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Polya's First Principle: Understand the problem
Polya's Second Principle: Devise a plan
Polya's Third Principle: Carry out the plan
Polya's Fourth Principle: Look back

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In 1945 George Polya published the book How To Solve It which quickly became his most prized publication. It sold over one million copies and has been translated into 17 languages. In this book he identiﬁes four basic principles of problem solving. Polya’s First Principle: Understand the problem This seems so obvious that it is often not even mentioned, yet studens are often stymied in their eﬀorts to solve problems simply because they don’t understand it fully, or even in part. Polya taught teachers to ask students questions such as:

• Do you understand all the words used in stating the problem? • What are you asked to ﬁnd or show? • Can you restate the problem in your own words? • Can you think of a picture or diagram that might help you understand the problem? • Is there enough information to enable you to ﬁnd a solution?

Polya’s Second Principle: Devise a plan Polya mentions that there are many reasonable ways to solve problems. The skill at choosing an appropriate strategy is best learned by solving many problems. You will ﬁnd choosing a strategy increasingly easy. A partial list of strategies is included:

• • • • • • •

Guess and check Make an orderly list Eliminate possibilities Use symmetry Consider special cases Use direct reasoning Solve an equation

• • • • • • •

Look for a pattern Draw a picture Solve a simpler problem Use a model Work backwards Use a formula Be ingenious

1

what worked. 1957. Princeton University Press. even by professionals. Doing this will enable you to predict what strategy to use to solve future problems. in the master’s own words. This is taken from the book. Don’t be misled. given that you have the necessary skills. this is how mathematics is done. In general. How To Solve It. all you need is care and patience.. on strategies for attacking problems in mathematics class. here is a summary. Polya’s Fourth Principle: Look back Polya mentions that much can be gained by taking the time to reﬂect and look back at what you have done. If it continues not to work discard it and choose another. So starting on the next page. and what didn’t. by George Polya. 2nd ed. 2 . Persist with the plan that you have chosen. ISBN 0-691-08097-6.Polya’s Third Principle: Carry out the plan This step is usually easier than devising the plan.

how can it vary? Could you derive something useful from the data? Could you think of other data appropriate to determine the unknown? Could you change the unknown or data.1. • Have you seen it before? Or have you seen the same problem in a slightly diﬀerent form? • Do you know a related problem? Do you know a theorem that could be useful? • Look at the unknown! Try to think of a familiar problem having the same or a similar unknown. try to solve ﬁrst some related problem. • If you cannot solve the proposed problem. You may be obliged to consider auxiliary problems if an immediate connection cannot be found. so that the new unknown and the new data are nearer to each other? • Did you use all the data? Did you use the whole condition? Have you taken into account all essential notions involved in the problem? 3 . Introduce suitable notation. Could you imagine a more accessible related problem? A more general problem? A more special problem? An analogous problem? Could you solve a part of the problem? Keep only a part of the condition. You should obtain eventually a plan of the solution. • Separate the various parts of the condition. Could you use it? Could you use its result? Could you use its method? Should you introduce some auxiliary element in order to make its use possible? • Could you restate the problem? Could you restate it still diﬀerently? Go back to deﬁnitions. Find the connection between the data and the unknown. DEVISING A PLAN • Second. how far is the unknown then determined. • What is the unknown? What are the data? What is the condition? • Is it possible to satisfy the condition? Is the condition suﬃcient to determine the unknown? Or is it insuﬃcient? Or redundant? Or contradictory? • Draw a ﬁgure. • Here is a problem related to yours and solved before. You have to understand the problem. drop the other part. or both if necessary. UNDERSTAND THE PROBLEM • First. Can you write them down? 2.

3. check each step. • Carrying out your plan of the solution. • Can you check the result ? Can you check the argument? • Can you derive the solution diﬀerently? Can you see it at a glance? • Can you use the result. LOOKING BACK • Fourth. or the method. CARRYING OUT THE PLAN • Third. Carry out your plan. for some other problem? 4 . Examine the solution obtained. Can you see clearly that the step is correct? Can you prove that it is correct? 4.

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