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CERTIFIED THAT SUCH OF THE PROJECT ON ‘SOLARIS’ FOR SUBJECT OPERATING SYSTEM AS HAVE BEEN DULY SIGNED WERE PERFOMED BY Mr AMIT SALUNKE ROLL NO 180 OF BscIT OF CLASS SECOND YEAR DIVISION B .IN GUIDENCE OF PROFESSOR AMOL NIMGULKAR.
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1.) INTRODUCTION ------------------------- 4 a.) HISTORY------------------------------------ 4-11 b.) TEAM INVOLVMENT------------------- 11-12 c.) TIME PERIOD----------------------------- 13-16 d.) DIFFERENT VERSIONS---------------- 16-18 2.) FEATURES--------------------------------- 19-20 3.) BUSINESS STRATEGY----------------- 20-23 4.) ARCHITECTURE------------------------ 24-27 a.) Process Management --------------------- 28-31 b.) Process Scheduling ---------------------- 32-34 c) Memory Management--------------------- 35-36 d) Deadlock Management-------------------- 37-38 5.) PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION-- 39-57 a.) PROCESS OF INSTALLATION------- 39-55 b.) COMMANDS------------------------------ 55-57 6.) COMPARISION WITH OTHER OS 58-59 7.) FUTURE SCOPE -----------------------60 8.) CONCLUSION---------------------------- 61 9.) BIBLOGRAPHY-------------------------- 62
In parallel to Solaris 1.1. Sun announced that it would replace its existing BSDderived UNIX. It is sold together with the OPENLOOK user interface OpenWindows. Sun has launched a Version 2. so that the user does not have to be involved. with one based on SVR4.x. The allocation of the processors is done automatically.x on the market.1. 1991. the Solaris name is almost exclusively used to refer to the SVR4-derived SunOS 5. but not yet multithreading. especially on SPARC systems. From Solaris Version 2. This bundle is known as Solaris. with efforts underway to port to additional platforms. and supports multiprocessing. This was identified internally as SunOS 5. Further development of Solaris 1 was discontinued at the end of 1998. While SunOS 4. Solaris is certified against the Single UNIX Specification. On September 4. AT&T and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular UNIX variants on the market at that time: BSD. but a new marketing name was introduced at the same time: Solaris 2. This would become UNIX System V Release 4 (SVR4).x (as part of Solaris 1. Solaris is known for its scalability. it is supported on systems manufactured by all major server vendors. and for originating many innovative features such as DTrace and ZFS.) HISTORY:In 1987. 64-bit processors and the use of Ultra-Creator graphics for 2-D and 3-D applications are supported.5 onward. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors. a. This is an implementation of System V.) INTRODUCTION:Solaris is a UNIX-based operating system introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as the successor to SunOS. System V. Beginning with Version 2. and Xenix.2 it also supports multithreading. SunOS 4. OpenSolaris project.0 and later. that is to say. SunOS 4. .x) is a BSD UNIX system.x micro releases were retroactively named Solaris 1 by Sun. Although it was historically developed as proprietary software. the distribution of threads among various processors.1. and the majority of its codebase is now open source software. Sun Solaris also known as SunOS or Sun is the name of the Sun Company’s UNIX variant operating system that was originally installed on SPARC computers.
Sun originally used the Motorola 68000 CPU family for the Sun-1 through Sun-3 computer series. and currently UltraSPARC-IV.6.The justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS. MicroSPARC-II. with the later Sun-3x variant using the 68030. and legendary stability. Sun Ultra series the Ultra Enterprise (later.7. the company was predominantly a vendor of technical workstations. for example. Solaris 2. UltraSPARC-IIe. SuperSPARC. and UltraSPARC-IIIi. was designed by Stanford University professor Vaughan Pratt. including the SPARCstation series. who named their version Solaris 2. Sun is again selling x86 and AMD64 hardware and has introduced a 64bit version of Solaris for AMD64 systems. the Sun-2 series. For the first decade of Sun's history. UltraSPARC-II. The SunOS minor version is included in the Solaris release number. Sun has had a difficult time keeping up with its competitors' processors' clock speed and computing power. the Sun386i. An x86 port of Solaris for PC compatibles was introduced in 1993. a 32-bit RISC architecture which was later to become the IEEE 1754 standard for microprocessors. the company used its own processor architecture. A 64-bit extension of the SPARC architecture (SPARC V9) was later introduced. For a short period in the late 1980s. The Sun-3 series was based on the 68020. SPARC. UltraSPARC-I. For a short period in the mid-1980s.4 incorporated SunOS 5. Sun has developed several generations of workstations and servers. 51% of Sun stock was held by AT&T as a partner in their computer business AT&T Computer Systems. After Solaris 2. Sun dropped the "2. See UNIX wars. The initial version of the logo with sides oriented horizontally/vertically was later changed to the box appearing to stand on one corner. UNIX System V Release 4 was jointly developed by AT&T and Sun. Sun has implemented multiple high-end generations of the SPARC architecture. so Solaris 7 incorporates SunOS 5. UltraSPARC-IIi. but also the OpenWindows graphical user interface and Open Network Computing (ONC) functionality. The Sun-1 employed a 68000 CPU. Sun also has a second line of lower cost processors meant for low-end systems which included the MicroSPARC-I. simply "Enterprise") servers. they sold a hybrid Intel 80386-based machine. competing successfully as a low-cost vendor during the Workstation Wars of the 1980s. The AT&T partnership later fell apart when the rival group OSF (Open Software Foundation) appeared. and the latest release Sun's logo with interleaved copies of the word sun. UltraSPARC-III. . Starting with the Sun-4 line." from the number. of its SunOS (and later Solaris) versions of Unix.4. a 68010. including SPARC. the Sun Blade workstations and the Sun Fire servers. Currently. but its customer base has been fairly loyal due to the popularity.
1. Sun now refers to Solaris by just its point release (e.g. To further confuse the naming scheme.8. System V. Later Bill Joy.sun. To confuse things Sun Solaris is sometimes called SunOS 5. For more information about SunOS and Solaris. and purchasing information try Google. Driven by the increased prominence of web-serving database-searching applications. Solaris 7. Sun acquired Diba and Cobalt Networks with the aim of building network appliances (single function computers meant for consumers). History of Sun and Solaris from 1991 till 2001 is partially reflected in Sun under the Linux siegeYou can also consult the following newsgroups: • • • comp. The Cray CS6400 server line was transformed into the very successful Sun Enterprise 10000 large-scale servers.unix.g. None of these business initiatives were particularly successful. The result was System V release 4 (SVR4).x) releases. Sun entered into a partnership with AT&T. white papers.x86 Those in the comp.1BSD UNIX called SunOS as an operating system for its workstations.solaris alt. while old version of SunOS up to 4 are referred as for Solaris 1).x (Solaris 2. with its version 5.9).solaris. upgrade.* hierarchy Sun Hardware Timelines:-Chronology of Workstation Computers 1982 . or 2.x (Solaris 1. The Sun 1 was shipped with Unisoft V7 UNIX. or 9 instead of 2. In the late-1990s.sys. which incorporated BSD as well as SunOS extensions (e. In the late '80s. blade servers (high density rack-mounted systems) were also emphasized. the company successfully transformed itself to a vendor of large-scale Symmetric multiprocessing servers. the key figure of the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) and one of four founders of Sun produced a customized 4. Sun also marketed a network computer (diskless workstation. 2. Subsequently. Up through version 4. SunOS remained a heavily BSD-influenced UNIX implementation.7. including FAQs. SunOS shifted from its BSD origins to SVR4. which was then developing the other major UNIX flavor. This transition was enabled by technology that was acquired from Silicon Graphics and Cray Research.x).. as Sun's workstations were lagging in performance when compared to that of their competitors and especially to Wintel Personal Computers. NFS). as popularized by Oracle Corporation CEO Larry Ellison). 8..In the mid-1990s.
(Later) • • • MIPS Computer Systems is founded. Bill Joy. May • Sun Microsystems begins shipping the Sun 1 workstation computer. Used the original Stanford-designed video board. 1984 February 14 • Scott McNealy is appointed president and chief operating officer of Sun Microsystems. and Vinod Khosla found Sun Microsystems. version 1. June • Motorola introduces the 16 MHz 68020 processor. "SUN" originally stood for Stanford University Network. Sun Microsystems co-founder Vinod Khosla resigns. and begins developing its RISC architecture. . in CMOS. a 32-bit version of the 68000. with on-board cache. IRIS 1400.February • Scott McNealy. Used design similar to original SUN (Stanford University Network) CPU. April • Silicon Graphics begins shipping its first 3-D graphics workstations. Andreas Bechtolsheim. *) SUN HARDWARE:Sun 1’s These are the large black desktop boxes with 17" monitors. Silicon Graphics introduces its first workstation. Pre-dates Sun's 4.2 port (ran Unisoft V7) (68010 CPU instead of SUN's 68000) 10 MHz. Uses a parallel microswitch keyboard and parallel mouse.5 CPU could take larger RAMS.
since the frame buffer appears in the 8th Meg Sun 3's First 68020 based Sun machine. . ethernet. 2.) Rack-mounted server. Later video boards ("2prime") could generate either levels. CPU board had 1. 8Mb memory max. tape controller. 16 port serial mux (ALM-1) Two variants of video board. SCSI board. kbd ports. Optional SCSI board (model name is SCSI-2. 2'nd SCSI design. Slightly different chassis design than 2/170's Sun 2's Multibus-based 68010 10 MHz. One variant of the memory card held the 6u VME SCSI board. Many have CPU upgrades to 3/160's. 1 or 4 Meg memory board. or 4 Megs mem. VME Sun2 style CPU 2 slot chassis."Brain transplant" for 100 series. two serial ports. 10Mhz 68010 CPU. other version sat in slot7 of the backplane and ran the SCSI out the back of the backplane to the internal disc/tape. on ECL. Also only had 4 P2 memory connectors bussed instead of 6.3 was the last release with Sun2 support. ethernet. Memory expansion boards are 1. third parties had up to 32 Megs on one card. Sun's mem expansion goes on 4 Meg memory expansion boards. which is used in lots of other Sun3 variants. SCSI was optional. CPU has 2 serial. The (type-2) keyboard and mouse attached via an adapter that accepted 2 modular plugs and attached to the DB15 port. 4Mb on-board memory. 2/1xx with a monochrome display can only have 7megs max. thus cooling problems with lots of cards. (Still has parallel kb/mouse intf so old kbds would work.. monochrome video board. SMD controller. SunOS 4. 640 * 480 color board. Cards are CPU. Had 4 fans cooling tray instead of 6 in later machines. 2 or 4 Megs as well. First machine to use 12 slot desk-side VME chassis. first was for 2/1xx's) sat on mem expansion board in 2nd slot. Mouse Systems Optical mouse. ethernet board. Replaces CPU and memory card with first-generation Sun2 CPU and memory boards so original customers could run SunOS V1. one generated TTL-level video. Early 19" mono monitors (Philips or moniterm) could be switched as well. First machines that had desk-side chassis Serial Microswitch keyboard. Uses "Carrera" CPU.0.
I'd say Sun has been making the most news. you replace it with another. 1999 . It is a funny little box called the Sun Ray 1 Enterprise Appliance. Cringely Each week. Or I could even try to explain why last Week. Then it came to me. I have to decide a topic for this column. This is all marketing talk here. but reading it I came to have an unsettling feeling. and how this would put a virtually free office suite up against Microsoft for both PC. this time I'll just congratulate all concerned with those events back at UCLA: It has been quite a ride. since it requires no configuration at all. Or is it? The Sun Ray is great from a configuration standpoint. The problem is not finding a topic. into which you attach a keyboard. is not a computer at all or even a computing device. In the early 1980s. That first Arpanet Interface Message Processor (IMP) was built from a Honeywell computer used by the military. It is a computer terminal. since there are obvious developments in the news as well as the 30th anniversary of the first Arpanet node coming to life. As for the Arpanet birthday. But this week I am torn. September 9. I've tried to cover more than one topic. The only application that runs in the Sun Ray is whatever paints the screen and accepts keyboard and mouse input. though in a disturbingly regressive manner.Terminal Condition PBS Why Sun's Aggressive New Workstations Are Really Just a Blast from the PastBy Robert X.and server-based versions. Plug it into power and Ethernet." The answer to this last mystery is easy — dementia. this week the other shoe dropped as Sun introduced its candidate workstation for the server-based version. but there is a firm nerd contingent among my readers who think we have a contract allowing only a single topic per week. You couldn't configure it if you wanted to. If the box breaks. A few times. The Sun Ray looks to be a successor to Sun's own unpopular JavaStation and the logical heir to the network computing crown. Well. the Internet building block of choice came to be logic boards for Sun workstations. So too. All of these companies were founded in the same building and all are still on the scene. Last week. having done three hours of Internet history for television and written several columns on the subject already. The Sun Ray. I am not here to argue.Cringely. the first Silicon Graphics workstations were Sun workstations with extra 3D capability added-in by Jim Clark. for example. I wrote about Sun's acquisition of Star Office. The first Cisco routers. were built from Sun logic boards designed by Andy Bechtolscheim when he was a graduate student at Stanford. but this week. . I thought former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara's first name was "George. and it is ready to go. for all its high design and ease of use. That's a computer terminal where I come from. then use an Ethernet connection to the world. mouse and screen. Sun's answer to Microsoft is to take corporate America back to a souped-up version of 1970's minicomputing. so they win. but choosing one from the many obvious candidates.
In the grand scheme of TCO. there is a TCP/IP stack and something like an X-Window server. that day I visited Bill and Judy. didn't sell servers. Typically 25-50 terminals could be run by a single server that cost a lot more than a PC. so that's an enormous difference. and Sun does. dwarfed by the human cost of setting-up and shifting and training. How many Xterminals could a Sun server serve? Lots. Instead. though Sun does an excellent job of not telling us that. because it's only at those scales that the costs begin to come into line. On a TCO basis. the world of corporate computing has come to fixate on Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). too. what has changed to make Bill and Judy wrong and Sun happy to enter this new business? Well NCD. a time that wasn't particularly happy since X-terminals were being rapidly replaced with cheap PCs running X-server software. then. With PCs even cheaper today. Running over a 56K modem won't work at all." The wonderful thing about an X-terminal is that it does an end-run around user ego. but from the big iron it sells to support both. it is a good deal for many businesses. Still.. Judy is now the Chief Technical Officer at Cisco. Why? Because PCs were cheaper than X-terminals and they could run local applications. Rather. And don't even think of using a Sun Ray unless you want at least 25 of them. the original purchase price of a PC is almost insignificant. which includes everything from the cost of training users to replacing busted boxes. all the real computing is done back on a hefty Sun server and only screen rendering happens in the Sun Ray. What this means. And in the last few years. they saw the end coming. which Sun has finally figured out isn't up to the task. it is still a very good business. But for Sun. a husband and wife team who also founded Bridge Communications (later part of 3Com) and Precept Software (later part of Cisco). NCD was founded by Bill Carrico and Judy Estrin. which fits perfectly into my theory that there are really only 25 people in the computer business. But don't expect to run your Sun Ray at home because its sparkling performance has more than anything to do with that 100 megabits-per-second Ethernet connection. all of which are minimized by the Sun Ray/Star Office combo. In the world of X. which is still very much in business. which it calls X-terminals. NCD boxes were all connected through Ethernet to a Sun server. what we would normally call a "client" — that part of the application that runs on the workstation rather than on that big box in the computer room — is called a "server. but sure didn't cost 25-50 times as much. Sun makes its dough on this deal not from the Sun Rays or from Star Office. I remember visiting Bill and Judy late in their tenure at NCD. and with Sun offering leases at under $10 per month. it is a Microsoft annoyance. They just keep changing jobs.Presumably. the Sun Ray is damned cheap. . What's definitely NOT happening in the box is anything like Java. is that the Sun Ray is far from a Microsoft killer. There is another outfit called Network Computing Devices that makes boxes like this. etc.
1983 . SunOS. Founders include Vinod Khosla. 1990 . Of these men.5 is available -the first stable version of Solaris 2 .000 UNIX sites exist worldwide.5 billion in sales.The company was incorporated in 1982 and 1986.About 100. They'll say. Andy Bechtolsheim.Bill Joy introduces "Berkeley enhancements" as BSD 4.Sun Microsystems introduces SunOS.OSF releases OSF/1.1. which is based on System V. release 4.The nerds will say this is obvious and that I'm again wasting their time. 1982 . Sun now has more than 12. 1984 . Scott McNealy. release 4.OSF and UI are formed. SCO and HP announce a relationship to develop a 64-bit version of UNIX. 1986 . 1988 . will be phased out. 1992 .AT&T releases System V. 1993 . 1994 . a unified version of UNIX. Sun now has 400 employees and $39 million in annual sales. Solaris 2.Solaris 2. and Scott McNealy with $4 million in venture capital with four employees. "Now I get it. only McNealy and Bechtolsheim remain with Sun. Bill Joy and Andy Bechtolsheim.Sun Microsystems is founded by Vinod Khosla.Sun introduces Solaris.4 is available.500 employees and more than $3. 1995 • Santa Cruz Operation buys UnixWare from Novell." b) TEAM INVOLVMENT:1979 .Sun went public in 1986 1988 . 1989 . but most of the people who read this column aren't nerds.AT&T and Sun start work on SVR4. which is based on BSDF UNIX.Novell buys UNIX from AT&T.
• Bechtolsheim. which built 1gigabit-per-second networking technology and which Cisco acquired in 1996.6 is available. See09-09-03 . -. Greg Papadopoulos. No.Solaris 7 is available. will take over Joy's responsibilities. CTO. Few moved from 2. Sun Microsystems chief scientist and co-founder.6 directly to Solaris 8 2003 September Bill Joy. is leaving the company. he's not saying yet what those different challenges are. Became a huge success.This was not very successful version.7 2000 . left Sun in 1995 to start Granite Systems.Solaris 8 is available. Andy Bechtolsheim is returning to Sun Microsystems. 48.Solaris 2.6 to 2.SUN MICROSYSTEMS ANNOUNCES CHIEF SCIENTIST BILL JOY TO LEAVE COMPANY 2004 February Nine years after leaving the server maker he co-founded in 1982. Latest team involved for solaris development . Most move from 2. It soon became the most popular version of Solaris for the next three years 1998 . moving on to "different challenges". 1997 .
2 5. First to support May 1993 May 1999 multithreading libraries (UI threads API in libthread) SPARC-only release. 1993 Support added for autofs and CacheFS filesystems.1 5. not supported Yellow Old release.1c-1995 pthreads added.0 5. first Solaris x86 April 1999 1992 1993 release. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP.2 2. First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE.4 2. SPARC-only release. 2003 POSIX. December November 1995 Dropped sun4 (VMEbus) support. In ascending order. still supported Green Current release Blue Future release Release date Solaris SunOS version version SPARC x86 1. eg. Doors added but undocumented. First Solaris 2 release to support SMP.5 SunOS 4 rebranded as Solaris 1 for September marketing purposes. Solaris 10 U3 (update 3). ZFS. First to support sun4d architecture.1.x 1991-1994 - c)TIME PERIOD:- End of support Major new features 2.5 5. Doors. Preliminary release (primarily available January to developers only).4 5.0 2. Solaris Containers.x 4.Potable features of Solaris currently include DTrace.1 2. Often a Solaris version will be updated with incremental features.3 switches from NeWS to Display November June 2002 PostScript and drops SunView support. First appearance of nis Support for sun4 and sun4m December May architectures added. the following versions of Solaris have been released: Color Meaning Red Old release. support for only the June 1992 1999 sun4c architecture. November 1994 2003 Includes OSF/Motif runtime support. and Solaris Trusted Extensions. . OpenWindows 3.3 5. Service Management Facility. September First unified SPARC/x86 release.3 2. See SunOS article 2003 for more information. these are known as update releases. Solaris Volume Manager. Solaris Multiplexed I/O.
1 2. 2005 Includes "x64" or x86-64 (AMD64/Intel 64) support. Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors removed. extended file attributes. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing). TrueType fonts. Added native support for file system August November 1998 meta-data logging (UFS logging).1 5. iPlanet Directory Server. user and group IDs (uid_t. iSCSI Initiator support and fcinfo command-line tool. The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release. 2008 Dropped MCA support on x86 platform.5. WebNFS.5. July 1997 July 2006 enhanced procfs. Last update is Solaris 8 2/04. and Linux compatibility 10. Includes Multipath I/O. OpenWindows dropped. mdb March February 2000 modular debugger. Introduced Role2012 Based Access Control (RBAC). Ultra Enterprise support September added. Service Management Facility (SMF) which replaces init. large file support. IKE January May 28. NFSv4.2.10 Only release to support PowerPC platform. also included processor sets and early resource management technologies. Support for EISA-based PCs removed. Most current update is Solaris 9 9/05.d scripts.6 7 5. Solaris Volume Manager . • • Solaris 10 1/06 (known internally as "U1") added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems. Least privilege security model. 2002 2014 added. Includes Kerberos 5. Solaris 10 6/06 ("U2") added the ZFS filesystem.9 10 5. sun4d 2003 support removed. PAM.6 5. October IPsec keying. Solaris Containers. Resource Manager.8 9 5. sun4c support removed. IPMP. Adds Java Desktop System (based on GNOME) as default desktop. January 31. gid_t) May 1996 2005 expanded to 32 bits. . first support for IPv6 and IPsec (manual keying only). Last update was Solaris 7 11/99.7 8 5. SPARCserver 600MP series support dropped.
container cloning using ZFS cloned file systems. SpeedStep support for Intel processors and PowerNow! support for AMD processors Solaris 10 10/08 ("U6") added boot from ZFS and can use ZFS as its root file system. Solaris 10 10/08 also includes virtualization enhancements including the ability for a Solaris Container to automatically update its environment when moved from one system to another. Solaris 10 8/07 ("U4") added Samba Active Directory support. iSCSI Target support and Solaris Containers for Linux Applications (based on branded zones). Solaris 10 5/09 ("U7") added performance and power management support for Intel Nehalem processors. and Para virtualization support when Solaris 10 is used as a guest OS in Xen-based environments such as Sun xVM Server. enhanced version of the Resource Capping Daemon (rcapd).• • • • • Solaris 10 11/06 ("U3") added Solaris Trusted Extensions and Logical Domains. Logical Domains support for dynamically reconfigurable disk and network I/O. Solaris 10 5/08 ("U5") added CPU capping for Solaris Containers. and performance enhancements for ZFS on solid- . performance improvements. IP Instances (part of the OpenSolaris Network Virtualization and Resource Control project).
May 28 iPlanet Directory Server. Solaris 10 1/06 added the GRUB bootloader for x86 systems. user IDs (uid_t) expanded to .8 2000 Computing Facility list of SunOS & Solaris Version History (OCF Solaris History): Solaris 8 The first 64-bit UltraSPARC release. DTrace (Dynamic Tracing). Least privilege security model.6 Large file support. IPv6 and IPsec. Solaris 2002 SunOS Volume Manager.6 Solaris SunOS May 1996 Only release to support PowerPC platform.9 OpenWindows dropped.UC Berkeley Open 5. Solaris 9 (SPARC) 5.1 5. PAM. and Linux compatibility added. Resource Manager.OCF Solaris History: Solaris 2. July 1997 2.7 1998 logging). Solaris 10 6/06 added Sun's new filesystem ZFS.5.6 5. D. WebNFS. Adds GNOMEbased Java Desktop System as default desktop. • Solaris 10 10/09 ("U8") added user and group level ZFS quotas. Added native SunOS November Solaris 7 support for file system meta-data logging (UFS 5. 2003 (x86) Includes Multipath I/O. SunOS February Solaris 8 Last update is Solaris 8 2/04.5.1 Enterprise support added. sun4d support removed. Ultra 2. Most January 10 current update is Solaris 9 9/05. Introduced RoleBased Access Control (RBAC). Service Management Facility (SMF) which replaces init. Solaris SunOS January 31 Support for sun4m and UltraSPARC I processors running 10 5.d scripts. the following versions of Solaris have been released (as of mid 2006): Solaris SunOS Release Description version version date Includes x64 (AMD64/EM64T) support. CDE included.state drives. sun4c support removed. TrueType fonts. NFSv4 and iSCSI support.OCF Solaris History: Solaris 7 Solaris SunOS Includes Kerberos 5.10 2005 at speeds lower than 200 MHz removed.)DIFFERENT VERSIONS:Versions In descending order. Solaris Containers. ZFS cache devices and nss_ldap shadowAccount Support.
1 December 1992 (SPARC) May 1993 (x86) Solaris 2 SunOS June 1992 .3 Solaris 2.0 SunOS 5.2 Solaris 2.5 Solaris 2. Includes OSF/Motif runtime support.1 First unified SPARC/x86 release. First to support Sun-4d architecture (SPARC only).3 SunOS 5.5.3 switches from NeWS to Display PostScript and drops SunView support (SPARC only).OCF Solaris History: Solaris 2.1 First to support UltraSPARC and include CDE. Preliminary release.4 SunOS 5.Solaris 2. 5. support for only Sun-4c architecture. Support for Sun-4 and Sun-4m architectures added.1 November 1995 November 1994 November 1993 May 1993 32-bits.5. NFSv3 and NFS/TCP.4 Solaris 2.2 SunOS 5.Solaris 2 description from "Sun Managers" mailing list archive Solaris Different Version Table .OCF Solaris History: Solaris 2. OpenWindows 3. first Solaris x86 release.5 SunOS 5.
corruption • of data etc.11. Here one installation specification can be applied to multiple systems.) New Repositories=New Software:This structure helps you to freely contribute your software and showcase your innovation to worldwide audience. without having to modify the applications.) FEATURES:a. c. or Avant task bar are included in Open Solaris. b.) Automated Install:This is a new enterprise technology which provides support for network and local installations of Open Solaris 2008. It helps to solve numerous problems that can crop up: losing of important files.) Virtualization:The feature virtualization provides advanced functions and increases the rate of utilization by putting together multiple applications to make it one system.) ZFS.Zettabyte File System:ZFS has been developed to meet the increasing needs of a general purpose file system.) Networking:Open Solaris provides. d. g. e. . high performance networking.) IPS- image Packaging System:- IPS is the new package management system which is network based. along with some superb graphical features such as the Compiz window manager. f. There are many more repositories providing a large amount of software in an accessible manner.2.) Desktop:All the newest and the best features of the GNOME community. It has the ability of installing new software and receiving updates from other network package storehouses.
such as bar code readers in a supermarket. now offer an optimized version of the powerful Solaris x86 product for businesses running text-based applications including companies with numerous replicated sites or branch office locations.(SCO) A supplier of UNIX systems for Intel microprocessors. vice president and general manager of Sun's Solaris Operating Environment Group. SCO became a public company in May. It has been widely used to connect character-based terminals or process control devices.)Power Management:The new Open Solaris 2008. the newest members of the Solaris family. Anil Gadre. Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server. 1993 and trades on the NASDAQ National Market System under the symbol SCOC. 3. SunSoft Inc. the open source operating system Linux has appeared unexpectedly.) BUSINESS STRATEGY:In the late 1990s.h. At the same time. today extended the Solaris product line into the multiuser two or more users. They supply Xenix and Open Desktop. International • • • • • Bennigan's Burger King Charley's Grilled Subs Domino's Pizza Hard Rock Cafe Or retail operations. suspend and resume to RAM and is convenient for mobile users and quite important for those who are concerned about energy consumption. Business arena. must assess the threats and opportunities posed by Linux and by Microsoft as he and his executive team formulate a strategic plan for Solaris. See also: Fast-food restaurant. restaurant chains The following is a list of restaurant chains. Casual dining. the new products will provide compatibility with most of the existing INTERACTIVE UNIX A Unix-based operating system from Sun that runs on x86 machines. . In addition. Founded in 1979. Santa Cruz Operation . to a central computer.11 brings the first few platforms to support. and it is generating significant excitement among programmers and users. List of reference tables. Sun Microsystems' Solaris has emerged as the dominant UNIXbased alternative to Microsoft for server operating systems. such as banks. System and Santa Cruz Operation See SCO.
www. directs the input and output of data. multithreading Multitasking within a single program. whether in a command line interface. an operating environment is the environment in which users run programs.2 for Intel processors from SCO. SunSoft has essentially doubled the number of customers that I can now address .com) A leading vendor of UNIX operating systems for the x86 platform. from small workgroup servers for terminal users. value-added resellers and customers in mind. such as in MS-DOS or the Unix shell. or in a graphical user interface. Inc applications. and offers them an easy and inexpensive way to get from here to there. With these products. Make these products ideal general purpose computing solutions for applications that require a 32-bit operating system with low overhead. the minimal system requirements to be used efficiently. In 1989. These pre-requisites are known as (computer) system requirements and are often used as a guideline as opposed to an absolute rule. with access to the full power of the Solaris operating environment In computing. "SunSoft clearly designed Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server with its resellers. UT. Throughout their enterprise. networking and standards conformance. "Businesses running text-based applications on multi-user UNIX systems often must choose between a less robust operating system or very high systems overhead to protect future growth." said Ben Duncan. such as multiprocessing. with text-based system administration in a small system footprint. keeps track of files. It allows multiple streams of execution to take place concurrently within the same program. In addition. but abandoned the line in the spring of 2003. Open Systems Services Inc. such as in the Macintosh operating system. "Our new products solve this dilemma and provide users of INTERACTIVE UNIX System and SCO UNIX An enhanced version of UNIX System V Release 3. SCO had also offered Linux. SCO UNIX was introduced as a major upgrade to SCO XENIX with more security. Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server achieve this scalability through advanced 32-bit operating system capabilities. "These new products bridge the wide gap that existed between INTERACTIVE UNIX System and SCO UNIX users and the Solaris operating system. And advanced networking." said Michael Sears. all the way up to enterprise-wide network management. director of product marketing for SunSoft's Solaris product group.sco.(SCO (The SCO Group. organizations can now use Solaris as a single operating system operating system (OS) Software that controls the operation of a computer. London. each stream processing a different transaction or message. all computer software needs certain hardware components or other software resources to be present on a computer system. The SCO Group is the combination of two companies: Utah-based Caldera. and controls the processing of computer programs.
Pentium or future compatible processors -. (3) (Internet Security and Acceleration) See . It was initially designed for a single user (the name was a pun on the earlier operating system Multics).4 x86 that support many of the UNIX Operating system for digital computers. and today it produces films.Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server for multi-user businesses. including nearly 500 optimized 32-bit applications written to run on Solaris x86 platforms natively.8Mb of RAM and 45Mb of disk space SunSoft will continue to support the INTERACTIVE UNIX System product so that users can migrate to the Solaris product family when they are ready. . (2) (Interactive Services Association) See Internet Alliance.ISA (1) (Instruction Set Architecture) See instruction set. It was founded in Chicago in 1924 by Jules Stein as a talent agency. Additional features of Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server include enhanced virtual terminal support and a character-based user interface for easier and more cost-effective system administration. i486. . V3. In the 1960s it bought Decca Records and Universal Pictures. ISA cards can plug into an EISA slot. -. PC *) . The minimal system requirements include: -. specialized implementation and branch automation. enabling users to run thousands of existing programs. The Solaris product family now includes: -. EISA (Extended ISA) Pronounced "ee-suh." *)Key Features and Benefits Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server are versions of Solaris 2. music.Solaris Workgroup Server and Solaris Enterprise Server for workgroups.with a Solaris Solution. and television shows.an Intel i386.2. developed by Ken Thompson of Bell Laboratories in 1969. and SCO UNIX applications. The new Solaris products also feature significantly reduced memory and hard disk requirements. or PCI Bus architecture -. The support will include new releases with driver and platform support.NET. MCA in full Music Corporation of America Entertainment conglomerate. The overall scalability of Solaris increases vastly with the introduction of Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server." A PC bus standard that extends the 16-bit ISA bus (AT bus) to 32 bits and provides bus mastering. INTERACTIVE UNIX System.
and enterprise networks.
-- Solaris Desktop for commercial and technical workstation users. In addition, developers can now utilize Solaris as a single operating system across large workgroups, enterprise networks and development environments. All together, the products provide a complete suite of Solaris-based operating systems that support SPARC (Scalable Performance Architecture) a family of RISC CPUs from Sun that runs mostly under Sun's Solaris, but also under Linux and BSD operating systems. After development began in the mid-1980s by David Patterson of the University of California at Berkeley and Bill and Intel-based systems running from 1 to 64 processors.
*)Targeted VAR Programs
SunSoft has created a series of VAR-focused programs in support of the new Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server products. Training for resellers is available at SunSoft's Annual Developers Conference, regional seminars and authorized training centers. VAR-focused marketing efforts include resource kits, porting guides and newsletters. SunSoft also offers consulting, on-line services, end user support, direct support for resellers and free installation support.
*) Pricing and Availability
Solaris Base Server and Solaris Network Server are available through SunSoft Authorized Resellers, value added resellers, OEMs and systems integrators worldwide. Solaris Base Server has a suggested manufacturers retail price of US $495 for 1-2 users; $995 for unlimited users and up to 2 processors. Solaris Network Server has a suggested manufacturers retail price of US $695 for 1-2 users; $1,195 for unlimited users. Initial shipments of the products will be available to key customers in the United States in 60 days with general release to follow. For more information, contact 800-SUNSOFT. In Europe and Asia, call the local SunSoft sales office. SunSoft Inc., headquartered in Mountain View, is a subsidiary of Sun Microsystems Inc., with offices worldwide. SunSoft's charter is to design, market, sells and supports the industry's highest-quality software environment to enable businesses to gain a competitive advantage through information systems. SunSoft delivers a suite of solutions that easily and cost-effectively connect, integrate and manage large enterprise environments. The products are licensed by SunSoft and distributed through major computer manufacturers and resellers worldwide.
4.) ARCHITECTURE:Solaris has a reputation for being well-suited to symmetric multiprocessing, supporting a large number of CPUs. It has historically been tightly integrated with Sun's SPARC hardware (including support for 64-bit SPARC applications since Solaris 7), with which it is marketed as a combined package. This has often led to more reliable systems, but at a cost premium over commodity PC hardware. However, it has also supported x86 systems since Solaris 2.1 and the latest version, Solaris 10, includes support for 64-bit x86 applications, allowing Sun to capitalize on the availability of commodity 64-bit CPUs based on the x86-64 architecture. Sun has heavily marketed Solaris for use with both its own "x64" workstations and servers based on AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors, as well as x86 systems manufactured by companies such as Dell, Hewlett-Packard, and IBM. As of 2009, the following vendors support Solaris for their x86 server systems:
• • • •
Dell - will "test, certify, and optimize Solaris and OpenSolaris on its rack and blade servers and offer them as one of several choices in the overall Dell software menu" IBM - also distributes Solaris and Solaris Subscriptions for select x86-based IBM System x servers and BladeCenter servers Intel Hewlett-Packard - distributes and provides software technical support for Solaris on ProLiant server and blade systems Fujitsu Siemens
*Solaris Kernel Features:● Dynamic ● Multithreaded ● Preemptive ● Multithreaded Process Model ● Multiple Scheduling Classes – Including realtime support ● Tightly Integrated File System & Virtual Memory ● Virtual File System ● 64-bit kernel – 32-bit and 64-bit application support ● Resource Management ● Service Management & Fault Handling ● Integrated Networking
Network LAN architecture How applications work on solaris .
Java threads working on Solaris and how The Three level architecture of Kernel works .
Because of this reason in those computer systems there were no such task called process management.A. When UNIX began to play a huge role in the field. the only way it become a process is when it loaded well in to the memory.) Process Management Introduction Early days computers were single tasking and the user interface was very simple. As Solaris uses the same Linux kernel and it is based on UNIX. So we can get an idea that for a single program. But day by day technology had been developed farther and the area that uses computers had become wider. Galvin (2006) says that a process means a program on execution. as even a single use can use many instants of the same program. So the processes that the computer at that time had to process were very little. When we talk about the process management. Then the task of managing the processes was completely done by the kernel. there can be more processes. So in a multi user operating system like Solaris. a particular program may have thousands of processes.) The Process In the book “Operating System Principals”. 1. . Linux also uses an advanced process management methodology. To fulfill this need a kernel task called Process Management was added in to the computer systems. And he also said that an executable file is not a process. the computer systems hardware and software technology had become height and most of the control had done by software. To get the maximum utilization of the Central Processing System (CPU) computer system specialists developed more and more advanced algorithms to manage the processes. first of all we have to talk about the word “process”. It is not only code of a program but also the relevant data and resources that relative to the execution of the process. So the amount of tasks that had to accomplish by the computer system was increased.
so it must have a current state. it is sent to a queue called Ready Queue. Figure 1 . Then the process waits until the process at the ‘running’ state get interrupts or request for IO and then the dispatcher dispatch the process to the CPU to execute it. Galvin 2006 When a new process implement by a program. As Galvin (2006) mentioned. for a process there are five states. If it is IO then the process state changes to ‘blocked’ and .Process State Diagram Source: Operating System Principals.Process State As a process is something that happens. • • • • • NEW READY RUNNING BLOCK TERMINATED At a given moment each process must have a state from those five. The relation ships between those states can be graphically displayed using a diagram called Process State Diagram. Then that process execute by the CPU until it receives an interrupt signal or the process request for IO.
. Process state Process state can be one of those five given in the last page.after the IO or event completed the process is sent back to the ready queue. Program counter This holds the value of the next instruction to execute in the program. If the process was interrupted then it directly goes back to the ready queue. • Pointer to parent process • Pointer area to child process • Process state • Program counter • Register save area • Memory limits • Priority information • Accounting information • Pointer to files and other IO resources Pointer to parent process The address of the parent process. It can be new. there are 9 major data fields in this data block. So the system stores these data in a special data structure called Process Control Block. then the process manager adds those addresses to here. After the process finished it terminate it self or an error occurs the process will be terminated by the process manager. As Galvin mentions (2006). blocked or terminated. running. Pointer area to child process If there are any child processes. ready. 2. They are.) Process Control Block When we tack a process there are some characteristics that hold various values.
the process manager stores that processes PCB in the memory. So as Galvin (2006) says in his book. Pointer to files and other IO resources Most of the processes need more resources than memory and CPU like disk to access files. Accounting information This section holds the values for CPU time. real time. Most of the pre-emptive algorithms need this as CPU time is an impotent resource. Threads When a program runs more than one process at a time we call it a multi threaded program. And every time the process changes its state and the values process manager updates this information and restore it in the memory. As the number get bigger except 0. And also most of the new programs are able to multi thread the single process. the priority of the process gains up. . keyboard for manual input etc… At the point that a new process created by a program. account numbers and process numbers that identify the process. a thread can be called as a process.CPU registers These are the addresses of the registers used by the process Memory limits This includes the value of the maximum limit of memory that the process can take. So this is a value of type integer. Priority information When scheduling the processes (we will talk about this later). we are assigning a value that represents how valuable the process is.
The main queues it uses are. Ready queue Remember the process state diagram. It means if the given time or an IO request happened. As there are so many physical and logical devices there are so many device queues. with is the queue that belongs to the device.B. To fulfill this need.) CPU Scheduling There are 2 main ways to schedule this processes. Pre-emptive 2. Job queue This queue includes all the available processes in the system. As Solaris considered as one of the most advances operating systems in the world. This queue is the queue that contains the information about processes that is in “Ready” state. . Device queue When a process requested to access a device. to get the maximum utilization of the CPU at the same time doing the job that needed by the process the scheduler uses many queues. Galvin (2006) in his book well describes. process scheduler terminate the program and start the next process. to get the maximum of it. None pre-emptive Pre-emptive In this method processes are interrupted before it is completed.) Process Scheduling Today’s computers are multi programmed and the CPU is the main resource we have. It’s just a list and not dedicated to a particular task. And this task is done by a special kernel program called Process Scheduler. at any given time there must be a process running in the CPU. there are some algorithms to schedule the processes. Ready queue Job queue Device queues Except those 3 types there are some other queues that are not considered in this level. 1. then the process is sent to a separate queue. Then the previous process is sent to device queue or ready queue. a. it also using the best ways to schedule the processes using many run levels.
First Come First Serve Shortest Job First Priority Scheduling Round Robin Multi Level Queue Multi Level Feed-back Queue First Come First Serve This is the simplest way to manage processes. the goal of the scheduler is not happening here. When arranging the ready queue from job queue. In this algorithm ready queue are as same as job queue. It is not utilize the CPU to its maximum. it has to wait until the shortest jobs are done. But if a more important process is there but it takes more time. 5. So all the processes in the queue have same opportunity to get the CPU. If it was terminated for IO then it is sent to a device queue.None pre-emptive In this method processes are executed until it request for an IO or terminates it self. at the new state of the process. 2. there are 3 none pre-emptive process scheduling algorithms and 3 pre-emptive algorithms. it is assigned a value that represents its priority. They are. 4. it arrange as 0. Scheduling Algorithms As Galvin (2006) describe in his book. 6. ∞ to 1. Shortest Job First By using this algorithm. Priority Scheduling In this algorithm. . But unfortunately the job that must be done by the process scheduler. 1. 3. the total waiting time can be minimized.
Multi Level Queue This is a combination all previous scheduling algorithms.Round Robin This is the most fair and widely used algorithm to manage processes. In here a single process has been given a particular time and after that time it pre-empted and the next process in the ready queue has been given the CPU. .
they use overlays to manage the memory. When Solaris boot up.Physical memory usage of kernel.c) Memory Management Overview Memory Management is one of a main function that’s done by the kernel. the kernel binary loads to the memory and some kernel modules are loaded by hotplug system. Older days and even today in some systems like embedded systems. If the system is able to manage the memory to get the maximum use of it. to get the maximum use of it. . But it is a primary method of managing the memory. a good management of the memory is a must. As Memory is a quit valuable resource. To fulfill this need the system developed to a level that manages memory in a high level way. As Solaris improved they switch to a modern memory management methodologies. Then the memory became more limited for a particular task. kernel modules and user applications. the number of processes that used by the system are get increased. then it will be able to do more processes at a given time as well. Figure 2 . Why because as computer systems became more and more complicated.
So the computer program cannot understand physical addresses it is done by the memory management unit it self. the memory manager (in here swapper) copy that memory block to the swap partition and release the memory. it copies the memory block back to the main memory. Shared Components Systems use shared libraries.Relationship between SWAP partition and RAM . To read or write a value to that register when the program gives the logical memory address it is converted to the physical addresses and execute the command.Addressing Physical Memory Every register in the physical memory has an address. And when the memory needed back. once to use hundreds of times. When a memory block is not needed to a particular time period. Swapping Solaris uses a special partition as swap. So those components may load only To reduce the repetition loading of the same program. Figure 3 .
How do a deadlock occur In this example process 1 has taken tape drive and without releasing it. But the scanner has been taken by process 2. . Now the problem is that. there is a huge competition between those processes to get the resources. A situation like this is called a deadlock. At the same time process two has taken the keyboard and without releasing it the process requests for tape drive. Figure 4 . there are so many processes running in a limited resourced environment.d) Deadlock Management Overview In modern computers. So none of those three processes can fulfill there resources requirements. As one process many needs more than one resources at a time. the process request to access scanner. without releasing the scanner process 2 requests for tape drive and keyboard.
1. 2. it terminates the process with the low priority. . At this point user has to exit from the system to use the same program that uses the freeze process. When a deadlock occurs. Most operating systems are using the 3rd method to handle the deadlocks. are isolated without giving resources and let it be there as running. They are. but in Open Solaris there are some methods to get rid from a deadlock. Running a service using some protocols that prevents the ability to get a deadlock. So it is called freeze process. And the processes that cannot be terminated because it courses other processes and services.Deadlock Handling To get rid from situations like this computer system uses 3 methods. 3. Let the deadlock happen and then clean then mess. Ignore deadlocks as they never occur.
) PROCESS OF INSTALLATION:Installation and Configuration Before Installation Before Installing Open Solaris OS to the System.5. Figure 5 Solaris .) PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION a.Open Media .this will help users to avoid errors and loss of data. Review the System Requirements and Limitations described in the open Solaris documentation .
Note the requirements below are recommended Minimums. While it is possible to install the Solaris OS on a system with less disk capacity and CPU speed. use the fdisk command or a third-party partitioning tool to create a new partition or to make adjustments to preexisting partitions Table 1 – System Requirements . For a detailed list of 3rd-party applications available on Solaris 10.com/solaris/specs.System Requirements Open Solaris OS Needs Following Minimum System Requirements to run smoothly . Basic System Requirements Verify the computer system meets the following requirements.sun.jsp. . If User installing OpenSolaris on a system that will have more than one OS.More System Resources will help Open Solaris to do tasks fast and more efficiently.) Recommended size is at least 10 GB.com/partners/10moves/solutions. visit http://www.html. visit http://www. • Minimum 256 MB of physical RAM • Minimum 5 GB of available hard drive space • Minimum 400 MHz CPU speed • DVD or CD-ROM drive • Attached monitor or integrated display For more information on Solaris System requirements. it is not recommended.sun. Requirement Memory Disk space Multiboot capability Description 512 MB minimum (This minimum has not been tested extensively yet.
) Setup Language Settings 6.) Finalize the Installation .) Load the Setup 3.) Boot the Live CD 2. collecting data which need for the installation.) Setup User Settings 7.) Setup Time Zone 5.Installation Steps The Installation of Open Solaris OS can done in few Simple Steps.) Partition the disk 4. Novice Users can select Graphical User Installation and Expert Users and Select Command line Installation Graphical User Installation will take the user step by step like a wizard. *Basic Steps 1.
Expert Users can select Open Solaris Text Console to boot Open Solaris with Text . Grand Unified Bootloader.Booting the Live CD The LiveCD enables you to try the OS before installation. Figure 6 – GNU GRUB menu Select you Option from the GNU GRUB menu . The boot loader GNU GRUB menu will load. Insert the Open Solaris Live CD the Optical Drive and Boot the System. (GNU GRUB) is used in most Linux based Operating systems for providing a user a multi-boot Environment with more than one Operating system. This Small software is Responsible for loading and Transferring.
Macedonian Maltese. and Swedish Full language Support: All Primary Languages. Japanese. Russian. Dutch. Danish. Hindi. Polish. English. Thai. Icelandic. Lithuanian. Croatian. Greek. Serbian. German. Languages supported by Open Solaris. Turkish . Korean. Norwegian Nynorsk. Finnish. Estonian. Norwegian Bokmål. French. Italian. Catalan. Czech.Commands. Slovak. Albanian. Bulgarian. . Latvian. Slovenian. Portuguese. Hungarian. Spanish. Figure 7 – Language Selection User can select over more than 41 languages in Open Solaris. Arabic. Portuguese – Brazil. Hebrew. Chinese – Traditional. Primary languages are: Chinese – Simplified. Romanian.
Figure 8 – Open Solaris Installation Icon . The Open Solaris Desktop will Appear .When the Live Image is loaded to the System.In the desktop Click on the “Install Open Solaris” Icon to Load the Install ion Setup.
Open Solaris OS Useses a File System Named ZFS to Store Data.Partitioning the disk Disk Partitioning is an important step in Operating system Intallation.users can either partition the disk or use the whole disk for Open Solaris Installtion. .Partitioning software will create divisions in Hard disk Drive to store data efficiently. Figure 9 – Disk Partitioning Window In Open Solaris Partitioning Setup .
.Language and locale Settings Figure 10 – Language Settings Window This Step Allows User to Select the Locale for Set the Default Language support and data formats.
User Account Name and Password.User settings In This Step user Can Enter Login Details to the Open Solaris Operating System. Figure 11 – User Settings window User can define any name for the Computer that he installs Open Solaris OS. Computer Name and etc. Root (System Administrator) Password. .
Confirm installation specifications Figure 12 – Confirm installation Window As the Last Step User can review the Installation settings. .Hit the Install Buttton to install open solaris.
Installation Process When User Confirm the Inserted data Installation will begin . Figure 13 – Installation Process . This may take about an Hour to Complete the Process.Open Solaris Installation Program will prepare the Hard Disk Drive and will Copy the Open Solaris System Files to the Hard Disk Drive.
After the Installation Wait for the installation process to finish and Computer will Restart Automatically the system will restart and you’ll see the Open Solaris Booting Screen. Open solaris boot screen .
Figure 14 – GNOME Desktop .Introduction to GUI Graphical User Interface needs applications to interact with users. It can create a medium for people to interact with applications to make available attractive user interfaces. Open Solaris has a Very Beautiful Graphical User Interface based on GNOME Desktop System.
instinctive and aesthetically satisfying applications. And graphics technology in GNOME helps you to create constant. software and data. Perl etc. GNOME is…………. old and documented in many languages. Organized GNOME strives to be an organized community. user interface controls to an API for drawing highquality graphics to the screen.Introduction GNOME The GNOME Platform features. Usable Usability is about creating software which is easy for everyone to use.. Free GNOME is free software which is devoted to giving developers and users the maximum level of their desktops. Ex: C. Developer-friendly Developers are using several languages with GNOME. Accessible GNOME is desktop for any UNIX platform. . International GNOME is urban. Python.
GTK is mainly crated by C programming Language. Sun. Figure 15 – GTK Logo Most of the Open Solaris applications based on GTK Environment.Supported GNOME is supported by the top companies like IBM. Some Common applications are follows: AbiWord Evolution Inkscape Word processor Mailer SVG Vector graphics . “The GNOME Desktop system based on GTK Tool Kit” GTK GTK is a Widget Tool kit for Creating Graphical user interfaces. Red Hat etc. The GNOME Desktop system based on GTK Tool Kit. A community GNOME is a world wide community for people to generally have fun together.
Imendio Cross Platform GTK Runtime environment not only runs under Open Solaris is runs under Linux.GTTK is supported by a Developers from Red Hat.323/SIP VoIP softphone Raster HDR graphics editor Table 2 –Some Solaris Applications Features of GTK Stability GTK has been Developed for over 10 years and deliverd users facinating features and great perfromace.” Interfaces GTK+ has a comprehensive collection of core widgets which include: • Windows (normal window or dialog. Thread safe. Mac OS X. Like “Look and feel. Theme Support. Novell.Vmware Player Ekiga GIMP editor Virtual Machine H. Windows. about and assistant dialogs) . Etc Language Bindings GTK Source Code is Available in Many Programming Languages which make application development attractive Mobile GNOME Mobile & Embedded has invold in mobile Application development Accommodating GTK Provide number of great features for developers today.
toggle buttons and link buttons) Numerical (horizontal or vertical scales and spin buttons) and text data entry (with or without completion) Multi-line text editor Tree.locate commands by keyword lookup alias .create or remove a pseudonym or shorthand for a • • • • admintool(1M) – system administration with a graphical user interface answerbook2_admin(1M) – bring up AnswerBook2 administration tool GUI apache(1M) – Apache hypertext transfer protocol server overview arp(1M) – address resolution display and control . Application Name Mozilla Firefox Mozilla Thunderbird Pidgin Open Office Use of Application Browse internet E-mail and RSS Client Multi-Protocol Instant Messaging Office Suite Table 3 –Some Solaris Applications Publisher Mozilla Cooperation Mozilla Cooperation Pidgin Community Sun Microsystems b.All these applications are Free to use as Open Source software.) COMMANDS • • apropos . radio buttons.• • • • • • Buttons and toggles (check buttons. list and icon grid viewer (with customizable renderers and model/view separation) Combo box (with or without an entry) Working with Open Solaris Basic Applications There are some basic Programs comes with Open Solaris Operating system which help users to Manage and do their work easily .
split files based on context ctags .cut out selected fields of each line of a • • • • • • chat(1M) – automated conversational exchange tool chown(1M) – change owner chroot(1M) – change root directory for a command cpustat(1M) – monitor system behavior using CPU performance counters cron(1M) – clock daemon cvcd(1M) – virtual console daemon .make posters basename deliver portions of path names batch . uncompress files or display expanded files cp .clear the terminal screen cmp(1) – compare two files compress .encode or decode a file csplit .copy files cpio .copy file archives in and out crontab(1) – user crontab file crypt .change the permissions mode of a file chown .• command or series of commands awk .change working directory chdir .change file ownership clear .control process execution • • • • • boot(1M) – start the system kernel or a standalone program bsmconv(1M) – enable or disable the Basic Security Module (BSM) on Solaris bsmrecord(1M) – display Solaris audit record formats bsmunconv(1M) – enable or disable the Basic Security Module (BSM) on Solaris busstat(1M) – report bus-related performance statistics C: Full list of user commands: Full list of System commands • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • cd .create a tags file for use with ex and vi cut .change file group ownership chmod .execute commands at a later time bg .pattern scanning and processing language • • • • aset(1M) – monitors or restricts accesses to system files and directories aset.restore(1M) – restores system files to their content before ASET is installed automount(1M) – install automatic mount points automountd(1M) – autofs mount/unmount daemon B: Full list of user commands: Full list of System commands • • • • banner .compress.change working directory chgrp .
change the permissions mode of a file chown .copy file archives in and out crontab(1) – user crontab file crypt .change working directory chgrp .change file group ownership chmod .display status of disk space on file systems diff .convert text file from DOS format to ISO format du .copy files cpio .echo arguments ed .split files based on context ctags .change file ownership clear .deliver portions of path names dos2unix .text editor egrep .change working directory chdir .search a file for a pattern using full regular expressions eject .3-way differential file comparison dircmp .clear the terminal screen cmp(1) – compare two files compress .directory comparison dirname .encode or decode a file csplit .create a tags file for use with ex and vi cut .compress.eject media such as CD-ROM and floppy from drive .write the date and time df .display the number of disk blocks used per directory or file • • • • echo .display line-by-line differences between pairs of text files diff3 . uncompress files cp .cut out selected fields of each line of a file • • • • • • • • date .file • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • cd .
along with network file systems shared from other computers. a USB key. for example CDs must use ISO 9660 or UDF. and BluRay discs. and other optical discs such as Blu-ray. Others have been developed by companies to meet their specific needs. DVDs. Solaris UFS did not have logging/journaling capabilities. OCFS2. Windows Embedded CE 6. Mac OS X has facilities to read and write FAT. hobbyists. ext3 and ext4 are based on the original Linux file system. GFS. Unlike other operating systems. and other file systems. a file system more suitable for flash drives. and NILFS. along with FAT (the MS-DOS file system). Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows currently supports NTFS and FAT file systems (including FAT16 and FAT32). The ext file systems. ext3. ext4. but cannot be installed to them. or adapted from UNIX. JFS. namely ext2. and as of Windows Vista. and HFS which is the primary file system for the Macintosh. DVDs. Mac OS X Mac OS X supports HFS+ with journaling as its primary file system. and is now comparable to the support available for other native UNIX file systems. NTFS is the only file system which the operating system can be installed on. Under Windows each file system is usually limited in application to certain media. Linux has full support for XFS and JFS. UDF. XFS. and other operating systems.. In recent years support for Microsoft Windows NT's NTFS file system has appeared in Linux. Microsoft Windows.6. a disc (CD. It is possible to install Linux on the majority of these file systems. Windows Vista Service Pack 1. Due to its UNIX heritage Mac OS X now supports virtually all the file systems supported by the VFS. whether it is a hard drive. Solaris The Solaris Operating System uses UFS as its primary file system. or even contained within a file located on another file system. Prior to 1998. ReiserFS. but over time the OS has gained this and other new data management capabilities.) COPARISION WITH OTHER OS Linux Many Linux distributions support some or all of ext2. ISO 9660 and Universal Disk Format (UDF) are supported which are standard file systems used on CDs. DVD.. OCFS. GFS2.). Reiser4. and the ISO 9660 and UDF filesystems used for CDs. and Windows Server 2008 support ExFAT.0. It is derived from the Hierarchical File System of the earlier Mac OS. Linux and UNIX allow any file system to be used regardless of the media it is stored in. .
Additional features include VERITAS (Journaling) VxFS.) Solaris is one of many operating systems supported by Veritas Volume Manager. Logging or journaling was added to UFS in Solaris 7. and error-correcting). Solaris Express. enhancements to UFS including multiterabyte support and UFS volume management included as part of the OS. and other open source variants of Solaris later supported bootable ZFS. compressible. and/or throughput. Releases of Solaris 10. poolable. QFS from Sun Microsystems. it all depends what kind of need you have. If you are a home user u can go with windows. Solaris includes Solaris Volume Manager (formerly known as Solstice DiskSuite. Kernel extensions were added to Solaris to allow for bootable VERITAS VxFS operation. and ZFS (open source. Modern Solaris based operating systems eclipse the need for volume management through leveraging virtual storage pools in ZFS. 128-bit. But if u want best graphics user interface then u will go with Mac OS. OpenSolaris. If performance is what you want and u have to handle huge volume of data then Solaris would be a good option. . Logical Volume Management allows for spanning a file system across multiple devices for the purpose of adding redundancy. capacity.
which is then maintained as a derived project. Each version such as Solaris 10 is based on a snapshot of this development codebase. including providing an open source binary distribution of the OpenSolaris project. Sun announced Project Indiana with several goals. A later change to this program introduced a quarterly release model with support available. The first release of this distribution was OpenSolaris 2008. replacing SXDE.05. In 2007. and is derived from what is now the OpenSolaris codebase. an addition to the Solaris development process was initiated. allowing anyone to try out new features and test the quality and stability of the OS as it progressed to the release of the next official Solaris version. taken near the time of its release. The Solaris version under development by Sun as of 2008 is codenamed Nevada. In 2003.7. a binary release based on the current development basis was made available for download on a monthly basis. educational and evaluation purposes. Updates to that project are built and delivered several times a year until the next official release comes out.0.) FUTURE SCOPE The underlying Solaris codebase has been under continuous development since work began in the late 1980s on what was eventually released as Solaris 2. renamed to Solaris Express Developer Edition (SXDE). the license acceptance form displayed when the user actually installs from these images lists additional uses including commercial and production environments. Although the download license seen when downloading the image files indicates its use is limited to personal. It is updated every two weeks. Under the program name Software Express for Solaris (or just Solaris Express). . The Solaris Express Community Edition (SXCE) is intended specifically for OpenSolaris developers.
.EVEN IT IS NOT AS FAMOUS AS WINDOWS OR MAC OS .BUT IT IS THE MOST PRODUCTIVITY TOOL FOR CORPARTE WORLD .) CONCLUSION SOLARIS ONE OF THE BEST OBJECT ORIENTED OPERATING SYSTEM .8.IT HAS MORE FUTURE SCOPE.AS DUE TO ITS FEATURE OF MORE DATA HANDLING SYSTEM IN SMARTER WAY THEN WINDOWS OR MAC OS.
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