founder.7 2000 . Most move from 2. Became a huge success. Latest team involved for solaris development . Greg Papadopoulos. will take over Joy's responsibilities.6 is available.

the following versions of Solaris have been released: Color Meaning Red Old release.Potable features of Solaris currently include DTrace. First to support sun4d architecture. these are known as update releases. 2003 POSIX. Solaris 10 U3 (update 3). First appearance of nis Support for sun4 and sun4m December May architectures added.x 4. eg. First to support May 1993 May 1999 multithreading libraries (UI threads API in libthread) SPARC-only release. Service Management Facility. Solaris Multiplexed I/O. SPARC-only release. See SunOS article 2003 for more information. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP. Solaris Volume Manager. First Solaris 2 release to support SMP.3 5. support for only the June 1992 1999 sun4c architecture. still supported Green Current release Blue Future release Release date Solaris SunOS version version SPARC x86 1.5 5.1 2. In ascending order.4 5. first Solaris x86 April 1999 1992 1993 release.1 5. . OpenWindows 3.0 5.3 2.3 switches from NeWS to Display November June 2002 PostScript and drops SunView support. November 1994 2003 Includes OSF/Motif runtime support.2 2.1. Solaris Containers.0 2.x 1991-1994 - c)TIME PERIOD:- End of support Major new features 2. Doors. 1993 Support added for autofs and CacheFS filesystems. Preliminary release (primarily available January to developers only).2 5. December November 1995 Dropped sun4 (VMEbus) support. ZFS. First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE. not supported Yellow Old release. and Solaris Trusted Extensions.5 SunOS 4 rebranded as Solaris 1 for September marketing purposes. September First unified SPARC/x86 release.1c-1995 pthreads added.4 2. Often a Solaris version will be updated with incremental features. Doors added but undocumented.

January 31. WebNFS. SPARCserver 600MP series support dropped. Includes Kerberos 5. TrueType fonts. mdb March February 2000 modular debugger.6 7 5. Includes Multipath I/O. IKE January May 28. PAM.d scripts.8 9 5.9 10 5. October IPsec keying. Solaris 10 6/06 ("U2") added the ZFS filesystem.1 5. Introduced Role2012 Based Access Control (RBAC). OpenWindows dropped. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing). extended file attributes. Adds Java Desktop System (based on GNOME) as default desktop. .10 Only release to support PowerPC platform. Solaris Volume Manager . Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors removed. Service Management Facility (SMF) which replaces init. 2002 2014 added. Last update was Solaris 7 11/99. user and group IDs (uid_t. 2005 Includes "x64" or x86-64 (AMD64/Intel 64) support.7 8 5. gid_t) May 1996 2005 expanded to 32 bits. sun4c support removed. Least privilege security model. also included processor sets and early resource management technologies. Support for EISA-based PCs removed. Most current update is Solaris 9 9/05. Solaris Containers.1 2.6 5. sun4d 2003 support removed. IPMP. first support for IPv6 and IPsec (manual keying only). iPlanet Directory Server.5. July 1997 July 2006 enhanced procfs. and Linux compatibility 10. Ultra Enterprise support September added. NFSv4. Last update is Solaris 8 2/04. Resource Manager. iSCSI Initiator support and fcinfo command-line tool.5.2. large file support. 2008 Dropped MCA support on x86 platform. • • Solaris 10 1/06 (known internally as "U1") added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems. The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release. Added native support for file system August November 1998 meta-data logging (UFS logging).

• • • • • Solaris 10 11/06 ("U3") added Solaris Trusted Extensions and Logical Domains. and Para virtualization support when Solaris 10 is used as a guest OS in Xen-based environments such as Sun xVM Server. IP Instances (part of the OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control project). Solaris 10 5/09 ("U7") added performance and power management support for Intel Nehalem processors. container cloning using ZFS cloned file systems. Solaris 10 8/07 ("U4") added Samba Active Directory support. performance improvements. enhanced version of the Resource Capping Daemon (rcapd). iSCSI Target support and Solaris Containers for Linux Applications (based on branded zones). Solaris 10 10/08 also includes virtualization enhancements including the ability for a Solaris Container to automatically update its environment when moved from one system to another. Solaris 10 5/08 ("U5") added CPU capping for Solaris Containers. and performance enhancements for ZFS on solid- . Logical Domains support for dynamically reconfigurable disk and network I/O. SpeedStep support for Intel processors and PowerNow! support for AMD processors Solaris 10 10/08 ("U6") added boot from ZFS and can use ZFS as its root file system.

Solaris 2002 SunOS Volume Manager. and Linux compatibility added. Solaris 10 6/06 added Sun's new filesystem ZFS. Solaris 10 1/06 added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems. 2003 (x86) Includes Multipath I/O. CDE included.1 Enterprise support added. July 1997 2.d scripts. Solaris SunOS January 31 Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors running 10 5.6 Large file support.state drives. SunOS February Solaris 8 Last update is Solaris 8 2/04. Added native SunOS November Solaris 7 support for file system meta-data logging (UFS 5. D.9 OpenWindows dropped.8 2000 Computing Facility list of SunOS & Solaris Version History (OCF Solaris History): Solaris 8 The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release. IPv6 and IPsec.)DIFFERENT VERSIONS:Versions In descending order. NFSv4 and iSCSI support. the following versions of Solaris have been released (as of mid 2006): Solaris SunOS Release Description version version date Includes x64 (AMD64/EM64T) support. Ultra 2.OCF Solaris History: Solaris 7 Solaris SunOS Includes Kerberos 5. ZFS cache devices and nss_ldap shadowAccount Support. May 28 iPlanet Directory Server. PAM. TrueType fonts.5. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing). Introduced RoleBased Access Control (RBAC). Resource Manager. WebNFS. Solaris 9 (SPARC) 5.6 5. • Solaris 10 10/09 ("U8") added user and group level ZFS quotas. Most January 10 current update is Solaris 9 9/05.UC Berkeley Open 5.5.OCF Solaris History: Solaris 2.1 5. Service Management Facility (SMF) which replaces init. Solaris Containers. Adds GNOMEbased Java Desktop System as default desktop. user IDs (uid_t) expanded to .6 Solaris SunOS May 1996 Only release to support PowerPC platform. sun4d support removed.7 1998 logging). sun4c support removed.10 2005 at speeds lower than 200 MHz removed. Least privilege security model.

4 SunOS 5.3 Solaris 2. First to support Sun-4d architecture (SPARC only). first Solaris x86 release.1 First unified SPARC/x86 release. support for only Sun-4c architecture. Includes OSF/Motif runtime support.3 switches from NeWS to Display PostScript and drops SunView support (SPARC only).1 First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP. Support for Sun-4 and Sun-4m architectures added.Solaris 2 description from "Sun Managers" mailing list archive Solaris Different Version Table .1 November 1995 November 1994 November 1993 May 1993 32-bits.OCF Solaris History: Solaris 2. OpenWindows 3. 5.5 Solaris 2.5 SunOS 5.Solaris 2.0 SunOS 5.5. Preliminary release.5.1 December 1992 (SPARC) May 1993 (x86) Solaris 2 SunOS June 1992 .OCF Solaris History: Solaris 2.2 SunOS 5.4 Solaris 2.2 Solaris 2.3 SunOS 5.

corruption • of data etc. There are many more repositories providing a large amount of software in an accessible manner.) Networking:Open Solaris provides.) ZFS. b. c. f. It has the ability of installing new software and receiving updates from other network package storehouses.2.) FEATURES:a. high performance networking.) Virtualization:The feature virtualization provides advanced functions and increases the rate of utilization by putting together multiple applications to make it one system. e.) Automated Install:This is a new enterprise technology which provides support for network and local installations of Open Solaris 2008.Zettabyte File System:ZFS has been developed to meet the increasing needs of a general purpose file system. . along with some superb graphical features such as the Compiz window manager. Here one installation specification can be applied to multiple systems. It helps to solve numerous problems that can crop up: losing of important files.) Desktop:All the newest and the best features of the GNOME community.) IPS- image Packaging System:- IPS is the new package management system which is network based. or Avant task bar are included in Open Solaris.) New Repositories=New Software:This structure helps you to freely contribute your software and showcase your innovation to worldwide audience.11. without having to modify the applications. d. g.

Santa Cruz Operation . Casual dining. Sun Microsystems' Solaris has emerged as the dominant UNIXbased alternative to Microsoft for server operating systems. the open source operating system Linux has appeared unexpectedly. It has been widely used to connect character-based terminals or process control devices. In addition.h. suspend and resume to RAM and is convenient for mobile users and quite important for those who are concerned about energy consumption. SunSoft Inc. restaurant chains The following is a list of restaurant chains. System and Santa Cruz Operation See SCO. Founded in 1979. .)Power Management:The new Open Solaris 2008. now offer an optimized version of the powerful Solaris x86 product for businesses running text-based applications including companies with numerous replicated sites or branch office locations.(SCO) A supplier of UNIX systems for Intel microprocessors. Anil Gadre. and it is generating significant excitement among programmers and users. 1993 and trades on the NASDAQ National Market System under the symbol SCOC. Business arena. must assess the threats and opportunities posed by Linux and by Microsoft as he and his executive team formulate a strategic plan for Solaris. At the same time. to a central computer. SCO became a public company in May. the newest members of the Solaris family. such as bar code readers in a supermarket. today extended the Solaris product line into the multiuser two or more users.) BUSINESS STRATEGY:In the late 1990s. vice president and general manager of Sun's Solaris Operating Environment Group. the new products will provide compatibility with most of the existing INTERACTIVE UNIX A Unix-based operating system from Sun that runs on x86 machines. List of reference tables. Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server. 3. They supply Xenix and Open Desktop. such as banks. See also: Fast-food restaurant. International • • • • • Bennigan's Burger King Charley's Grilled Subs Domino's Pizza Hard Rock Cafe Or retail operations.11 brings the first few platforms to support.

Inc applications. "SunSoft clearly designed Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server with its resellers." said Michael Sears. such as in MS-DOS or the Unix shell. value-added resellers and customers in mind. from small workgroup servers for terminal users.2 for Intel processors from SCO. such as in the Macintosh operating system. directs the input and output of data. These pre-requisites are known as (computer) system requirements and are often used as a guideline as opposed to an absolute rule." said Ben Duncan. www. "Our new products solve this dilemma and provide users of INTERACTIVE UNIX System and SCO UNIX An enhanced version of UNIX System V Release 3. SunSoft has essentially doubled the number of customers that I can now address . London. all the way up to enterprise-wide network management. Open Systems Services Inc. "Businesses running text-based applications on multi-user UNIX systems often must choose between a less robust operating system or very high systems overhead to protect future growth. Make these products ideal general purpose computing solutions for applications that require a 32-bit operating system with low overhead. organizations can now use Solaris as a single operating system operating system (OS) Software that controls the operation of a computer. Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server achieve this scalability through advanced 32-bit operating system capabilities. and offers them an easy and inexpensive way to get from here to there. and controls the processing of computer programs. each stream processing a different transaction or message. multithreading Multitasking within a single program. keeps track of files. an operating environment is the environment in which users run programs. director of product marketing for SunSoft's Solaris product group. And advanced networking. whether in a command line interface. such as multiprocessing. Throughout their enterprise. networking and standards conformance. with text-based system administration in a small system footprint. SCO had also offered Linux.sco. with access to the full power of the Solaris operating environment In computing. or in a graphical user interface.com) A leading vendor of UNIX operating systems for the x86 platform. In addition. With these products.(SCO (The SCO Group. "These new products bridge the wide gap that existed between INTERACTIVE UNIX System and SCO UNIX users and the Solaris operating system. but abandoned the line in the spring of 2003. It allows multiple streams of execution to take place concurrently within the same program. In 1989. SCO UNIX was introduced as a major upgrade to SCO XENIX with more security. The SCO Group is the combination of two companies: Utah-based Caldera. all computer software needs certain hardware components or other software resources to be present on a computer system. the minimal system requirements to be used efficiently. UT.

The Solaris product family now includes: -.8Mb of RAM and 45Mb of disk space SunSoft will continue to support the INTERACTIVE UNIX System product so that users can migrate to the Solaris product family when they are ready. The new Solaris products also feature significantly reduced memory and hard disk requirements. or PCI Bus architecture -. i486. and today it produces films. enabling users to run thousands of existing programs. and television shows.with a Solaris Solution. V3. INTERACTIVE UNIX System.NET. . The overall scalability of Solaris increases vastly with the introduction of Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server. ISA cards can plug into an EISA slot. including nearly 500 optimized 32-bit applications written to run on Solaris x86 platforms natively.2. Pentium or future compatible processors -.ISA (1) (Instruction Set Architecture) See instruction set. Additional features of Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server include enhanced virtual terminal support and a character-based user interface for easier and more cost-effective system administration. The support will include new releases with driver and platform support. (2) (Interactive Services Association) See Internet Alliance. EISA (Extended ISA) Pronounced "ee-suh." A PC bus standard that extends the 16-bit ISA bus (AT bus) to 32 bits and provides bus mastering. It was initially designed for a single user (the name was a pun on the earlier operating system Multics). The minimal system requirements include: -. In the 1960s it bought Decca Records and Universal Pictures." *)Key Features and Benefits Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server are versions of Solaris 2. .an Intel i386. PC *) .4 x86 that support many of the UNIX Operating system for digital computers.Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server for multi-user businesses. It was founded in Chicago in 1924 by Jules Stein as a talent agency. MCA in full Music Corporation of America Entertainment conglomerate. and SCO UNIX applications.Solaris Workgroup Server and Solaris Enterprise Server for workgroups. music. specialized implementation and branch automation. (3) (Internet Security and Acceleration) See . -. developed by Ken Thompson of Bell Laboratories in 1969.

*)Services

and enterprise networks.

-- Solaris Desktop for commercial and technical workstation users. In addition, developers can now utilize Solaris as a single operating system across large workgroups, enterprise networks and development environments. All together, the products provide a complete suite of Solaris-based operating systems that support SPARC (Scalable Performance Architecture) a family of RISC CPUs from Sun that runs mostly under Sun's Solaris, but also under Linux and BSD operating systems. After development began in the mid-1980s by David Patterson of the University of California at Berkeley and Bill and Intel-based systems running from 1 to 64 processors.

*)Targeted VAR Programs
SunSoft has created a series of VAR-focused programs in support of the new Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server products. Training for resellers is available at SunSoft's Annual Developers Conference, regional seminars and authorized training centers. VAR-focused marketing efforts include resource kits, porting guides and newsletters. SunSoft also offers consulting, on-line services, end user support, direct support for resellers and free installation support.

*) Pricing and Availability
Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server are available through SunSoft Authorized Resellers, value added resellers, OEMs and systems integrators worldwide. Solaris Base Server has a suggested manufacturers retail price of US $495 for 1-2 users; $995 for unlimited users and up to 2 processors. Solaris Network Server has a suggested manufacturers retail price of US $695 for 1-2 users; $1,195 for unlimited users. Initial shipments of the products will be available to key customers in the United States in 60 days with general release to follow. For more information, contact 800-SUNSOFT. In Europe and Asia, call the local SunSoft sales office. SunSoft Inc., headquartered in Mountain View, is a subsidiary of Sun Microsystems Inc., with offices worldwide. SunSoft's charter is to design, market, sells and supports the industry's highest-quality software environment to enable businesses to gain a competitive advantage through information systems. SunSoft delivers a suite of solutions that easily and cost-effectively connect, integrate and manage large enterprise environments. The products are licensed by SunSoft and distributed through major computer manufacturers and resellers worldwide.

4.) ARCHITECTURE:Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing, supporting a large number of CPUs. It has historically been tightly integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware (including support for 64-bit SPARC applications since Solaris 7), with which it is marketed as a combined package. This has often led to more reliable systems, but at a cost premium over commodity PC hardware. However, it has also supported x86 systems since Solaris 2.1 and the latest version, Solaris 10, includes support for 64-bit x86 applications, allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. Sun has heavily marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors, as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell, Hewlett-Packard, and IBM. As of 2009, the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems:

• • • •

Dell - will "test, certify, and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu" IBM - also distributes Solaris and Solaris Subscriptions for select x86-based IBM System x servers and BladeCenter servers Intel Hewlett-Packard - distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on ProLiant server and blade systems Fujitsu Siemens

*Solaris Kernel Features:● Dynamic ● Multithreaded ● Preemptive ● Multithreaded Process Model ● Multiple Scheduling Classes – Including realtime support ● Tightly Integrated File System & Virtual Memory ● Virtual File System ● 64-bit kernel – 32-bit and 64-bit application support ● Resource Management ● Service Management & Fault Handling ● Integrated Networking

Solaris architecture

Network LAN architecture How applications work on solaris .

Java threads working on Solaris and how The Three level architecture of Kernel works .

Linux also uses an advanced process management methodology.) Process Management Introduction Early days computers were single tasking and the user interface was very simple. As Solaris uses the same Linux kernel and it is based on UNIX. Because of this reason in those computer systems there were no such task called process management. first of all we have to talk about the word “process”. So the processes that the computer at that time had to process were very little. So we can get an idea that for a single program. as even a single use can use many instants of the same program.A. a particular program may have thousands of processes. the only way it become a process is when it loaded well in to the memory. the computer systems hardware and software technology had become height and most of the control had done by software. It is not only code of a program but also the relevant data and resources that relative to the execution of the process. Galvin (2006) says that a process means a program on execution. So in a multi user operating system like Solaris. 1. When we talk about the process management. To fulfill this need a kernel task called Process Management was added in to the computer systems. And he also said that an executable file is not a process.) The Process In the book “Operating System Principals”. To get the maximum utilization of the Central Processing System (CPU) computer system specialists developed more and more advanced algorithms to manage the processes. Then the task of managing the processes was completely done by the kernel. there can be more processes. So the amount of tasks that had to accomplish by the computer system was increased. When UNIX began to play a huge role in the field. But day by day technology had been developed farther and the area that uses computers had become wider. .

• • • • • NEW READY RUNNING BLOCK TERMINATED At a given moment each process must have a state from those five. it is sent to a queue called Ready Queue. Then that process execute by the CPU until it receives an interrupt signal or the process request for IO. Galvin 2006 When a new process implement by a program. If it is IO then the process state changes to ‘blocked’ and . As Galvin (2006) mentioned. for a process there are five states.Process State As a process is something that happens. Figure 1 .Process State Diagram Source: Operating System Principals. so it must have a current state. Then the process waits until the process at the ‘running’ state get interrupts or request for IO and then the dispatcher dispatch the process to the CPU to execute it. The relation ships between those states can be graphically displayed using a diagram called Process State Diagram.

Pointer area to child process If there are any child processes. • Pointer to parent process • Pointer area to child process • Process state • Program counter • Register save area • Memory limits • Priority information • Accounting information • Pointer to files and other IO resources Pointer to parent process The address of the parent process. blocked or terminated. Program counter This holds the value of the next instruction to execute in the program. ready. then the process manager adds those addresses to here.after the IO or event completed the process is sent back to the ready queue. So the system stores these data in a special data structure called Process Control Block. there are 9 major data fields in this data block.) Process Control Block When we tack a process there are some characteristics that hold various values. Process state Process state can be one of those five given in the last page. 2. running. They are. If the process was interrupted then it directly goes back to the ready queue. After the process finished it terminate it self or an error occurs the process will be terminated by the process manager. It can be new. As Galvin mentions (2006). .

. Most of the pre-emptive algorithms need this as CPU time is an impotent resource. the process manager stores that processes PCB in the memory.CPU registers These are the addresses of the registers used by the process Memory limits This includes the value of the maximum limit of memory that the process can take. So as Galvin (2006) says in his book. we are assigning a value that represents how valuable the process is. Accounting information This section holds the values for CPU time. As the number get bigger except 0. So this is a value of type integer. Priority information When scheduling the processes (we will talk about this later). the priority of the process gains up. keyboard for manual input etc… At the point that a new process created by a program. a thread can be called as a process. And every time the process changes its state and the values process manager updates this information and restore it in the memory. Threads When a program runs more than one process at a time we call it a multi threaded program. And also most of the new programs are able to multi thread the single process. Pointer to files and other IO resources Most of the processes need more resources than memory and CPU like disk to access files. real time. account numbers and process numbers that identify the process.

there are some algorithms to schedule the processes.B. Pre-emptive 2.) CPU Scheduling There are 2 main ways to schedule this processes. at any given time there must be a process running in the CPU. 1. Device queue When a process requested to access a device. The main queues it uses are. . to get the maximum utilization of the CPU at the same time doing the job that needed by the process the scheduler uses many queues. To fulfill this need. to get the maximum of it. Ready queue Job queue Device queues Except those 3 types there are some other queues that are not considered in this level. And this task is done by a special kernel program called Process Scheduler. As there are so many physical and logical devices there are so many device queues. with is the queue that belongs to the device. Ready queue Remember the process state diagram.) Process Scheduling Today’s computers are multi programmed and the CPU is the main resource we have. Then the previous process is sent to device queue or ready queue. Galvin (2006) in his book well describes. then the process is sent to a separate queue. As Solaris considered as one of the most advances operating systems in the world. a. Job queue This queue includes all the available processes in the system. It means if the given time or an IO request happened. This queue is the queue that contains the information about processes that is in “Ready” state. It’s just a list and not dedicated to a particular task. it also using the best ways to schedule the processes using many run levels. process scheduler terminate the program and start the next process. None pre-emptive Pre-emptive In this method processes are interrupted before it is completed.

it is assigned a value that represents its priority. 6. It is not utilize the CPU to its maximum. 3. it has to wait until the shortest jobs are done. . When arranging the ready queue from job queue. 1. If it was terminated for IO then it is sent to a device queue. They are. it arrange as 0. Scheduling Algorithms As Galvin (2006) describe in his book. 2. 4. the goal of the scheduler is not happening here. there are 3 none pre-emptive process scheduling algorithms and 3 pre-emptive algorithms. So all the processes in the queue have same opportunity to get the CPU. But unfortunately the job that must be done by the process scheduler. 5. First Come First Serve Shortest Job First Priority Scheduling Round Robin Multi Level Queue Multi Level Feed-back Queue First Come First Serve This is the simplest way to manage processes. the total waiting time can be minimized. In this algorithm ready queue are as same as job queue. at the new state of the process. But if a more important process is there but it takes more time. Shortest Job First By using this algorithm.None pre-emptive In this method processes are executed until it request for an IO or terminates it self. ∞ to 1. Priority Scheduling In this algorithm.

Multi Level Queue This is a combination all previous scheduling algorithms.Round Robin This is the most fair and widely used algorithm to manage processes. . In here a single process has been given a particular time and after that time it pre-empted and the next process in the ready queue has been given the CPU.

a good management of the memory is a must. the number of processes that used by the system are get increased. the kernel binary loads to the memory and some kernel modules are loaded by hotplug system. Older days and even today in some systems like embedded systems.Physical memory usage of kernel. As Solaris improved they switch to a modern memory management methodologies.c) Memory Management Overview Memory Management is one of a main function that’s done by the kernel. Figure 2 . Then the memory became more limited for a particular task. As Memory is a quit valuable resource. . kernel modules and user applications. To fulfill this need the system developed to a level that manages memory in a high level way. When Solaris boot up. If the system is able to manage the memory to get the maximum use of it. then it will be able to do more processes at a given time as well. they use overlays to manage the memory. But it is a primary method of managing the memory. Why because as computer systems became more and more complicated. to get the maximum use of it.

So those components may load only To reduce the repetition loading of the same program. Shared Components Systems use shared libraries. the memory manager (in here swapper) copy that memory block to the swap partition and release the memory. it copies the memory block back to the main memory. When a memory block is not needed to a particular time period. Figure 3 . To read or write a value to that register when the program gives the logical memory address it is converted to the physical addresses and execute the command. So the computer program cannot understand physical addresses it is done by the memory management unit it self. And when the memory needed back.Relationship between SWAP partition and RAM . once to use hundreds of times. Swapping Solaris uses a special partition as swap.Addressing Physical Memory Every register in the physical memory has an address.

there are so many processes running in a limited resourced environment. But the scanner has been taken by process 2. As one process many needs more than one resources at a time. the process request to access scanner. So none of those three processes can fulfill there resources requirements. without releasing the scanner process 2 requests for tape drive and keyboard. Now the problem is that.d) Deadlock Management Overview In modern computers. At the same time process two has taken the keyboard and without releasing it the process requests for tape drive. A situation like this is called a deadlock. there is a huge competition between those processes to get the resources.How do a deadlock occur In this example process 1 has taken tape drive and without releasing it. Figure 4 . .

Let the deadlock happen and then clean then mess.Deadlock Handling To get rid from situations like this computer system uses 3 methods. Most operating systems are using the 3rd method to handle the deadlocks. Ignore deadlocks as they never occur. They are. 1. 3. . it terminates the process with the low priority. Running a service using some protocols that prevents the ability to get a deadlock. When a deadlock occurs. but in Open Solaris there are some methods to get rid from a deadlock. And the processes that cannot be terminated because it courses other processes and services. 2. So it is called freeze process. At this point user has to exit from the system to use the same program that uses the freeze process. are isolated without giving resources and let it be there as running.

Figure 5 Solaris .Open Media .5. Review the System Requirements and Limitations described in the open Solaris documentation .) PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION a.this will help users to avoid errors and loss of data.) PROCESS OF INSTALLATION:Installation and Configuration Before Installation Before Installing Open Solaris OS to the System.

Note the requirements below are recommended Minimums.) Recommended size is at least 10 GB.com/partners/10moves/solutions.jsp.More System Resources will help Open Solaris to do tasks fast and more efficiently. While it is possible to install the Solaris OS on a system with less disk capacity and CPU speed.com/solaris/specs. Requirement Memory Disk space Multiboot capability Description 512 MB minimum (This minimum has not been tested extensively yet. For a detailed list of 3rd-party applications available on Solaris 10. it is not recommended. visit http://www. Basic System Requirements Verify the computer system meets the following requirements.html.sun. use the fdisk command or a third-party partitioning tool to create a new partition or to make adjustments to preexisting partitions Table 1 – System Requirements .System Requirements Open Solaris OS Needs Following Minimum System Requirements to run smoothly . . If User installing OpenSolaris on a system that will have more than one OS. • Minimum 256 MB of physical RAM • Minimum 5 GB of available hard drive space • Minimum 400 MHz CPU speed • DVD or CD-ROM drive • Attached monitor or integrated display For more information on Solaris System requirements. visit http://www.sun.

Novice Users can select Graphical User Installation and Expert Users and Select Command line Installation Graphical User Installation will take the user step by step like a wizard.) Load the Setup 3.) Finalize the Installation .Installation Steps The Installation of Open Solaris OS can done in few Simple Steps. *Basic Steps 1.) Setup Language Settings 6.) Boot the Live CD 2.) Partition the disk 4.) Setup User Settings 7. collecting data which need for the installation.) Setup Time Zone 5.

(GNU GRUB) is used in most Linux based Operating systems for providing a user a multi-boot Environment with more than one Operating system. Grand Unified Bootloader. This Small software is Responsible for loading and Transferring. The boot loader GNU GRUB menu will load.Expert Users can select Open Solaris Text Console to boot Open Solaris with Text .Booting the Live CD The LiveCD enables you to try the OS before installation. Figure 6 – GNU GRUB menu Select you Option from the GNU GRUB menu . Insert the Open Solaris Live CD the Optical Drive and Boot the System.

Primary languages are: Chinese – Simplified. Polish. Slovak. Italian. Icelandic. Figure 7 – Language Selection User can select over more than 41 languages in Open Solaris. Turkish . Spanish. Macedonian Maltese. Dutch. and Swedish Full language Support: All Primary Languages. Greek.Commands. Russian. Chinese – Traditional. Japanese. Albanian. Arabic. Czech. German. Thai. . Serbian. Portuguese – Brazil. Hindi. Catalan. Lithuanian. Latvian. Bulgarian. Danish. Estonian. Hebrew. Norwegian Bokmål. Norwegian Nynorsk. Slovenian. Korean. French. Finnish. Croatian. Portuguese. Languages supported by Open Solaris. Hungarian. English. Romanian.

Figure 8 – Open Solaris Installation Icon . The Open Solaris Desktop will Appear .When the Live Image is loaded to the System.In the desktop Click on the “Install Open Solaris” Icon to Load the Install ion Setup.

Partitioning the disk Disk Partitioning is an important step in Operating system Intallation.users can either partition the disk or use the whole disk for Open Solaris Installtion.Partitioning software will create divisions in Hard disk Drive to store data efficiently.Open Solaris OS Useses a File System Named ZFS to Store Data. Figure 9 – Disk Partitioning Window In Open Solaris Partitioning Setup . .

Language and locale Settings Figure 10 – Language Settings Window This Step Allows User to Select the Locale for Set the Default Language support and data formats. .

. Computer Name and etc. User Account Name and Password. Figure 11 – User Settings window User can define any name for the Computer that he installs Open Solaris OS.User settings In This Step user Can Enter Login Details to the Open Solaris Operating System. Root (System Administrator) Password.

Confirm installation specifications Figure 12 – Confirm installation Window As the Last Step User can review the Installation settings.Hit the Install Buttton to install open solaris. .

This may take about an Hour to Complete the Process. Figure 13 – Installation Process .Installation Process When User Confirm the Inserted data Installation will begin .Open Solaris Installation Program will prepare the Hard Disk Drive and will Copy the Open Solaris System Files to the Hard Disk Drive.

Open solaris boot screen .After the Installation Wait for the installation process to finish and Computer will Restart Automatically the system will restart and you’ll see the Open Solaris Booting Screen.

Figure 14 – GNOME Desktop . It can create a medium for people to interact with applications to make available attractive user interfaces. Open Solaris has a Very Beautiful Graphical User Interface based on GNOME Desktop System.Introduction to GUI Graphical User Interface needs applications to interact with users.

user interface controls to an API for drawing highquality graphics to the screen.Introduction GNOME The GNOME Platform features. Accessible GNOME is desktop for any UNIX platform. old and documented in many languages. software and data. instinctive and aesthetically satisfying applications. Perl etc. Usable Usability is about creating software which is easy for everyone to use. Organized GNOME strives to be an organized community. Developer-friendly Developers are using several languages with GNOME. . GNOME is…………. Free GNOME is free software which is devoted to giving developers and users the maximum level of their desktops. Python. International GNOME is urban. And graphics technology in GNOME helps you to create constant. Ex: C..

Supported GNOME is supported by the top companies like IBM. GTK is mainly crated by C programming Language. “The GNOME Desktop system based on GTK Tool Kit” GTK GTK is a Widget Tool kit for Creating Graphical user interfaces. Red Hat etc. Figure 15 – GTK Logo Most of the Open Solaris applications based on GTK Environment. Sun. Some Common applications are follows: AbiWord Evolution Inkscape Word processor Mailer SVG Vector graphics . The GNOME Desktop system based on GTK Tool Kit. A community GNOME is a world wide community for people to generally have fun together.

Theme Support. Etc Language Bindings GTK Source Code is Available in Many Programming Languages which make application development attractive Mobile GNOME Mobile & Embedded has invold in mobile Application development Accommodating GTK Provide number of great features for developers today.Imendio Cross Platform GTK Runtime environment not only runs under Open Solaris is runs under Linux.” Interfaces GTK+ has a comprehensive collection of core widgets which include: • Windows (normal window or dialog.GTTK is supported by a Developers from Red Hat. Like “Look and feel.323/SIP VoIP softphone Raster HDR graphics editor Table 2 –Some Solaris Applications Features of GTK Stability GTK has been Developed for over 10 years and deliverd users facinating features and great perfromace. Thread safe. Novell. about and assistant dialogs) .Vmware Player Ekiga GIMP editor Virtual Machine H. Mac OS X. Windows.

radio buttons.) COMMANDS • • apropos . list and icon grid viewer (with customizable renderers and model/view separation) Combo box (with or without an entry) Working with Open Solaris Basic Applications There are some basic Programs comes with Open Solaris Operating system which help users to Manage and do their work easily .locate commands by keyword lookup alias . Application Name Mozilla Firefox Mozilla Thunderbird Pidgin Open Office Use of Application Browse internet E-mail and RSS Client Multi-Protocol Instant Messaging Office Suite Table 3 –Some Solaris Applications Publisher Mozilla Cooperation Mozilla Cooperation Pidgin Community Sun Microsystems b. toggle buttons and link buttons) Numerical (horizontal or vertical scales and spin buttons) and text data entry (with or without completion) Multi-line text editor Tree.• • • • • • Buttons and toggles (check buttons.All these applications are Free to use as Open Source software.create or remove a pseudonym or shorthand for a • • • • admintool(1M) – system administration with a graphical user interface answerbook2_admin(1M) – bring up AnswerBook2 administration tool GUI apache(1M) – Apache hypertext transfer protocol server overview arp(1M) – address resolution display and control .

pattern scanning and processing language • • • • aset(1M) – monitors or restricts accesses to system files and directories aset.clear the terminal screen cmp(1) – compare two files compress .compress.execute commands at a later time bg .• command or series of commands awk .control process execution • • • • • boot(1M) – start the system kernel or a standalone program bsmconv(1M) – enable or disable the Basic Security Module (BSM) on Solaris bsmrecord(1M) – display Solaris audit record formats bsmunconv(1M) – enable or disable the Basic Security Module (BSM) on Solaris busstat(1M) – report bus-related performance statistics C: Full list of user commands: Full list of System commands • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • cd .change file group ownership chmod . uncompress files or display expanded files cp .copy file archives in and out crontab(1) – user crontab file crypt .change working directory chgrp .cut out selected fields of each line of a • • • • • • chat(1M) – automated conversational exchange tool chown(1M) – change owner chroot(1M) – change root directory for a command cpustat(1M) – monitor system behavior using CPU performance counters cron(1M) – clock daemon cvcd(1M) – virtual console daemon .copy files cpio .split files based on context ctags .change the permissions mode of a file chown .change working directory chdir .create a tags file for use with ex and vi cut .encode or decode a file csplit .make posters basename deliver portions of path names batch .restore(1M) – restores system files to their content before ASET is installed automount(1M) – install automatic mount points automountd(1M) – autofs mount/unmount daemon B: Full list of user commands: Full list of System commands • • • • banner .change file ownership clear .

copy file archives in and out crontab(1) – user crontab file crypt .display status of disk space on file systems diff .text editor egrep .change file group ownership chmod .change file ownership clear .change working directory chdir .change working directory chgrp .file • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • cd .change the permissions mode of a file chown .write the date and time df .echo arguments ed .search a file for a pattern using full regular expressions eject .eject media such as CD-ROM and floppy from drive .compress.encode or decode a file csplit .copy files cpio .cut out selected fields of each line of a file • • • • • • • • date .deliver portions of path names dos2unix .convert text file from DOS format to ISO format du .split files based on context ctags .display line-by-line differences between pairs of text files diff3 .clear the terminal screen cmp(1) – compare two files compress .display the number of disk blocks used per directory or file • • • • echo . uncompress files cp .3-way differential file comparison dircmp .create a tags file for use with ex and vi cut .directory comparison dirname .

a file system more suitable for flash drives. GFS. namely ext2. or even contained within a file located on another file system. In recent years support for Microsoft Windows NT's NTFS file system has appeared in Linux. for example CDs must use ISO 9660 or UDF. The ext file systems..). DVD.. Windows Vista Service Pack 1. ext4. and other optical discs such as Blu-ray. ext3. Microsoft Windows. a USB key. but over time the OS has gained this and other new data management capabilities. XFS. along with network file systems shared from other computers. Windows Embedded CE 6. JFS.) COPARISION WITH OTHER OS Linux Many Linux distributions support some or all of ext2.0. Prior to 1998. Solaris UFS did not have logging/journaling capabilities.6. Linux and UNIX allow any file system to be used regardless of the media it is stored in. and other operating systems. and Windows Server 2008 support ExFAT. ReiserFS. Mac OS X has facilities to read and write FAT. Linux has full support for XFS and JFS. and HFS which is the primary file system for the Macintosh. UDF. Reiser4. ext3 and ext4 are based on the original Linux file system. and as of Windows Vista. and BluRay discs. and is now comparable to the support available for other native UNIX file systems. but cannot be installed to them. Due to its UNIX heritage Mac OS X now supports virtually all the file systems supported by the VFS. . hobbyists. and other file systems. Under Windows each file system is usually limited in application to certain media. or adapted from UNIX. Mac OS X Mac OS X supports HFS+ with journaling as its primary file system. whether it is a hard drive. OCFS2. Others have been developed by companies to meet their specific needs. DVDs. along with FAT (the MS-DOS file system). Solaris The Solaris Operating System uses UFS as its primary file system. ISO 9660 and Universal Disk Format (UDF) are supported which are standard file systems used on CDs. It is derived from the Hierarchical File System of the earlier Mac OS. and NILFS. Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows currently supports NTFS and FAT file systems (including FAT16 and FAT32). a disc (CD. and the ISO 9660 and UDF filesystems used for CDs. NTFS is the only file system which the operating system can be installed on. DVDs. Unlike other operating systems. GFS2. It is possible to install Linux on the majority of these file systems. OCFS.

Logical Volume Management allows for spanning a file system across multiple devices for the purpose of adding redundancy. But if u want best graphics user interface then u will go with Mac OS. . enhancements to UFS including multiterabyte support and UFS volume management included as part of the OS. If performance is what you want and u have to handle huge volume of data then Solaris would be a good option. OpenSolaris. Logging or journaling was added to UFS in Solaris 7. 128-bit.Additional features include VERITAS (Journaling) VxFS. and other open source variants of Solaris later supported bootable ZFS. and ZFS (open source. Modern Solaris based operating systems eclipse the need for volume management through leveraging virtual storage pools in ZFS. Solaris includes Solaris Volume Manager (formerly known as Solstice DiskSuite. QFS from Sun Microsystems. and/or throughput. it all depends what kind of need you have. capacity. Kernel extensions were added to Solaris to allow for bootable VERITAS VxFS operation. compressible. If you are a home user u can go with windows. Solaris Express. Releases of Solaris 10. poolable.) Solaris is one of many operating systems supported by Veritas Volume Manager. and error-correcting).

A later change to this program introduced a quarterly release model with support available. renamed to Solaris Express Developer Edition (SXDE). a binary release based on the current development basis was made available for download on a monthly basis. The Solaris version under development by Sun as of 2008 is codenamed Nevada. . Sun announced Project Indiana with several goals. In 2003. educational and evaluation purposes. Updates to that project are built and delivered several times a year until the next official release comes out.0. In 2007. including providing an open source binary distribution of the OpenSolaris project.7. which is then maintained as a derived project. Each version such as Solaris 10 is based on a snapshot of this development codebase. and is derived from what is now the OpenSolaris codebase. the license acceptance form displayed when the user actually installs from these images lists additional uses including commercial and production environments.) FUTURE SCOPE The underlying Solaris codebase has been under continuous development since work began in the late 1980s on what was eventually released as Solaris 2. The Solaris Express Community Edition (SXCE) is intended specifically for OpenSolaris developers. It is updated every two weeks. replacing SXDE. taken near the time of its release.05. Although the download license seen when downloading the image files indicates its use is limited to personal. The first release of this distribution was OpenSolaris 2008. Under the program name Software Express for Solaris (or just Solaris Express). allowing anyone to try out new features and test the quality and stability of the OS as it progressed to the release of the next official Solaris version. an addition to the Solaris development process was initiated.

8. .AS DUE TO ITS FEATURE OF MORE DATA HANDLING SYSTEM IN SMARTER WAY THEN WINDOWS OR MAC OS.IT HAS MORE FUTURE SCOPE.BUT IT IS THE MOST PRODUCTIVITY TOOL FOR CORPARTE WORLD .) CONCLUSION SOLARIS ONE OF THE BEST OBJECT ORIENTED OPERATING SYSTEM .EVEN IT IS NOT AS FAMOUS AS WINDOWS OR MAC OS .

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