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Internal commands are loaded with MS-DOS into system memory. They are contained with the command processor, COMMAND.COM. Internal commands can not be altered or deleted and do not appear in the listing of the MS-DOS directory. The following are some internal commands: CLS PATH PROMPT DATE TIME DEL REN TYPE COPY VER RD MD CD DIR VOL
External commands are contained with in individual files with extension of COM or EXE. These commands can be copied, renamed or deleted and appear in the listing of the MS-DOS directory. The following are some external commands: FORMAT UNFORMAT CHKDSK DISKCOPY DISKCOMP XCOPY UNDELETE MOVE PRINT TREE
F1 F2 F3 Ctrl + C Ctrl + M Ctrl + S Displays the previous command, one character at a time Displays all characters in the previous command up to the character that was entered after the F2 key is pressed. Display the previous command. Terminates/ cancels the current command. same as enter key, Pause Resets the computer.
Ctrl + Alt+ Del
WORKING WITH FILES Naming files
The name must be from one to eight characters in length and may have an extension of up to three characters. Do not use the following symbols in a file name: “/\|<>+=; , *? Use period to separate the name from the extension. You cannot use blank or spaces. Two files in the same directory cannot have the same name and extension.
The following rules apply to filename extension: Use a period followed by a maximum of three characters for the extension. Choose the characters for the extension from the same list of rules used for the file name. Do not use any spaces between the file name and the extension.
Using the ? Wildcard
You can use the ? character as a substitute for a single character position in a filename or extension. For example: DEL ?BC
Using the * Wildcard
MS-DOS recognizes the asterisk (*) character in a file name or extension as a substitute for any number of character positions. You can substitute an asterisk for one to eight character positions in the filename and one to the character positions in the extension. MS-DOS treats the asterisk as a series of question marks. For example: To delete all the files with an extension .DOC in the current directory, enter the following: DEL *.DOC
WORKING WITH DIRECTORIES Defining Directories:
The relationship of a MS-DOS directory to other MS-DOS directories is described by the following terms: root directory, subdirectory, current directory and parent directory.
The Root Directory (\) is the main directory on a disk. MS-DOS creates the Root Directory each time it format a disk. The Root Directory cannot be removed. The maximum number of entries in a root directory depends on the capacity of a diskette or hard drive. For example, the root directory on a formatted 1.44 MB diskette can contains up to 224 entries. The root directory on a hard drive can stores up to 512 entries.
All directories below the root directory are called subdirectories. Subdirectories can contain any number of files and other subdirectories. Some limiting factors are the amount of space available on the disk and the maximum number of characters (64) for a path.
The current directory is the directory in which you are currently working. For Example:
Windows is a current directory in above example.
The parent directory is one level above the current directory in the tree structure. For Example: C:\WINDOWS\MSOFFICE> WINDOWS is the parent directory of MS-OFFICE in the above path.
Create a Directory
To create a directory, use the MKDIR or MD command. C:\>MKDIR C:\ABC or C:\>MD C:\ABC
To work in other directory, use the CHDIR or CD command. C:\>CD C:\WINDOWS CD\ CD (Enter key) CD.. Change from C root directory to c:\windows Change from current directory to root directory Display current directory name Change from current directory to parent directory
Displaying contents of a directory DIR DIR/P DIR/W
Lists files and subdirectories in a directory. Lists files and subdirectories in a directory page wise. Lists files and subdirectories in a directory width wise.
Display files and Directories with the attributes you specify DIR/AH DIR/A-H DIR/AS DIR/A-S DIR/AD DIR/A-D DIR/AR DIR/A-R
Displays hidden files only Displays files that are not hidden Displays system files Displays files other than system files Displays directories Displays files only Displays read only Displays files those are not read only
Display files and Directories with the sort order DIR/ON DIR/O-N DIR/OE DIR/O-E DIR/OD DIR/O-D DIR/OS DIR/O-S DIR/OG DIR/O-G
Displays list by name in alphabetical order. Displays list by name in reverse alphabetical order. Displays list by extension in alphabetical order. Displays list by extension in reverse alphabetical order Displays list by time and date, earliest first. Displays list by time and date, latest first. Displays list by size, smallest first. Displays list by size, largest first. Displays grouped directories first then files Displays grouped files first then directories
To remove directory, use RMDIR or RD command. For Example: RD C:\ABC To remove the \ABC directory, you must remove first files and subdirectories in side the ABC. You cannot remove current directory. You must first change directory to at least one level above the directory you are removing. For Example: C:\MSWORD\LETTERS> C:\MSWORD\LETTERS>DEL *.* C:\MSWORD\LETTERS>CD.. C:\MSWORD\>RD LETTERS or C:\>RD C:|MSWORD\LETTERS
Using File Commands COPY
Copies one are more files to an other location. C:\>COPY C\WINDOWS\ABC.DOC C:\DCHS C:\>COPY *.TXT A:\
Copies files and directories. Syntax: XCOPY source destination /p/w/s/e P W S E Prompts you before copying each file. Prompts you to press a key before copying. Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones. Copies directories and subdirectories including empty ones.
Example: C:\>XCOPY C:\WINDOWS\*.* C:\ABC /P C:\>XCOPY C:\WINDOWS\C*.* A: /S
Deletes one or more files. DEL [drive:] [path] filename [/p] ERASE [drive:] [path] filename [/p] P Prompts for conformation before deleting each file. Examples: C:\>DEL C:\ABC\DCHS C:\>DEL A\*.* /p
Attempts to restore files previously deleted with the DEL or ERASE commands. UNDELETE [drive:][path] filename Example: C:\>UNDELETE C:\ABC\*.*
Displays the contents of a file. TYPE [drive:][path] filename Example: TYPE BOOKS.TXT Pausing the screen When you use the type command, information scrolls up the screen very quickly, press the Pause key or the Ctrl +NUM LOCK keys to suspend the display temporarily. When you are ready to see more data, press any key to continue the display. You can also use the MORE command to display one screen at a time. For Example: TYPE BOOKS.TXT |MORE
REN or RENAME
Renames a file. REN [drive:][path] filename1 filename2 Example: REN C:\ABC XYZ
To move one or more files from one location to an other. MOVE [drive:][path] filename destination To rename a directory. MOVE [drive:][path] dir1 dir2 Example 1: MOVE C:\ABC\*.* C:\XYZ Example 2: MOVE C:\ABC C:\XYZ
Prints text files on a printer PRINT [drive:][path] filename Example: PRINT C:\BOOKS.TXT
Disk Management Commands FORMAT
Formats a disk for use. FORMAT drive: [/parameters] Example: FORMAT A:/q Parameters: /Q performs a quick format. /V specifies the volume label /S copies system files to the formatted disk. /F:size specifies the size of the floppy disk to format (such as 160, 180, 320, 360,720, 1.2,1.44 and 2.88) /T:tracks /N:sectors /1 specifies the number of tracks per disk side. specifies the number of sectors per track. formats a single side of a floppy disk.
Attempts to restore files/directories to their condition prior to use the format command. UNFORMAT [drive:] Example: UNFORMAT A:
Checks a disk and displays status report. CHKDSK drive: Example: CHKDSK A:
Copies the contents of one disk to an other. The two floppy disks must be the same type. DISKCOPY [drive1: drive2:] Example: DISKCOPY A: A:
Compares the contents of two diskettes. DISKCOMP [drive1: drive2:] Example: DISKCOMP A: A:
Creates, changes or deletes the volume label of a disk. LABEL [drive:] Example: LABEL A:
PREPARED BY: HUSNAIN MASOOD Husnain41@gmail.com
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