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63 DAYS -- THE SOVIETS IN SPACE •••• J L;; .. 86-36
FOOTBALL AND CRYPTOLOGY •••••••••••• [ }; ..•• ; .. 5
NSA- CROSTIC NO.2 •.••.••••..••••.••.••.••.••.........••..•••... 6
LENIN AND STATE PRIZES: NOW YOU SEE __
- - NOW YOU DON'T! ••.••.••••••••• 1.< 8
EDITOR ANSWERS QUESTIONS •..•••.••••••.•••.•..•..•.......•..... 11
LEO IN OCTOBER A. 1. Murphy 12
Declassified and Approved for Release by NSA on '10-'1 '1-.20'1.2 pursuant to E.O. '135.26.
vl DR Case # 54778
1'1118 99C1:JMBNT C9NTAINS €OBeWORB MAo'feRIAoL
'''Uri'I'' '" I)
1.1"'''. G98, 19 11651, Sate,., !
Bee....." tipoB Notileatiua b, tile 8tiPaalui
Published Monthly by PI, Techniques and Standards,
for the Personnel of Operations
VOL. II I, No. 1 JANUARY 1976
BOARD OF EDITORS
Vera R. (71195)
Editor in Chief Arthur J. Salemme (5642s)
Cryptanalysis .....•........ 1 1£8025s)/ P.L. 86-36
Language .....•...•......... Emery W. Tetrault (5236S)/
Machine Support 1
Special Research .
Traffic Analysis •..••.•••.. Frederic O. Mason, Jr. (4l42s)
For individual subscriptions
name and organizational designator
to: CRYPTOLOG, PI
On 24 May 1975 two veteran Soviet cosmonauts,
Lieutenant Colonel Petr Klimuk and civilian
Vitalij Sevast'yanov, were launched into space
onboard a Soyuz-type spacecraft from the Tyura-
tam space center. The next day this Soyuz-18
spacecraft successfully docked with a
type space station which had been launched in
December 1974 and had been visited in January
1975 by two other cosmonauts. Thus began the
longest space flight in the history of-the
Soviet manned space program -- a flight lasting
- This long flight set a human endurance rec-
ord not only for the cosmonauts but also
those of us here at NSA and at various field
sites who are involved in the collection,
transcription, analysis, translation, report-
ing, and computer programming of cosmonaut
Because of the increased activity in this
field in the past 2 years, there has been hardly
enough time between launches to study the in-
formation received and prepare data for subse-
quent flights. Since September 1973 to the
present there has been a total of eight space
flights, including the joint Apollo-Soyuz
flight in July 1975.
The Soviet manned space program began on 12
April 1961 with the successful launch of a
Vostok spacecraft piloted by the "first man in
space," Major Yurij Alekseevich Gagarin. This
brief journey into space (the spacecraft made
only one revolution around the earth) began a
program of space activity which has included
the launching of three separate series of space-
craft and one series of space stations. The
entire Soviet manned program, beginning
with the Vostok spacecraft in 1961 and through
the Soyuz-19 spacecraft in July 1975, totals 28
flights involving 34 cosmonauts.
Three series of spacecraft
In the first series of spacecraft, the
Vostok series, from April 1961 through June
1963, there were six flights, two per year,
each piloted by a single cosmonaut. The long-
est flight, Vostok-5, lasted 5 days and made 81
revolutions around the earth. The series ended
with the launch of Vostok-6, piloted by the
first woman cosmonaut, Valentina Tereshkova.
The successes of the Vostok series led to a
second series of spacecraft, the Voskhod. There
were only two flights in this series. The
first one, in October 1964, lasted only one
day, but it provided another "first" for the
Soviet Union. Instead of a single cosmonaut,
three cosmonauts were onboard the spacecraft.
This brief flight was repeated in March 1965
with the launch of Voskhod-2, piloted by two
Two years intervened before the launching of
the third and current series of spacecraft, the
Soyuz. From April 1967 through July 1975, 20
Soyuz spacecraft were launched, the last one
being Soyuz-19 during the joint Apollo-Soyuz
flight. Soviet spacecraft are given a number
only if they achieve orbit. A Soyuz vehicle
launched on 5 April 1975 was manned, but it
failed to achieve orbit, had to be aborted, and
was therefore unnumbered. This accounts for the
latest Soyuz being designated Soyuz-19.
The manned space program came to a halt after
30 June 1971, when the three cosmonauts onboard
the Soyuz-II spacecraft died during reentry
into the earth's atmosphere after they had spent
Jan 76 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 1
S I ] C R I ] ~ SPOKE
23 days in space onboard the first Soviet space
station, the SaZyut-l. More than 2 years passed
before the launch of Soyuz-12 on 27 September
There were four space stations (actually,
orbiting scientific laboratories) in the SaZyut
series. The first station, launched in 1971,
was visited by the Soyuz-lO and Soyuz-II space-
craft. However, only the Soyuz-II crew trans-
ferred into the station. In 1973 a second
SaZyut was launched, but it broke up in space
before it could be occupied. Then, in 1974,
SaZyut-3 was launched and was visited by two
spacecraft, Soyuz-14 and Soyuz-IS. Only the
Soyuz-14 crew transferred into the station; the
Scyuz-15 crew failed to dock with the station
and had to return home after only 2 days in
The SaZyut-4 space station, launched in
December 1974, was the only station successfully
occupied by two separate crews -- the first in
January 1975 by the Soyuz-17 crew, Aleksej Guba-
rev and Georgij Grechko, and the second in May
1975 by the Soyuz-18 crew, Petr Klimuk and
Cosmonaut's day in space
The cosmonaut's day in space is arranged to
provide 8-9 hours of sleep, four meals a day,
~ hours of prescribed physical exercises, l ~
to 2 hours of free or personal time, and the
remaining time for performing various technical,
astrophysical, medical, biological, geophysi-
cal, solar, and photographic experiments.
Besides this, periodic checks are made on both
the space station's and the Soyuz spacecraft's
propulsion and life support systems.
Each day the cosmonauts consume four meals
which they call first breakfast, second break-
fast, dinner, and supper. There are about 40
types of food items onboard, consisting of
fruit juices, beverages such as coffee and co-
coa, various meats and fish, cheese, soups,
and candy, cookies, and fruit for dessert. Food
is contained in aluminum tubes, small cans, and
plastic wrapping (some of which is edible) and
is stored in a small refrigerator or special
food containers. There are also food warmers
for heating the meats and soups and other food
Jan 76 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 2
S E C R E ~ SPOKE
EO 1.4. (c)
EO 1.4. (c)
made on the Plotnost' instrument. The Tonus
is an instrument for the electrical stimulation
of muscles; the Rezeda is a medical apparatus
for studying pulmonary ventilation and for tak-
ing breath samples for later laboratory analy-
sis. Along with the names of these medical
monitoring devices, the cosmonauts use many ab-
breviations to indicate the recording of vari-
ous arterial pressures. For example, PBA, PLA,
and PSA sensors record femoral, radial, and
carotid artery pulses. Besides the standard
electrocardiograms, other cardiovascular record-
ings are made; in voice communications they are
referred to by the abbreviations KKG, FG, TO,
SFG, and SKG (kinetocardiogram, phlebogram,
tachooscillogram, sphygmogram, and seismo-
While all this medical data is extremely im-
portant for studying the cosmonaut's physical
condition, the mental state of each cosmonaut
is also studied by a psychoneurologist at the
Flight Control Center, who makes a psycholin-
guistic analysis of the cosmonauts' speech to
help evaluate the crew's state of health.
Jan 76 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 3
EO 1.4. (c)
EO 1.4. (c)
P. L. 86-36
EO 1.4. (c)
Sometimes the cosmonauts themselves do not
always remember what an means.
But this is also true of American astronauts.
Compare the following actual conversations:
Houston Control (after discovering a
malfunction in the Apollo-12 mission caused
by the digital/uplink assembly, OUA):
We think we've figured it out.
Your OUA was off.
American astronaut: What's a OUA?
Soviet Flight Control Center: We have an
addition to the format: on 19 June
the flight engineer is to conduct
M10-4M, FG 1/3.
Phlebogram [in Russian FZeboGPamma].
Ah, phlebogram! I understand.
Jan 76 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 4
P L. 86-36
EO 1. 4. (c)
Now that we are in the middle of another
National Football League season, I believe the
time has come to consider ways to improve the
game. One of the most painful things to watch
is mistakes due to incomplete knowledge by the
players, e. g., the receiver hit in the back by
pass, the linebacker who does not see the
blocker coming at him from the side, or the
guard missing the blitzer. How often coaches
must have wished they could have told a player
to look in another direction at the critical
Modern technology does offer a way to cor-
rect this state of affairs. What the NFL needs
is to allow low-power radio transmitter to
enable coaches to speak directly to their play-
ers (who would have miniaturized receivers and
earphones in their helmets) 1. Then the coach
would be free to say, "Get that (expletive
deleted) man to the (expletive deleted) left,
you (expletive deleted) meathead!" If nothing
else, it should make the coaches feel a lot
Of course, opposing coaches would probably
try to listen in. But if the technique were
only used in the simple way described above,
that would not be of much value (not enough
time to react). However, I think coaches would
find the temptation irresistible to call plays
in this way. Naturally, in this case a SIGINT
effort would be of tremendous value to the op-
position. Therefore one would have to use en-
crypted speech. It is possible to envision
this happening in several stages.
The New York Giants win the NFC title (after
having gone 3-10-1 in 1975) by employing a
speech privacy system to enable the coaches to
talk directly to their players. As used by the
Giants there are 11 speech coaches assigned to
each unit, one coach to each player. In addi-
tion the head coach can override any line. Un-
fortunately, in the leagUe championship game,
Craig Morton gets tired of taking orders from
II understand this idea was actually tried
some years ago, but abandoned for various
his coach. He disconnects his receiver. The
Giants lose 63-13 to the Oakland Raiders.
By this time most teams have installed a
system similar to the Giants'. In addition
many teams have hired mathematicians to design
new encryption devices and to break those of
other teams. The Kansas City Chiefs have de-
cided that there is no longer any need to hold.
huddles or even to let players talk at all.
Each player is entirely encased in a combina-
tion of medieval armor and space suit. In this
way each player can breathe pure oxygen. Be-
sides speaking to his players the coaches can
also activate switches to give each a squirt of
Gatorade or a shot of adrenal in. After each
play the Chiefs line up without huddling and
the coach tells them what to do. The effect on
the other teams is devastating. Without a
to regroup (or breathe oxygen) they
qU1ckly collapse. The Chiefs win every game
this year by at least 40 points.
By this time the cryptologic aspects of foot-
ball have become at least as important as the
play itself. Every team has many mathematicians,
engineers, and programmers designing and breaking
speech systems. In many cases their salaries
are greater that those of the players. One of
the latest technical breakthroughs has been the
emplacement of brain probes (which are in turn
connected to the receiver in the helmet). In
this way the coach can send directly to the
brain. A whole new field of cryptoneurology is
born. Using this latest technique, the L. A.
Rams are able to play gorillas at a number of
By this time the NFL has concluded that the
players are pretty uninteresting. In fact, live
players spoil the game because of their unpre-
d1ctable variance. All teams use robots which
are guaranteed to be uniform with respect to po-
sition. The whole point of the game is crypt-
analysis. The sports pages of the papers are
full of discussions of such things as which
team has managed to break the Detroit Lions'
defensive system. Every. year a big draft is
held to select mathematicians and engineers.
One man is reported to be under contract for
$32 million over 7 years. Hmmmm••••
Jan 76 * CRYPTOLOG * Paze 5
Il!'<liBL:E VIA E811IH'f 8Nl5Y
A. Mohammed's birthplace
B. "Sour herb of grace" (Shakespeare,
D. He said "Cogito, ergo sum" (2 wds)
The quotation on the next page lUaS taken from a published.'
work of an NSA-er._ The first letters of the WORDS spell out
the author's name and the title of the work.
217 78 118 3f 162
E. What SheIdon ' s mother said when he tried
to push ahead of Sister Mary Margaret
as she was signing the Mount Vernon
guestbook (6 wds, suggested by song
F. High flyer
G. "He always takes his girl friends to
Alaska -- that's how he gets to ----"
H. Mother of Epaphus by Zeus
I. Historical antecedent (Waterloo, 1815)
of Word Y (3 wds)
J. Praise extravagantly
K. French composer (Tales of Hoffmann)
L. Artistic style early in the reign
(1715-74) of Louis XV
M. Civil wrong independent of a
N. King of ancient Persia, d. 425 B.C.
O. E l e ~ e n t , atomic number 10 (symbol)
P. Language for which Sequoyah invented
Q. Psyche's boy-friend
S. Some at least
T. Mechanical device (Karel Capek,
R. U. R.. 1921)
U. Vase-shaped pitcher
76 216 128 -8-
V. Discharge completely
8"'f 178 32 46 107 ---rr
Jan 76 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 6
w. Festive get-together
X. American composer (Third Sym-
phony, Pulitzer Prize 1947)
Y. Did McAuliffe really say this at
Zoo Garden near the foot of the Mount
Z3. Old Man of the Mountain (3 wds)
Z4. Sign of the Zodiac
Z6. Russian composer (The Golden Age,
Lady Maabeth of Mtsensk)
Z7. U. S. government agency (abbrev)
115 -2- 146 8'f
-7- 114 145 196
Jan 76 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 7
'fOP SECRE'f f:j1'iIBftA
LENIN AND STATE PRIZES:
NOW YOU SEE THEM -- NOW YOU DON'T!
1L...- IC531P.L. 86-36
Orders, medals, and prizes play an important
role in the economic and social life of the
Soviet Union. They provide an extra incentive
for people to strive for improvement, by appeal-
ing to their natural desire for recognition and
.approval and, in the case of Lenin and State
, by rewarding them financially.
In the civilian sector, the most prestigious
of these are the Hero of Socialist Labor,
Order of Lenin, State Prize, and Lenin Prize.
They form the bottom line of official biograph-
ic sketches and obituaries -- the measure of a
person's success as a productive member of
lUnless otherwise stated, references to
State Prizes in 'this article do not include
the former Stalin Prizes, which were discon-
tinued after 1954 and retroactively redesig-
nated State Prizes. State Prizes awarded by
individual republics of the USSR (as opposed
to national-level USSR State Prizes) have also
been excluded from consideration in this arti-
cle because they are less significant and are
of more recent origin.
society, and a great source of personal pride.
To students of Soviet affairs, they can be a
measure and source of other things as well.
While all these honors are highly prized by
Soviet citizens, the Lenin and State Prizes
are the most difficult to obtain. The Order
of Lenin and Hero of Socialist Labor may be
awarded for a wide variety of reasons unrelated
to any single achievement (e.g., on the occa-
sion of one's fiftieth birthday and in appre-
ciation of years of consistently outstanding
performance), but the Lenin and State Prizes
are given only for very specific contributions
of national significance, such as the design
and introduction into series production of a
new type 'of aircraft. Consequently, recipi-
ents of the Lenin and State Prizes, more than
any other group, may be considered the elite
corps of the "technocrats."
Just what are these prizes? According to
the new (third) edition of the BoZ'shaya
Sovetskaya EhntsikZopediya (Large Soviet'Ency-
clopedia) (BSEh), the Lenin Prize is "one of
the highest forms of rewarding citizens for the
most outstanding achievements in the field of
Jan 76 * CRYPTOLOG * P ~ $ e 8
'fOP SECRE'f tJ1'iIBftA
TOP SECRET UMBRA
science and technology, literature, art and
architecture. Re-established in 1957
30 Lenin Prizes (including 25 in science and
technology and 5 in literature, art, and archi-
tecture) of 10,000 rubles each are awarded once
every 2 years. [Announcements of] awards
are published on the anniversary of the birth
of V. I. Lenin. Persons receiving the Lenin
Prize are given the title 'Lenin Prize Laureate,'
a certificate, an honorary pin, and an identi-
fication card. The Lenin Prize may not be
awarded more than once to an individual."
The same edition of BSEh states that "USSR
State Prizes are a form of rewarding citizens
for outstanding achievements in the field of
science and technology, literature, and art.
They are awarded for scientific research making
a major contribution to the development of the
nation's science; for work creating and intro-
ducing the most progressive materials, machines,
and machinery into the national economy... A
USSR State Prize Laureate may be awarded a USSR
State Prize more than once, but not within 5
years of any previous award. Established in
1966. as many as 50 awards in the field of
science and technology and as many as 10 for
literature and art are made yearly on the anni-
versary of the Great October Socialist Revolu-
tion. Each prize is 5000 rubles. Persons
receiving the USSR State Prize are given the
title 'USSR State Prize Laureate,' a certifi-
cate, and an honorary pin indicating the/year
of the award. "
A prize may go to an individual, as some-
times happens in the field of pure science,
for the development of basic theories. More
often, however, the prize is shared/by a number
of persons throughout the USSR, eSJ;1eciaUy when
the award is for the development and production
of complex and sophisticated equipment. On the
average, prizes are shared by seven or eight
persons. Prizes are announced in Pravda and
Izvestiya, with an indication of the recipient's·
name, job title, place of employment, and rea-
son.for the award.
According to published aqcounts, in the
fields of science and technology since 1970,
226 people have shared 32 .Lenin Prizes, while
1,057 people have shared .126 State Prizes.
But according to BSEh, there should have been
75 Lenin Prizes, and 250 State Prizes could
have been awarded. Where have all the prizes
The following figures help to elucidate the
nature and scope of the problem:
• In 1970, 49 Lenin Prize Laureates "'.......
elected to the USSR Sunreme Soviet.1
• The Ukrainian Academy of Sciences was
given the Order of Lenin in 1969 and cele-
brated the occasion with the publication
of Akademiya Nauk Ukrainakoj SSR 1969 g.
(Academy of Sciences, Ukrainian SSR, 1969)"
which identified 48 colleagues __
I Academy as Lenin Prize Laureates J //1
ZOriginally/establishediIl. 1925, Lenin
were discontinued after 1934. From 1957 until
1968, Lenin Prizes/were awarded yearly.
EO 1.4. (c)
EO 1.4. (d)
Jan 76 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 9
TOP SEeRBT UMRR!..
EO 1.4. (c)
'for SECRET t1MBRA
• From 1968 to 1972, 12 Lenin and State
Prize Laureates were elected to the
Department of Mechanics and Control Pro-
cesses, USSR Academy of Sciences, which is.
engaged in many projects in the areas of
shipbuilding, aerospace electronics and
co uter en ineerin .
Jan: 76 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 10
TQP 8 ~ ( J R ~ T HMBRA
1. 4. (c)
'fOP SH€RH'f HMBRA
'EO 1.4. (c)
The following are a few of the questions most frequently asked of the
editor. The answel"S are supposed to be simple but complete. Other frequently
asked questions. including some that require more detailed discussion. will
appear in future issues. These other questions include. "Who can contribute
articles to CRYPTOLOG?". ''What topics are suitable for discussion in CRYPTOLOG?".
"How much editing does the editor do to articles submitted?". "Why does the
editor have to do any editing?". "Are controversial articles acceptable?". etc.
How does CRYPTOLOG differ from other Agency pub-
lications such as the NSA Teohnical, Journal"
Cryptologic Speotrum, ana the NSA Newsl,etter?
The Newsletter is. of course. unclassified.
The Technical Journal. Spectrum. and CRYPTOLOG
can print classified materials (Technical Jour-
nal and CRYPTOLOGup to Top Secret Codeword
level; Spectrum up to Secret Codeword level).
Technical Journal and Spectrum are
publications that appear 4 times a
year; CRYPTOLOG is a more casually produced
(pasted-up tyPewritten copy) technical exchange
paper that appears every month. With respect
to the content of the articles printed. the
three classified publications are directed at
approximately the same NSA readers. but CRYPTO-
LOG is perhaps the most time-conscious and has
perhaps the least formal level of presentation,
since it is intended for the easy exchange of
ideas among technicians of various specialties.
Why don't you print au' the unc1,assified stuff
on both sides of the same page, so that it
oan be removed easily IlJithout a risk of a
breaoh of seourity?
CRYPTOLOG is deliberately left unstructured.
It contains no "TA Section." "CA Section."
"Language Section." etc. The intention is to
make every reader, whatever his specialty, want
to read every article in every issue (are we
hitting the mark?). It often happens that
articles of various lengths and with various
security classifications leave variously-sized
holes to fill in. Sometimes it is possible to
find "filler" material with the same classifi-
cation as the article on the rest of the page,
and also on the back of the page. But usually
this is impossible. Therefore, we put an indi-
cation of the security classification on every-
thing printed in CRYPTOLOG. Any reader can
reproduce any article or "filler" and be sure
of the classification. Making a Xerox copy of
an unclassified page is safer than tearing out
the page and worrying about what's on the
Who oan subsoribe to CRYPTOLOG?
Any NSAer. member of a resident user organi-
zation. or Second Party reader. The Depart-
ment of Defense authorizes publication of
CRYPTOLOG for distribution within NSA/CSS and
Second Party agencies. The publication can be
read by anyone with a Top Secret Codeword
clearance, but we are not authorized to print
copies for general distribution to other U.S.
government agencies, including cooperating or
customer agencies of NSA/CSS.
Assuming that I'm authoriaed to get how
do I get a subscription t<J CRYPTOLOG? .
Matthew 7:7. (x564Zs; or PI, CRYPTOLOG.)
Jan 76 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 11
'fOP SH€RH'f UMBRA
Some years ago, a· Hollywood IIIOvie told the this time when we are still caught up. in"the.
story of how people and newspapers made a circus emotional bends of its aftermath. The intel-
of the unhappy situation of a coal miner trapped lectual tip-toeing that imaged through the les-
in a cave-in. The story was ballyhooed to the sons allegedly learned was also something less
point where there was widespread betting on when than admirable.
the man would be brought up, the noises from the .At that, he could rest his case feeling that
local brass band and improvised concession .he justifiably exercised his right to voice
stands competed with that from the opera- .his opinion in tKis, a vehicle designed for
tion itself, and a new song was heaDd across the such things.
land: "Oh Leo, We're Coming Closer."
But what about those long thoughts, the con-
Ironically, as the movie went, the event ul- victions formulated before, during, and after
timately came back to haunt everyone who for his the tragedy, and the basic reasons for this
own purposes sought to get as much mileage as he lashing out. Would that there were enough tiae
could out of it. The drilling effort was badly and space.
planned and executed. teo suffocated. And the
people were left with bitter loathings of their It is not always easy to discuss Vietnam in
own behavior and of the insensitive tactics of a totally dispassionate way. To remain silent,
the newspaper reporters. however, where one disagrees is an assent to
what was said. The recourse he has chosen is
Rightly or wrongly, fairly or unfairly, ac-
curately or inaccurately __ the October issue 0 to submit in a, few of. the.. many notes he
CRYPTOLOG with its theme on lessons learned fro' has recorded·on our SIGINT·invoivement in
the "Vietnam Experience" is what precipitated Vietnam, and about the way "October" came
recall of the Leo story. It ("October"), as across in that context.
expected, also triggered a whole range of long There is a time to laugh and there is a
thoughts about the Vietnam tragedy in general: time to cry. Now is the time for neither.
its place in historical perspective, the awesome The appearance of entertaining writing
gains the Communist camp achieved by it (Pueblo about the Vietnam experience in sedate
was a technological coup; Vietnam, a monstrous CRYPTOLOG in October 1975 is just as un-
extortion of human spirit, and an ideological palatable as the shocking breach of the
triumph); and the lingering concern about the NSA mission in vacuous PENTHOUSE. What
resolve in the free world, particularly in the we should be doing now is a post-mortem, a
U.S., to meet the next test which, if we are realistic, penetrating post-mortem (what
disposed to listen to Solzhenitsyn, may be ca- an apt term that is here) covering all
tastrophic and soon. aspects of the SIGINT story in Vietnam.
With that as openers, this taxpayer-cum- Then start looking ahead.
SIGINTer has already made his point. Rather
bluntly, true. But he had made it; namely, It is just as unrealistic to try to prolong
that "October" was unfortunate for its bad tim- the euphoria of self-satisfaction over our
ing and 1':1' taste. t\ll. SIGINT
cept forL_ tontTl:butJ.on;it:gave a ····questioffbutwhafsome of our finest work was
carnival avor coated with pompous technical . done there), it is to wallow in the bitter-
professionalism to a subject that should not ness of having watched million people
have been treated that way., At least not at . go under, despite those efforts. The
Jan 76 '* CRYPTOLOG ... Page 12
P. L. 86-36
SHURB'f IWIlLE 'lIA e8fIIlI'f' S111t1'UEhS er,ty
EO 1.4. (c)
P .1. 86-36
The memory of technical untidiness that de-
veloped as the result of ride-herd and one-
upmanship methods against them and between our-
selves, is still vivid. I
We should be preoccupied with things beyond
"mileage," and self-satisfaction over past
achievements. Why is it that our product had
such a low credibility in the eyes of the Am-
bassador in Saigon? Why did he keep backin2 a
loser in "communications decention"?fl
P.L. 86-36 One has considerable respect fori I
and his candid talk in the Friedman Auditorium
on how it was from his vantage point in those
final days, and his wariness of lessons-learned
seminars. In line with the point being made
herein, however, there is some persuasion that
his excellent presentation in "October" was
We can readily agree with him about the dedi-
cation and courage of the U.S. SIGINTers in
Vietnam. Being on the scene, and working di-
rectly with our coUnterparts, made it easy to
respect them. Maybe that's why during the
nightmare of the final hours, TAerl EOl1 . 4. (d)
haVing rowed out to an American ship at anch<a-.,L. 86- 3 6
reportedly saw fit to shout the title of this
agency, and the names of specific NSAers he had
worked with over the years. As far as we can
tell, he was picked up where evidently others
were not. Call it resourcefulness, if you want.
The writer, who hopes his name was included in
that plea, prefers to believe that this was
simply another reflection of good work done in
an area where lessons were learned well in ad-
character of "Vietnam SIGINT memoirs" is what
one finds objectionable. It is too soon for
that sort of thing. Better that "October's"
input had been given over to the NSA historian,
rather than to hear the cry "Leo is Dead, Long
Live His Biographers."
The most unfortunate revelation of "October,".
as reflected in the concluding paragraph of "The
Danang Processing Center," was that a very basic
lesson was not learned. It said:
Soon after ths u. s. mi U tary unthd:Joew from
Vietnam and the DGTS had assumed complete
responsibility for ths collection, analysis,
and reporting of SIGINT, it became appaz>ent
their. state-of-the-art lJ()uZd not advanae as
rapidly as bJe IJJClnted. The DGTS simply would
not be pushed faster than thsy wanted to go.
I feel thsre management and logistical prob-
lems and their lack of a true desire to
learn the produation and use of SIGINT con-
tributed to the overaZZ failure of the in-
dependent ARVN SIGINT effort.
The author's conclusions are respected as
the expression of his point of view. But,
therein lies the lesson, as this writer sees
it. Could it not have been that the South Viet-
namese were simply incapable of going at our
speed, and/or could it not have been that they
deliberately dragged their feet having the vi-
sion of our departure as the beginning of their
The Vietnamization Improvement and Moderni-
zation (VIM) Program was a noble, albeit a
late-starting.undertaking. Although much was
achieved by it, we all knew from the beginning
that it was fraught with uncertainties and
risks: the ARVN will to fight on, their ability
to absorb the thrust of our updating efforts,
and our own patience in seeing it through. We
pressed on anyway. Hurriedly. Hoping that it
would crystallize on time.
There again, in the view of this writer, is
where any moves to soothe the current compulsion
to catalog lessons learned should begin. The
mere fact that the I?!ogram was called "Vietnami-
zation," let alone the topic of acceleration,
must have had an immediate demoralizing affect
on our counterparts. Perhaps at the time we
were too long on expertise and somewhat short
on compassion. Hopefully, the word-makers have
had their day, and we will not have to cppe with
the indelicacies of any more "izations "
A lot of good it's
One is convinced that in the process of im- going to do after the cave-in happens,
parting our knOWledge to the DGTS, often to the to be able to we told you so!
point of causing them to gag, we let our sensi- The refrains of "OhLeo•.." from the Krem-
tivity slip away, little by little. A consider- lin are loud and clear days. The only
able amount can be, and undoubtedly will be difference is, there is no indication of any
written about our moving ahead to new objectives bad planning and execution on their part, Or
in the VIM program without adequately resolving that the time is right for their behavior to be
previous steps. coming back to haunt them.
Jan 76 * CRYPTOLOG * Page 13
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'f1l18 B9Cl-lMENT C9NTz\lN8 C99EW9RB MAT8RIAb
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