The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Fables of Phædrus, by Phaedrus

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SMART R ILEY This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: The Fables of Phædrus Literally translated into English prose with notes Author: Phaedrus Translator: Henry Thomas Riley Christopher Smart Release Date: May 18, 2008 [EBook #25512] Language: English Character set encoding: UTF-8 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE FABLES OF PHÆDRUS ***

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This e-text includes characters that will only display in UTF-8 (Unicode) file encoding, including a few words of accented Greek: Œ, œ (“oe” ligature) Μωµεῖσθαι If any of these characters do not display properly, or if the apostrophes and quotation marks in this paragraph appear as garbage, you may have an incompatible browser or unavailable fonts. First, make sure that the browser’s “character set” or “file encoding” is set to Unicode (UTF-8). You may also need to change your browser’s default font. The text is taken from an omnibus volume that also contained Riley’s translation of the six surviving plays of Terence. The full title page has been retained for completeness, but the sections of the Preface and Contents that apply only to Terence have been omiĴed. Footnotes have been renumbered within each Book. Footnote tags that were missing in the original are underlined without further annotation. The name is spelled “Æsop” in Riley, “Esop” in Smart and in the Contents. Inconsistencies in fable numbering are described at the beginning of the Table of Contents. A few typographical errors have been corrected. They are marked in the

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T E R E N C E.






P R E FA C E .
IN the Translation of Phædrus, the Critical Edition by Orellius, 1831, has been used, and in the Æsopian Fables, the text of the Parisian Edition of Gail, 1826. The Notes will, it is believed, be found to embody the liĴle that is known of the contemporary history of the Author. H. T. R.

The Table of Contents refers primarily to the Riley text. Fables I.XXIX, III.III, and several Fables in Book IV are missing in Smart; Riley’s Fable IV.I, “The Ass and the Priests of Cybele”, is Smart’s III.XIX. Where Smart’s numbers are different, they are shown with popups. In the text, Book III, Fable XI is “The Eunuch to the Abusive Man”; all following fables in Riley are numbered one higher than in the Table of Contents. This fable is missing from Smart but the number X is skipped, as was number I.XVIII.


BOOK I. Prose. Prologue Fable I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX. The Wolf and the Lamb The Frogs asking for a King The vain Jackdaw and the Peacock The Dog carrying some Meat across a River The Cow, the She-Goat, the Sheep, and the Lion The Frogs’ complaint against the Sun The Fox and the Tragic Mask The Wolf and the Crane The Sparrow and the Hare The Wolf, the Fox, and the Ape The Ass and the Lion hunting The Stag at the Stream The Fox and the Raven The Cobbler turned Physician The Ass and the Old Shepherd The Stag, the Sheep, and the Wolf The Sheep, the Dog, and the Wolf The Woman in Labour The Bitch and her Whelps The hungry Dogs 365 365 366 367 368 368 369 369 370 370 371 371 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 376 Verse. 473 473 474 475 476 476 476 477 477 478 478 478 479 480 480 481 481 482 — 482 483

The aged Lion. to Eutychus Fable I. XXVIII. VII. VIII. and the Vulture The Fox and the Eagle The Ass deriding the Boar The Frogs frightened at the BaĴle of the Bulls The Kite and the Pigeons BOOK II. and the Sow Cæsar to the Chamberlain The Eagle. The Old Woman and the Cask The Panther and Shepherd Esop and the Farmer The Butcher and the Ape Esop and the Insolent Man The Fly and the Mule The Dog and the Wolf The Brother and Sister Socrates to his Friends 390 393 394 395 395 395 396 397 398 398 497 498 498 — 499 499 499 500 501 502 . Prologue 376 376 377 378 377 378 379 380 380 380 381 483 483 484 484 485 485 486 486 — 487 487 382 383 383 384 384 385 386 387 387 388 BOOK III. XXVI. IV. III. the Robber. the Bull. II. XXVII. 488 488 489 489 490 491 492 492 493 494 Fable I. and the Tortoise The Mules and Robbers The Stag and the Oxen Epilogue Prologue. II. the Treasure.XXI. and the Ass The Man and the Weasel The Faithful Dog The Frog and the Ox The Dog and the Crocodile The Fox and the Stork The Dog. V. XXIX. III. XXX. VII. XXII. VI. VI. VIII. V. the Crow. the Cat. The Lion. XXXI. IV. the Wild Boar. XXIII. and the Traveller Two Women of different Ages beloved by the Middle-aged Man The Man and the Dog The Eagle. IX. XXIV. XXV.

XIV. XIX. XX. III. XXI. II.X. XIII. IV. XVIII. VI. XI. XVIII. The Poet on Believing and not Believing The Eunuch to the Abusive Man The Cock and the Pearl The Bees and the Drones. Prologue 399 401 401 402 402 403 404 405 405 406 407 502 — 504 505 505 506 507 508 509 509 — 409 410 411 411 411 412 413 414 415 415 416 416 417 417 418 418 419 419 420 421 422 422 510 509 510 511 511 512 514 514 515 516 516 517 517 — — 518 518 — 519 519 520 520 Fable I. XI. X. The Ass and the Priests of Cybele The Weasel and the Mice The Fox and the Grapes The Horse and the Wild Boar Esop interpreting a Will The BaĴle of the Mice and the Weasels The Poet’s Defence against the Censurers of his Fables The Viper and the File The Fox and the Goat Of the Vices of Men A Thief pillaging the Altar of Jupiter Hercules and Plutus The Lion reigning Prometheus The She-Goats and their Beards The Pilot and the Mariners The Embassy of the Dogs to Jupiter The Man and the Snake The Fox and the Dragon Phædrus The Shipwreck of Simonides . XV. V. XIII. XIV. XII. XVI. XV. VIII. XVII. VII. XII. XVI. XI. the Wasp siĴing as judge Esop at play The Dog to the Lamb The Grasshopper and the Owl The Trees under the Protection of the Gods The Peacock to Juno Esop’s Answer to the Inquisitive Man Epilogue BOOK IV. XVII. IX.

XII. V.XXII. and the Hen The Father of a Family and Æsop The Philosopher and the Victor in the Gymnastic Games The Ass and the Lyre The Widow and the Soldier The Rich Suitor and the Poor One Æsop and his Mistress 435 436 436 437 438 438 439 439 440 441 442 442 443 443 444 445 . Demetrius and Menander The Travellers and the Robber The Bald Man and the Fly The Man and the Ass The Buffoon and Countryman The Two Bald Men Princeps the Flute Player The Emblem of Opportunity The Bull and the Calf The Huntsman and the Dog THE NEW FABLES—ATTRIBUTED TO PHÆDRUS. XVI. XXIV. The Mountain in Labour The Ant and the Fly Simonides preserved by the Gods Epilogue BOOK V. XIII. IX. III. Venus. VII. V. Fable I. Prologue 423 424 425 426 522 522 523 524 427 427 428 429 429 429 431 431 433 433 433 526 527 528 529 529 530 532 532 534 534 535 Fable I. IV. VIII. VII. X. X. II. IV. XV. IX. III. VI. VIII. XIV. XXIII. VI. XI. II. The Ape and the Fox The Author Mercury and the two Women Prometheus and Cunning The Author The signification of the Punishments of Tartarus The Author Æsop and the Author Pompeius Magnus and his Soldier Juno.

the Ox. III. V. The Sick Kite The Hares tired of Life Jupiter and the Fox The Lion and the Mouse The Man and the Trees The Mouse and the Frog The Two Cocks and the Hawk The Snail and the Ape The City Mouse and the Country Mouse The Ass fawning upon his Master The Crane. XI. XXIX. IV. the Beasts. XXVII. XXX. XX. XXVIII.XVII. XVI. XV. VI. XVIII. XXV. VII. XIII. ÆSOPIAN FABLES—THE AUTHORS OF WHICH ARE NOT Fable I. XVIII. the Crow. XIX. XXIII. X. XII. XXIV. XXI. and the Countryman The Birds and the Swallow The Partridge and the Fox The Ass. II. XXVI. and the Birds The Lion and the Shepherd The Goat and the Bull The Horse and the Ass The Birds. XXXI. XIV. XVII. A Cock carried in a LiĴer by Cats The Sow bringing forth and the Wolf The Runaway Slave and Æsop The Chariot Horse sold for the Mill The Hungry Bear The Traveller and the Raven The Shepherd and the She-Goat The Serpent and the Lizard The Crow and the Sheep The Servant and the Master The Hare and the Herdsman The Young Man and the Courtesan The Beaver The BuĴerfly and the Wasp The Ground-Swallow and the Fox Epilogue 446 446 447 447 448 449 449 449 450 450 450 451 451 452 453 453 KNOWN. and the Bat 454 454 455 455 456 456 456 457 457 458 459 459 460 461 461 462 462 463 . IX. VIII. XXII.

the Hawk. and the Hawk The Sheep and the Crow The Ant and the Grasshopper The Horse and the Ass The Old Lion and the Fox The Camel and the Flea The Kid and the Wolf The Poor Man and the Serpent The Eagle and the Kite 463 464 464 465 465 466 467 467 468 468 469 469 469 470 470 471 THE FABLES OF PHÆDRUS. and by counsel guides the life of man. XXII. THE maĴer which Æsop. because not only wild beasts. the Huntsman. XXIV. the Fox. and the Fowler The Wolf. XXVII. has provided. The advantages of this liĴle work are twofold—that it excites laughter. XXXIV. The Nightingale. XXI. BOOK I. THE PROLOGUE.XIX. the inventor of Fables. but even trees speak. But if any one shall think fit to cavil. XXXII. XXVI. FABLE I. I have polished in Iambic verse. XXXI. and the Apes The Man and the Lion The Stork. and the Shepherd The Truthful Man. XXX. . XX. XXXIII. and the Shepherd The Sheep and the Wolves The Ape and the Fox The Wolf. XXIX. the Goose. XXV. THE WOLF AND THE LAMB. XXIII. XXVIII. the Liar. let him remember that we are disporting in fables.

” and so. under false pretences.2 seized the citadel. This Fable is applicable to those men who.” said Æsop. because the one that had been given them was useless.Driven by thirst. The Father of the Gods smiled. the partisans of factions conspiring. and having taken a peep at the king. THE FROGS ASKING FOR A KING. therefore. he tore him to pieces. Then said the God in reply: ‘Since you would not be content with your good fortune. Upon this. might check their dissolute manners.3 who with his sharp teeth began to gobble them up one aĞer another. When Athens I. “submit to the present evil. That one ought not to plume oneself on the merits which belong to another. FABLE II. lest a greater one befall you. oppress the innocent. Helpless they strive in vain to escape death. Pisistratus the Tyrant I. prompted by a ravenous maw.” The other.’” “Do you also. and license relaxed the reins of ancient discipline. Then. continue to endure your bad fortune. but ought rather to pass his life in his own proper guise. terror deprives them of voice. and began to complain. but because every burden is grievous to those who are unused to it). with loud clamour demanded of Jupiter a king. requesting another king. trembling.” FABLE III. exclaimed : “Six months ago. When the Athenians were lamenting their sad servitude (not that he was cruel. disconcerted by the force of truth. vying with each other. the spoiler. and gave them a liĴle Log. who. “I was not born then. snatching him up. which. “have you made the water muddy for me while I am drinking?” The Fleece-bearer. Having got the beĴer of their fears. he sent them a Water Snake. Upon this. Æsop related a Fable to the following effect:— “The Frogs.” “By Hercules. By stealth. how can I do what you complain of? The water is flowing downwards from you to where I am drinking. on being thrown among them startled the timorous race by the noise and sudden commotion in the bog. a Wolf and a Lamb had come to the same stream. and the Lamb at a distance below. you slandered me. roaming at large in their marshy fens. O fellow-citizens. answered : “Prithee. THE VAIN JACKDAW AND THE PEACOCK. “Why. called up all the rest. Wolf. one of them by chance silently liĞed his head above the water. by his authority. to succour them in their distress.” answered the Lamb.” said the Wolf.” “Indeed. they swim towards him. When it had lain for some time immersed in the mud. liberty grown wanton embroiled the city. “then ’twas your father slandered me. they send through Mercury a request to Jupiter. and the insolent mob leap upon the Log. AĞer defiling it with every kind of insult.1 was flourishing under just laws. the Wolf stood above. Æsop has given us this illustration:— .” said he. killing him unjustly. I. alleged a pretext for a quarrel. they sent to Jupiter.

An alliance with the powerful is never to be relied upon: the present Fable testifies the truth of my maxim. Disturbed by their croakings. thinking that it was another booty carried by another dog. Jupiter asked the cause of their complaints. he saw his own shadow in the watery mirror. Æsop. woe betide him. and decked himself out therewith.” FABLE IV. and had been ready to put up with what nature had given. and put him to flight with their beaks. As a Dog.” Thus did unscrupulousness seize upon the whole prey for itself. nor would your ill fortune have had to feel the additional pang of this repulse. THE FROGS’ COMPLAINT AGAINST THE SUN. the second you will yield to me because I am courageous. When they had captured a Stag of vast bulk. he had to submit to sad disgrace. and compels us unfortunates to languish and die in our scorched abode.5 through a river. I. because I am the strongest. but his greediness was disappointed. thus spoke the Lion. FABLE VI. if anyone touches the fourth. They tore his feathers from off the impudent bird. in grief hastened to return to his own kind. picked up some feathers which had fallen from a Peacock. What is to become of us. by himself he parches up all the standing waters. THE SHEEP.A Jackdaw.4 with empty pride. he both dropped the food which he was holding in his mouth. immediately began to relate the following story: Once on a time. when the Sun was thinking of taking a wife. thus roughly handled. aĴempted to snatch it away. deservedly loses his own. a She-Goat. swelling I. AND THE LION. then. upon which. I take the first. swimming I. The Jackdaw. He who covets what belongs to another. THE SHE-GOAT. was carrying a piece of meat. THE DOG CARRYING SOME MEAT ACROSS A RIVER. and. and was aĞer all unable to reach that at which he grasped. A Cow.7 the third will fall to my lot. Then said one of those whom he had formerly despised: “If you had been content with our station. you would neither have experienced the former affront. he mingled with a beauteous flock of Peacocks. were partners in the forests with a Lion. aĞer it had been divided into shares: “Because my name is Lion. Then said one of the inhabitants of the pool: “As it is. despising his own kind . THE COW. and a Sheep I. if he beget . on seeing the pompous wedding of a thief. repulsed by whom.8 the Frogs sent forth their clamour to the stars. who was his neighbour. I. FABLE V.6 patient under injuries.

still it has no brains. THE WOLF AND THE CRANE. “is that fleetness for which you are so remarkable? Why were your feet thus tardy?” While he was speaking.10 of ourselves. a Crane was prevailed on. with danger to herself. “great as is its beauty.” said she. exclaimed : “You. and then to ask for a reward. in a few lines.” FABLE X. he began to tempt all and sundry by great rewards to extract the cause of misery.” FABLE IX.” said he. have now to deplore your own fate with as woful cause. A bone that he had swallowed stuck in the jaws of a Wolf. who so lately. on his taking an oath. THE FOX AND THE TRAGIC MASK. she wrought. THE WOLF. A Fox.9 This is meant for those to whom fortune has granted honor and renown. The Hare. by chance. almost dead. and. To this. He who expects a recompense for his services from the dishonest commits a twofold mistake. Thereupon.” replied the Wolf. a cure for the Wolf. overcome by extreme pain. a short Fable of Æsop bears witness. When she demanded the promised reward for this service .” I. “You are an ungrateful one. gains no belief. A Sparrow upbraided a Hare that had been pounced upon by an Eagle. shrieking aloud with vain complaints. FABLE VIII.children?” FABLE VII. first. that it is unwise to be heedless I. THE SPARROW AND THE HARE. a Hawk seizes him unawares. trusting the length of her neck to his throat. because he cannot be gone while he is yet safe. “Where now. because he assists the undeserving. AND THE APE. casting his eyes on a Tragic Mask: “Ah. Let us show. THE FOX. free from care. as a consolation in his agony. and in the next place. and kills him. and was sending forth piercing cries. At length. while we are giving advice to others. . leaving them void of common sense. “to have taken your head in safety out of my mouth. Whoever has once become notorious by base fraud. were ridiculing my misfortunes. even if he speaks the truth.

in which. he is said to have uĴered these words: “Oh. concealed him in a thicket. As a Raven. and finding fault with the extreme thinness of his legs. Then a wood received the beast. while he himself was to catch them as they fled. I believe that you. he took to flight over the plain. I. in admiration. THE STAG AT THE STREAM. stood still.A Wolf indicted a Fox upon a charge of theĞ. stolen from .” FABLE XI. but is the jest of all who know him. the Ape is said to have pronounced this sentence: “You. being entangled and caught by his horns. was about to eat a piece of cheese. they are flying to the well-known outlets. While dying. they are overpowered by the dread onset of the Lion. and terrified the beasts with this new cause of astonishment.12 While. suddenly roused by the cries of the huntsmen. have caused me. and bade him cease his clamour. the dogs began to tear him to pieces with savage bites. to which they were unused. “so much so. with all his might. and what sorrow the things I used to praise. Long-ears. This story shows that what you contemn is oĞen found of more utility than what you load with praises.11 imposes upon strangers. in their alarm. and is devoid of courage. I should have fled in alarm like the rest. THE ASS AND THE LION HUNTING. THE FOX AND THE RAVEN. inquired : “What think you of the assistance given by my voice?” “Excellent!” said the Lion. Upon this. who now too late find out how useful to me were the things that I despised. suddenly raised a cry.” FABLE XII. generally pays the ignominious penalty of a late repentance. called forth the Ass from his retreat. Fox. in his insolence. Upon this. A dastard. and with nimble course escaped the dogs. appear not to have lost what you demand. On this the other. the Ape sat as judge between them. that if I had not been acquainted with your spirit and your race. He who is delighted at being flaĴered with artful words. Wolf. While there. who.” FABLE XIII. I. who in his talk brags of his prowess. A Stag. the laĴer denied that she was amenable to the charge. and gazed upon his likeness in the water. have stolen what you so speciously deny. and when each of them had pleaded his cause. aĞer he was wearied with slaughter. A Lion having resolved to hunt in company with an Ass. when he had drunk at a stream. he was praising his branching horns. perched in a loĞy tree. how unhappy am I. and at the same time enjoined him to frighten the wild beasts with his voice.

aĴempting to show off his voice. who lay ill. and how wisdom is always an overmatch for strength. no bird whatever would be superior to you. heaved a biĴer sigh. in consideration of a stated reward. having begun to practise physic in a strange place. when you do not hesitate to trust your lives I.” On this.14 it is shown. let fall the cheese from his mouth. By this story I. But he leisurely replied: “Pray. thus remarked: “What think you of the extent of your madness. broken down by want. the King of the city. thus. FABLE XIV. In a change of government. THE STAG. FABLE XV. I should say with good reason. what a glossiness there is upon those feathers of yours! What grace you carry in your shape and air! If you had a voice. When a rogue offers his name as surety in a doubtful case. too late. That this is the fact this liĴle Fable shows. gained some reputation for himself by his delusive speeches. Upon this. do you suppose that the conqueror will place double panniers upon me?” The Old Man said. he had gained his reputation. in his folly. but is looking to mischief. and thereupon began thus to speak: “O Raven. which the craĞy Fox with greedy teeth instantly snatched up.16 to one to whom no one would trust his feet to be fiĴed with shoes?” This. I. having summoned a council. and then pouring water into it. the poor change nothing beyond the name of their master.” “Then what maĴers it to me. but through the stupidity of the public. so long as I have to carry my panniers. asked for a cup. he tried to persuade the Ass to fly. Then. ordered him to drink it off. being afflicted with a severe malady. and pretending that he was mixing poison with the fellow’s antidote. THE ASS AND THE OLD SHEPHERD.a window. while. the Raven. A timorous Old Man was feeding an Ass in a meadow. Through fear of death. “No. the cobbler then confessed that not by any skill in the medical art. lest they should be taken prisoners. whom I serve?” FABLE XVI. THE COBBLER TURNED PHYSICIAN. how much ingenuity avails. . in his stupidity overreached.15 under a feigned name. he has no design to act straight-forwardly. and selling his antidote I. the other. The King. for the purpose of trying him.13 a Fox espied him. AND THE WOLF. A bungling Cobbler. Frightened by a sudden alarm of the enemy. THE SHEEP. is aimed at those through whose folly impudence makes a profit.

a Wolf being his surety. THE HUNGRY DOGS. “This. on the other asking for her place back again.19 pay the penalty of their guilt. the Sheep had to pay what she did not owe.” FABLE XX. summoned as a witness. earnestly begging for a short time. you. An ill-judged project is not only without effect. but also lures mortals to their destruction. A Dog. AĞerwards. . having demanded of a Sheep a loaf of bread. easily obtained the favour. “is the reward of villany. and the subjoined lines warn us to shun them.” FABLE XIX. a Wolf. “that my pains can end in the place where they originated. Condemned on false testimony. suspecting fraud. THE SHEEP. the Sheep saw the Wolf lying in a pit.17 of wheat.21 having entreated another that she might give birth to her offspring in her kennel. who was a false accuser. Her Husband entreated her to lay her body on the bed.” said she. I. however. uĴering woful moans. ready to whelp.A Stag asked a Sheep for a measure I. I will depart from the place. A few days aĞer. until she might be enabled to lead forth her whelps when they had gained sufficient strength. replied : “The Wolf has always been in the habit of plundering and absconding.” FABLE XVIII. I. affirmed that not only one was owing but ten. the other began more urgently to press for her abode: “If” said the tenant. sent by the Gods. The fair words of a wicked man are fraught with treachery.18 FABLE XVII. Her months completed. where she might with more ease deposit her ripe burden.” said she. This time being also expired. A Bitch. THE BITCH AND HER WHELPS. “I feel far from confident. “you can be a match for me and my liĴer. No one returns with good will to the place which has done him a mischief. Liars generally I. she renewed her entreaties. which he affirmed he had entrusted to her charge. of rushing out of sight with rapid flight: where am I to look for you both when the day comes?” I. THE DOG. AND THE WOLF. The other.20 a Woman in labour lay upon the ground. THE WOMAN IN LABOUR.

22 and with a blow revenged an old affront. Those persons ought to recognize this as applicable to themselves. to try whether he could be gained by the proffered victuals: “Hark you. they burst. The man who becomes liberal all of a sudden. and who boast to the unthinking of an unreal merit. gratifies the foolish. But. with flashing tusks. THE FAITHFUL DOG. On this. for ’tis I who keep your house clear of troublesome mice. lay drawing his last breath.” FABLE XXII. and I should have granted you the pardon you entreat. he said : “I have borne. that you may not profit by my neglect. and deserted by his strength. on seeing the wild beast maltreated with impunity. tore up his forehead with his heels. but in being inevitably forced to bear with you.” The Man made answer: “If you did so for my sake. “do you think to stop my tongue so that I may not bark for my master’s property? You are greatly mistaken. it would be a reason for thanking you.” and so saying. expiring. disgrace to nature! I seem to die a double death. worn out with years. on being caught by a Man. As a Lion. but for the wary spreads his toils in vain.” said the Dog. FABLE XXIII. don’t think of placing your pretended services to my account. AND THE ASS. In order that they might more easily get it out and devour it. A Weasel. “do spare me. A Thief one night threw a crust of bread to a Dog. with indignation. THE MAN AND THE WEASEL. is in his calamity the buĴ even of cowards. THE AGED LION. I. An Ass. and perished before they could reach what they sought. he put the wicked creature to death. a Wild Boar came up to him. with hostile horns. inasmuch as you do your best that you may enjoy the scraps which they would have gnawed. Next. THE WILD BOAR. THE BULL. the insults of the brave. whose object is private advantage. FABLE XXI. however. and devour the mice as well.Some Dogs espied a raw hide sunk in a river.” said she. a Bull pierced the body of his foe. wishing to escape impending death: “Pray. Whoever has fallen from a previous high estate. For this sudden liberality bids me be on the watch.” . they fell to drinking up the water.

The needy man, while affecting to imitate the powerful, comes to ruin. Once on a time, a Frog espied an Ox in a meadow, and moved with envy at his vast bulk, puffed out her wrinkled skin, and then asked her young ones whether she was bigger than the Ox. They said “No.” Again, with still greater efforts, she distended her skin, and in like manner enquired which was the bigger: I.23 they said: “The Ox.” At last, while, full of indignation, she tried, with all her might, to puff herself out, she burst her body on the spot.

Those who give bad advice to discreet persons, both lose their pains, and are laughed to scorn. It has been related, I.24 that Dogs drink at the river Nile running along, that they may not be seized by the Crocodiles. Accordingly, a Dog having begun to drink while running along, a Crocodile thus addressed him: “Lap as leisurely as you like; drink on; come nearer, and don’t be afraid,” said he. The other replied : “Egad, I would do so with all my heart, did I not know that you are eager for my flesh.”

Harm should be done to no man; but if any one do an injury, this Fable shows that he may be visited with a like return. A Fox is said to have given a Stork the first invitation to a banquet, and to have placed before her some thin broth in a flat dish, of which the hungry Stork could in no way get a taste. Having invited the Fox in return, she set before him a narrowmouthed jar, I.25 full of minced meat: I.26 and, thrusting her beak into it, satisfied herself, while she tormented her guest with hunger; who, aĞer having in vain licked the neck of the jar, as we have heard, thus addressed the foreign bird: I.27 “Every one is bound to bear patiently the results of his own example.”

This Fable may be applied to the avaricious, and to those, who, born to a humble lot, affect to be called rich. Grubbing up human bones, I.28 a Dog met with a Treasure; and, because he had offended the Gods the Manes, I.29 a desire for riches was inspired in him, that so he might pay the penalty due to the holy character of the place. Accordingly, while

he was watching over the gold, forgetful of food, he was starved to death; on which a Vulture, standing over him, is reported to have said: “O Dog, you justly meet your death, who, begoĴen at a cross-road, and bred up on a dunghill, have suddenly coveted regal wealth.”

Men, however high in station, ought to be on their guard against the lowly; because, to ready address, revenge lies near at hand. An Eagle one day carried off the whelps of a Fox, and placed them in her nest before her young ones, for them to tear in pieces as food. The mother, following her, began to entreat that she would not cause such sorrow to her miserable suppliant. The other despised her, as being safe in the very situation of the spot. The Fox snatched from an altar a burning torch, and surrounded the whole tree with flames, intending to mingle anguish to her foe with the loss of her offspring. The Eagle, that she might rescue her young ones from the peril of death, in a suppliant manner restored to the Fox her whelps in safety.

Fools oĞen, while trying to raise a silly laugh, provoke others by gross affronts, and cause serious danger to themselves. An Ass meeting a Boar: “Good morrow to you, brother,” says he. The other indignantly rejects the salutation, and enquires why he thinks proper to uĴer such an untruth. The Ass, with legs I.30 crouching down, replies: “If you deny that you are like me, at all events I have something very like your snout.” The Boar, just on the point of making a fierce aĴack, suppressed his rage, and said : “Revenge were easy for me, but I decline to be defiled with such dastardly blood.”

When the powerful I.31 are at variance, the lowly are the sufferers. A Frog, viewing from a marsh, a combat of some Bulls: “Alas!” said she, “what terrible destruction is threatening us.” Being asked by another why she said so, as the Bulls were contending for the sovereignty of the herd, and passed their lives afar from them: “Their habitation is at a distance,” said she, “and they are of a different kind; still, he who is expelled from the sovereignty of the meadow, will take to flight, and come to the secret hiding-places in the fens, and trample and crush us with his hard hoof. Thus does their fury concern our safety.”

He who entrusts himself to the protection of a wicked man, while he seeks assistance, meets with destruction. Some Pigeons, having oĞen escaped from a Kite, and by their swiĞness of wing avoided death, the spoiler had recourse to stratagem, and by a craĞy device of this nature, deceived the harmless race. “Why do you prefer to live a life of anxiety, rather than conclude a treaty, and make me your king, who can ensure your safety from every injury?” They, puĴing confidence in him, entrusted themselves to the Kite, who, on obtaining the sovereignty, began to devour them one by one, and to exercise authority with his cruel talons. Then said one of those that were leĞ: “Deservedly are we smiĴen.”

1. When Athens)—Ver. 1. This probably alludes to the government of Solon, when Archon of Athens. 2. Pisistratus the Tyrant)—Ver. 5. From Suidas and Eusebius we learn that Æsop died in the fiĞy-fourth Olympiad, while Pisistratus did not seize the supreme power at Athens till the first year of the fiĞy-fiĞh. These dates, however, have been disputed by many, and partly on the strength of the present passage. 3. A Water-Snake)—Ver. 24. Pliny tells us that the “hydrus” lives in the water, and is exceedingly venomous. Some Commentators think that Phædrus, like Æsop, intends to conceal a political meaning under this Fable, and that by the Water-Snake he means Caligula, and by the Log, Tiberius. Others, perhaps with more probability, think that the cruelty of Tiberius alone is alluded to in the mention of the snake. Indeed, it is doubtful whether Phædrus survived to the time of Caligula: and it is more generally believed that the First and Second Books were wriĴen in the time of Augustus and Tiberius. 4. A Jackdaw, swelling )—Ver. 4. Scheffer thinks that Sejanus is alluded to under this image. 5. As a Dog swimming )—Ver. 9. Lessing finds some fault with the way in which this Fable is related, and with fair reason. The Dog swimming would be likely to disturb the water to such a degree, that it would be impossible for him to see with any distinctness the reflection of the meat. The version which represents him as crossing a bridge is certainly more consistent with nature. 6. And a Sheep)—Ver. 3. Lessing also censures this Fable on the ground of the partnership being contrary to nature; neither the cow, the goat, nor the sheep feed on flesh. 7. I am the strongest)—Ver. 9. Some critics profess to see no difference between “sum fortis” in the eighth line, and “plus valeo” here; but the former expression appears to refer to his courage, and the laĴer to his strength. However, the second and third reasons are nothing but

3. we must bear in mind that the ancient masks covered the whole head. Tiberius will be meant. Taking a wife)—Ver. as a patron to his client. and the wife of her first-cousin. meaning to give advice to a person by way of assistance or precaution.” but “the head. the minister and favourite of Tiberius. we must suppose that the Cobbler confessed to the King his former calling. Day comes)—Ver. consequently. there is. under another form. It is supposed by some that this Fable is . with the infamous Sejanus.reiterations of the first one. In such case.” mentioned in the next line. Never having heard the voice of an ass in the forests before. This new cause of astonishment)—Ver. From a window)—Ver. To make the sense of this remark of the Fox the more intelligible. removed her husband by poison. Liars generally )—Ver. who had greatly oppressed them. 8. 14. with great probability. It was equal to one-third of the amphora. the Frogs will represent the Roman people. that Phædrus had here in mind those braggart warriors. Trust your lives)—Ver. the Sun Sejanus. Davidson remarks on this passage: “I am not certain that the Poet meant any distinction. Devoid of courage)—Ver. and sometimes extended down to the shoulders. 13. 13. to represent more strongly by what unjust claims men in power oĞen invade the property of another. It has been suggested by Brotier and Desbillons. By this story )—Ver. 11. 17. Properly “modius. Heinsius thinks this line and the next to be spurious. and many others of the learned. 15. the daughter of the elder Drusus and Antonia. 10. Sanadon. he seldom does so at the end. “Cavere” is a word of legal signification.” the principal dry measure of the Romans. He seems to pun upon the word “capita.” a law term. nay. 6. because. In this conjecture he is followed by Bentley.” as meaning not only “the life. and therefore to nearly two gallons English. 12. aĞer having. Has no brains)—Ver. their resemblance to the human head was much more striking than in the masks of the present day. perhaps. 1. with his assistance. though Phædrus sometimes at the beginning mentions the design of his Fable. under the characters of Pyrgopolynices and Thraso. Selling his antidote)—Ver. Burmann suggests that the window of a house in which articles of food were exposed for sale.” 19. 1. 2 we find that he came to a place where he was not known. that in this Fable Phædrus covertly alludes to the marriage which was contemplated by Livia. 9. and by Jupiter. a propriety in supposing that he industriously makes the Lion plead twice upon the same title. As in l. the younger Drusus. 3. as well as neutralizing the effects of poison.” 8. “Quum dies adveniat. or Livilla. For a measure)—Ver. is probably meant. signifying “when the day of payment comes. 1. capable of curing all natural diseases. who have been so well described by Plautus and Terence. 3. 3. 18. 2. “Antidotum” probably means a universal remedy. 16.” in contradistinction to “the feet. Burmann suggests. 15. To be heedless)—Ver.

The foreign bird)—Ver. in his Natural History.” Macrobius. which at length was practised to such an excess. as the dogs do the Nile. 28. 8. 26. garlic. I. of burying golden ornaments. and much used for keeping wine or fruit.” 25. Illi dixerunt Bovem. c. signifying to do it superficially. 1. It was probably practised to a great extent by the people of Etruria. corresponding with our homely saying. or the fact of her being especially a native of Egypt. that at Rome the custom was forbidden by law. 3. “Intritus cibus. 5. signifying thereby that the natives would be quickly dispossessed by the newcomers. Perhaps by “Deos Manes” are meant the good and bad Genii of the deceased. mentions a story. This line is somewhat modified in the translation. but as a true narrative. probably by reason of their sharpness and the impetuosity of the blow inflicted thereby.” . “Quicquid delirant reges.” Bentley censures this line. 30. 7. 21. B.. in the Saturnalia. The ass. cheese. Her months completed)—Ver. 3. i. to the tusks of the wild boar. if we may judge from the discoveries of golden ornaments frequently made in their tombs. 7. 4. 3. The “lagena. when enquiry was made as to what had become of Antony.” was a common proverb with the ancients.C. c. as being related by a Ligurian to Comanus. Scheffer suggests that they were so called from their white appearance among the black hair of the boar’s head. with legs)—Ver. Human bones)—Ver. one of his servants made answer: “He has done what the dogs do in Egypt. “Quis major esset. Pliny. who had granted (about B. In good Latin. Of minced meat)—Ver.” and “bovem” would be replaced by “bos. mentions this Fable with some liĴle variation. made of earth. Justin. Which was the bigger)—Ver. It has been related)—Ver. consisting of bread soaked in milk. “To give it a lick and a promise. and other herbs. “Fulmineus. 540) some land to the Phocæans for the foundation of the city of Massilia.” “lightning-like. in his Various and Natural Histories. When the powerful)—Ver.” or “lagona. he drank and ran away. relate the same fact as to the dogs drinking of the Nile. 11.” is thought here to signify a peculiar dish. 20.” was a long-necked boĴle or flagon. 31. not as a Fable. Narrow-mouthed jar)—Ver. the son of King Nannus. 3. with the dead. Ready to whelp)—Ver. he says “uter” would occupy the place of “quis.” is an epithet given by Ovid and Statius also. 2.” 24. This plainly refers to the custom which prevailed among the ancients. c. B. Alluding probably to the migratory habits of the stork. 8. Plutarch relates this. and thinks it spurious. This is similar to the line of Horace. 22. viii. and even money.levelled against the informers who infested Rome in the days of Tiberius. With flashing tusks)—Ver. 2. 27. 23. Gods the Manes)—Ver. 29. plectuntur Achivi. and Ælian. 40. “To treat a thing. B. that aĞer the defeat at Mutina.

THE TWO WOMEN OF DIFFERENT AGES BELOVED BY THE MIDDLE-AGED MAN. I trust. too. By chance. boldly take the share which is due to your modesty. Whatever the playful invention. retraced his steps.4 of my own. held enthralled a certain Man of middle age. and worthy of all praise. not devoid of grace. Reader. FABLE I. not by the Author’s name. he sought the woods.” said the Lion.2 exert itself. it is recommended by its merits. That the men. While he imagined that he was made trim by the care of the women. and on seeing the wild beast.6 concealing her years by the arts of the toilet: a lovely Young creature. THE plan of Æsop is confined to instruction by examples. A very excellent example. he suddenly found himself bald. A Woman. and demanded a share. “I would give it you. whether they love or are beloved. II. Both. are preyed upon by the women. I will with all care follow the method of the sage. the Old Woman the black ones. each in her turn. II. began. so long as it pleases the ear. but covetousness is rich and modesty in want. “were you not in the habit of taking without leave. that my praises may not be verbose. to pluck out the hair of the Man.” Then having divided the carcase. under all circumstances. a Robber came up.3 but if I should think fit to insert something II. therefore. THE ROBBER. . and persevering industry II. nor by Fables is anything else II. provided that my brevity be a fair return for such a favour: of which. and even to offer to the modest that for which they have not asked. listen to the reason why you ought to deny the covetous.5 FABLE II. had captivated the heart of the same person. on which the Lion kindly said to him: “You have nothing to fear. this truly we learn from examples. for the Young Woman had entirely pulled out the white hairs. that variety of subjects may gratify the taste. you will take it in good part. II. which he had brought to the ground. THE PROLOGUE. that he might make room for the Man. and answers its purpose. AND THE TRAVELLER. a harmless Traveller was led to the same spot. as they were desirous to appear of the same age with him. While a Lion was standing over a Bullock.BOOK II.” and so repulsed the rogue. For my part. THE LION.1 aimed at than that the errors of mortals may be corrected. of the narrator.

Then thus does the Cat with deceit and wicked malice.8 whose tunic of Pelusian linen was nicely smoothed from his shoulders downwards. II. to the offender. FABLE V. hurriedly running to and fro. CÆSAR TO THE CHAMBERLAIN. Silly credulity may take this as a proof how much evil a double-tongued man may oĞen contrive. digging up the earth every day.” says she. THE MAN AND THE DOG. destroy the community so formed by accident. Fearing the downfall. and bewildered the Eagle’s senses. FABLE IV. and that of Etruria close at hand. a dweller in the woods. and afforded the Cat and her kiĴens an ample repast. with their young ones. One of the highly girt Chamberlains. to reform this race. had laid her offspring at the boĴom. if indeed I can: it is worth your while to aĴend. Tiberius Cæsar. An Eagle had made her nest at the top of an oak. the Eagle sits still in the branches.” The success of the wicked is a temptation to many. a Cat who had found a hole in the middle. and having filled herself and her offspring with food. There is a certain set of busybodies at Rome. Why make a long story? They perished through hunger. with hanging fringes. the Eagle is ready to snatch away from you your liĴle pigs. is insidiously trying to overthrow the oak.7 which.FABLE III. busily engaged in idleness. Thence she wanders forth on tiptoe by night. and most annoying to others. when on his way to Naples. had kiĴened there . threw a piece of bread. a Sow. lest they devour us alive. began with bustling officiousness to . torn by the bite of a savage Dog. perhaps. for as soon as you go out to forage with your young liĴer. II. came to his country-seat at Misenum.” Having thus spread terror. a thing that he had heard was a remedy for the wound. the Cat creeps down to the lair of the bristly Sow: “In great danger. “are your offspring. THE EAGLE. for wretched me. A Man.” says she. she cunningly hides herself in her safe hole. while his master was walking through the pleasant shrubberies. too. the Sow stirs not abroad. a trouble to themselves. when they know that such is the reward of guilt.” Having filled this place likewise with alarm. “is preparing for you. pretending alarm. with much ado doing nothing. AND THE WILD SOW. she looks out all day long. Then said Æsop: “Don’t do this before many dogs. She mounts up to the nest of the Bird: “Destruction. dipt in his blood. placed by the hand of Lucullus on the summit of the heights. the Sow. It is my object. beholds the Sicilian sea in the distance. THE CAT. to avoid the aĴack of the spoiler. out of breath about nothing at all. for as you see. by a true story. that she may easily seize our progeny on the ground.

the one was carrying baskets II.” According to the moral of this Fable. The former. and amid the slaughter II. Then. Induced by her words. Thus she who had been protected by the bounty of nature. that. be injured in any way. she persuades the Eagle to dash the hard shell from the loĞy stars upon a rock. in a jesting tone. the other sacks distended with store of barley. it being broken to pieces. rich with his burden. quickened by the joyous hope of a sure reward. Laden with burdens. with quiet and easy step.9 the parched ground with a wooden watering-pot. and discerns his object. and in her concealment could not. II. with neck erect. Suddenly some Robbers rush from ambush upon them. A Crow came through the air. but only got laughed at. Just as he is supposing that there is some extraordinary good fortune in store for him: “Come hither. exclaimed: “You really have carried off a rich prize in your talons. while thus sheltered. Thence. THE EAGLE. on which he skips up to him.sprinkle II. THE MULES AND THE ROBBERS. FABLE VIII. and carry off the money. nor have I received hurt by a wound. in vain will you tire yourself with the heavy weight. the one despoiled was bewailing their mishaps: “For my part. While. who had hidden her body in her horny abode. No one is sufficiently armed against the powerful. poverty is safe. nothing can withstand such a combination of violence and unscrupulousness. and tossing to-and-fro upon his throat his clear-toned bell: II.” says the other. thus spoke the mighty majesty of the prince: “You have not profited much. but if a wicked adviser joins them.” II. being an unequal match for the two. AND THE TORTOISE.14 his companion follows. two Mules were travelling along.” says his master. manumission stands at a much higher price with me. . but if I don’t instruct you what you must do. the Eagle aĴends to her suggestion. he runs before into another walk. by short cuts to him well known.11 FABLE VI. Cæsar takes notice of the fellow. II. FABLE VII.” A share being promised her. perished by an unhappy fate. the valueless barley they neglect. THE STAG AND THE OXEN.12 An Eagle carried a Tortoise aloĞ.13 with money. and at the same time gives a large share of the banquet to her instructress. your labour is all in vain. then.10 laying the dust. “I am glad I was thought so liĴle of. for I have lost nothing. great riches are liable to danger. and flying near. THE CROW.15 pierce the Mule with a sword. goes exulting along. she may easily feed upon the meat.

“Diligens industria. still it shall not deprive me of the consciousness of deserving praise. mentioned in the Prologue of the First Book. your life will be placed in great peril.” Night in her turn takes the place of day. though a slave. Upon this. because they had afforded him hospitality in the hour of adversity. he orders him to be killed. my learned labours fall into the hands of those whom a perverse nature has brought to the light of day. If my aĴempts reach your ears. as he concealed himself: “Why. All the farm servants pass and repass every now and then. and having lately seen the Oxen in bad condition. as being composed with skill. Persevering industry )—Ver. he perceives too the branching horns of the Stag. but emulation. that he should not be the only one. One of them made answer: “We really do wish you well. 5. The Athenians erected a statue to the genius of Æsop. Upon this. “is there so liĴle fodder? Is liĴer scarce? What great trouble is it to remove those spiders’ webs?” II. I have made it my object. repaired with blind fear to the nearest farm-house. in his joy. until Fortune is ashamed of her own injustice. 2. and that glory is not awarded to birth but to merit. no one perceives him. But if.16 While he is prying into every corner. the Neat-herd brings fodder. and trusting your life to the abode of man?” To this he suppliantly replied: “Do you only spare me. and hid himself in an ox-stall close at hand.18 with strength of mind. and placed him. what do you mean. of adhering to the fabulous maĴer used by Æsop.A Stag. Since another II. FOOTNOTES TO BOOK II 1. and if Latium shall favour my efforts. This Fable signifies that the master sees beĴer than any one else in his own affairs. my success then banishes every complaint. to avoid impending death threatened by huntsmen. the moment an opportunity is given I will again rush forth. comes up to the rack: “Why. unhappy one. aroused from his woodland lair. THE EPILOGUE. that all might know that the way to fame is open to all. even the Steward passes by. the stag.” In the meanwhile the Master himself comes back from dinner. nor does he observe anything. and carries off the prize. Burmann thinks that the object of the Author in this Prologue is to defend himself against the censures of those who might blame him for not keeping to his purpose. upon an everlasting pedestal. a thing which still lay in my power. and who are unable to do anything except carp at their beĴers.17 has prevented me from being the first. began to return thanks to the Oxen who had kept so still. but if he. on the contrary. But if jealousy shall aĴempt to detract from my labours. in thus rushing of your own accord upon destruction. should come. who has a hundred eyes. 2.” An industry or .” says he. an Ox said to him. but mixing up with such stories narratives of events that had happened in his own time. Nor is this envy. I shall endure my unhappy destiny II. but yet sees him not. and having summoned the household. she will have still more authors whom she may match with Greece. and your taste relishes these Fables. Is anything else)—Ver.

ingenuity that exerts itself in trying to discover the meaning of his Fables. 3. Of the sage)—Ver. 8. Meaning Æsop. 4. To insert something )—Ver. 9. He probably alludes to such contemporary narratives as are found in Fable v. of the present Book; in Fable x. of the Third; in B. IV., Fables v., xxi., xxiv.; and B. V., Fables i., v., vii. 5. Modesty in want)—Ver. 12. Martial has a similar passage, B. iv., Epig. 9:— “Semper eris pauper, si pauper es, Æmiliane, Dantur opes nulli nunc nisi divitibus.” 6. Of middle age)—Ver 8. It has been a maĴer of doubt among Commentators to which “ætatis mediæ” applies—the man or the woman. But as she is called “anus,” “an Old Woman,” in the last line, it is most probable that the man is meant.
The Latin language had two unrelated words spelled “anus”. The one referenced here is “anūs” with long final u .

7. Country-seat at Misenum )—Ver. 8. This villa was situate on Cape Misenum, a promontory of Campania, near Baiæ and Cumæ, so called from Misenus, the trumpeter of Æneas, who was said to have been buried there. The villa was originally built by C. Marius, and was bought by Cornelia, and then by Lucullus, who either rebuilt it or added extensively to it. 8. Of the chamberlains)—Ver. 11. The “atrienses” were a superior class of the domestic slaves. It was their duty to take charge of the “atrium,” or hall; to escort visitors or clients, and to explain to strangers all maĴers connected with the pictures, statues, and other decorations of the house. 9. To sprinkle)—Ver. 16. Burmann suggests that this duty did not belong to the “atriensis,” who would consequently think that his courteous politeness would on that account be still more pleasing to the Emperor. 10. Another walk )—Ver. 18. The “xystus” was a level piece of ground, in front of a portico, divided into flower-beds of various shapes by borders of box. 11. Much higher price)—Ver. 25. He alludes to the Roman mode of manumission, or seĴing the slaves at liberty. Before the master presented the slave to the Quæstor, to have the “vindicta,” or lictor’s rod, laid on him, he turned him round and gave him a blow on the face. In the word “veneunt,” “sell,” there is a reference to the purchase of their liberty by the slaves, which was oĞen effected by means of their “peculium,” or savings. 12. Literally: Whatever violence and unscrupulousness aĴack, comes. 13. Carrying baskets)—Ver. 2. “Fisci” were baskets made of twigs, or panniers, in which the Romans kept and carried about sums of money. Being used especially in the Roman treasury, the word in time came to signify the money itself. Hence our word “fiscal.” 14. Clear-toned bell)—Ver. 5. Scheffer and Gronovius think that the bell was used, as in some countries at the present day, for the purpose of warning those who came in an opposite direction to make room where the path

was narrow. 15. Amid the slaughter)—Ver. 8. He alludes no doubt to the murder of the men conducting the mules by the Robbers. 16. Those spiders’ webs)—Ver. 23. The mode of clearing away the spider webs may be seen described in the beginning of the “Stichus” of Plautus. 17. Since another)—Ver. 5. He probably refers to Æsop: though Heinsius thinks that he refers to C. Mecænas Melissus, mentioned by Ovid, in his Pontic Epistles, B. iv., El. xvi., l. 30, a freedman of Mecænas, who compiled a book of jests partly from the works of Æsop. Burmann, however, ridicules this supposition. 18. Unhappy destiny )—Ver. 17. The words “fatale exitium” have been considered as being here inappropriately used. It is very doubtful whether the last part of this Epilogue is genuine.

If you have a desire, Eutychus, to read the liĴle books of Phædrus, you must keep yourself disengaged from business, that your mind, at liberty, may relish the meaning of the lines. “But,” you say, “my genius is not of such great value, that a moment of time should be lost for it to my own pursuits.” There is no reason then why that should be touched by your hands which is not suited for ears so engaged. Perhaps you will say, “some holidays will come, III.2 which will invite me to study with mind unbent.” Will you rather, I ask you, read worthless diĴies, III.3 than bestow aĴention upon your domestic concerns, give moments to your friends, your leisure to your wife, relax your mind, and refresh your body, in order that you may return more efficiently to your wonted duties? You must change your purpose and your mode of life, if you have thoughts of crossing the threshold of the Muses. I, whom my mother brought forth on the Pierian hill, III.4 upon which hallowed Mnemosyne, nine times fruitful, bore the choir of Muses to thundering Jove: although I was born almost in the very school itself, and have entirely erased all care for acquiring wealth from my breast, and with the approval of many have applied myself to these pursuits, am still with difficulty received into the choir of the Poets. What do you imagine must be the lot of him who seeks, with ceaseless vigilance, to amass great wealth, preferring the sweets of gain to the labours of learning? But now, come of it what may (as Sinon said III.5 when he was brought before the King of Dardania), I will trace a third book with the pen of Æsop, and dedicate it to you, in acknowledgment of your honor and your goodness. III.6 If you read it, I shall rejoice; but if otherwise, at least posterity will have something with which to amuse themselves.

Now will I explain in a few words why Fabulous narrative was invented. Slavery, III.7 subject to the will of another, because it did not dare to say what it wished, couched its sentiments in Fables, and by pleasing fictions eluded censure. In place of its foot-path I have made a road, and have invented more than it leĞ, selecting some points to my own misfortune. III.8 But if any other than Sejanus III.9 had been the informer, if any other the witness, if any other the judge, in fine, I should confess myself deserving of such severe woes; nor should I soothe my sorrow with these expedients. If any one shall make erroneous surmises, and apply to himself what is applicable to all in common, he will absurdly expose the secret convictions of his mind. And still, to him I would hold myself excused; for it is no intention of mine to point at individuals, but to describe life itself and the manners of mankind. Perhaps some one will say, that I undertake a weighty task. If Æsop of Phrygia, if Anacharsis of Scythia III.10 could, by their genius, found a lasting fame, why should I who am more nearly related to learned Greece, forsake in sluggish indolence the glories of my country? especially as the Thracian race numbers its own authors, and Apollo was the parent of Linus, a Muse of Orpheus, who with his song moved rocks and tamed wild beasts, and held the current of Hebrus in sweet suspense. Away then, envy! nor lament in vain, because to me the customary fame is due. I have urged you to read these lines; I beg that you will give me your sincere opinion III.11 of them with your well-known candour.

An Old Woman espied a Cask, III.12 which had been drained to the dregs, lying on the ground, and which still spread forth from its ennobled shell a delightful smell of the Falernian lees. III.13 AĞer she had greedily snuffed it up her nostrils with all her might; “O delicious fragrance, III.14” said she, “how good I should say were your former contents, when the remains of them are such!” What this refers to let him say who knows me. III.15

Repayment in kind is generally made by those who are despised. A Panther III.16 had once inadvertently fallen into a pit. The rustics saw her; some belaboured her with sticks, others pelted her with stones; while some, on the other hand, moved with compassion, seeing that she must die even though no one should hurt her, threw her some bread to sustain existence. Night comes on apace; homeward they go without concern, making sure of finding her dead on the following day. She, however, aĞer having recruited her failing strength, with a swiĞ bound effected her escape from the pit, and with hurried pace hastened to her den. A few days intervening, she sallies forth, slaughters the flocks, kills the shepherds themselves, and laying waste every side, rages with unbridled fury. Upon this those who had shown mercy to the beast, alarmed for their safety, made

being persuaded. no wiser. and begged only for their lives. Dreadfully alarmed at the prodigy. replied: “Just as the head is. find wives for your shepherds. and his children are spurious. he paid the penalty on the cross.” III. however.” This I deem to be said more facetiously than correctly. but that it can be atoned for by a victim of greater age. FABLE V. and him who gave me demur to the loss of their flocks. ÆSOP AND THE FARMER. I warrant.18 FABLE IV. III. joking. lay aside your fears. he runs full of concern to the soothsayers.” The other. now for the first time.17 Why enlarge? They all differ in opinions. did as he was advised.” said he. thus continuing: “Upon my faith I have got no more. is the taste. but the reason is not told. for on the one hand I have oĞen found the good-looking to be very knaves. and you will receive a due reward. and greatly aggravate the anxiety of the Man.20 . whom nature could never deceive by appearances. shall be made known by my Fable. but I will show you where you can get some. and on the other I have known many with ugly features to be most worthy men. remarked:— “If you wish. was disappointed of its hope. Farmer. a sage of nice discernment. The ewes of a certain Man who reared flocks. being seized. which. and then gave him a penny. Æsop being at hand. to take due precautions against this portent. enquired how it might taste. affirms that it is meant that his wife is an adultress. such. A man seeing an Ape hanging up at a Butcher’s among the rest of his commodities and provisions. ÆSOP AND THE INSOLENT MAN. and that the danger must be averted with a victim. yonder comes a rich and influential man. I return as an enemy to those only who injured me. see. brought forth lambs with human heads. But she thus answered them: “I remember him who aĴacked me with stones. III. III.” FABLE III. throw a stone at him in the same way. Another. His daring impudence. One answers that it bears reference to the life of the owner. An Insolent Fellow threw a stone at Æsop. One taught by experience is proverbially said to be more quick-wiĴed than a wizard.19 on which the Butcher. THE BUTCHER AND THE APE. Success leads many astray to their ruin. “Well done. for.

“Pray. are you at liberty?” “Certainly not. is my belly filled. and governs my mouth with the foam-covered reins. As they were going along. How much more pleasant for me to be living under a roof. and cannot endure the raillery of her boasting brother.” The Dog frankly replied : “You may enjoy the same condition. chanced to look into a mirror. THE FLY AND THE MULE. Therefore.” In this Fable. chanced to meet a well-fed Dog. she is vexed. and also a Son. who am far stronger.21 with his pliant whip. quite starved with hunger. without any strength. “Then.” “I am quite ready for that. THE BROTHER AND SISTER. if you can render the like service to your master. and whatever dainties each person leaves. at my ease. to lose my liberty. but I fear him who. III. to be stuffed with plenty of victuals. remarkable for his handsome features. A certain Man had a very ugly Daughter. I wander wherever I please. “at present I have to endure snow and showers.” The Mule made answer: “I am not moved by your words. who. diverting themselves. and when to run. “To be the guardian of his threshold. THE DOG AND THE WOLF. FABLE VII.” said the Dog. cease your frivolous impertinence. and to protect the house from thieves at night. . Warned by this lesson. enjoy what you boast of.FABLE VI. as it lay upon their mother’s chair. A Fly sat on the pole of a chariot. as children do. the servants throw me bits. if you have a mind to go anywhere.” said she.” FABLE VIII. and as they stopped to salute each other. oĞen examine yourself. siĴing on the next seat. I will shew in a few words how sweet is Liberty. for I well know when to go at a gentle pace. Dog. “Whence comes this. These. and.” “Come along. that I may be quiet when it is light. III. though. “will you not go faster? Take care that I don’t prick your neck with my sting. then. gives uĴerance to vain threats. and rebuking the Mule: “How slow you are. the Wolf observed the neck of the Dog.23 He praises his own good looks. without trouble on my part.22” “Do tell me. am perishing with hunger. it is nothing. with me.” said the Wolf.” “What is it?” said the other. they fasten me up in the day-time. “how is it that you are so sleek? or on what food have you made so much flesh? I. unchained at midnight.” said the Wolf. he may be deservedly ridiculed. where it was worn with the chain. and watch when night comes.” replied the Dog.” “Well. dragging on a wretched existence in the woods. from his own table my master gives me bones. Bread is brought me without my asking. guides my yoke III.” “Because I appear to be fierce. my friend?” “Oh. I would not be a king. A Wolf. thus.

construing everything (and how could she do otherwise?) as a reproach against herself. Accordingly, off she runs to her Father, to be avenged on him in her turn, and with great rancour, makes a charge against the Son, how that he, though a male, has been meddling with a thing that belongs to the women. Embracing them both, kissing them, and dividing his tender affection between the two, he said: “I wish you both to use the mirror every day: you, that you may not spoil your beauty by vicious conduct; you, that you may make amends by your virtues for your looks.”

The name of a friend is common; but fidelity is rarely found. Socrates having laid for himself the foundation of a small house (a man, whose death I would not decline, if I could acquire similar fame, and like him I could yield to envy, if I might be but acquiĴed III.24 when ashes); one of the people, no maĴer who, amongst such passing remarks as are usual in these cases, asked: “Why do you, so famed as you are, build so small a house?” “I only wish,” he replied, “I could fill it with real friends.”

It is dangerous alike to believe or to disbelieve. Of either fact, I will briefly lay before you an instance. Hippolytus met his death, III.25 because his step-mother was believed: because Cassandra was not believed, Troy fell. Therefore, we ought to examine strictly into the truth of a maĴer, rather than suffer an erroneous impression to pervert our judgment. But, that I may not weaken this truth by referring to fabulous antiquity, I will relate to you a thing that happened within my own memory. A certain married Man, who was very fond of his Wife, having now provided the white toga III.26 for his Son, was privately taken aside by his Freedman, who hoped that he should be substituted as his next heir, and who, aĞer telling many lies about the youth, and still more about the misconduct of the chaste Wife, added, what he knew would especially grieve one so fond, that a gallant was in the habit of paying her visits, and that the honor of his house was stained with base adultery. Enraged at the supposed guilt of his Wife, the husband pretended a journey to his country-house, and privately stayed behind in town; then at night he suddenly entered at the door, making straight to his Wife’s apartment, in which the mother had ordered her son to sleep, keeping a strict eye over his ripening years. While they are seeking for a light, while the servants are hurrying to and fro, unable to restrain the violence of his raging passion, he approaches the bed, and feels a head in the dark. When he finds the hair cut close, III.27 he plunges his sword into the sleeper’s breast, caring for nothing, so he but avenge his injury. A light being brought, at the same instant he beholds his son, and his chaste wife

sleeping in her apartment; who, fast locked in her first sleep, had heard nothing: on the spot he inflicted punishment on himself for his guilt, and fell upon the sword which a too easy belief had unsheathed. The accusers indicted the woman, and dragged her to Rome, before the Centumviri. III.28 Innocent as she was, dark suspicion weighed heavily against her, because she had become possessor of his property: her patrons stand III.29 and boldly plead the cause of the guiltless woman. The judges then besought the Emperor Augustus that he would aid them in the discharge of their oath, as the intricacy of the case had embarrassed them. AĞer he had dispelled the clouds raised by calumny, and had discovered a sure source of truth III.30: “Let the Freedman,” said he, “the cause of the mischief, suffer punishment; but as for her, at the same instant bereĞ of a son, and deprived of a husband, I deem her to be pitied rather than condemned. If the father of the family had thoroughly enquired into the charge preferred, and had shrewdly siĞed the lying accusations, he would not, by a dismal crime, have ruined his house from the very foundation.” Let the ear despise nothing, nor yet let it accord implicit belief at once: since not only do those err whom you would be far from suspecting, but those who do not err are sometimes falsely and maliciously accused. This also may be a warning to the simple, not to form a judgment on anything according to the opinion of another; for the different aims of mortals either follow the bias of their goodwill or their prejudice. He alone will be correctly estimated by you, whom you judge of by personal experience. These points I have enlarged upon, as by too great brevity I have offended some.

A Eunuch had a dispute with a scurrilous fellow, who, in addition to obscene remarks and insolent abuse, reproached him with the misfortune of his mutilated person. “Look you,” said the Eunuch, “this is the only point as to which I am effectually staggered, forasmuch as I want the evidences of integrity. But why, simpleton, do you charge me with the faults of fortune? That alone is really disgraceful to a man, which he has deserved to suffer.” III.31

A young Cock, while seeking for food on a dunghill, found a Pearl, and exclaimed: “What a fine thing are you to be lying in so unseemly a place. If any one sensible of your value had espied you here, you would long ago have returned to your former brilliancy. And it is I who have found you, I to whom food is far preferable! I can be of no use to you or you to me.” This I relate for those who have no relish for me. III.32

Some Bees had made their combs in a loĞy oak. Some lazy Drones asserted that these belonged to them. The cause was brought into court, the Wasp siĴing as judge; who, being perfectly acquainted with either race, proposed to the two parties these terms: “Your shape is not unlike, and your colour is similar; so that the affair clearly and fairly becomes a maĴer of doubt. But that my sacred duty may not be at fault through insufficiency of knowledge, each of you take hives, and pour your productions into the waxen cells; that from the flavour of the honey and the shape of the comb, the maker of them, about which the present dispute exists, may be evident.” The Drones decline; the proposal pleases the Bees. Upon this, the Wasp pronounces sentence to the following effect: “It is evident who cannot, and who did, make them; wherefore, to the Bees I restore the fruits of their labours.” This Fable I should have passed by in silence, if the Drones had not refused the proposed stipulation. III.33

An Athenian seeing Æsop in a crowd of boys at play with nuts, III.34 stopped and laughed at him for a madman. As soon as the Sage,—a laugher at others rather than one to be laughed at,—perceived this, he placed an unstrung bow in the middle of the road: “Hark you, wise man,” said he, “unriddle what I have done.” The people gather round. The man torments his invention a long time, but cannot make out the reason of the proposed question. At last he gives up. Upon this, the victorious Philosopher says: “You will soon break the bow, if you always keep it bent; but if you loosen it, it will be fit for use when you want it.” Thus ought recreation sometimes to be given to the mind, that it may return to you beĴer fiĴed for thought.

A Dog said to a Lamb III.35 bleating among some She-Goats: “Simpleton, you are mistaken; your mother is not here;” and pointed out some Sheep at a distance, in a flock by themselves. “I am not looking for her,” said the Lamb, “who, when she thinks fit, conceives, then carries her unknown burden for a certain number of months, and at last empties out the fallen bundle; but for her who, presenting her udder, nourishes me, and deprives her young ones of milk that I may not go without.” “Still,” said the Dog, “she ought to be preferred who brought you forth.” “Not at all: how was she to know whether I should be born black or white? III.36 However, suppose she did know; seeing I was born a male, truly she

let us drink together. enquired the reason. FABLE XVIII. A Peacock came to Juno. complaining sadly that she had not given to him the song . but the Olive is more pleasing to me on account of its fruit.” The other. who was parched with thirst.” By these lines the author meant to show that men are averse to fixed rules. entreaties urged again only set her on still more. as soon as she found her voice complimented. vain is our glory. it is with justice that you are called wise by all. The Oak pleased Jupiter. who was wont to seek her living in the dark. and that her words were slighted. will not allow me to go to sleep. THE GRASSHOPPER AND THE OWL.37 if you do not object. Minerva. not the ordinary course of Nature . be preferred to her who took pity on me as I lay.38 said she. The Owl. but she began much more loudly to send forth her note. aĴacked the chaĴerer with this stratagem: “As your song. unless what we do is useful. and put her to death. THE TREES UNDER THE PROTECTION OF THE GODS.conferred a great obligation on me in giving me birth. coming forth from her hollow. but are won by kind services. FABLE XVI. He who does not conform to courtesy. Jupiter answered: “That we may not seem to sell the honor for the fruit.” Then said the Father of the Gods and the Creator of men: “O daughter. The Owl. the loĞy Poplar Hercules. III. FABLE XVII. She was asked to cease her noise. and of her own accord shewed me a welcome affection? It is kindliness makes parents. wondering why they had chosen the barren ones. who had no power in engendering me. A Grasshopper was making a chirping that was disagreeable to an Owl. “let any one say what he likes. The Gods in days of yore made choice of such Trees as they wished to be under their protection. seized the trembling thing. the Pine Cybele.” III. come. that I might expect the butcher every hour. she gave when dead. the Laurel Phœbus.” “Now. Thus what she had refused when alive. Why should she.39 This liĴle Fable admonishes us to do nothing that is not profitable. which one might take for the tones of Apollo’s lyre. the Myrtle Venus. so heaven help me. mostly pays the penalty of his superciliousness. THE PEACOCK TO JUNO. I have a mind to drink some nectar which Pallas lately gave me. and in the day-time to take her rest in a hollow tree. eagerly flew up.” III. when she saw she had no remedy.

infirm with old age. close at hand. “have your respective qualities been assigned. as religion—as your oath permits. spontaneously. FABLE XIX. ÆSOP’S ANSWER TO THE INQUISITIVE MAN. the sooner I receive your favours.” said she. first. and the greater the time that is wasted in delays. but I purposely abstain. Then as he had made a rather long circuit. When Æsop was the only servant of his master. not work to the artist. III. will be claiming its due. and went hastily homewards.” he retorted. There a certain Busybody in the crowd said to him: “Æsop. that I may not seem troublesome to you. and again by a like revolution.” Covet not that which has not been granted you.of the Nightingale. My .” “Wherefore give me. for then I shall have ceased to be able to enjoy your kindness. III. the more lasting will be my enjoyment. EPILOGUE. that it was the admiration of every ear. and next. if I am surpassed in voice?” “By the will of the Fates. lest your baffled hopes sink down to useless repinings. whom a multiplicity of maĴers distract. he was ordered to prepare dinner earlier than usual. Pronounce the sentence. The Goddess. he shortened the way back. why with a light at mid-day?” “I’m in search of a man. how much more reasonably ought it to be granted to the innocent? It is your province III. to the Raven presages. and you unfold a tail begemmed with painted plumage. and give me reason to rejoice in your decision. I deem it foolish to address my entreaties to you. for he went home straight through the Forum.42 There are yet remaining Fables for me to write. you surpass him in size. and death. replied: “But you surpass the nightingale in beauty. A criminal has oĞen gained pardon by confessing. beauty to you. he went round to several houses. the turn of others will come. it will fall to others by-and-by. to console him. if perchance any other person is desirous to make a like aĴempt. he must have perceived that the sage did not deem him a man. the longer shall I have the benefit thereof. I request that you will give the reward to my brevity which you promised. that.40 and at last found a place at which to light his lantern. make good your word. the less the advantage that will accrue to me. “a beauty that is dumb. melody to the Nightingale. in aĞertimes your kindness will in vain endeavour to aid me.44 now to judge of my cause . all of these are contented with their own endowments. If you dispatch the maĴer quickly. he may still have something leĞ to do. to render assistance. who could so unseasonably rally him when busy.43 there is room for your goodness. when your compassion is so ready. while he himself was laughed at the very instant he raised his voice. the brilliancy of the emerald shines upon your neck. seeking for fire. If the inquisitive fellow reflected on this answer. although there is so abundant a stock of maĴer that an artist will be wanting to the work. III.41 said he. strength to the Eagle. Accordingly.” III. For life each day is nearer unto death. While there are yet some remnants of a wearied life. unpropitious omens to the Crow.

as there is liĴle doubt that Phædrus wrote the present Book of Fables long aĞer the time of Augustus. From their trivial nature. alludes to his Fables. As Sinon said)—Ver. a part of which were called Pieria. as more generally stated. Prætors. and who had previously been a charioteer and inspector of buildings at the stables of Claudius. “Who are they?” you will ask: they will be seen in time. 10. and that he remembered but liĴle of his native country. Paganalia.” Sementivæ. 8. conscious of unsullied integrity. B. The inhabitants are celebrated in the early history of the music and poesy of Greece. 27. The “conceptivæ. Worthless diĴies)—Ver. the times for holding them being annually appointed by the magistrates or priests. Julius Eutychus. The Romans had three kinds of public “feriæ. properly. who were generally females. 2.” or “conceptæ. but the mind is with difficulty restrained.. It has been suggested that he was the freedman of the Emperor Claudius or Augustus. and not. Carmentalia. It is most probable that Phædrus was carried away in slavery to Rome in his early years. 4. the improvised songs that were sung at funerals by the hired mourners. Judging from this passage it would appear that Phædrus was a Macedonian by birth.” or holidays. line 20-26. and Orpheus was said to have been buried there. an inscription having been found in the tomb of the freedmen of the laĴer to C. the word came to be generally applied to all worthless diĴies. 3. a Thracian. It has been suggested that he is the same person who is mentioned by Josephus. It is not known with certainty who this Eutychus was to whom he addresses himself. III. and on stated days set forth in the Calendar. I shall take care to recollect that “it is a dangerous thing for a man of humble birth to murmur in public. as their country was one of the earliest seats of the worship of the Muses. To these belonged the Lupercalia.” were moveable feasts held at certain seasons in every year. the . and were in general held to avert national calamities or to celebrate great victories. and Dictators. with all humility. so long as I shall continue in my senses. The “feriæ imperativæ” were appointed to be held on certain emergencies by order of the Consuls. and Compitalia. and under this name Phædrus. as flourishing at the Court of Caligula. “Nænia” were. He is also supposed. c. which all belonged to the “dies nefasti. Pieria was a country on the south-east coast of Macedonia. Eutychus)—Ver.” “conceptivæ. from the words of the Epilogue of this Book. Indeed it has been suggested by some that he wrote it as late as the reign of Caligula. Some holidays)—Ver. or the Pierian mountain. 2. through which ran a ridge of mountains. to have held more than one public office. 5. which.” and “imperativæ. and Agonalia. but not on fixed days. 17. Among these were the “feriæ Latinæ. He here alludes to the words of Sinon. But it is hardly probable that he is the person meant.” or days on which no public business could be done.” The first were held regularly. These were the “feriæ stativæ.feelings have passed the limits they had proposed. Antiq. For my part. 4. is exposed to the insults of spiteful men. xix. On the Pierian Hill)—Ver.45” FOOTNOTES TO BOOK III 1.

the place of his birth. And your goodness)—Ver. and the thin. 30.” and extended from the Massic Hills to the river Vulturnus. which is quite cheered by the fumes. It was the custom to write the age of the wine and the vintage on the “amphora. It is supposed to have been of an amber colour. in which wine was usually kept. witness. Slavery )—Ver. that she speaks of the wine as being the soul of life.” others. A cask)—Ver. though some Commentators have thought that she addresses the cask as “anima. Anacharsis of Scythia )—Ver. Falernian Lees)—Ver. O. the sweet. It has been suggested that he fell under the displeasure of Tiberius and his minister Sejanus. the “amphora. A Scythian philosopher. 77-78:— “Cuncta equidem tibi. “Anima. The nature of the punishment here alluded to is not known. 5.Grecian spy. He came to Athens in pursuit of knowledge while Solon was the lawgiver of that city. 7. 2. or else that the Poet simply refers to human .” meaning “O dear soul. He evidently alludes to some misfortune which has befallen him in consequence of having alluded in his work to the events of his own times. Who knows me)—Ver. 8. He is said to have wriĴen works on legislation and the art of war. The people of Pieria were supposed to have been of Thracian origin. again. Burmann thinks that the author covertly hints here at the habits of the Emperor Tiberius in his old age. Alluding to Pieria. Nearer to learned Greece)—Ver. and supposed contemporary of Æsop.” Properly. in consequence of the covert allusions made to them in Fables II and VI in the First Book. This question is. delicious fragrance)—Ver. The Falernian wine held the second rank in estimation among the Romans. in the service of the philosopher Xanthus.” 6. and judge. fuerit quodcumque fatebor Vera. inquit——” Others. and of considerable strength. Than Sejanus)—Ver. suppose that this was a proverbial expression in general use at Rome.” or cask. 34. The territory where it was grown commenced at the “Pons Campanus. when brought before Priam. He means that Ælius Sejanus had acted against him as both informer. however. 7.” most probably applies to the savour or smell of the wine. “Amphoram. 14. Pliny mentions three kinds. involved in impenetrable obscurity. in the Second Book of Virgil. rex. 52. It is not improbable that it may have become so on being adopted from the work of Virgil: “Come what may of it. while Walchius seems to think that she is addressing her own soul. 1. but that had an honest man condemned him to the sufferings he then experienced. 54. he should not have complained. 11.” or earthen vessel with two handles. 9. 13. He probably alludes to Æsop’s state of slavery. as Sinon said. who still hankered aĞer those vicious indulgences which had been his main pursuits in his former days. 40. 10. the rough. 15. To my own misfortune)—Ver.” We learn from ancient inscriptions that this was a customary formula in dedications. 41. “Honori et meritis dedicam illum tuis. 12.

life. I might be acquiĴed)—Ver. if he was manumiĴed.” The customer uses the word in the former sense.” or “taste. 4. and means that those who knew him when this Fable was wriĴen. 3. that by the Panther is meant Tiberius. was also confined to the female sex. have omiĴed this so-called Fable. On the cross)—Ver.” “the lees of life. as we see here. aĞer he was put to death by his countrymen. Ep. Phædrus might. How it might taste)—Ver. it was considered effeminate for the male sex to use them. “Such as the head is. Of greater age)—Ver.. 19. indeed. occupied himself in studying how to wreak his vengeance upon his enemies at Rome. lvii. may judge from their present acquaintance with him what he must have been in his younger days. and therefore it can only taste like the head of an ape. to which they did not think fit to give a direct answer. These were of various forms and sizes. “It has an ape’s head. gluĴed his vengeance.” probably.” Others again suppose that Phædrus alludes to his own old age. and. 16. and perhaps in the former as well.” or mirror. “I’ll warrant the wisdom of the animal to be. while the Butcher answers it in the laĴer. as only befiĴing her more voluptuous fellow-goddess.” as telling a somewhat similar story. The “cathedra” was properly a soĞ or easy chair used in the “gynæcæa. 17. Guides my yoke)—Ver. and a statue was erected in his honour. The cross was especially used as an instrument of punishment for malefactors of low station.” or women’s apartments. The use of the “speculum. with the fury of the Panther. who. “Jugum meum. “me who bear the yoke. and this Fable was not wriĴen till aĞer the death of Sejanus. . 2. 11. sometimes on very trivial occasions. Their mother’s chair)—Ver. Plutarch introduces Thales in his “Convivium Sapientium. Venus. but. a sheep of two years old instead of a lamb. “Majori hostiâ. Burmann and Guyetus in the number. by Augustus.” the words at the same time bearing the meaning of. 17. This notion. 17. who. even Pallas or Minerva was represented as shunning its use. was publicly pronounced to be innocent. 20. 6. He alludes to the fate of Socrates. 23. in the same spirit in which Seneca. during his banishment to the isle of Rhodes. 4. with beĴer grace. 10. as soon as he had the opportunity.” “to taste of. seems more ingenious than well founded. however. For your shepherds)—Ver. that cannot be the case. Heinsius thinks that it refers to the present state of servitude of Phædrus. A Panther)—Ver. 24.” pointing to it. “fæx vitæ.” meaning. Some have suggested. calls old age. It is nothing )—Ver. as generally supposed.” 22.” “Sapor” ordinarily means “flavour.” or “have a flavour. and. “Nihil est. 18. The Butcher puns upon the twofold meaning of “sapio.” but Cicero uses it in the signification of wisdom or genius. “Sellæ” was the name of seats common to both sexes. 21. and had backs to them. compared with his former liberty.” This was a form of expression used when they wished to cut short any disagreable question. Many other significations of this passage have been suggested by the various Editors.” and “to be wise.

who in vain prophesied the fall of Troy. 1. and was entirely white. 246. The hair cut close)—Ver. 31.25. The “Centumviri” were a body of 105 officers. This is appropriately introduced. From this passage we may infer either that Phædrus himself had many censurers at Rome. 35.” because it had no purple border.” or “commissioned judges. and declared the truth to Augustus. against those who censured him for the levity of his conduct in his old age. The proposed stipulation)—Ver. who had heard their master mention in his last moments the treachery of his freedman. who were much in the habit of exposing their children. In l.” 29. and in the FiĞeenth Book of Ovid’s Metamorphoses. It is thought by Schwabe that Phædrus wrote this Fable in defence of his early patron Augustus. 32. is related in the Second Book of the Æneid. who were consequently far from indebted to them. as we learn from Suetonius that he amused himself with fishing. 7. the daughter of Priam. when they assumed the ordinary “toga. To a Lamb)—Ver. 35. The story of Hippolytus. while the judges sat. Though this moral may apply to all misfortunes in general. The fate of Cassandra. It has been suggested that Phædrus here alludes to some who had laid claim to the authorship of his Fables. 3. The “toga prætexta. or nuts with boys.” or Consular robe. Augustus is called “Divus. —For some account of Roman games with nuts. as the hair of youths was allowed to grow long until they had reached the age of manhood. to test the correctness of their assertions. The Centumviri )—Ver.” which was called “pura. as with us. It is not probable that the freedman voluntarily came forward. 17. playing with dice. 39. 10. was worn by the male children of the Romans till their sixteenth year. see “The Walnut-tree. et seq. Burmann suggests that this Fable is levelled against the cruelty of parents. 26.” a fragment of Ovid. 2. iii. It is suggested that the source of information here alluded to was the evidence of the slaves. 491. Deserved to suffer)—Ver. on which it was cut close. p. 33. The patrons stood while pleading the causes of their clients. it is supposed by some of the Commentators that by the insulter some individual notorious for his adulteries was intended to be represented. pebbles. 30. At play with nuts)—Ver. in vol. Schwabe conjectures that the system of employing wet-nurses is intended here to be . whose duty it was to assist the prætor in litigated questions. 27. who consequently merited by law to be reduced to the same situation as the innocent Eunuch. 34. They were sometimes called “judices selecti. The white toga )—Ver. Met his death )—Ver.” as having been deified aĞer his death. 28. The patrons stand)—Ver. Sure source of truth )—Ver. of Bohn’s Translation of that author. 27. 37. l. or that the people in general were not admirers of Fables. and consecrated to the Gods. such as that here given to the Drones. Domitian was the first who was so called during his lifetime. is related at length in the Play of Euripides of that name. who met his death in consequence of the treachery of his step-mother Phædra. and had refused a challenge given by him. Have no relish for me)—Ver. 8. 43.

l. 36.. stulta est gloria. and so generally was this done that we find it stated in the Trinummus. in some public capacity. 13.censured. Of a wearied life)—Ver. 42. would be of importance to him. So heaven help me)—Ver. but there does not appear to be any ground for so thinking. immediately to give a favourable decision in his behalf. 3.. from day to day. In search of a man)—Ver 9.” literally “By Hercules. 33. I. of course. 43. Sc. as the choice must. Seeking for fire)—Ver. 8. and does not refer to himself as sinking. 45. or else it was begged from a neighbour. be supposed to have been made aĞer his death and deification. That “Languens ævum” means a life worn out with misfortune. It has been conjectured by some that Phædrus wrote these lines in prison. Some Commentators also think that he is guilty of a slight anachronism in using the name of Hercules here to give emphasis to an asseveration. where in most of the editions they appear. II. and is begging Eutychus.” These words are quoted from the Telephus of Ennius. Fire was kindled in general by being kept smouldering in a log under the ashes. as we learn from the Aulularia of Plautus. The Owl was sacred to Pallas. This.. 41. as part of a sepulchral inscription. 12 et seq. A. is evident from the next line. Meaning that he did not deem the enquirer to be a man. It is impossible to say with any certainty to what he refers. 10. A. 44.” This line is said to have been found copied on a marble stone. “Mehercule. ii. To murmur in public)—Ver. as the black lambs were first selected for sacrifice. of Diogenes the Cynic. 12. 15. 24. where he had been thrown through the malice of his enemies. l. 39.. which he would have to vacate at the end of a year. for culinary purposes. ii. The same story is told in Diogenes Laertius. but the most probable conjecture is that he has again got into trouble through his compositions. He is supposed to allude to some judicial position held by Eutychus. 37. and Phædrus has been censured for here puĴing it in the mouth of Minerva. It is your province)—Ver. This and the following Prologue seem beĴer suited to their present places than to the close of the Fourth Book. that it was the custom not to refuse fire when asked for even to an enemy.” This was a form of oath used generally by men. at Alba Julia or Weissenburg. “Nisi utile est quod facimus. 40. Vain is our glory )—Ver. 38. under old age. probably not so favourably disposed to himself. sc. Mercury is represented as swearing by Hercules before that God was born. Pallas lately gave me)—Ver. in want. and be succeeded by others. though disregarded by the mother. Black or white)—Ver. in Transylvania.. “Palam mutire plebeio piaculum est. 53. . In the Amphitryon of Plautus.

dead as he is.1 so as to wish to hand down that same to posterity. A Weasel.” FABLE II. since each man has a turn of thinking of his own. any fickleness. that set me upon writing again. I have brought out a great many. on their begging excursions. not only passes an unhappy life. but assured grounds. have quoted my words in your writings. When he was dead with fatigue and blows. But examine these Fables with aĴention. This way of writing seems to you facetious.BOOK IV. fresh blows are heaped upon him. while we have nothing of more importance. PROLOGUE. they made themselves tambourines IV. being unable to overtake the active Mice. in my mind I silently condemned my resolve. It was not. If envy shall choose to carp at it. Why should I stand in need of the applause of the illiterate? FABLE I. and what useful lessons will you find concealed under them! Things are not always what they seem.5 therewith. with the view that there might be material enough leĞ for others. but with modern subjects). and no doubt. IV. and have thought me worthy of being long remembered. to carry their burdens. priests of Cybele. rolled herself in flour. employing the old style. TO PARTICULO. his hide being stripped off. THE ASS AND THE PRIESTS OF CYBELE.2 as you are amused by Fables (which I will style “Æsopian. and a tone peculiar to himself. of leading about an Ass. When I had determined to put an end to my labours. IV. Wherefore.” not “those of Æsop. IV. we do sport with the pen. and threw herself carelessly along in a dark spot. now at your leisure you shall peruse a Fourth Book. IV. they answered in these words: “He fancied that aĞer death he would rest in quiet. on being asked by some one what they had done with their favourite. Particulo. I will add a Fable about the Weasel and the Mice. THE WEASEL AND THE MICE. therefore. worn out with years and old age. . and others like to you. That I may not appear to have said this without reason. The Galli. AĞerwards. He who has been born to ill luck. so long as it cannot imitate.3 why let it carp. but even aĞer death the cruel rigour of destiny pursues him. first appearances deceive many: few minds understand what skill has hidden in an inmost corner.4 were in the habit. how will he guess what it is I have omiĴed.” for whereas he published but few. but see. For even if there is any one desirous of the like fame. I have gained glory enough. in that you.

and have learned how useful you are. leĞ three Daughters. While a Wild Boar was wallowing. she leĞ them. A Person.7 enraged with the beast. tried to reach a cluster of Grapes upon a loĞy vine. Urged by hunger. to submit to the rein. by a short story. THE FOX AND THE GRAPES. that it is beĴer to be injured with impunity. FABLE V. “you that are lying there. IV.” FABLE III. given to wine. they should pay over to their Mother a hundred thousand sesterces. the second. I will show to posterity. being caught.6” said he. IV. that as soon as they should cease to have the property which they had received. unwilling as he was. he is said to have spoken thus: “I am glad that I gave assistance at your entreaties. and further. I don’t like to eat them while sour. the third. a Fox. I have met with slavery. ÆSOP INTERPRETING A WILL. at which a Horse had been in the habit of quenching his thirst. for I have captured a prey. had slain the Boar. sorrowing: “Fool that I am! while seeking to revenge a trifling maĴer. and fond of a country life. on this condition. ought to apply this lesson to themselves. and. at his death.” and so compelled him. he muddied the shallow water. Upon this. that she should distribute his whole fortune equally among the three. one handsome. FABLE IV. thinking her food. who had escaped snares and mouse-traps full oĞ. jumped upon her.A Mouse. as you are flour. a disagreement arose. Some others having followed. but in such a manner that they should not possess or enjoy what was given them. The anxious Mother consults the learned in the law. IV. and viewing from afar the stratagem of the craĞy foe: “So fare you well. an old brindled fellow came. an industrious spinner of wool. leaping with all her might. and. and very ugly. and hunting for the men with her eyes. saying: “They are not ripe yet. The rumour spreads all over Athens.” Those who disparage what they cannot perform. The Horse. Then said the Horse. THE HORSE AND THE WILD BOAR.” This Fable will admonish the passionate. AĞer the Horseman. was put to death: another in like manner perished. that there is oĞen more merit in one man than in a multitude.8 frugal. raising him on his back. hurling his javelins. sought the aid of man. returned against the foe. and then a third. No one can explain in what way . Now the old man made their Mother his heir. When she found she could not reach them. than to put ourselves in the power of another.

consulted equity. THE POET’S DEFENCE AGAINST THE CENSURERS OF HIS FABLES. to escape death. FABLE VI. the Parent. with difficulty geĴing in.10 well stocked with casks of old wine. When the Mice. no one will possess what was given. and they will pay to their Mother the sum named from the price of the things. which each of them has sold.they are not to possess what has been given. The fields. so fond of a country life. IV. The victor. Their Leaders. (whose History is painted in our taverns IV. beasts of burden. with the fine gardens.9 For the Wanton. who knew them well. FABLE VII. and she who delights in caĴle. IV. however. the Wanton will part with the lands to procure fine clothes. a store-room. make over to her who spends her life in luxury. oxen. the high position of its chiefs is in danger. and crowded in trepidation about their narrow lurking-holes. and disdain to read trifles of this . who carp at my writings. the pearls. in what way those who have received nothing. labourers. give to the Worker in wool. silver bathing-vessels. and were captured by the enemy. farm. or have the enjoyment of it. disregarding the strict leĴer of the law. who had fastened horns to their heads. and exclaimed : “O! if consciousness remained to their buried father. he explained the error of them all: “The house and the furniture. and implements of husbandry: for the Drinker. and the flocks. are to pay money. they managed. the humble commonalty easily finds safety in obscurity. with the shepherds. eunuchs. and then again. a finely finished house. The clothes. Æsop suddenly stood up in the midst of the multitude. and the old wines. the aĴendants. how would he grieve that the people of Athens are unable to interpret his will!” On this. THE BATTLE OF THE MICE AND THE WEASELS. sacrificing them with greedy teeth. female trinkets. the vines. Thus. took to flight. and other things. The Ungainly one will sell her wardrobe to procure wine. she sets aside the garments. and beardless boys: for the Worker in wool. the fields.11 and delightful gardens. fastidious critic. Whenever a people is reduced to the last extremity. and aĴends to her spinning.” Thus did the sagacity of one man find out what had baffled the superficial enquiries of many. AĞer a long time had been wasted. and still the meaning of the will could not be understood. overcome by the army of the Weasels. Not one will be able to retain possession of what is alien to her taste.12). When she was intending to distribute what was thus set apart for each. in order that they might have a conspicuous sign for their troops to follow in baĴle. being questioned. present to the Wanton. caĴle. You. and the public approved. stuck fast at the entrance. plunged them into the Tartarean recesses of his capacious paunch. IV. will get rid of her luxurious abode at any price.

to gain a reputation for wisdom. Let him who with greedy teeth aĴacks one who can bite harder.kind. The other. devising a stratagem. my friend: such is the goodness of the water.” say you. consider himself described in this Fable. and. who. a Goat parched with thirst came to the same spot. IV. THE VIPER AND THE FILE.19 and being closed in by the sides which were too high for her. while I smooth down the severity of your brow. THE FOX AND THE GOAT. with the aid of Pallas. As soon as a craĞy man has fallen into danger. through inadvertence. disdainfully exclaimed “Why. fastened her teeth upon a File. and leĞ the Goat to stick fast in the enclosed mud. first laid open the bays of the inhospitable Euxine.15 fell by the guilt of Medea. fool. and Æsop comes forward in a new and more loĞy style.14 under the Thessalian axe! and that Argus had never. mounting on his high horns. my Cato of a Reader. however. What think you of this? “This. to the destruction of Greeks and Barbarians. and while on the search whether there was anything fit to eat.16 of her brother. and by seasonable correction.” Longbeard descended. invented a way boldly to meet certain death. lest they repay you the injury with interest. That. he seeks to make his escape by the sacrifice of another. is mere folly. A Fox. FABLE VIII. who am in the habit of gnawing asunder every kind of iron?” FABLE IX. there effected her escape. then the Fox. of more ancient date.13 Would that the pine had never fallen on the summits of Pelion IV. . Minos.17 nor Tragic Stories suit your taste? Do not be too severe upon all literary men.” What then can I possibly do for you. FABLE X. do you try to wound me with your teeth. and here embrued the hands of the daughters of Pelias in their father’s blood. if neither Fables IV. escaped from the well. that my pleasure in drinking cannot be satisfied. by means of the limbs IV. and the realms of Pelias IV. punished piratical aĴacks. “and is an untrue story. for long before this. IV. would censure heaven itself. aĞer concealing by various methods the cruelty of her disposition. too. and asked whether the water was good. A Viper came IV. endure with some small patience this liĴle book. and in plenty. in the ship which. subjected the Ægæan seas with his fleet.18 into a smith’s workshop. replied : “Come down. This is said to those who are over-squeamish in their folly. For both had the house of the proud Æetes to lament it. having fallen into a well.

to this day. But. nor yet a sacrifice kindled from a lamp. it warns the good to use nothing in common with the wicked. it is neither lawful for a lamp to be lighted at the fire of the Gods.” FABLE XIII.” Accordingly. by means of which piety worships the awful Gods. THE EVILS OF WEALTH. he has placed at our backs. profane man. His father. that our fire. and to me abominable. the Holy Place suddenly sent forth these words: “Although these were the giĞs of the wicked. Jupiter. he turned away his eyes. FABLE XI. the other. but at the time appointed by the Fates: lastly.” says he. on Plutus approaching. IV. HERCULES and PLUTUS. filled with our own vices. In the first place. we are not able to see our own faults: but as soon as others make a slip. arrives. “because he is the friend of the wicked. a maxim that ought indeed to be approved of by all. we are ready to censure. A THIEF PILLAGING THE ALTAR OF JUPITER.OF THE VICES OF MEN. so much so that I care not to be spoiled of them. thou shalt pay the penalty with thy life. could explain how many useful lessons it affords. From this circumstance. and then plundered it by the help of its own light. I forbid that henceforth there shall be any such interchange of light. THE LION REIGNING. he has hung before.21 because a well-stored chest intercepts praise from its true objects. laden with the results of his sacrilege. heavy with those of others. who is the child of Fortune. still. it teaches that those whom you yourself have brought up. A Thief lighted his Lamp at the altar of Jupiter. may not afford its light to crime. When Hercules was received into heaven as the reward of his virtues. Nothing is more advantageous to a man than to speak the truth. FABLE XII. appointed by fate. and saluted in turn the Gods who were congratulating him. IV. it shows that crimes are punished not through the wrath of the Gods. the day of punishment. Riches are deservedly despised by a man of worth. enquired the reason: “I hate him. may oĞen be found the most hostile to you: then again. but still sincerity is frequently impelled to its . when hereaĞer. Jupiter has loaded us with a couple of Wallets: the one. and at the same time corrupts all by presenting the temptation of gain. Just as he was taking his departure.20 No other than he who invented this Fable.

began to be indignant that the females rivalled them in their dignity. * * * * * * * * * * A fictione veretri linguam mulieris. the He-Goats.” This Fable teaches you to bear that those who are inferior to you in merit should be like you in outside appearances. “to enjoy their empty honours.22 * * * * * (The rest is lost). Rogavit alter. veste quas celat pudor. THE PILOT AND THE MARINERS.) Naturæ partes. Tum semisomno corde et errore ebrio. . FABLE XV.own destruction. Applicuit virginale generi masculo. Quum separatim toto finxisset die. distributed hallowed justice with incorruptible fidelity. Et masculina membra applicuit fæminis. Aptare mox ut posset corporibus suis. The She-Goats IV.” said the God . PROMETHEUS. and. tribadas et molles mares Quæ ratio procreasset? Exposuit senex. The Lion having made himself king of the wild beasts. Idem Prometheus auctor vulgi fictilis (Qui simul offendit ad fortunam. Affinitatem traxit inde obscœnitas. so long as they are not sharers in your courage. and wishing to acquire the reputation of equity. Ubi irrigatus multo venas nectare Sero domum est reversus titubanti pede. “Suffer them.23 having obtained of Jupiter the favour of a beard. full of concern. frangitur. and to use the badge that belongs to your rank. FABLE XVI. abandoned his former course of rapine. THE SHE-GOATS AND THEIR BEARDS. FABLE XIV. Ita nunc libido pravo fruitur gaudio. But aĞer second thoughts began to prevail IV. content among them with a moderate supply of food. Ad cœnam est invitatus subito a Libero.

A ship which had been tossed by a fierce tempest (while the passengers were all in tears. He who gives relief to the wicked has to repent it before long. On this. The ambassadors set out. Out they go. FABLE XVIII. and that he would deliver them from the insulting treatment of man. and brings them up in confusion. aĞer a while ordered others to be appointed to aid them. The Dogs once sent IV. the Ambassadors are dispatched. A Man took up a Snake stiffened with frost. IV. being . to entreat of him a happier lot in life. began to be borne along in safety upon the buoyant waves. and to complain with caution. I don’t forbid their return. they fail to make their appearance. as they saw the countenance of mighty Jove. Then did the most mighty Father of the Gods take his seat on his throne. They beg for an audience. who had been rendered wise by experience. remarked : “We ought to be moderate in our joy. and forthwith obtain it. the Pilot. THE MAN AND THE SNAKE.” FABLE XVII. for the purpose of consoling him. and filled with apprehensions of death) on the day suddenly changing to a serene aspect. When one of them sees a strange Dog appear. wondering that their Ambassadors did not return. in their fright they bewrayed the whole palace. and plenty of them. Æsop. THE EMBASSY OF THE DOGS TO JUPITER. All cry out. while snuffing with their nostrils for food in every filth. and brandish his thunders. they stuff the Dogs behind with perfumes.On a certain man complaining of his adverse fortune. at once they take their departure. and suspecting that they had commiĴed something disgraceful. and to inspire the mariners with an excess of gladness. Dreading that something of a similar nature may happen a second time. Rumour soon betrayed the former Ambassadors. thus spoke Jupiter:— “It is not for a King to send Ambassadors away.” And so it is. they shall never be free from the insults of man. driven away with sticks. he snuffs at his tail. but with no hasty steps. in a moment let fall the perfumes with their dung. so sudden was the crash.25 that even now the Dogs of the present day are in expectation of their Ambassadors. and satisfied their most urgent hunger with filthy offal. and warmed her in his bosom. As soon. all things began to shake. nor is it a difficult maĴer to inflict a proper punishment on the offence. The Dogs in alarm. And as for those who sent such despicable Ambassadors as you. but by way of judgment this is the reward you shall have. invented this Fable. lest they be not able to keep their stomachs in order. AĞer some difficulty Mercury finds them at last. however. They give their directions.24 Ambassadors to Jupiter. Being summoned. that the affront must be avenged. The Dogs. But before proceeding to punishment. for the whole of life is a mixture of grief and joy. who gave them bread mixed with bran. but they shall be famished with hunger. but great Jove forbade that they should be sent back.

FABLE XX. contend that the same was composed by me. “but this task has been assigned me by supreme Jove.” “Then you neither take anything for yourself. and pass your life in darkness?” “None at all. she came to the farthest recesses of a Dragon’s den.28 who rob the Gods of their incense. he was the inventor: my hand has brought it to perfection. As soon as the Fox perceived him. it will.” replied the other. if I say frankly: the man is born under the displeasure of the Gods who is like you. from whom the price of provisions extorts a groan. she began:— “In the first place. While a Fox.30 every expense at your funeral. I beg that you will pardon my unintentional intrusion. so great that you should be deprived of sleep. as you see clearly enough that gold is not suited to my mode of life. who wrote such excellent lyric poems. began to make a tour of the celebrated cities of Asia. digging a lair.” As you must go to that place to which others have gone before. she instantly killed the Man.27 who was watching some treasure hidden there. IV. why in the blindness of your mind do you torment your wretched existence? To you I address myself. Whatever it shall here deem worthy to be transmiĴed to posterity. if it shall be not so well pleased with any portion. THE SHIPWRECK OF SIMONIDES. FABLE XXI. offend heaven by your sordid perjuries. and making deeper and more numerous burrows. was throwing out the earth. singing the praises of . Miser. who are for cuĴing down IV.31 should be at all a gainer at the expense of your property. I would refute once for all by this my answer: whether this work is silly.” “Don’t be angry then. the more easily to support his poverty.26 FABLE XIX. THE FOX AND THE DRAGON. or what is the reward. for fear Libitina IV. yourself of food. she made answer: “That people may learn not to assist the wicked. and next. On another one asking her the reason of this crime.compassionate to his own undoing. it will say belongs to Æsop. nor give to another?” “Such is the will of the Fates. A learned man has always a fund of riches in himself. joy of your heir. while adding some farthings to your estate. PHÆDRUS. Simonides. One who thus thinks. for when she had recovered.29 who. IV. But let us pursue our purpose in the order we proposed. who hear with sorrow the musical sound of the lyre. or whether it is worthy of praise. IV. whom the joyous notes of the pipes torment. Although malice may dissemble for the present. I am still perfectly aware what judgment it will think proper to arrive at. for any wager.” IV. have the goodness to answer me: what profit do you derive from this toil.

One who was over inquisitive. This is designed for you. (for he was born. knowing from his very language who he was.32). chanced to be near. it is said. yes. The Fly was the first to begin: “Can you possibly compare with my endowments? When a sacrifice is made. as soon as he saw them. FABLE XXIII.” FABLE XXII. AĞer all. a well-stored abode harbours me.victors for such reward as he might receive. Clazomenæ. and. an ancient city. Simonides?” He made reply: “All my possessions are about me. leaving them naked. to which the shipwrecked persons repaired. therefore it is that you have nothing when you stand in need of it. who had oĞen read the lines of Simonides. produce nothing. You frequent the altars. Simonides chanced to meet them. Surely I have now pulled down . and yet enjoy the nicest of things: what like to this. “is certainly a thing to be boasted of. and aĴendants. being weighed down by their burdens. THE MOUNTAIN IN LABOUR. good rustic. he resolved to return to his native land by sea. IV.” said the Ant. perished. and I taste of the chaste kisses of matrons. and there was in the districts the highest expectation.33 others their precious effects. and was a very great admirer of him though he had never seen him. I wander through all the temples.” A few only made their escape by swimming. A Mountain IV. An Ant and a Fly were contending with great warmth which was of the greater importance. and are driven away as oĞen as you come. Here a person devoted to the pursuits of literature. While I am carefully heaping up a stock of grain for winter.35 was in labour. IV. AĞer he had become enriched by this kind of gain. further. and furnished him with clothes. You talk about kings and the kisses of matrons. which a dreadful tempest. You labour not. when you have threatened great things. Some gathered together their girdles. remarked : “Are you going to save none of your property. I see you feeding on filth about the walls. but by him who is invited. remarked: “I told you that all my property was about me. Accordingly he embarked in a ship. caused to founder at sea. soon as I have espied it. And. not him who is loathed as an intruder. Some thieves make their appearance. when winter comes you are silent. sending forth dreadful groans. falls to your lot?” “Eating with the Gods. I seat myself on the head of a king. for the majority. which formed the support of their existence. While the cold is shrivelling you up and puĴing you to death. together with its own roĴenness. I labour not. The others meanwhile were carrying about their pictures. you boast about what modesty ought to conceal. what you endeavoured to save is lost.34 begging for victuals. and seize what each person has saved. in the island of Ceos IV. it brought forth a Mouse. I pass my time among the altars. who. You tease me in summer. received him with the greatest pleasure into his house. money. THE ANT AND THE FLY. I am the first to taste of the entrails that belong to the Gods.

on a sudden. most upright Particulo (a name destined to live in my writings. the very same of whom I have before made mention. and hardly had he put one foot out of the banqueĴing room.36 who had been victorious: accordingly he sought retirement. when suddenly the fall of the ceiling crushed the rest. the license of the Poet. and smarting under the injury. two young men. that I may feel convinced that you have not departed in anger.” said he. When the circumstances of the story I have told were made known. he promised that he would. at a fixed price. to write a panegyric for a certain Pugilist. As the meagreness of his subject cramped his imagination. The banquet shone joyously with its cups. amid vast preparations. they disgust. so long as a value shall continue to be set upon the Latin literature). which has the more just claim to be commended. at least approve my brevity. At the hour named he returned.37 citing them as an example of similar honours. and dripping with perspiration. the house resounded with gladness. and say that it was of consequence to him to make no delay. break off all friendly intercourse. he used. IV. and introduced the twin stars of Leda.your pride enough. in order that he might not. He finished the Poem according to contract. I have said. FABLE XXIV. well-timed. in the number of whom I reckon you. are pleasing. Simonides.” A Fable of this nature distinctly points out the characters of those who set themselves off with unfounded praises. IV. out of place. SIMONIDES PRESERVED BY THE GODS. if you like not my genius. but though wiĴicisms. EPILOGUE. and took his place at table. seeing how wearisome Poets usually are. all were persuaded that the personal intervention of the Divinities had saved the Poet’s life by way of reward. as I intend to-day to invite my kinsmen. and no young men were to be seen at the gate. and of those whose virtues gain solid fame. The man.38 FOOTNOTES TO BOOK IV . above. quite confused. “will give it you whose praises occupy the other two-thirds. when. covered with dust. according to general custom. IV. their bodies of more than human form. Wherefore. but. requested one of the servants to call Simonides to them. and there is a copious abundance of subjects. agreed. There are still remaining many things which I might say. but received only a third part of the sum agreed upon. promise to dine with me. how greatly learning is esteemed among men: I will now hand down to posterity how great is the honor paid to it by the Gods. On his demanding the rest: “They. by parting on bad terms.” Although defrauded. called forth Simonides.

” or “demonstrabit.. So fare you well)—Ver. During the Festival of Cybele. which you are not. 8. i. 21. Particulo)—Ver. and though others may make use of them as bearing a general moral. i. “The tympana. 26. Book ii. however. 25. 3. “Politam” probably refers to the care with which the houses of the opulent in cities were smoothed by the workman’s art. 149. 7. 10. and beating a tambourine. Priests of Cybele)—Ver.” See the Fasti of Ovid. 11.. According to some Commentators. vol. 6. they will not be able so well as himself to point their moral in reference to individuals or classes. not at all. in consequence of his advantage in having already adapted many of them to the censure of particular vices. It was situate above the “fumarium. B. and similar subjects have been found painted on walls at Pompeii. p. This seems to be the meaning of “fidem advocare:” but the passage has caused considerable difficulty to the Commentators. A finely finished house)—Ver. 350. . 10. Gronovius thinks that he alludes to the Greek proverb “Μωµεῖσθαι ῥάδιον ἢ µιµεῖσθαι.” 7. “Sonipes. Ovid. iv. Spinner of wool )—Ver.e. if you are flour. 742. 20.” This was a name commonly given to the horse by the Romans.” Working in wool was the constant employment of the more industrious among the females of the higher class. Lucan repeatedly calls a war-horse by this epithet. Of Particulo nothing whatever is known. The “apotheca” was a place in the upper part of the house. l. 3. Consulted equity )—Ver. Cannot imitate)—Ver. the Galli or eunuch-priests of the Goddess went about with an image of her seated on an ass. and Burmann is probably right in supposing that he means to say that many of the Æsopian fables had not yet been used by him. that it was the custom to paint comic subjects on the walls of the taverns. A store-room )—Ver. “Sic valeas. 4. in which the Romans frequently placed the amphoræ in which their wine was stored. for the purpose of making a collection to defray the expenses of the worship. 2. in the Fasti.” literally “sounding-hoof.” —“Fare you well. l. “domus polita” here means “a house furnished with every luxury. They were called by the Greeks µητραγύρται. I wish you luck as much as I believe you are what you pretend to be. were covered with the skin of asses or of oxen. 5.” “’Tis easier to blame than to imitate.” as the smoke was thought to heighten the flavour of the wine. We learn from Horace and other ancient writers. “Divinabit” seems preferable here to “damnabit..” which were almost exactly similar to our tambourines. I have omiĴed)—Ver. 9. Tambourines)—Ver.” 4. of Bohn’s Translation. 5.1. 16. represents Lucretia as being found thus employed by her husband and Tarquinius. The Emperor Augustus refused to wear any clothes that were not woven by the females of his family. and were beaten with the hand or a small stick. The horse)—Ver.” the other readings. except that he was a freedman. 5.. 2.” 12. In our taverns)—Ver. “Collectors for the Mother. “Lanificam.

but there a Cat plays the part of the Viper. It is supposed to have been torn out of the MS. The realms of Pelias)—Ver. The place where this happened was thence said to have had the name of Tomi. at the hands of his own daughters. El.” he probably means Æsopian fables. Fallen into a well)—Ver. 20. 13. 26. B. 9. et seq. l. King of Colchis.” the more loĞy stories of tragedy are meant. while the Dogs signify the Roman people. who. This Fable is thought by some to bear reference to the interference of Livia in affairs of state. 297. It has been remarked that Phædrus here deviates from nature.” Some of ancient authors make Plutus to be the son of Ceres and Jasius. 1. the Arabian Fabulist. as well as some part of the next. It is supposed that in this singular Fable. Æetes pursued his daughter Medea. iii. cut her brother in pieces. When.” literally “the buskins of Tragedy. 23. The ship Argo was said to have been built of wood grown on Mount Pelion. If neither Fables)—Ver. 15. in order to retard her father in the pursuit. Orellius considers the lines ending with “obscœnitas” as the fragment of a Fable distinct from the succeeding lines. And so it is)—Ver. objecting to the following Fable. More loĞy style)—Ver. Limbs of her brother)—Ver. A Viper entered)—Ver. ix.” Phædrus means a military man. 5. 24. some of the prevailing superstitions of his day. 18. 22. Not to assist the wicked)—Ver. 13. The author alludes to the expedition of Jason to Colchis to fetch thence the Golden Fleece. Began to prevail)—Ver. 3. daughter of Æetes. 5. in making the Serpent give a bad character of . From a lamp)—Ver. Some of the Commentators think that Tiberius and Sejanus are pointed at in this Fable. 25. More usually a fire was kept constantly burning in the temple for the purpose.” or “of strong mind. 16. Phædrus ridicules. 15. while the father was employed in gathering the limbs of his son. Summits of Pelion)—Ver 6. The ancients were compelled to light sacrifices to the Gods from torches. Lokman. Thus. The remainder of this Fable is lost. He alludes to the death of Pelias. See Ovid’s Metamorphoses. A man of worth )—Ver. vii.” he means a censorious or over-scrupulous reader. and not with fire from a lamp. in a covert manner. and scaĴered his limbs in the way. destroyed the leaf which contained the laĴer part of the present one.13. having taken with her her brother Absyrtus. The Dogs once sent)—Ver.” 14. through the schemes of Medea. 1. By “fabellæ. on her flight with Jason. has the same fable. “Cothurnis. and to this place Ovid was banished by Augustus. she. 22. 21. 17. King of Thessaly. 1. The She-Goats)—Ver. 35. This and the next line are regarded by many as spurious: indeed Hare is disinclined to believe that this Fable was wriĴen by Phædrus at all. By “Cato. or else that he satirizes Tiberius and Sejanus. while by “fabulæ. 3. The word “fortis” seems rather here to mean “of real worth. of the writings of Phædrus by some pious monk. B. It has been suggested that by “forti viro. See the Story related in the Tristia of Ovid. Medea made her escape. 19.

That is to say. 24. in his death. Among the ancients.itself. 9.” from the Greek πυκτὴς. Usually are)—Ver. a “boxer. If I shall anywhere insert the name of Æsop. In former times. one of the Cyclades. 28. that they were guarded by watchful Dragons. in answer to this rude remark: “One day I shall appear to you even to be a lion. the miser Euclio is represented as groaning over the high price of provisions. to whom I have already rendered every honor that was his due. 22. So in the Aulularia of Plautus. Act II. The “pollinctores. 34.” alluding to the diminutive stature of Agesilaus. the zones or girdles were sometimes used for the purpose of keeping money there. much in the fashion which we sometimes see followed at the present day. The poet Simonides was born at Iulis. 33. a city of the isle of Ceos. Sc. 29. Castor and Pollux. 28. Carrying about their pictures)—Ver. 25. which was very prevalent. Tachos. 31. 1. It was the custom for shipwrecked persons to go about soliciting charity with a painting suspended from the neck. 9. 37. 18. CuĴing down)—Ver. Lest Libitina )—Ver. In the island of Ceos)—Ver. Their girdles)—Ver. Joy of your heir)—Ver. 27. representing their calamity. 35. King of Sparta. who contented himself with replying. is said by Plutarch to have said to Agesilaüs. 26. BOOK V. when riches were more commonly buried in the earth. suggest that Caligula is represented by the snake.” Latinized. 11. King of Egypt.” kept their biers and other implements required at funerals. 3. A certain Pugilist)—Ver. Of a Dragon’s den)—Ver. Extorts a groan)—Ver. A Mountain)—Ver. Twin stars of Leda )—Ver. the twin sons of Leda. Jupiter has been in alarm. Orellius introduces this aĞer Fable V in the FiĞh Book. while sometimes purses were carried suspended from them. in the Ægæan Sea.” 36. but it has brought forth a mouse.” or “undertakers. “Pyctæ. at the Temple of the Goddess Libitina. when he came to his assistance: “The mountain has been in labour. just as . PROLOGUE. viii. who wreaked his cruelty on his former benefactors. 38. 30.” or “pugilist. 32. Those who think that Phædrus wrote aĞer the time of Tiberius. In his will. 5. Macro and Ennia. know that it is for the sake of his authority. it was perhaps found convenient to encourage a superstitious notion.

unjustly took possession of the sovereignty of Athens. DEMETRIUS AND MENANDER. Carping envy more readily favours the works of antiquity than those of the present day. believing them true. gave himself a heavy blow. who did not know him. The Robber slain. came with a mincing and languid step. and clad in a flowing robe. he exclaimed: “A more agreeable looking man could not possibly exist. he who had vanquished the robber made answer: “I wish you had seconded me just now at least with those words. V. rush from all quarters vying with each other. know full well that no dependence is to be placed upon your valour. FABLE I. who obtain a much greater price for their productions. THE BALD MAN AND THE FLY. I should have been still more emboldened. who have experienced with what speed you take to your heels. what will you do to yourself. those who live in retirement.” said he. Therefore let these Fables obtain a hearing. with a moral to the purpose. endeavouring to crush it. A Fly bit the bare pate of a Bald Man. that you may be able to deceive others who don’t know you. and wish him joy. Then said the Fly jeeringly: “You wanted to revenge the sting of a tiny insect with death.” “I’ll take care he shall soon know whom he aĴacks. then throwing back his travelling cloak. The mob. and had admired the genius of the man). his cowardly companion comes running up. THE TRAVELLERS AND THE ROBBER. I.2 who was called Phalereus. Among these Menander. one fled. while they silently lament the sad vicissitudes of fortune. FABLE III. But now I turn to a Fable. V.” On this. according to their usual practice. while the other stood his ground. Moreover. perfumed with unguents. had read.3 for his Comedies (which Demetrius. in times of danger takes to flight. if they inscribe the name of Praxiteles on their marbles. and defended himself with a stout right-hand. Even the chief men kiss the hand by which they are oppressed. now keep your sword quiet. “is this. who have added insult to .some statuaries do in our day. and take their ease.” Changed in an instant. and draws his sword.1 on their polished silver. who presumes to come into my presence?” Those near him made answer: “This is Menander the Poet. As soon as the Tyrant caught sight of him at the end of the train: “What effeminate wretch. famous V. come creeping in last of all. Two Soldiers having fallen in with a Robber. who. and cheer him. that their absence may not injure them.” This story may be applied to him who is courageous in prosperity.” FABLE II. as well as your silly tongue. Demetrius. and Myron V.4 says: “Let’s have him.

A Countryman seeing this take place: “Egad. if he who had been fed upon it had not had his throat cut. FABLE IV. I have always been careful to avoid the gain that exposed to hazard. even at a heavier penalty. Suddenly. said that he had a kind of entertainment which had never yet been brought out at any theatre. invited all. brought together the whole city. spreading. “he shan’t surpass me. about to entertain the people with grand shows. being detected. have come to a bad end. and so well did he imitate the voice of a pig with his own. he dropped down his head towards his bosom. ordered the remains of the barley to be set for the Ass. Prejudice had already taken . and the places. A rich Man. “those who have got riches by rapine. A Man having sacrificed a young boar to the god Hercules.” Warned by the significance of this Fable. the very intenseness of expectation produced silence. are still in possession of them. But him who is designedly mischievous.” said he. and ordered it to be shaken out. who.” This Fable teaches that pardon is to be granted to him who errs through mistake. sufficed not for the multitude. FABLE V. and said: “I would most willingly accept your food. I could wish to destroy you. then. But as soon as he appeared on the stage. as soon as they found that nothing was discovered. worthless insect. This being done. Men are in the habit of erring through prejudice. to exhibit whatever new piece of ingenuity any one could. empty shortly before. you will find that those so punished constitute a great majority. “But.” say you. But he refused to touch it.” and immediately gave out that he would do the same thing still beĴer on the following day. The Performers came to the contest for fame.injury?” The Man made answer: “I am easily reconciled to myself. any stageassistants. and one of a contemptible race. among whom a Buffoon. to whom he owed performance of a vow made for the preservation of his health. because I know that there was no intention of doing harm. that they concluded there was a real one under his cloak. A still greater crowd assembled. THE BUFFOON AND THE COUNTRYMAN. they loaded the Man with many praises. and bestowed upon him the greatest applause. who take a delight in drinking human blood. alone.” Come. and without any apparatus. But you. by the promise of a reward. misfortune to most. and while they stand up in defence of their erroneous notions. I deem to be deserving of any punishment. THE MAN AND THE ASS. are wont to be driven by plain facts to confession of their mistakes. well known for his drollery. let us enumerate those. The rumour. Rashness brings luck to a few.

came up: “Come.” The other showed the booty. pretending that he concealed a pig beneath his clothes (which. for they are a merry race.” said he. determined to deride. “this shows what sort of judges you are. twitched the ear of the real pig. whatever it is you have found. beguiled by frivolous applause. and excites their applause. The Flute-player kisses hands. in security. at a representation. Some affirmed that he was dead. The people shouted with one voice that the Buffoon had given a much more exact imitation. when he would much rather have parted with two right ones. When the day came a rumour about the Flute-player ran through the theatre. Next. Rome.” This complaint befits him whom hope has disappointed. was preĴy well known. because they had found none about the other). the Buffoon grunts away.possession of their minds. As is the way with the spectators. some that he would appear before them without delay.9 and the Gods conversed in the usual form. The Equestrian order perceive . and they took their seats.” FABLE VI. he did. we have found. and awakens their acclamations. The curtain falling.8 the thunders rolled. and ordered the Countryman to be driven from the stage.6 was being whirled along. Some months pass by before his cure is completed. FABLE VII. which he was concealing.5 with his music on the stage. for your prince [Princeps] is well. while the flying-machine V. such foolish vanity is easily exposed to ridicule. and added withal: “The will of the Gods has favoured us. the Flute-player. in fact. On this. by whose blasts the vigour of the dancer was wont to be kept at full stretch. and convicting them of their disgraceful mistake by a manifest proof: “Look. It chanced that. as the saying is. through inadvertence. and not as unbiassed spectators. I don’t well remember what it was. being accustomed to accompany Bathyllus V. of which the burthen was this: “Rejoice. equally destitute of hair. the Countryman. When a weak mind. but quite unsuspected. has once given way to insolent self-sufficiency. Both Performers come forth. and broke his leĞ leg. he produced the pig itself from the folds of his cloak. and with the pain forced from it its natural cry. First. At this moment the Chorus struck up a song unknown to him who had so recently returned. With a present and entreaties he prevailed upon him merely to present himself on the day of the show. A Bald Man chanced to find a comb in the public road. but through the malignity of fate. he fell heavily. V. Princeps. Another. a coal instead of a treasure. THE FLUTE-PLAYER. V. THE TWO BALD MEN. the man began to be missed. A certain Nobleman was about to exhibit a show. and imagines that his friends are congratulating him. PRINCEPS. V. “shares.” said he. just when Princeps was beginning to walk abroad.” All rise with one consent and applaud.7 He was picked up and carried to his house groaning aloud.

” You. he seized him by the ear. 7. “I knew that before you were born. and with loud laughter encore the song. and according to Petronius Arbiter. V. My man now throws himself sprawling at full length upon the stage. A Dog.12 was thrust out headlong by common consent. let go his prey. balancing on a razor’s edge. Philetus.” said the Bull. When a Bull was struggling with his horns in a narrow passage. clad in snow-white tunic. the reality came to be known throughout all the tiers. but. It is repeated.the ridiculous mistake. but my strength. while the people fancy he is only asking for a chaplet. When. THE HUNTSMAN AND THE DOG. his leg bound up with a snow-white fillet. On one occasion. to signify that slothful delay should not hinder the execution of our purposes. THE EMBLEM OF OPPORTUNITY. not Jupiter himself can overtake him: he is the emblem how shortlived is Opportunity. V.13 his body naked—if you have caught him. FABLE VIII. The ancients devised such a portraiture of Time. and engraver.10 Ridiculing him. died in extreme poverty. began to grow feeble under increasing years. FABLE X. the Knights applaud. Princeps. You commend me for what I have been. V. his forehead covered with hair. And Myron)—Ver.11 while pluming himself on the honors really paid to the Deified House. and could hardly effect an entrance to the manger. He was a native of Eleutheræ. a Calf began to point out in what way he might turn himself: “Hush. FOOTNOTES TO BOOK V 1. being urged to the combat with a bristling Boar. and you blame me that I am not what I was. . V. the Huntsman upbraided the Dog. hold him fast.” Let him who would instruct a wiser man. Myron was a famous sculptor. FABLE IX. through the roĴenness of his teeth. statuary. Old Barker V. in Bœotia. and snow-white shoes. V.15 may easily perceive why I have wriĴen this. of Greece. however. consider this as said to himself. Vexed at this. THE BULL AND THE CALF. A Bald Man. fleet of foot. who had always given satisfaction to his master by his boldness against swiĞ and savage beasts.14 replied : “It is not my courage that disappoints you. when he has once escaped.

7. Losing two right ones)—Ver. 7. according to the present practice.2. 9. Snow-white shoes)—Ver. English “leg” oĞen had the narrower meaning of “lower leg”. 23. rising before the stage. 2. although in the laĴer years of his government he gave himself up in a great measure to sensual pursuits. 32. probably varying in tone. The “pænula” was a travelling-cloak made of leather or wool. The “aulæum. which. The “pegma” was a piece of machinery used on the stage for the purpose of aiding the ascents and descents of the Gods there represented. 9.” “the curtain is dropped. Menander. where he was born. Taking to himself the honor that belonged to the house of Augustus. 38. We learn from Ovid and other authors that white shoes were solely worn by the female sex. 5. “Princeps broke his leĞ leg. it was depressed when the play began. 7.” which signifies the main bone of the leg. 1. philosopher. 12. 6.” was a piece of tapestry stretched on a frame. 9. There seems no good reason for giving to his rule over the Athenians the epithet of “improbum. Upon the stage)—Ver. Accompany Bathyllus)—Ver. These pipes were right-handed or leĞ-handed. Instead of drawing up this curtain to discover the stage and actors. His travelling cloak )—Ver. whence our common expression “To take time by the forelock. 5. two being played at a time. The “pulpitum” was properly an elevated place on the proscenium. which was worshipped with Divine honors. Explained at length. He died in exile in Egypt. To the Deified house)—Ver. or space between the scene and the orchestra. 5. 14. The thunders rolled)—Ver. concealed it till the actors appeared. He alludes to Bathyllus. The curtain falling )—Ver.” found in the next line. and a pipe or flute. 8. called also “siparium. Called Phalereus)—Ver. was so called from the AĴic demus. the inventor of the New Comedy. according to some accounts. Demetrius Phalereus.” or stage-curtain. and who brought to perfection pantomimic dancing at Rome. the pun means. 13. 11. This thunder was made by the noise of rolling stones in copper vessels. Flying-machine)—Ver.” Not an error: until recently. 23.” meant that the play had began. 3. with a hood aĴached to it. Old Barker)—Ver. . Menander. We may here enumerate the names of this nature. 37. The Poet puns on the twofold meanings of the word “tibia. and fell beneath the level of the stage: whence “aulæa premuntur” or “miĴuntur. 4. famous)—Ver. Time came to be represented in the middle ages with a tuĞ of hair on his forehead. of the bite of a serpent. the favourite and freedman of Mecænas. or borough of Phalerus. From this figure of Time or Opportunity.” signifying to make the best of an opportunity. 10. and ruler of Athens. Some of the Comedies of Terence are Translations from his works. His forehead covered with hair)—Ver. the statesman. to cover the head. when he could have beĴer afforded to break two right-handed pipes.

10. AN Ape asked a Fox for a part of her tail.” “long-beard. FABLE III. “sonipes.)—Ver. he who. the age of the Crow. still I will sooner drag it through mud and brambles. If Nature had NF. and the impetuous force of the Lion. NF.” “woolbearer. We must not require what is unreasonable.2 formed the human race according to my notions. and Man should still have had the ingenuity that is peculiarly his own. and “latrans. but the ill-natured creature replied : “Although it grow even longer than it is. that he might decently cover his naked hinder parts therewith. it would have been far beĴer endowed: for she would have given us every good quality that indulgent Fortune has bestowed on any animal: the strength of the Elephant.” the mouse.which we find given by Phædrus to various animals: “laniger.” the dog. than give you ever so small a part thereof. “retorridus. Another Fable on the same subject. BY SOME ATTRIBUTED TO PHÆDRUS.” the horse. the gentle tractableness of the fleet Horse. “auritulus. The Greedy Man is not willing to give even from his superabundance. MERCURY AND THE TWO WOMEN. . “barbatus. 15.” the sheep. THE NEW FABLES. denied these qualities to men. let us pass the years of our time alloĴed by fate. Of this Philetus nothing certain is known.” “long-ears. nor aĴempt more than mortality permits.” FABLE II.1 FABLE I.” the goat. THE APE AND THE FOX. no doubt.” “soundinghoof. Contented. Philetus. Jupiter in heaven laughs to himself. the majestic port of the fierce Bull. THE AUTHOR.” “barker.” the ass. with the giĞs of unconquered Jove. in his mighty plan. lest our audacity should wrest from him the sceptre of the world.” “brindle. but he is supposed to have been a freedman of the emperor Claudius. therefore.

when about to depart. was called Mendacity. is crying aloud. NF. being suddenly summoned by the messenger of great Jove. FABLE VI. and life had been breathed into them. while laughing at another. His master came back. a mean and sordid entertainment. When once Prometheus. had formed Truth from fine earth. the result of the stealthy work. he leĞ his workshop in charge of treacherous Cunning. the Courtesan requests that whatever she touches may follow her. Mercury. and like in every limb. he found he had no clay to make the feet. The laĴer. PROMETHEUS AND CUNNING. hallowed Truth moved on with modest gait. and therefore placed the two images together in the furnace. on which the humours of the head filled her nostrils. corresponding stature. FABLE V.4 because they say. she has no feet. wished the merit to appear to belong to his own skill. admiring so strong a resemblance.3 FABLE IV. NF. confused by fear at his quick return. THE SIGNIFICATION OF THE PUNISHMENTS OF . therefore that he might give a suitable return for their services.—an assertion with which I readily agree.Once on a time. the framer of a new race. she became herself a subject for laughter.” The Mother makes her request. and Cunning. two Women had given their guest. so far as the time permiĴed. sat down in his own place. and thus. and drew out its length to the ground. Thence the spurious image. but her imperfect copy remained fixed on the spot. Mercury flies away—the women return in-doors: behold the infant. with a beard. Prometheus. On Truth and Falsehood. but still the truth appears in time. as is oĞen the case. that she might be able to dispense justice among mankind. with clever hand formed an image of similar appearance. Nothing is long concealed. she seized it with her hand. When they were thoroughly baked. The Courtesan happened to laugh heartily at this. while the profession of a Courtesan had its charms for the other. * * * Pretended vices are sometimes profitable to men. In order. I will give you at once whatever each may wish. he said: “In me you behold a God. and asks that she may immediately see her Son graced with a beard. Intending therefore to blow her nose. whom he had lately received in apprenticeship. one of the women had a liĴle son in the cradle.5 THE AUTHOR. and just crossing the threshold. When nearly the whole had now been wondrously set up. NF. inflamed by zeal.

Phœbus! who dost inhabit Delphi and the beauteous Parnassus. his labour lost. FABLE VIII. defile the marriage couch. and your chaste wives with arms.6 presenting for dire punishment a liver that ever grows again: by this it is shown that the greater the extent of land a man possesses. beware of the wicked. defend your country. Æsop replied: “I greatly approve of your bestowing praise on yourself. NF.TARTARUS. to know what the Sage thought thereof: “Does it appear to you. pay your vows to the Gods above. say what is most useful to us.8 some worthless composition to Æsop. the tripods shake. therefore. chastise the impious. indeed. shows that men’s miseries are endless. Sisyphus.” said he. and the very day grow pale? SmiĴen by the Divinity. your children. whom a sufficiency of blessings surrounds. which ever.” Thus having said. for what she said. Antiquity purposely wrapped up the truth. assist your friends. will flow out beneath. repel the foe with the sword. “that I have been too conceited? I have no empty confidence in my own capacity. she said in vain. A Person had recited NF. pushing the stone up the loĞy hill. punish offences. the holy shrines resound. too. When Tantalus is athirst. the Maiden falls frenzied to the ground: frenzied. Why do the locks of the holy prophetess stand erect. favour the good. teaches us what a rolling thing is fortune. just so. in which he had inordinately bragged about himself. ÆSOP AND THE AUTHOR. in order that the wise might understand—the ignorant remain in error. NF. Desirous. your parents. Wretched Tityus is stretched over nine acres. rolls back from the top. The meaning is to be considered. and cannot fill their pierced vessels. THE AUTHOR. The story of Ixion. the heavier are his cares. for it will never be your lot to receive it from another. On the Oracle of Apollo. but none can they enjoy. the Pythia uĴers these words. meet the treacherous face to face. inflict vengeance on those who. The wicked Danaïds carry water in urns. . the greedy are described.” Worried to death with the execrable volume. FABLE VII. with immense labour. On a bad Author who praised himself. the laurels.” FABLE IX. standing in the midst of the river. and the warning of the Delian God instructs the nations: “Practise virtue. not the mere words. whatever you bestow on luxury. by base adultery.7 quiver. trust no man too far. spare the wretched. whirling round upon the wheel.

Thereupon said Pompeius: “With great pleasure I present you with the soldier’s crown. How difficult it is to understand a man. When Juno NF. At length. because you have vindicated the honor of the Roman name. will you. as well he might. On the Lustfulness of Women. the soldier is accused. to show that there was no female equal to herself in that virtue . Magnus says to him: “How say you? Have you dared to rob me. and gave the Soldier permission to go out to meet the champion.11 was praising her own chastity. General. who was seated on his tribunal. but Mars in prowess. the maĴer being so serious. Lying in wait by night for the beasts of burden of his General. “may my eyes drip out. who. remarked : “I think it would be beĴer for this person to be exposed to the hazards of Fortune. “may my eyes drip out” (imitating the unseemly act with which the Soldier had accompanied his oath). comrade?” The soldier forthwith spits into his leĞ hand. still scratch I must.” Magnus acquiesced. by talking mincingly and walking with an affected gait. and that most fully established. indeed it is too much. AND THE HEN. “is a measure of wheat enough?” “Certainly. than a valiant man. and. since in him our loss would be but small.9 and will not believe the man guilty of so great audacity.10 But Magnus. and a vast weight of silver. Not long aĞerwards a barbarian. and carried off to the Prætorium. is said to have asked this question of the Hen: “Tell me. VENUS.POMPEIUS MAGNUS AND HIS SOLDIER.” said he. “what do you require.” “To keep you from scratching. might entail upon you a charge of rashness.” “In fine. this effeminate wretch in appearance. A rumour of what has been done gets abroad. with how much food could you be satisfied?” The hen replied: “Whatever you give me will be enough. On this. and. NF. challenges one of the Romans.” says he. A Soldier of Pompeius Magnus. ordered him to be turned out.” FABLE X. “Even thus.” said the Goddess. an aged man among the ChieĞain’s friends. confiding in his strength of hand.” Then Magnus. JUNO. but still do allow me to scratch. geĴing angry. Venus did not lose the opportunity of a joke. orders the false accusers to be sent about their business. and scaĴers about the spiĴle with his fingers. if I have seen or touched your property. a man of easy disposition.” said Venus.” Juno is said to have laughed at the joke of Venus. with a lisping voice. but still you must let me scratch a bit with my feet. to the surprise of the army. if conquered through some mischance. whose head. and returned victorious. “if you did not carry off my property from among the baggage. said “May I?” NF. a man of huge bulk. had acquired the character of an effeminate wretch. and the leaders of highest rank muĴer among themselves. he drives away the mules laden with garments and gold. he whipped off sooner than you could say it. Upon this. for by the Hen she meant . Each man fears to accept the challenge. on condition of not scratching at all?” Then at last the hen confessed the weak point in her nature: “Though a whole barn were open for me. approached the General. nevertheless.

NF. being the stronger. and gave loose to the impetuous temper of youth. my strength was far greater. How a bad-tempered Son may be tamed. inflicted many a blow upon the servants.” FABLE XIII.” said he. if you. alleged the failing strength of his years: “You have no reason to fear. How Genius is oĞen wasted through Misfortune. FABLE XI. Æsop consequently told this short story to the old man.the Female Sex.” “Then. To this the other replied : “Don’t mention it. A Philosopher chancing to find the Victor in a gymnastic contest too fond of boasting. as soon as he had got out of his fathers sight. and when the Ox shunning to bear the yoke with a neck so unfit for it. “what praise do you deserve. but that you may tame him. “it happens unfortunately that I am not skilled in the art. you simpleton. THE FATHER OF A FAMILY AND ÆSOP. take care that the broils in your house don’t increase to a still greater degree. “I don’t do this that you may labour. THE ASS AND THE LYRE. NF. THE PHILOSOPHER AND THE VICTOR IN THE GYMNASTIC GAMES.” Just so. Gentleness is the remedy for a bad temper. who. unless you always keep your son by you. have conquered one who was not so powerful? You might perhaps have been tolerated if you had told us that you had conquered one who was your superior in strength. An Ass espied a Lyre lying in a meadow: he approached and tried the strings with his hoof. and by your management restrain his temper. he might have charmed my ears with divine notes. a preĴy thing. How Boastfulness may sometimes be checked. A Father of a family had a passionate Son.12 FABLE XII.” retorted the Philosopher.” said the Countryman.” So Genius is oĞen wasted through Misfortune. they sounded at his touch. “By my faith. A certain Man was yoking an old Ox along with a Calf. asked him whether his adversary had been the stronger man.13 . who with his heels and horns has made many lame. If any person of greater skill had found it.

but of beauteous features. and he gradually burns with unchaste desires. she obtained a distinguished character for strict chastity. frightening and scaĴering them on all sides. was standing at the threshold of a gate. . and at the same moment a storm of hail. betook himself to some gardens near at hand. who chanced just then to be assisting her mistress. On a sudden.” and gives up the body of her Husband to be fastened to the cross.14 had for some years lost her beloved Husband. Wrought upon by daily intercourse. While the careful Guard is here passing his nights. one of the Guards. and it so happens the maidens lead him along. Fortune sometimes favours Men beyond their hopes and expectations. Now an Ass. The Ass runs under the well-known roof close at hand. some persons who had plundered the temple of Jupiter suffered the penalty of crucifixion. emaciated indeed. close by the monument in which the woman had shut herself up. for she had been watching by a lamp. and soon enthralled his heart by a closer tie. THE WIDOW AND THE SOLDIER. Thus did profligacy usurp the place of honour. and Hymenæus gives the marriage torch. the crash of thunder resounds through the firmament. The marriage procession is arranged. The Soldier in his alarm relates to the Woman what has happened. His craĞy shrewdness invents a thousand pretences for seeing her more frequently. a liĴle beyond which. beats upon them. the heavens are swept by winds. THE RICH SUITOR AND THE POOR ONE. which used to gain a living for the Poor man. and with a loud voice gives notice of his presence. Two Youths were courting a Maiden at the same time. the Rich man got the beĴer of the birth and good looks of the Poor one. the splendid villa of the Rich man was about to receive the Maiden from her mother’s bosom. In order that no one might remove their remains. and as she could by no means be forced from it.FABLE XIV. and had prolonged her vigils to a late hour. because he could not endure his grief. and beholds a Woman. FABLE XV. but the chaste Matron replies: “You have no grounds for fear. A certain Woman NF. spreading in all directions. who was going to rest. asked. by the pity of Venus. the Soldier peeps in. for some water. that he may not undergo punishment for his negligence. light is withdrawn from their eyes. being thirsty. by degrees she became more complaisant to the stranger. as his house in the city seemed not to be roomy enough. a great crowd flocks to the scene. a body is missed from one of the crosses. In the meantime. soldiers were appointed as guards of the dead bodies. The great Inconstancy and Lustfulness of Women. of a servant-maid. When the appointed day for the nuptials had arrived. and had placed his body in a tomb. in the middle of the night. the woe-begone Lover. and brings on a rough night with heavy rain. The door being a liĴle open. His smiĴen heart is immediately inflamed. compelling each to seek safety for himself in flight. that the fatigues of the way may not hurt the tender feet of the Bride . Some time aĞer. and passed her life in mourning at the sepulchre.

offering his assistance. When the news was brought him. I was lately beaten with the whip because I told the truth. and. and threatened them with a severe flogging if they did not tell the truth. A Sow was lying and groaning.” NF. exulting with delight. her travail coming on. both Bacchus and Venus exhorting him.” FABLE XVII. rejected the . said that he could perform the duties of midwife. She. The bride’s parents sought their daughter through the crier. Shortly aĞer a thief took away a silver bracelet. AĞer what had taken place became known to the public. behold with admiration the beautiful Maiden.” “But your sides. yet found no one who would touch her with a finger: “May I say a few words?” said he. if you don’t make presents.” As soon as the savage brotherhood NF.16 began to be hungry. not a burden. and went shares in the proceeds of their guilt. Æsop being in the service of an Ugly Woman. FABLE XVI. no. said: “I advise you to be on your guard against treachery. How injurious it oĞen is to tell the Truth. “Threaten others. you would pronounce that they are carrying a booty. AND THE WOLF We must first make trial of a Man before we entrust ourselves to him. “shan’t enjoy their repose. He. your bed will enjoy its repose.” said Æsop. “indeed you won’t trick me. however. and then go and tell their master.15 and ordered the talkative Slave to be flogged. THE SOW BRINGING FORTH. for if you were to examine the countenances of those creatures. who wasted the whole day in painting herself up. gold. “Then I think. full of fury she summoned all her slaves. mistress. A COCK CARRIED IN A LITTER BY CATS. “Say on. and used fine clothes. they tore their Master to pieces. A Cock had some Cats to carry him in his liĴer: a Fox on seeing him borne along in this pompous manner. while the intended Husband grieved at the loss of his Wife.The servants run out of doors.” she replied . understanding the treachery of the wicked animal. if you lay aside your ornaments. “Why. “that you will effect anything you wish. a Wolf came running to her aid. pearls. he celebrated his joyous nuptials amid the applauses of his comrades.” “Do I then seem to you so much preferable by myself?” said she .” said he. and silver. FABLE XVIII. all agreed in approving of the favour shown by the Gods of heaven. An extreme feeling of Security oĞen leads Men into Danger. was consoling his passion with repeated draughts. When the Woman was told that it could not be found.” she replied. ÆSOP AND HIS MISTRESS. seated at table with a few companions.

I have determined to go wherever my feet may carry me. betaking himself to . A Slave. met Æsop. As he was being led out of doors from the mill-stones to water.” said Æsop. Whatever happens. he runs to the rocky shore. father. he said.” said the other. “for you are worthy to be called by that name. unhappy that I am. you suffer these inconveniences as you say: what if you had offended? What do you suppose you would then have had to suffer?” By such advice he was prevented from running away. and said: “If you keep at a greater distance it is enough. If I were conscious to myself of any fault.17 sustenance is wanting to the Bear in the woods. grasping a rock.” FABLE XXI. and. gradually lets down his shaggy thighs into the water. THE RUNAWAY SLAVE AND ÆSOP. she would have had just as much pain to cry for. as our sorrows are safely entrusted to you. If at any time NF. FABLE XX. he saw his fellows going towards the Circus. I remain until daylight in the street. at the place to which the accursed hand of the thief has dragged me. will I lament my sad fate. victuals fail: every now and then I am sent to the farm as a slave to the rustics there : if he dines at home I am kept standing by him all night. or if he is invited out.suspicious services of the evil-doer.” But had she entrusted herself to the perfidious Wolf. I have fairly earned my liberty. FABLE XIX. THE HUNGRY BEAR. we must bear it with equanimity. and for others which it would take too long to recount. ennobled by many victories. “When you have commiĴed no fault. “Go on and be happy.” “Listen then. Stripes are in superabundance. Hunger sharpens the wits. celebrate without me the festive day in the race. With tears starting forth. and sold him for the mill. and as soon as the Crabs have stuck to the long hair. For these reasons. to whom he was known as a neighbour: “Why are you in such a hurry?” said Æsop. A certain Man withdrew from his chariot a Horse. I should bear this patiently: I never have had a bellyful. but with grey hairs I am still a slave. when running away from a Master of severe disposition. I have to put up with a severe master besides. There is no necessity to add evil to evil. to celebrate the joyous contests at the games. “I’ll tell you candidly. and her death into the bargain. and. THE CHARIOT-HORSE SOLD FOR THE MILL.

continually repeated “Hail!” Then. which aĞer carrying her a long time on her back and much against her inclination. and. A Man while going through the fields along his solitary path. An pestilent Crow had taken her seat upon a Sheep.” said he. the Fox’s must be employed. Thus even in Fools does hunger sharpen the wits. to have thus delayed me when I was in such a hurry. and enjoys the food that he has collected in every quarter. When. but when she tried to devour it with open throat. heard the word “Hail!” whereat he stopped for a moment. Men are very frequently imposed upon by words. THE CROW AND THE SHEEP. So the Serpent dropped the prey from her mouth unenjoyed. checked the greedy jaws. a Raven showed himself. when strength fails. A Serpent chanced to catch a Lizard by the tail. and hovering above him. “Although unjustly injured. THE SERPENT AND THE LIZARD. Again the same sound saluted him from a hidden spot. holding it transversely with pertinacious bite. THE TRAVELLER AND THE RAVEN. he stopped short. went on his way.” FABLE XXIII. and began to entreat her not to betray him to his Master. that whoever it was might receive the like civility. “most mischievous bird. by this cleverly contrived impediment.18 A Shepherd had broken NF. it snatched up a liĴle twig that lay close at hand.” FABLE XXIV. encouraged by the hospitable voice. Many are in the habit of injuring the weak and cringing to the powerful. I shall be silent. FABLE XXII. When the Lion’s skin fails.shore. looking all about. THE SHEPHERD AND THE SHE-GOAT. he had remained long in perplexity.19 the horn of a She-Goat with his staff.” said she . that is to say. NF. “still. FABLE XXV. agape to devour it. perceiving that he had been deluded: “Perdition seize you. the craĞy fellow shakes off his sea-spoil. but seeing no one. but the thing itself will proclaim your offence. we must employ craĞiness. and had lost the time in which he might have walked some miles. Nothing is secret which shall not be made manifest. remarked: “If you had .

and being seen by a Herdsman. Then said the Herdsman: “Are you not glad that I concealed you?” “I don’t deny. While a perfidious Courtesan was fawning upon a Youth. I beg of you. A Servant having been guilty NF. recollecting how many times he had been deceived. I know whom to vex. you do please yourself. “remain concealed without apprehension. enquired : “Pray. faithless at heart. by these means I put off my old age for years. you cannot be.” said she. has a Hare come this way?” “She did come.” NF.done thus to a Dog with his sharp teeth. “and by all your hopes. I have never done any injury to this field. but not with impunity. Herdsman. and I yield to the powerful.” The Youth.” he answered . not because you are constant.21 “Don’t be afraid.” FABLE XXVIII. replied: “Gladly. THE YOUNG MAN AND THE COURTESAN. on the laĴer coming to know of it. “that to your tongue I owe most sincere thanks. but I wish you may be deprived of your perfidious eyes. The Huntsman in his haste did not understand him. still showed himself indulgent to the Woman. you would have suffered for it. do not betray me. he said. and he. There is no curse more severe than a bad conscience.” FABLE XXVI. the faithless Creature thus addressed him: “Though many contend for me with their giĞs. THE HARE AND THE HERDSMAN. THE SERVANT AND THE MASTER. and hurried out of sight. as she was creeping into a thicket: “By the Gods of heaven. and whom to flaĴer craĞily. but went off that way to the leĞ. do I hear these words.” the Countryman replied. but because you administer to my pleasures.” FABLE XXVII. Many are kind in words. and I return them. Many things are pleasing which still are not to our advantage. still do I esteem you the most.” To this the rascally Crow replied : “I despise the defenceless.” . winking and nodding to the right. my love.” said she.” And now the Huntsman coming up.20 of a secret offence in debauching the wife of his master. though wronged by her many a time and oĞ. for when you ought to be pleased. in the presence of those standing by: “Are you quite pleased with yourself? For. Herdsman. when you ought not. A Hare was flying from the Huntsman with speedy foot.

well suited to her disposition: “Consider not what we were. A BuĴerfly NF. Many would escape. on seeing whom she soared aloĞ on her wings. NF. FABLE XXX. and calls off the dogs. as though I had not abundance of food in the meadows.” The Bird replied: “You speak very fairly. hurt whomsoever you choose. NF.25 with panniers. by fixing your sting in him. do you fly from me.” FABLE XXXI. “derived from the depths of hell. THE BUTTERFLY AND THE WASP. If men could manage. Not past but present Fortune must be regarded. who were a Mule NF. is said to bite off his testicles. whatever I once was. there would be no one to devise stratagems to the detriment of the naked body. so as to be ready to part with what they own. pray. light and roĴen. THE BEAVER. however. beetles. I love you dearly for your quiet ways. I beg to assure you.23 seeing a Wasp flying by: “Oh.FABLE XXIX. Confidence is not to be placed in the wicked. he ceases his pursuit. for as soon as the Huntsman has found the drug. thus bestowing upon an animal the name of a God NF. from the recesses of which we have received our existence. if for the sake of safety they would disregard their comforts. A Bird which the Rustics call a Ground-Swallow (terraneola ). “why. most skilled in every art. because it makes its nest in the ground. because he is aware that it is for them he is sought.26 Of those who read this book. too. but what we now are. . THE GROUND-SWALLOW AND THE FOX.” said the other.24 You. THE EPILOGUE.” The Wasp. brave in baĴle. sad is our lot.22—they who boast of the abundance of their epithets) when can no longer escape the dogs. and mere ashes do I fly. indeed. and your harmless life. I shall therefore proceed.” FABLE XXXII. but up in the air. and plenty of locusts. in order to live in safety for the future. a thing which I would not deny being done through an instinct granted by the Gods. “Save you.—crickets. The Beaver (to which the talkative Greeks have given the name of Castor. behold. uĴered these words. chanced to meet a wicked Fox. I. eloquent in peace. I am not near you.” said she. and that is the way in which I trust my life to you. You have nothing to fear.

11. When Juno)—Ver. both malice and worth equally join in praising. Still. as the word “mendacity” comes from “mentior. Adry remarks that this is not a Fable. Fable V.Whatever my Muse has here wriĴen in sportive mood. FOOTNOTES TO NEW FABLES 1. “Licet?” meaning: “Do you give me permission to go against the enemy?” The story about the spiĴle savours of the middle ages. whether she has feet or not. This story is both silly and in very bad taste. About their business)—Ver. . The “cortina” or oracular shrine was surrounded with laurels. 5. 1. from a MS. There is a sort of pun intended upon the word “menda. “Jugera. 21. Archbishop of Sipontum or Manfredonia. AĴributed to Phædrus)—Cassito and Jannelli. they will be found to be so dissimilar in style and language from those acknowledged to be by Phædrus. 8. The words suggested in Orellius.)—This seems to be only a fragment. 13.” are used here to fill up the lacuna. it is merely an Epilogue or moral lesson. notwithstanding his assertions to the contrary. of inferior genius. 7. probably the moral of a Fable now lost. but the laĴer with candour. Those inserted in Gail’s edition have in general been here adopted. and less pure latinity. which had belonged to Nicholas PeroĴi. 1. are strongly of opinion that these Fables were wriĴen by Phædrus. while the other is secretly annoyed. however.” Here the author’s etymology is at fault. The laurels. They appear in the MSS. at the end of the fiĞeenth century. “Indicii falsi auctores propelli jubet. Nine acres)—Ver. that it is very difficult not to come to the conclusion that they are the work of some more recent writer. by Cassito. with several other critics.” to lie. 10. 2. at Naples. and the lacunæ have been filled up according to the fancy of the successive Editors of the Fables. Was called Mendacity )—Ver. Falsehood. 1. in a mutilated condition. was perhaps either the author of them or altered them very materially. If nature had)—Ver. They were first published in 1809. 5. For laughter)—Ver. 6. 4. 17. which were said to quiver while the oracles were being pronounced. which is not likely to have been derived from “menda. and who. May I?)—Ver. generally travels more speedily than Truth. On a critical examination. Because Falsehood was blemished in having no feet. she was called “mendacium” or “mendacity. it cannot with propriety be called a Fable. but only an Epigram.” The “jugerum” was a piece of land 240 feet long by 120 wide. A person had recited)—Ver. 3. This can hardly be styled a Fable. too)—Ver. 9. This story savours more of the false wit of the middle ages than of the genius of Phædrus.” a blemish. 29. This is probably the most beautiful portion of these newly-discovered poems. 13.” Besides.

Name of a God)—Ver. 7. 5. 1. what is meant by it. However. Whether the supposed word in l. and the remark upon the limited “copia verborum” of the Greeks. 24. Chambry.12. Injury to this field)—Ver. Ashes do I fly )—Ver. this Fable more closely resembles the brevity and elegance of Phædrus. 3. Having been guilty )—Ver. This pun upon the resemblance of “Castor. 16. 1. 13. 21. will probably always remain a maĴer of doubt. aĞerwards.” “a beaver. Jannelli. “Societas. The play upon the word “cessabo. 9. or the inner folds of the leaves in which the BuĴerfly is enveloped in the chrysalis state.” the name of the demigod. Shan’t enjoy their repose)—Ver. Luke.” 14. it is merely an anecdote in natural history. It is just possible that this may allude to the soul being disengaged from the corruption of the body. to “Castor. omits this. Indeed the Greeks called both the soul and a buĴerfly by the name of ψυχή. you cannot. viii. If at any time)—Ver. in that you have gratified your desires. 1. As Adry remarks. This is the story of the Matron of Ephesus. This doctrine is stated in far too general terms. and Adry pronounces it unintelligible. There are six or seven different versions of the first five lines. and one not very unlikely to have been true. which is Jannelli’s version. as unworthy of Phædrus. 23. took the form of a buĴerfly. This Fable is in a sadly mutilated state. 2. 4. Be made manifest)—Ver. The Hare is more an enemy to the flowers in gardens than to the fields. and other Editors give entirely different versions. but the consequence is that. that the soul. This is not a Fable. A Shepherd had broken)—Ver. perhaps four or six in number.” seems redolent of the wit of the middle ages. 20. This moral is couched in the same words as St.” seems to be a puerile pun. the Fable seems to allude to the prevalent idea.)—Ver. Genius oĞen wasted. A certain Woman)—Ver. when you ought to feel pleased. 17.” The brotherhood of liĴercarriers. 15. or whether it means something else.” He can hardly with propriety be quoted under any circumstances as a specimen of a “mute inglorious Milton. 15.” It is so mutilated. Remedy for a bad temper)—Ver. you do please yourself. 18. in commiĴing the crime. seems more likely to proceed from the Archbishop of Sipontum than from Phædrus. 1. told in a much more interesting manner by Petronius Arbiter.” 19. means the depths of hell. and not of the days of Phædrus.” (if really the correct reading). 6. “barathris. however. 17: “For nothing is secret which shall not be made manifest. when disengaged from the body. 22. who was evidently proud of his Grecian origin. with any certainty. . Savage brotherhood)—Ver. seems to be: “When you ought not to please yourself. 1. one of the French Editors. The meaning of this. It was probably for this reason that the Romans sacrificed this animal to the Goddess Flora. It seems to border upon the absurd to speak of an ass losing the opportunity of cultivating his “ingenium. in consequence of your guilty conscience. and critics are at a loss to say. 6. that CassiĴi. A BuĴerfly )—Ver.

Jupiter having changed a Fox into a human shape. let him look at others. THE HARES TIRED OF LIFE. “but I am greatly afraid I shall obtain no help. the Hares being scared in the woods by a great noise. and make the most earnest vows for his recovery. It may possibly have been a notion. that as the human soul took the form of a BuĴerfly. Alarmed at their approach. she saw a beetle creeping out of a corner. asked his Mother to go round the sacred places. “there are others too whom fear of misfortune torments. my Son. that. but you. into which. some Frogs fled distractedly into the green sedge. On one occasion. The Epilogue)—This appears in reality to be only the Fragment of an Epilogue. they were going to throw themselves. 7. “Oh!” says one of the hares. and sprang nimbly towards the well-known prey. Endure existence as others do. the souls of animals appeared in the shapes of Wasps and Flies. on account of their continued alarms. sparing no sacrificial food. and seeing now there was no longer any hope of his recovery. who have polluted every temple and every altar with your ravages. JUPITER AND THE FOX. THE SICK KITE. AF. He who cannot endure his own misfortune. in their despondency.1 THE AUTHORS OF WHICH ARE NOT KNOWN FABLE I. “I will do so.25. No fortune conceals baseness of nature. what is it you would now have me ask?” FABLE II. the Great Father . Who were a Mule)—Ver. while she was siĴing as a Mistress on a royal throne. The Gods of heaven smiled. they would end their lives. ÆSOPIAN FABLES. and learn patience. cried out.” said she. She would seem here to allude to the doctrine of the transmigration of souls. A Kite having been sick for many months. So they repaired to a certain pond. 26.” FABLE III.

” Immediately he began to survey all the knots and the fastenings of the knots. Thus do men oĞen perish while meditating the destruction others. She tied the fore leg of the Mouse to her hinder thigh. a Kite that was flying near at hand. fell into a trap. and expelled the Concubine. and seizing the floundering Mouse in his talons. At this tremendous noise the Mouse instantly ran to his assistance. He accepted the offer.” FABLE VI. that she might perfidiously deprive the Mouse of life. pardoned him and let him go. I will make an adequate return for your great kindness. at the same time bore off the Frog that was fastened to him. trying to reach the boĴom. you. repudiated and disgraced. when the Frog dived suddenly. not deeming it a glorious thing to exact vengeance for this. A certain Man. where some Field-Mice were sporting about. and. While he was selecting such as he thought fit. . in order that he might pass over a river with greater ease. Those perish. besought the Trees to afford him a handle from their wood that would prove firm: they all desired that a piece of Olive-tree should be given. When he perceived that he was caught in the snare. the Oak is reported thus to have said to the Ash: “We richly deserve to be cut down. A few days aĞer. sought the aid of a Frog. Thus did the Mouse restore the captured Lion to the woods. Hardly had they swum to the middle of the river. THE MOUSE AND THE FROG. having made an axe. set to work with the axe to hew down the huge trunks. and exclaimed: “You have no need to fear. The captive implored pardon and suppliantly confessed his crime.” FABLE IV. THE LION AND THE MOUSE. This Fable teaches that no one should hurt those of more humble condition. while roaming by night. While a Lion was asleep in a wood. A Mouse. the Lion. fiĴing on the handle. who cannot make a worthy use of my kindness. loosened the snare. he began to roar with his loudest voice. FABLE V. addressing her in these words: “Live on in the manner that you deserve. who give assistance to their foes. and gnawing the strings aĞer he had examined them. a sin of imprudence. THE MAN AND THE TREES. beheld the prey. While he struggled with all his might not to sink. The Lion awoke and seized the wretched creature with a sudden spring. one of them by chance leaped upon the Lion as he lay. The Monarch.was ashamed.

fly in different directions. all trepidation in that strange house. remarked: “He who allows himself to be trodden by such beings. the City Mouse bade the Country one again to take courage. may acorns be my food!” ’Tis beĴer to live secure in poverty.FABLE VII.” This Fable is wriĴen for those Women who unite themselves to ignorant and foolish Men. deserves to suffer such a disgrace. terrified at the noise. while the unfortunate Rustic. . it is just that you should now yourself endure the treacheries you were planning for another. and lick it. The laĴer. and in comes the Butler. he seized the one who first brought his case into court. THE SNAIL AND THE APE. let us enjoy dainties which you may seek in vain in the country. fancying she could confer no greater favour upon it. the door is thrown open. Do you think he will come?” —“Why are you in such a fright?” said the City one. Shortly aĞer. A Cock who had oĞen fought with another Cock. Here. than to stain its brightness with her slime. When the Butler had taken what he wanted. A City Mouse being once entertained at the table of a Country one. who don’t know what it is to fear. A Snail.” the Bird replied : “Do not suppose that you can this day escape my talons.2 He who oĞen cogitates upon the death of others.” AF. the Mice. THE CITY MOUSE AND COUNTRY MOUSE. while they were enjoying remnants of various kinds. AĞerwards he prevailed upon the Countryman by his entreaties to enter the city and a cellar that abounded with the choicest things. free from care and at liberty. The laĴer conceived hopes. THE TWO COCKS AND THE HAWK. than to be consumed by the cares aĴendant upon riches.” The Countryman replied : “You. The victim clamorously exclaimed: “’Tis not I that should be punished. and been beaten. smiĴen with admiration of a Mirror which she had found. began to climb its shining face. still in a state of perturbation. An Ape. FABLE VIII. “come. replied: “I hardly can take any food for fear. and dreading death. FABLE IX. will enjoy all these things. and had shut the door. but the one who took to flight. when he saw that they had come to plead their cause. when he saw the Mirror thus defiled. dined on humble acorns in a hole. liĴle knows what sad Fate he may be preparing for himself. runs to-and-fro along the walls. and the City one easily hides himself in his well-known holes. but. of devouring him who should first present himself. if both should come. requested a Hawk to act as umpire in the contest.

and knocking him off his Master’s body. THE ASS FAWNING UPON HIS MASTER. and being vexed. he fatigues his Master with his heavy weight.” While the Ass is thus soliloquising. give me a cake. AĞer this. said: “Prophetic Crow. he bade the Boy give him a cake. who took all due precaution. fail not to cajole them by-and-bye with pretended reasons. and tearing his clothes with his dirty hoofs.” The Crane came again. who am much beĴer than this Dog. This Fable teaches that a fool is not to thrust himself upon those who do not want him. with sore limbs and baĴered rump. begins to lick his face. thus remarked: “If the Master and the Servants are so very fond of a most filthy Dog. but the purposes of double-tongued people are so deceiving. THE BIRDS AND THE SWALLOW. FABLE XI. the owner of the field saw it. THE CRANE. and had bits thrown to him in abundance by the Servants. he sees his Master enter the stable. that I may hit the Crane.” When the Crow heard this. too. again warned the Crane carefully to avoid the danger. AND THE COUNTRYMAN. so that the Crane might be on her guard. with which he hit the Crane. A Crane and a Crow had made a league on oath. where now are your auspices? Why did you not hasten to warn your companion. and that the Crow should foretell the future. that no such evil might befall me?” The Crow made answer: “It is not my art that deserves to be blamed. seeing the Dog fawn upon his master. cried out: “Give me a stone. Boy. on being wounded. and seizing everywhere such sticks and stones as come in their way. half-dead to the manger. At their Master’s outcry the Servants run to the spot. .FABLE X. The Countryman. on their frequently flying into the fields of a certain Countryman. The Crane. that the Crane should protect the Crow against the Birds. FABLE XII. or affect to perform the part of one superior to him. and how he was crammed at his table each day. and broke her legs. soon send him back. suspecting that the divining Bird heard his commands. On another day. as you swore you would. so running up to him in haste and braying aloud. THE CROW. they punish the braying beast. the Crow hearing him ask for a stone. as he stupidly fawns upon him. said to the Boy: “If I say. who say one thing and do another. do you secretly hand me a stone. he leaps upon him. and to obtain the highest honor. what must it be with me. at once she warned the Crane.” Those who impose upon the inexperienced by deceitful promises. who am supported by the pure streams of undefiled water. if I should pay him similar aĴentions. and useful and praiseworthy in many respects. claps both feet on his shoulders. An Ass. but the Boy gave him a stone. and never in the habit of feeding upon nasty food? Surely I am more worthy than a whelp to enjoy a happy life. and tearing up by the roots what had been sown.

” The Fox. however. THE PARTRIDGE AND THE FOX. Then said the deluded Fox: “What need was there for me to speak?” The Partridge retorted: “And what necessity was there for me to sleep. The Ass swears that he experiences no help whatever from his weak companion. the Ox breaks his other horn. An Ass and an Ox. mingled with loud cries: “O Fox. sprang up. let us root up the noxious blades. Exerting himself in the labour. THE OX. and so the Partridge escaped destruction. however. fastened to the same yoke. opened his mouth.” The Birds persist in laughing at the words of the Swallow. lest. and we may be taken by the contrivances of man. The Birds flying to the prey. came to an untimely end. The Birds. A Fox came up. and then you shall devour me. and thus addressed them: “Danger awaits us all from this. willing to speak. uĴer my name as before. when my hour for sleep had not come?” This is for those who speak when there is no occasion. THE LION AND THE SHEPHERD. if the seed should come to maturity. how much more beauteous you would be. When the crop. AND THE BIRDS. THE ASS. FABLE XIV. she is reported to have called them together. and at length falls dead upon the ground. FABLE XIII. if they shortly grow up. I beseech you. Suppliantly she uĴered these words. saw a Man sowing flax in a field. in her caution. And then.” FABLE XV. expires. being caught in nets made of the flax. the Swallow again remarked: “Our destruction is impending.” The Birds laughed at her. by the graceful dexterity of your exquisite skill. that she might suspend her nest in safety under his raĞers. Once on a time a Partridge was siĴing in a loĞy tree. your thighs the brightness of purple. and stretched in the middle of the road. nets may be made thereof. and he breaks down amid a thousand blows. if you were to sleep. .The Birds having assembled in one spot. who had disregarded her wholesome advice. the Herdsman loads the Ass with the flesh of the Ox. how beautiful is your aspect! Your beak transcends the coral. were drawing a waggon. come. When the Swallow found that they thought nothing at all of this. you would not have been food for us through your untimely death. Presently. While the Ox was pulling with all his might he broke his horn. and began thus to speak: “O Partridge. exclaim: “If you had shown yourself compassionate to the Ox when he entreated you. and who sleep when it is requisite to be on the watch. But she. at once betook herself to Man. and foolishly despise this most prudent advice. that instant the Fox seized the credulous thing.” As soon as the silly Bird had closed her eyes.

and the Shepherd to his friends. despise the lowly one. he thenceforth hid himself in deep darkness. met an Ass. and eluded the threats of the Bull. AF.” said the Horse . for though liĴle in my own idea. Then said the Gnat: “’Tis enough that you have come to meet me in combat. is sent to the farm. the fraud was apparent to both sides. and the conquerors were defeated in their turn. and had contemned an ignoble foe. wagging his tail. the Man places it in his lap. swelling with pride beneath his trappings. . the Lion recognizes the Man who effected the cure. unmindful of the uncertainty of fortune. There the Ass espying him laden with dung. and soon aĞer came up. AF.” said he . but the Bat.A Lion. I am not in search for prey. only appealing with his groans to the Gods. and is ordered to be exposed to ravening Beasts at the ensuing games. he took himself off on light wing through the air. THE BEASTS. who have now fallen into the misery which you treated with such contempt?” Let not the fortunate man. THE HORSE AND THE ASS. FABLE XVII. and. “I suppliantly entreat your aid. all the People came to see the combat. made room very slowly: “Hardly. A Steed.3 while wandering in a wood. Some time aĞer. immediately restored the Lion to the woods. thus jeered him: “Where are your former trappings. vain boaster. convicted therefore of a crime so disgraceful. The Birds were at war with the Beasts. wearied with his load. FABLE XVI. trod on a thorn. When they had returned to their former state of peace.” The Ass held his peace. to a Shepherd: “Don’t be alarmed. THE BIRDS. A Gnat having challenged a Bull to a trial of strength. Now if the Bull had kept in mind his strength of neck. always flying alone by night. and again raising his foot.4 are roaming to-and-fro. the vapouring of the trifler would have been all in vain.” LiĞing up the wounded foot. fearing the doubtful issue of the strife . AND THE BAT. While the Beasts. and because the laĴer. as soon as he aware of this. He loses character who puts himself on a level with the undeserving. THE GNAT AND THE BULL. the Shepherd (being accused on a false charge) is condemned. FABLE XVIII. and flying from the light. I am great in your judgment. seeing that he knows not what he may come to himself. The King. brokenwinded with running. The Horse in a short space of time. relieves the patient’s severe pain: whereupon the Lion returns to the woods. taking out the thorn. “can I restrain myself from kicking you severely. places it in the Shepherd’s lap.” and so saying. and duped the multitude. always betook himself to those whom he saw victorious. on being let out.

Whoever lays craĞy stratagems for others. AF. AND THE SHEPHERD. the former. but that you may get a share. THE SHEEP AND THE WOLVES. who had seized the prey. “if you will sing me a tuneful song with a clear voice. full of grief she sang. ought to beware lest a greater evil befall himself. in the course of time. alarmed at the danger of her offspring. and drags him to the ground. had collected a store in his den. A Fox. through fear. will live a life of disgrace. seizing one of the young ones with his claws. I know what is your deceitful aim. brother? For not having seen you on the look-out for prey in your woods. and said with tremulous voice: “Is all right. who shuts him in. and stealthily extending his reed. When.5 touches the perfidious creature with bird-lime. and suppliantly entreated him to spare her young ones. FABLE XX. she obeyed. The Wolves sent ambassadors.” and. went to the Wolf’s den. however. much as her heart failed her. FABLE XIX. life has been saddened every day. FABLE XXI. A Wolf. flew up. and . When the Sheep and the Wolves AF. A Fowler approaches from another direction. despatches him immediately with a spear. The Mother.” On this. ere I am now punished myself. she said: “Hardly have I done an injury to another. when he perceived the envy of his rival. While a Hawk was siĴing in a Nightingale’s nest. so that you need have no more anxiety?” The Shepherd replied : “I will serve you. on learning this.” Whoever ventures to injure another. and will with pleasure give you anything you like. will you return me thanks. and gladly gratifies his rival with the property of another. THE HAWK.” She points out the Wolf’s den to the Shepherd. and says: “Shepherd.Whoever offers himself for sale to both sides. hateful to them both. ought to beware that he himself be not entrapped by cunning. THE FOX. which he might enjoy at his ease for many months. the Fox had fallen into the Hunter’s hands. replied : “You have not come hither from any anxiety on my account. AND THE FOWLER. being caught and mangled by the Dogs.” The Wolf.” The Fox enraged.” he replied. THE WOLF. were victorious. if to-day I deliver up to you the enemy of your flock. The Hawk. began to devour it. THE NIGHTINGALE. “I will do what you wish.6 engaged in baĴle. he found there some young ones. then said: “You have not sung your best. that he might have food. still. comes to a Shepherd. and being compelled. on the watch for a Hare. safe under the protection of the dogs.

hoping that lasting concord would be thus secured. who noticed which way he fled. THE SHEPHERD. The other did not understand him. still give nothing to the poor. the Wolves. that you might not appear more comely through what covers me. A Wolf. and in what spot he concealed himself. I do adjure you by the great Gods. on these terms. do not. AND THE HUNTSMAN. . “is a tail of such extraordinary length? For what purpose do you drag such a vast weight along the ground?” The Fox answered : “Even if it were longer. FABLE XXIV.” “Don’t fear. was seen by a Shepherd. alleging as a pretext. FABLE XXII. did as the Wolves demanded. THE WOLF. Then said the Shepherd to the Wolf: “What thanks will you give me for having concealed you?” “To your tongue. this Fable has a lesson for you.demanded a peace. may understand that he is himself described in this Fable.” said he. and much bulkier. but in vain. with which he might be enabled to cover his most unseemly hinder parts. I would rather drag it along the ground and through mud and thorns. have you not seen a Wolf come this way? Which way did he run?” The Shepherd replied. he will aĞerwards wish it back. Shortly aĞer.” the Shepherd replied. the Huntsman comes up in haste: “Shepherd. when the whelps began to howl. but he fled to the leĞ. I give especial ones. “For of what use. in a loud voice: “He certainly did come. The Sheep.” Soon aĞer. who has done you no injury. If a person gives up to others the safeguard under which he has previously lived in security.” Greedy and rich man. that their young ones were being murdered. “but on your deceitful eyes I pray that the darkness of eternal night may fall. and receive as hostages the whelps of the Wolves. “Herdsman. though you have a superabundance. and so a late repentance condemned their folly in puĴing faith in their enemies. FABLE XXIII. An Ape asked a Fox to spare him some part of her exceeding length of tail. courteous in his words. THE APE AND THE FOX. who.” but he secretly motioned with his eyes towards the right. conceals deceit in his heart.” He who. flying from the Huntsman’s close pursuit. betray an innocent being. than give you a part. made a simultaneous rush on every side.” said the Wolf. “I’ll point in another direction. and that the peace had been broken by the Sheep. and aĴacked the laĴer thus deprived of protectors. and went on in haste. ratified on oath. “by all your hopes.” said the terrified fugitive. that the Sheep should give up the Dogs.

and then. and we find our food in the mud. ordered them to be detained. having come to a well-known pool. together with his crew. I tell the truth?” The Ape then turns to the Truthful Man: “And what do you think of me and those whom you see standing before me?” He made answer: “You are a genuine Ape. calling his aĴention to men slain in reality by Lions. The other replied: “This is our custom. they came at last to a sepulchre. and leaders of troops. “if you choose to make an alliance with me. A Liar and a Truthful Man. But I will give a more convincing proof of our valour. as he had formerly seen was the practice with the Kings among men. FABLE XXV. and escape the aĴack of the Hawk when he comes against us. strangers?” “You seem to be a most mighty King. we thus find safety. he said: “There is no need of the testimony of pictures here. and immediately accepting her aid.” the Liar replied. and at the same time he ordered all the Apes to stand in lengthened array on the right and leĞ. real valour is shown by deeds. THE GOOSE. goes with her into the fields: forthwith comes the .8 where.” The Goose believing her. found a Goose diving frequently beneath the water. depicted with his jaws rent asunder by a Man—a striking proof of superior strength.7 these are lieutenants. THE MAN AND THE LION. AF. if. who are like you. you would see the man undermost. according to my custom. and enquired why she did so. chanced to come into the land of the Apes.” said the Stork. and that a throne should be placed for himself. that he might learn what men said of him. plain-spoken truth brings destruction on the good. if Lions knew how to paint. AĞer this he questions the men so ordered to be brought before him: “What do you think of me. who had made himself King. One of the number. ordered him to be torn with teeth and claws. you will be able victoriously to deride him. with what giĞs shall I not be presented. AND THE APES. A Man was disputing with a Lion which was the stronger of the two. and while they were seeking evidence on the maĴer in dispute.THE TRUTHFUL MAN. THE LIAR. while travelling together. AF.” This Fable teaches that liars use colouring in vain. A courtly lie is praised by the wicked. A Stork. seeing them. besides. enraged. “What of these whom you see now about me?” “These are ministers. The Lion made answer: “This was painted by a human hand.” The Ape thus lyingly praised. FABLE XXVI. because he had told the truth. AND THE HAWK.” He accordingly led the Man to some games. when a sure test is produced. THE STORK.” The King. On this the Truth-teller remarked to himself: “If so great the reward for lying. orders a present to be given to the flaĴerer. on which the human disputant pointed out a Lion. and all these are Apes.” “I am much stronger than the Hawk.

Of such a nature have the Gods thought fit to create me.” This Fable was wriĴen for those base persons who oppress the innocent. begged her to give him something: the Ant replied : “What were you doing in summer?” The other said : “I had not leisure to think of the future: I was wandering through hedges and meadows. In winter time. AĞer she had done this for a long time.” The Ant laughing. my years having taught me cunning. lest when he has nothing. you who were singing away in the summer. remarked: “If you had offered this affront to the Dog. and drying.” FABLE XXVII. FABLE XXX. but insolent to the defenceless. A Crow. the Sheep. the grains which. I would give you plenty. but bye-and-bye. An Ass asked a Horse for a liĴle barley. in her foresight. show that they are very tenacious of giving. dance in the winter. “if I had more than I wanted. I am civil to the robust. while the Stork flies off. THE ANT AND THE GRASSHOPPER. siĴing at her ease upon a Sheep’s back. singing away. I will give you a sackful of wheat. and carrying back the grains. as I know whom I may provoke. being hungry. “With all my heart. in accordance with my dignified position. FABLE XXVIII. A Grasshopper. refuse small favours. and seizes the Goose in his remorseless claws and devours her. THE HORSE AND THE ASS. pecked her with her beak.Hawk. she had collected during the summer.” But the Crow thus answered the Sheep: “I never sit on the neck of one so strong. he beg in vain. you could not have endured his barking. THE SHEEP AND THE CROW. FABLE XXIX. what am I to suppose you will do on one of greater importance?” They who. The Goose called out aĞer her: “He who trusts himself to so weak a protector.” The Ass replied: “If you now deny me on a trifling occasion.” Let the sluggard always labour at the proper time. and fear to annoy the bold. as soon as I shall have come to my manger in the evening. while making great promises. deserves to come to a still worse end. an Ant was dragging forth from her hole. so patient under injury.” said he. . said: “Very well.

but none of those who came out. and an enemy to me. and stuff yourself with my flesh. Worn with years. under my Mother’s voice you are seeking to drink my blood. while he is of no standing. AĞer the lapse of some time he returned to his former poverty. I have got down directly. so galled as you are. because she knew that many wild beasts were prowling about the caĴle stalls. whom at once he devoured. as he appeared to be so much higher. but neither when you were on me did I find myself oppressed by your weight. that I may not weary you any longer. THE POOR MAN AND THE SERPENT. a Serpent was always in the habit of coming to his table. “I see many foot-marks of those who have gone in. nor do I feel myself at all lightened now you have dismounted.” The dangers of others are generally of advantage to the wary.” ’Tis greatly to the credit of children to be obedient to their parents. When he saw that like the varying lot of the Serpent. was quite delighted with himself.” He who. he began to be angry with the Serpent. imitating the voice of the dam. but you are a deceiver. Many Beasts came for the purpose of visiting the sick King. FABLE XXXI. the Man becoming rich. boasts to be of a loĞy one. THE KID AND THE WOLF. Shortly aĞer. that she might keep her young one in safety. Farewell. he . on going forth to feed. and being fed there plentifully upon the crumbs. THE CAMEL AND THE FLEA. they came together in the evening to the stable. and wounded him with an axe. A She-Goat. falls under contempt when he comes to be known. and ordered the door to be opened for him. FABLE XXXIII. there came a Wolf. a Lion pretended illness. AĞer they had made a long journey. saluting the King. But a wary Fox stood at a distance before the den. The Flea immediately exclaimed. chancing to sit on the back of a Camel who was going along weighed down with heavy burdens. skipping lightly to the ground: “See. FABLE XXXII. When she was gone.” The Camel replied : “I thank you. When the Kid heard him.THE OLD LION AND THE FOX. In the house of a certain Poor Man. A Flea.” said she . he said to the Wolf: “I hear a sound like my Mother’s voice . warned her heedless Kid not to open the door. looking through a chink. his own fortunes also changed. On the Lion asking her why she did not come in: “Because.

in sorrowful mood. II. “for a mate suited to myself. The nature of the reason assigned by the Hawk is not very clear.” Induced by his words. c. “do I see you with such a melancholy air?” “I am looking out. it is not improbable that some may have been composed by Phædrus. however. Then said the Serpent to him: “You will repent of your wickedness until my wound is healed.” “Take me. and by Aulus Gellius. A short time having passed aĞer the nuptials.” Those who seek anxiously for partners of higher rank.coaxingly begged him to pardon the offence. there is nothing I would not have pledged myself to do.” “Well. Extending his reed)—Ver. “Why.” said the Kite. although I knew that I was unable. the Eagle said : “Go and carry off for me the booty you promised me. and cannot find one. that I take you henceforth with implicit confidence to be my friend. if only I could never recall to mind the perfidious axe. FOOTNOTES TO ÆSOPIAN FABLES 1. most filthy. “Is this. but from the internal evidence. Planning for another)—Ver. The Sheep and the Wolves)—Ver. III. This story is also told by Seneca—De Beneficiis. THE EAGLE AND THE KITE. “the performance of your promise?” The Kite replied to her: “That I might contract a marriage with royalty.” into the area of the Circus or Amphitheatre. don’t suppose. 1. the Eagle took him as her mate. “who am so much stronger than you. 5. are you able to get a living by what you can carry away?” “Many’s the time that I have seized and carried off an ostrich in my talons. Demosthenes is said to have related this Fable to the Athenians. when dissuading them from surrendering the . c.” He deserves to be suspected. 3.” said the Eagle. 1. 13. and stinking from long-contracted mouldiness. 6. 2. B. 10. for the purpose of taking birds. 4. The name of the author or authors of these is unknown. and an intimacy with him is always to be renewed with caution. Still.” said the Kite. B. An Eagle was siĴing on a branch with a Kite. A Lion)—Ver. which have been aĴributed to him by the Italian Editors. I could wish to be reconciled with you. Perhaps the writer did not care that he should give even so much as a specious reason. that fowlers stood behind trees. 19. From this it would appear.” or “cages. Æsopian Fables)—These Æsopian Fables appear much more worthy of the genius of Phædrus than the preceding ones. who has once done an injury. the Kite brings back a field-mouse. The beasts were sent forth from “caveæ.” said she. The Beasts. painfully lament a deception that has united them to the worthless. FABLE XXXIV. 10.” Soaring aloĞ. on being let out)—Ver. and used reeds tipped with birdlime. 14.

8.” These were exhibited by the wealthy Romans in the amphitheatre or circus. to the brook The Wolf and Lamb themselves betook. in the cause of truth. Then.. . But if the critics we displease. Your ministers)—Ver. “How dare you trouble all the flood. “Comites” here seems to mean “ministers. 13. sore afraid.” in the sense in which the word was used in the times of the later Roman emperors. Let them remember.” says the Lambkin. In neat familiar verse I tell: Twofold’s the genius of the page. A. PROLOGUE. FELLOW OF PEMBROKE HALL. THE FABLES OF PHÆDRUS. their assailants would sometimes meet with an untimely end. 7.” or “venatio. “Spectaculum. Of course. ere they blame. TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH VERSE B Y C H R I S T O P H E R S M A R T. THE WOLF AND THE LAMB.M. as here mentioned. 9. The Wolf took umbrage at the Lamb. Some games)—Ver. To make you smile and make you sage. CAMBRIDGE. WHAT from the founder Esop fell.Orators to Alexander. ’Tis but a play to form the youth By fiction. The Wolf high up the current drank. By wrangling brutes and talking trees. BY thirst incited. The Lamb far lower down the bank. We’re working neither sin nor shame. And mingle my good drink with mud?” “Sir. and on some occasions many hundred beasts were slain in one day. BOOK I. bent his rav’nous maw to cram. FABLE I.

the tribe advanced. At first alarm’d the tim’rous race. With equal laws when Athens throve. And finding it a king in jest. Which. and the fort he storm’d: Which yoke. void of fear. The sovereign smiled.” “Then ’twas th’ old ram thy sire. THE FROGS DESIRING A KING. They try to make escape in vain.” he cried. which o’erthrew Those just restraints of old they knew. The stream descends from you to me. . The petulance of freedom drove Their state to license. And so he tore him. One slily peep’d out of the pool. II. Who one by one their race devour’d. Then he a water-snake empower’d. And trump up any false pretence. till he died.“How should I act.” Abash’d by facts. Of Jove they sought another king. And having let their fury loose. Pisistratus the tyrant form’d A party. and on their bog Sent his petitioners a log. I was not. But they unused to be controll’d) Then Esop thus his fable told: The Frogs. sir. Now. He boldly summon’d all the rest. as you upbraid? The thing you mention cannot be. From out their marsh with clamor pray’d That Jove a monarch would assign With power their manners to refine. Hence. while all bemoan’d in grief. And on the timber leap’d and danced. says he. as it dash’d upon the place. To those this fable I address Who are determined to oppress. “I know ’Tis now exact six months ago You strove my honest fame to blot”— “Six months ago. as a factious discontent Through every rank and order went. For useless was this wooden thing. But they will injure innocence. In gross affronts and rank abuse. a freeborn people made. But ere it long had lain to cool. (Not that he was a cruel chief.

Miss’d both another’s and his own. But still let Nature’s garb prevail— Esop has leĞ this liĴle tale: A Daw. with the gorgeous spoil adorn’d. And join’d the peacocks—who in scoff Stripp’d the bold thief. went To his own kind in discontent: But they in turn contemn the spark. . Snapp’d to deprive him of the treat:— But mark the gluĴon’s self-defeat. Pick’d up the quills of Juno’s bird. All his own sable brethren scorn’d. THE DOG IN THE RIVER.” Ye likewise. Though slavery be no common curse. By stealth they Mercury depute. “Had you. beef and bone. And brand with many a shameful mark. And thinking it was flesh and blood. The churl that wants another’s fare Deserves at least to lose his share. That Jove would once more hear their suit. And. And send their sinking state to save. And on his neighbour’s worth presume. The Daw. Then one he formerly disdain’d. for fear of worse and worse. dumb through fear. THE VAIN JACKDAW. thus roughly handled. Nor ’mongst the birds of your own dress Had been deserted in distress. And therefore you shall bear the bad. Lest any one himself should plume. can they complain. Be still. “at home remain’d— Content with Nature’s ways and will. ambitious and absurd.” IV. and drove him off. III. But he in wrath this answer gave: “You scorn’d the good king that you had.Nor. As through the stream a Dog convey’d A piece of meat. he spied his shade In the clear mirror of the flood. You had not felt the peacock’s bill. Both shade and substance. O Athenian friends.” said he. Convinced to what impatience tends.

and everything but sense. And propagate a race of fire!” VII. . Moved at their murmurs. with inward grief. I shall trounce. In terror. And dries up all the pools around. SHEEP . “The first. THE FROGS AND SUN. as brave. For him that touches. He thus his narrative begun: Of old ’twas rumor’d that the Sun Would take a wife: with hideous cries The quer’lous Frogs alarm’d the skies. GOAT. and harmless Ewe. There. To raise in desert woods supplies. The Lion first the parts disposed. how dreadfully severe. This Fable proves the fact too true: An Heifer. Were with the Lion as allies. Should he at length be made a sire. A Fox beheld a Mask— “O rare The headpiece. for his brethren spake: “Ev’n now one Sun too much is found. A partnership with men in power We cannot build upon an hour. VI. THE HEIFER. When Esop saw. The next you yield to me. AND LION. when they jointly had the luck To take a most enormous buck.V. The fourth you likewise will renounce. As being stronger far than you. Till we thy creatures perish here. pow’r. THE FOX AND THE TRAGIC MASK. The nuptials of a neighb’ring thief. Jove inquired What was the thing that they desired? When thus a tenant of the lake. The third is my peculiar due. I crave. And then his royal will disclosed.” Thus rank unrighteousness and force Seized all the prey without remorse. Goat. as Lion hight. if but brains were there!” This holds—whene’er the Fates dispense Pomp. But oh.

WITH THE APE FOR JUDGE. A Crane was wrought upon to trust His oath at length—and down she thrust Her neck into his throat impure. forsooth. . As these few verses will explain. as a friend. Is but impertinent and vain. he roar’d. And screaming loud— “Where now. THE HARE AND THE SPARROW. his honest aim Must end in punishment and shame. And now. That. Stuck in his greedy throat so fast.VIII. A bone the Wolf devour’d in haste.” says he.” X. Nor could her cries avail at all. when she desired her fee. “Whom I so kind forbore to kill. an hungry glede Did on th’ injurious railer fall. “You base. with its expiring breath. Still to give cautions. Whoe’er by practice indiscreet Has pass’d for a notorious cheat. The Hare. tortured with the pain. A Sparrow taunted at a Hare Caught by an eagle high in air. And so perform’d a desp’rate cure. As for the worthless he has cared. Who for his merit seeks a price From men of violence and vice. And not one’s own affairs aĴend. ungrateful minx. Then aĞer all. THE WOLF AND FOX. Is twice a fool—first so declared. And ev’ry beast around implored. you’d bring your bill!” IX. “Is your renown’d velocity? Why loiter’d your much boasted speed?” Just as she spake. At which.” says she. Thus said: “See comfort ev’n in death! She that derided my distress Must now deplore her own no less. That who a remedy could find Should have a premium to his mind. THE WOLF AND CRANE.

And in the Lion’s fangs expired: Who. A coward. Cried out with most conceited scoff. That all the beasts he should dismay. the long-ear’d loon Struck up such an outrageous tune. The Lion hunted with the Ass. Once on a time it came to pass. full of pompous speech. Full oĞen what you now despise Proves beĴer than the things you prize. The sentence from the hustings gave: “For you. By trumpeting so strange a bray. says Esop’s tale. . Though he speak truth. The Fox her innocence maintain’d: The Ape. The Ass. The ignorant may overreach. Let Esop’s narrative decide: A Stag beheld. Call’d out the Ass. Proud of the task. THE STAG AT THE FOUNTAIN. “How did my music-piece go off?” “So well—were not thy courage known. I do descry That all your losses are a lie— And you. takes his seat. whose noise he stops. Each pleads his cause with skill and heat.Will shortly find his credit fail. with aspect grave. with conscious pride. with negatives so stout. parading from the copse. The Wolf the Fox for theĞ arraign’d. Whom hiding in the thickest shade He there proposed should lend him aid.” XI. (As at the fountain-head he stood) His image in the silver flood. O Fox! have stolen the goods no doubt. Their terror had been all my own!” XII. THE ASS AND THE LION HUNTING. And drive them o’er the desert heath Into the lurking Lion’s teeth. as umpire. being now with slaughter tired. Then thus the Ape. Sir Wolf. That ’twas a miracle to hear— The beasts forsake their haunts with fear. But is the laughing-stock of those Who know how far his valor goes.

THE COBBLER TURNED DOCTOR. poor and lean. to a flaĴ’ring knave aĴends.” XIII. Which Renard seized with greedy haste. His folly in repentance ends. now willing to display Her talents in the vocal way. Had from a window stolen some cheese. willing to detect the trick. Who. Who. XIV. lo! he hears the hunter’s cries. While his poor spindle-shanks he scorns— But. It happen’d that the king was sick.And there extols his branching horns. THE FOX AND THE CROW. You’d have no rival on the wing. her hunger to appease. o’er the champaign flies— His swiĞness baffles the pursuit: At length a wood receives the brute. And. and there Began his med’cines to prepare: But one of more especial note He call’d his sovereign antidote. A bankrupt Cobbler.” But she. And by his technical bombast Contrived to raise a name at last. (No bungler e’er was half so mean) Went to a foreign place. was just about to dine. The pack began his flesh to tear: Then dying thus he wail’d his fate: “Unhappy me! and wise too late! How useful what I did disdain! How grievous that which made me vain. Let go the cheese of luscious taste. And by his horns entangled there. He thus harangued the foolish Crow: “Lady. And siĴing on a loĞy pine In state. A Crow. This. frighten’d. The grudging dupe now sees at last That for her folly she must fast. . and what an air! Could you but frame your voice to sing. how beauteous to the view Those glossy plumes of sable hue! Thy features how divinely fair! With what a shape. when a Fox observed below.

THE STAG. THE SAPIENT ASS.” says the man. . But dread th’ event—the tale affirms. “I care not who is king. through dread of death. Was startled at the sudden shout Of enemies approaching nigh. for a premium. The poor are the most fortunate.” XVI. confess’d That he was of no skill possess’d. A Stag approach’d the Sheep. He then upon th’ empiric fix’d To take the medicated cup. “If that’s the thing. can find no odds at all. “Pray. Then did the king his peers convoke. Who. Poison in which he feign’d to pour The antidote was likewise mix’d. “With double panniers load my back?” “No. save the name of him they call Their king.Call’d for some water in an ewer. Who trust your heads into his hand. drink it up The quack.”— This story their aĴention craves Whose weakness is the prey of knaves. The truth of this you now may read— A fearful old man in a mead. “Lest we be taken in the place:” But loth at all to mend his pace. When one rogue would another get For surety in a case of debt. THE SHEEP . will the conqueror. And thus unto th’ assembly spoke: “My lords and gentlemen. to treat For one good bushel of her wheat. In all the changes of a state. I rate Your folly as inordinate. ’Tis not the thing t’ accept the terms. Where no one had his heels japann’d. But all this great and glorious job Was made of nonsense and the mob. He then advised the Ass to fly.” quoth Jack. XV. And.” Cries he. While leading of his Ass about. AND THE WOLF.

Liars are liable to rue The mischief they’re so prone to do. “The place. abused at such a rate. lo! ere many days ensued. The lender grew importunate. loth to say her neighbour nay.” At which.” she cried. For longer time the former press’d. this. The underwriĴen lines exhort. THE DOG. But. “I will resign When you’re a match for me and mine. THE HUNGRY DOGS. THE SHEEP. Dead in a ditch the Wolf she view’d: “This. and he swore It was not one.“The honest Wolf will give his bond. Of which. AND THE WOLF. The Sheep was therefore cast at law To pay for things she never saw. Where shall I find or him or you Upon the day the debt is due?” XVII. And when. . “is Heaven’s decree Of justice on a wretch like thee. Which he the Dog to the said Sheep Had given in confidence to keep. THE BITCH AND HER PUPPIES. Which second lease expired at length. But asking to be repossess’d.” XX. And such designing villains thwart. beginning to despond. Bad men have speeches smooth and fair. Directly lent both hole and hay. “The Wolf (cries she) ’s a vagrant bite. that we should be aware. And you are quickly out of sight. The Sheep a Dog unjustly dunn’d One loaf directly to refund. but ten or more.” quoth she. The Wolf was summoned. A Bitch besought one of her kin For room to put her Puppies in: She.” XIX. Until her Puppies gather’d strength.

Giv’st death at least a double sting. THE OLD LION. But proves destructive in the end To those that bungle and pretend. secure That now impunity was sure. With goring horn his foe to smite: At length the ass himself.” he cried. . THE MAN AND THE WEASEL. O despicable thing. A Weasel. as he died: “’Twas hard to bear the brave. With years enfeebled and decay’d.A stupid plan that fools project. “a work of price. a boar.” “This were. ere they could succeed. His pristine dignity has lost. You seize yourself the dainty fare On which those vermin used to fall. When once deserted and forlorn. to his honor’s cost. Is the fool’s jest and coward’s scorn.” says he. But bursten in the desp’rate deed. Not only will not take effect. that they might extract for food. with all these pains and care. Then thus the Lion. Which. A Lion gasping hard was laid: Then came. And good had been the plea you make: But since. XXI. And kicks his forehead with his heels. They perish’d. And then devour the mice and all. Whoever. They strove to drink up all the flood. Some hungry Dogs beheld an hide Deep sunk beneath the crystal tide. “But to be trampled on by thee Is Nature’s last indignity. His blow too insolently deals. “Be not severe On him that keeps your pantry clear Of those intolerable mice. If done entirely for my sake. besought The man to spare. with furious tusk.” XXII. by a person caught. And thou. To vindicate his wrongs of yore: The bull was next in hostile spite. And willing to get off.

THE PROUD FROG. XXV.Urge not a benefit in vain. With might and main She swells and strains. For this strange kindness is a spur. And envying his magnitude. And bustling for a private end. The dogs that are about the Nile. No. When late at night a felon tried To bribe a Dog with food. Who give bad precepts to the wise. She raged and puffed. But to no purpose are the snares He for the knowing ones prepares. Through terror of the Crocodile. THE DOG AND THE CROCODILE. An Ox the Frog a-grazing view’d. XXIII. And ape their beĴers. they say. They answer. The satire here those chaps will own. And cautious men with guile advise. She puffs her wrinkled skin. THE FAITHFUL HOUSE-DOG. . and burst in two. “What ho! do you aĴempt to stop The mouth of him that guards the shop? You ’re mightily mistaken. Lest such a scoundrel should come in. he cried.” XXIV. “Now for it.” This said. To make me double all my din. and tries To vie with his enormous size: Then asks her young to own at least That she was bigger than the beast. But slip into sarcastic rhyme. A Man that’s gen’rous all at once May dupe a novice or a dunce. When poor men to expenses run. and swells again. At length. sir. they’re undone. with more and more ado. useful to themselves alone. who has got the day?” The Ox is larger still. Not only lose their toil and time. the miscreant was slain. Would boast the merit of a friend. Who.

at your leisure drink. convinced The Fox that he in grief must fast. in a shallow dish. and thank you too. It happen’d on a day. And brings her liver and her lights In a tall flagon. that one. to find The dread of being served in kind. But both in hunger and the cold.” says the Dog.Are therefore said to drink and run. finely minced. Where. While the poor hungry Stork was fain Inevitably to abstain. Ought.” “That. Was by the Crocodile espied: “Sir. Then. “That every one the fruits should bear Of their example. while scratching up the ground. . would I do With all my heart. As scamp’ring by the river side. THE FOX AND THE STORK. The Stork. says the fabulist. the Fox invites. TREASURE. nor fear The least design or treach’ry here. “ma’m. While she enjoy’d the rich repast. A ling’ring death at length ensued. AND VULTURE. But as you can on dog’s flesh dine. which he himself devour’d. You shall not taste a bit of mine. And punishment of his offence. is but fair. The Stork was heard her guest to check. was pour’d Some broth. in turn. To covet riches was his fate.” XXVI.” XXVII. ’Mongst human bones a treasure found. He therefore never stirr’d from thence. One should do injury to none. With anxious care he watch’d the gold. as in vain he lick’d the neck. A Dog. THE DOG. to sup within his cave The Stork an invitation gave. But as his sacrilege was great. But he that has th’ assault begun. And thrusting in her beak. Till wholly negligent of food. A Fox.

There was a Bull-fight in the fen. that there thou liest bereaved Who in the highway wast conceived. diverse kind. who worsted shall retire.Upon his corse a Vulture stood. A Frog cried out in trouble then. Men of low life are in distress When great ones enmity profess. Hadst royal riches in thy head. There’s something from the mean to fear. And lead a life from us disjoin’d. But safe upon the loĞy tree. The poor’s revenge is quick and strong. And deprecates so great a grief. lest her house should burn. Howe’er exalted in your sphere. She therefore. if their property you wrong. For. And with his hoof dash out our brains. The Eagle scorn’d the Fox’s plea. what perdition on our race!” “How. O Dog. Put her in terror for her brood.” XXVIII. And bore them to her young away. Submissive did the cubs return. “can the case Be quite so desp’rate as you’ve said? For they’re contending who is head. When on a time an Eagle stole The cubs from out a Fox’s hole. THE FOX AND EAGLE.” XXX. THE FROGS AND BULLS. And compassing with flames the wood. THE KITE AND THE DOVES.”— “But he.” says another. With that the Fox perceived at hand An altar. And on a scurvy dunghill bred. The dam pursues the winged thief. XXIX. “Oh. And thus descanted:— “It is good. Wherefore their rage to us pertains. . That they might feast upon the prey. Of sep’rate station. Will come into this lowland mire. whence she snatch’d a brand.

Sound doctrine by example shows. and aĴention ease. why you should stint the sneak. PROLOGUE. And exercise tyrannic sway. THE way of writing Esop chose. ere they seek. For nothing by these tales is meant. Instead of help will find his bane. I shall abide by Esop’s plan: But if at times I intersperse My own materials in the verse. That sweet variety may please The fancy. And by the paĴern that is set.” BOOK II. Began upon the Doves to prey. “Justly. Rather than my proposals hear? Elect me for your king. The ruffian then to coz’nage stoop’d. Rather than from an author’s name. So much as that the bad repent. Who having now the pow’r received. And for some special purpose make). Due diligence itself should whet. AĴend. Aspires by real use to fame. and I Will all your race indemnify. And thus the tim’rous race he duped: “Why do you lead a life of fear. The Doves had oĞ escaped the Kite.” They foolishly the Kite believed. Which grace I purpose to repay By this consciousness of my song. whatever arch conceit You in our narratives shall meet (If with the critic’s ear it take. “We die the death ourselves ordain’d. lest they be too long. Receive it in a friendly way. . But give the modest. Wherefore.” says one who yet remain’d. By their celerity of flight. Whose praises. with all the care I can.He that would have the wicked reign. In fact.

But skill’d t’ affect a youthful mien. THE MAN AND THE DOG. For the young strumpet. Torn by a Cur. A robber that was passing there. Which to your merit I assign. he was told. and seem his match. But not much copied now-a-days! For churls have coffers that o’erflow. which. fled: Says he. Began to tamper with his hair. a man was led To throw the snappish thief some bread Dipt in the blood. branch and root. And sheepish worth is poor and low.” At which the ruffian was reproved. “There is no cause of dread. Stripp’d of the hoary hairs his crown. A dame. A Lion on the carcass stood Of a young heifer in the wood. And when he saw the Lion. Was a staid husband’s empress queen. II.FABLE I. “you should receive. pleased with their officious care. THE JUDICIOUS LION. But that you seldom ask our leave For things so handily removed. “A share.” says he. and ask’d him for a share. It happen’d that the selfsame day A modest pilgrim came that way. To favour his approach withdrew. A great example. brisk and smart. while each wanted to aĴach Themselves to him. Who yet sequester’d half his heart For a young damsel. Was on a sudden made a coot. Came up. He. . E’en as th’ old cat grubb’d up the brown. In gentle tone—take you the chine. III. THE BALD-PATE DUPE.”— Then having parted what he slew. whose years were well increased. Fondling or fondled—any how— (Examples of all times allow) That men by women must be fleeced. worthy praise. They.

Us and our young with ease to get. Be cautious of a double tongue. for her own good. In short.” One wicked miscreant’s success Makes many more the trade profess. . And. Hence warn’d ye credulous and young. For you observe that grubbing Swine Still works the tree to overset.” Here too a terror being spread. Then treach’rous Puss a method found To overthrow. THE EAGLE. THE CAT. Keeps to the boughs. IV. Affecting terror and dismay. they and their young ones starve. Then Esop thus:— “Forbear to show A pack of dogs the thing you do. When thus rewarded as they bite. Sneaking from thence with silent tread By night her family she fed. And anxious for her grunting race. And underneath a woodland Sow Had placed her pigs upon the ground. on mine. Down creeps she to the Sow below. But look’d out sharply all the day. She slily to her kiĴens stole. “The Eagle is your deadly foe. AND THE SOW.Had been a remedy of old.” Thus having filled the Eagle’s pate With consternation very great. Lest they should soon devour us quite. The Eagle lest the tree should fall. And is determined not to spare Your pigs. far too probable. nor stirs at all. And leave a prey for Puss to carve. The Sow is loth to quit her place. when you shall take the air. An Eagle built upon an oak A Cat and kiĴens had bespoke A hole about the middle bough. The peace of this chance neighbourhood First to the Eagle she ascends— “Perdition on your head impends. By what this taĴling gossip said. And rested snug within her hole.

by looking different ways. Small is the premium you have won: The cuffs that make a servant free. Officiates with his wat’ring-pot. Is ostentatious of his aid. on a certain day Came to his own Misenian seat. you sir. No soul can warrant life or right. Where neither sun nor rain could go. lend an ear. There is in town a certain set Of mortals. Who idly bustling here and there. And. AND TORTOISE.” says th’ imperial lord. Are for a beĴer man than thee. The chief in jest Thus the poor jackanapes address’d “As here is no great maĴer done. for the nearest cut he knows. Here a shrewd slave began to cringe With dapper coat and sash of fringe. I will correct this stupid clan Of busy-bodies. in his way To Naples. and to the rest A most intolerable pest. and most outrageous fuss. Secure from men of lawless might. Plague to themselves. . THE EAGLE. CÆSAR AND HIS SLAVE. (Of old Lucullus’s retreat. Cæsar observes him twist and shiĞ. ever in a sweat. And still aĴending through the glade. hoping a reward. CARRION CROW. And understands the fellow’s driĞ.) Which from the mountain top surveys Two seas. By a true story. While upon nothing they discuss With heat. if I can. Finding the weather very hot. Tiberius Cæsar. He. Have never any time to spare. Runs skipping up. Cæsar turns to another row. “Here. Is still before with pot and rose.” VI.V. The bustler. as his master walk’d between The trees upon the tuĞed green. ’Tis worth a trifler’s time to hear.

whom Nature made so strong. When on a sudden. A Stag unharbour’d by the hounds. The Eagle follows her behest. Wound the poor creature in their rage Eager they seize the golden prize. VIII. with an easy pace. No match for force. But soon its weight will make you rue. And mounting bore him by the shell: She with her house her body screens. and shook his bell. But wealthy men have much to fear. from the wood A gang of thieves before them stood. Came on behind a liĴle space. A Carrion Crow came by that way. Forth from his woodland covert bounds. “You’ve got. Sustaining neither wound nor loss. He before. the other bore Some sacks of barley. and its allies. THE MULES AND ROBBERS. The poor one. ’Gainst fraud and force what can exist? An Eagle on a Tortoise fell. VII. Proud of his freight.” The low estate’s from peril clear.” The captor promising a share.” says she. . Unless I show you what to do. Which would be sever’d by the shock. Two laden Mules were on the road— A charge of money was bestowed Upon the one. Nor can be hurt by any means. THE STAG AND THE OXEN. And. Thus she. But the vile barley-bags despise. while the muleteers engage. begun to swell.But if a knave’s advice assist. The plunder’d mule was all forlorn. To cruel death a victim dies. She bids her from the upper air To dash the shell against a rock. And safe against external wrong. “a luscious prey. Then feasts on turtle with his guest. Stretch’d out his neck. The other thank’d them for their scorn: “’Tis now my turn the head to toss.

makes to a neighb’ring farm. Pray how much labour would it ask?” While thus he undertakes the task. that he there Had found a refuge in despair. And into sure destruction run. Which in an ox’s stall he saw.” The day is spent. “But for your life are still concern’d. Looks sharpest to his own affairs. EPILOGUE.” But he with suppliant voice replies: “Do you but wink with both your eyes. as the tale declares. His hundred eyes will find you out. The master. “Why were the fellow’s hands so slack? Here’s hardly any straw at all. When from the supper of a friend The master enters at the door. For if old Argus come. Whom servile rank could not disgrace. Him seĴing on th’ eternal base.And blind with terror.” Scarce had the speaker made an end. no doubt. The joyful Stag his thanks address’d To all the Oxen. Brush down those cobwebs from the wall. at th’ alarm Of death. . “Wretch that thou art!” a bullock cried. and rummage by degrees. the caĴle feeds. Himself no wiser than the rest. “That com’st within this place to hide. The herdsman comes. Yet not a soul perceives the case. A STATUE of great cost and fame Th’ Athenians raised to Esop’s name. I soon shall my occasions shape. advances to the rack. But nothing sees—then to and fro Time aĞer time the servants go. To make from hence a fair escape. The Stag’s exalted horns he sees: Then calling all his folks around. the night succeeds. “We wish you well. He lays him breathless on the ground.” an Ox return’d. There snug conceals him in some straw. By trusting man you are undone. And. To dust. The steward passes by the place. seeing that the steers were poor Of late.

perhaps you’ll say. That I shall make a holiday. . and int’rest sways. nor hurt Th’ internal conscience of desert. A time may come. And if Rome should approve my piece.That they might teach to all mankind The way to honor’s unconfined. Till fortune be ashamed of days. As with your time to interfere A moment’s space: ’tis therefore clear For those essays you have no call. that the mind unbent May take the author’s full intent. Then such success precludes complaint. But if the Picture which I paint Should happen to aĴract their sight. reader. Whom luckless Nature brought to light. And not alone to pomp and birth. And. But Emulation’s genuine fire. But should th’ invidious town declare Against my plodding over-care. Who scorn the labours of a man. If your perception fully weighs The driĞ of these my labour’d lays. THE tales of Phædrus would you read. She’ll soon have more to rival Greece. PROLOGUE. TO EUTYCHUS. O Eutychus. You urge that this poetic turn Of mine is not of such concern. Which suit not your affairs at all. This pow’r and praise was yet my own. When genius fails. And when they carp do all they can. BOOK III. you must be freed From business. Yet must this fatal cause to mourn With all its biĴerness be borne. That he should not excel alone: Nor is this Envy’s jealous ire. Since then another seized the post Lest I priority should boast. If these my studies reach their aim. They cannot take away. your aĴention claim. That glory’s due to rising worth.

if you read—if not. The suff’rer therefore did not dare His heart’s true dictates to declare. Embrace the literary way) Yet as a writer and a wit. If to Parnassus you repair. And aĞer-ages entertain. Rather than serve domestic views. Relax your mind.And have my vacant thoughts at large. Though sprung where genius reign’d with art. Pleased. . And for new toil new strength receive? From worldly cares you must estrange Your thoughts. And certain topics by-the-by. Which book I dedicate to you. That these my fables shall remain. With Æsop for my master still. Preferring to the pleasing pain Of composition sordid gain? But hap what will (as Sinon said. where of yore Mnemosyne in love divine Brought forth to Jove the tuneful Nine. When to king Priam he was led). A servitude was all along Exposed to most oppressive wrong. With some abatements they admit. Return the visits of a friend. And rather for applause than pay. And seek for your admission there. The student’s office to discharge— And can you such vile stuff peruse. Me—(whom a Grecian mother bore On Hill Pierian. What is his case then. Eluded all offence and blame. As both to worth and honour due. your limbs relieve. do you think. I book the third shall now fulfil. In a few words I now propose To point from whence the Fable rose. And jesting with a moral aim. Inventing more than Æsop knew. Or with your wife your leisure spend. I grubb’d up av’rice from my heart. and feel a perfect change. This is the path that I pursue. Who toils for wealth nor sleeps a wink. content As conscious of a sure event. But couch’d his meaning in the veil Of many an allegoric tale. To my own hindrence did I try.

forsooth. witness. judge and all. THE OLD WOMAN AND EMPTY CASK. . so inclined. embraced this task? If Esop. where he’s sore. I would confess the slander true. Thus having wrought upon your ear. though a Phrygian. Besides Sejanus. Yet ev’n from such I crave excuse. Informer. If Anacharsis could devise By wit to gain th’ immortal prize. And Hebrus in his course withheld. strange monsters quell’d. And ev’n derived from Scythian snows. An ancient dame a firkin sees. my grief to ease. Neglect her honour and her song. And in the poet’s cause avow That candor. stand clear. all the world allow. for glory is my due. If any through suspicion errs. FABLE I. But here. What was design’d for thousands more He’ll show too plainly. And he whose mother was a muse. Where Linus from Apollo sprung. Envy. And own such hardships were my due. And by dull sloth myself disgrace? Since we can reckon up in Thrace. Who was alone to work my fall. who to learn’d Greece belong. Whose voice could tenderness infuse To solid rocks. To such poor lenitives as these. some one will ask Why I. And to himself alone refers. For (far from personal abuse) My verse in gen’ral would put down True life and manners of the town. perhaps. Nor would I fly. I beg that you would be sincere. or thou shalt rue Th’ aĴack. The authors that have sweetest sung. Shall I. rose. In which the rich Falernian lees Send from the nobly tinctured shell A rare and most delicious smell! There when a season she had clung With greedy nostrils to the bung.But was there any of mankind.

When some themselves with cudgels arm’d. Sprang from the pit and fled at length. Then they began to be afraid Who spared the beast and lent their aid. Others threw stones upon its head. but make Their pray’r for life. But rushing in a liĴle space From forth her den upon the place. “If for such prog your fancy is. Their scorn comes home to them again Who treat the wretched with disdain. and well remember you Who gave me bread—desist to fear. Amongst the other kitchen fare Beheld an Ape suspended there. And asking how ’twould taste. when thus she spake: “I well remember them that threw The stones. II. She tears the flock. But some in pity sent her bread. recovering of her strength. They reck not of the loss. the Shepherd slays. Who knew the author in his prime. The night came on—the hostile crew Went home. For I in life have oĞen seen . When ev’n your dregs have such a zest!” They’ll see the driĞ of this my rhyme. which overthrow The Shepherds all around alarm’d.“O spirit exquisitely sweet!” She cried. And all the region round dismays. A careless Panther long ago Fell in a pit.” III. But she. Judge of the flavour by the phiz. THE PANTHER AND SHEPHERDS. THE APE’S HEAD. As death was not the creature’s due. when dress’d. For ’twas the oppressor brought me here. “how perfectly complete Were you of old. as he stood Within the shambles buying food. A certain person. The butcher shook his head in jest. and at the best. not doubting in the way To find the Panther dead next day.” This speech was not so true as keen.

An idle wretch about the street At Esop threw a stone in rage. “So much the beĴer. But if you’ll follow my advice. throw your pellet at my lord. sure you dream? Pray get on faster with the cart Or I shall sting you till you smart!” She answers: “All this talk I hear With small aĴention. But mark the downfall of the bold.” quoth the sage. The sweets of liberty display. THE FLY AND THE MULE. And gives three farthings for the job. I will. lo! he gains A rope and gibbet for his pains.Good features with a wicked heart. More shall be levied in a trice. THE DOG AND THE WOLF.” It happen’d that the selfsame hour Came by a man of wealth and pow’r. faint and weak. Cease then your pertness—for I know When to give back. V. as briefly as I may. And you shall have a sure reward!” The fellow did as he was told. “There. Fools from success perdition meet. VI. and holds the reins. chanced to see A Dog.” says Isgrim. His hopes are baulk’d. but must fear Him who upon the box sustains The pliant whip. “I’ve no more money in my fob. ESOP AND THE INSOLENT FELLOW. and.” This tale derides the talking crew. “How came you so well fed and sleek? . A Wolf half famish’d. Whose empty threats are all they do. A Fly that sat upon the beam Rated the Mule: “Why. They mutual compliments bestowed: “Prithee. And plainness acting virtue’s part. IV. as fat as dog could be: For one day meeting on the road. and when to go.

” “Nay. you find. And look into yourself with care. And from night thieves the door defend. With choice of pot-liquor to lap. my friend?” “Why. Old Isgrim would not be a king. I’ve my bellyful. For to remain this servile thing. Warn’d by our council. These being at their childish play Within their mother’s room one day. with me” —the Wolf agrees. But as they went the mark he found.” “I gladly will accept the post. Affronted at each word she hears: Then to her father down she flies. sir.” “But can you go where you’ve a mind?” “Not always.” VII.” The Dog quite cool and frank replied.” “For what?” “Why merely to aĴend. Be more explicit. Dog. There was a certain father had A homely girl and comely lad. Rather than have a home at night. then.” “It will be just as well with you. That in the day-time I may sleep. enjoy your post again. And urges all she can devise . The boy grows prouder as he looks. I pray. THE BROTHER AND SISTER. And night by night my vigils keep. At evening tide they let me out.” “Then. I from my master’s table dine.” “I’m somewhat fierce and apt to bite. A looking-glass was in the chair. What! shall I bear with snow and frost And all this rough inclement plight. So. And they beheld their faces there. Where the Dog’s collar had been bound: “What’s this. “If with my master you’ll abide. And then I freely walk about: Bread comes without a care of mine. And feed on plenty at my ease?” “Come. nor brooks Her boasting brother’s jests and sneers. Therefore they hold me preĴy tight. oĞ beware.I starve. nothing. The girl is in a rage. to be flat and plain. though stronger of the two. The servants throw me many a scrap.

By doing things to your disgrace.Against the boy.” VIII. Two cases will th’ affair explain— The good Hippolytus was slain. “ye may not pass A day without this useful glass. At which. With most affectionate concern. by good conduct to correct Your form. “My dears. “with all my soul That this same liĴle house I build Was with true friends completely fill’d. standing on the spot. A SAYING OF SOCRATES. ’Tis frequently of bad event To give or to withhold assent. And Troy was levell’d with the ground.” says he. Because Cassandra’s prescious care Sought. An honest man. as the folks are apt to do. embracing each in turn. lest you spoil a preĴy face. Though common be the name of friend. You. that loved his wife. And living any envy bear To leave my character so fair) Was building of a liĴle cot.” he says. . Ask’d. and beautify defect. When some one. You. Which I myself remember well. “How comes so great a man as you Content with such a liĴle hole?”— “I wish. One day a servant (whom. I’d freely for his fame embrace. of late. In that his stepdame credit found. Few can to faithfulness pretend.” IX. I now a curious tale shall tell. who could presume To meddle in a lady’s room. OF DOUBT AND CREDULITY. Lest the weak judge determine wrong: But that I may not make too free With fabulous antiquity. The facts should then be very strong. but obtain’d no credence there. That Socrates (whose cruel case. Was introducing into life A son upon the man’s estate.

and being shrewd. The judges then to Cæsar pray’d That he would lend his special aid. Which his too cred’lous fury drew. He to his wife’s apartment sped. on a sudden. No longer stifling of his ire. He at this scandal taking heat. taking then himself the chair. Declared themselves extremely loth To close this intricate affair— He. while it was light. which worst of all Was sure a lover’s heart to gall. He vengeance for himself resolved. but newly shaved. Flies to the couch. the sire. As she th’ estate was to enjoy— The lawyers all their skill employ. Supposed that he might be his heir When he’d divulged the whole affair. Much did he lie against the youth. And a great spirit those exert Who most her innocence assert. and by night. he vengeance breath’d. As watchful of his youthful bloom. Who. where grouping round. “Let the freedman to vengeance go. And seek a light in haste. and by his side The spotless dame. The clouds of calumny displaced. And Truth up to her fountain traced. The sword within his bosom sheath’d— The candle ent’ring. And drag to the centumvirate. But stopp’d at hand. Where. Instant in utmost grief involved.He with his freedom had endu’d) Took him aside. A head. But more against the matron’s truth: And hinted that. While now they’re running to the room. he found. And honour of his house at stake. Where she had put the lad to bed. who being fast Asleep. when he spied The bleeding youth. knew nothing that had pass’d. And on that very weapon flew. The cause of all this scene of woe: . as they acted upon oath. Th’ ill-natured world directly built A strong suspicion of her guilts. The visits of a lusty rake. Th’ accusers take the woman straight. Pretends a journey to his seat. as alone. Then.

A Pearl upon the dunghill found: “O splendid thing in foul disgrace. Them you may know. who rather would have got A corn of barley. But I. against whom there’s no complaint. with caution due. THE BEES AND THE DRONES. And treach’rous persons will aĴaint Men. thus undone. Because there’s many a sad neglect. while scratching all around. Deprived of husband and of son. THE COCK AND THE PEARL.” I write this tale to them alone To whom in vain my pearls are thrown. nor yet aĴend Too much at what the tatlers vend. Had rather blamed than listen’d to The vile accuser. Had there been any in the place That saw and knew thy worth when sold. Ere this thou hadst been set in gold. No service can there render’d be From me to you. Where you have liĴle to suspect. in them confide. Nor branch and root his house o’erthrown. heed thee not. Hence simple folks too may be taught How to form judgments as they ought. This desp’rate guilt he had not known. A Cock. and you to me. To pity has a greater plea Than condemnation.For the poor widow. and his lie Had strictly search’d with Reason’s eye. For things are come to such a pass. And not see with another’s glass. Up in a loĞy oak the Bees Had made their honey-combs: but these The Drones asserted they had wrought. Then to the bar the cause was brought . That love and hate work diff’rent ways. XII.” Nor wholly scorn. As int’rest or ambition sways. Whom by experience you have tried. Thus have I made a long amends For that brief style which some offends. I decree— But if the man. XI.

A constant tension breaks the string. ye Bees. You may depend upon its use.” The Drones refuse. when the moralist perceived. Who well might argue either brief. . As of a middle nature made. is plain. and who cannot. So take. XIV. As Esop was with boys at play. Nor can the thing enjoin’d explain. Cast on the sage a scornful eye.” Thus recreative sports and play Are good upon a holiday. And had his nuts as well as they. He therefore to both parties said: “You’re not dissimilar in size. That there’s a doubt concerning both: But. he racks his brain. Hives for yourselves directly choose. THE DOG AND THE LAMB. A grave Athenian. lest I err. At last he gives it up—the seer Thus then in triumph made it clear: “As the tough bow exerts its spring.” The people throng. “The problem. But if ’tis let at seasons loose. XIII.” he cries. that before thee lies. And each with each your color vies. the Bees agree— Then thus did Justice Wasp decree: “Who can. And with more spirit they’ll pursue The studies which they shall renew. thou conjurer. And in the wax the work infuse. (Rather himself a wit profess’d Than the poor subject of a jest) Into the public way he flung A bow that he had just unstrung: “There solve. ESOP PLAYING. We may point out the genuine swarm. As on a dotard quite bereaved: Which. passing by. a learned chief. That. from the flavor and the form. upon my oath. your combs again.Before the wasp.” This narrative had been suppress’d Had not the Drones refused the test.

And has such sweet indulgence shown?” Kind deeds parental love proclaim. like a fardel. But thus an artifice essay’d: . Those who will not the forms obey To be obliging in their way. how you baa! This goat is not your own mamma:” Then pointed to a distant mead. and not cleave To her so ready to relieve. Again requested to abate Her noise. As wont by night to quest for meat— She is desired to hold her peace. she’s more importunate. to give me milk. “for her Who had me first at Nature’s spur. “You liĴle fool. And bore me for a time about. But her that is content to bilk Her own dear kids. Then. That used a she-goat as her dam. A Grasshopper. Must oĞen punishment abide For their ill-nature. To dread the butcher and his knife.A Dog bespoke a sucking Lamb. no longer pray’d. Not mere necessity and name.” says Tray. and their pride. Who was compelled by day to doze Within a hollow oak’s retreat. And that her words were less and less Accounted of. since my lot Was hour by hour. THE OWL AND THE GRASSHOPPER. Why should I therefore give my voice For her who had no pow’r or choice In my production. The Owl perceiving no redress. “I ask not.” “Yet she that yean’d you sure. in rank ill-will. threw me out.” says the Lamb. Where several sheep were put to feed. throughout my life. XV. “Should be preferr’d” —“I tell thee nay— Whence could she know that what she hid Was black or white?—but grant she did— I being thus a male begot ’Twas no great favor. But at the word her cries increase. When she beheld me leĞ alone. why. Was very loud and very shrill Against a sapient Owl’s repose.

And the tall poplar Hercules. While harping like the Delphian god. At which the Owl upon her flew. finding she had hit the key That gain’d applause. Now if you do not scorn the same. Thus by her death she was adjudged To give what in her life she grudged. That she had not aĴuned her throat With Philomela’s matchless note. “Daughter. You charm our ears. Together let us bumpers ply. Have some advantage in your eye. “She is the wonder of all ears. The oak was best approved by Jove. The myrtle by the queen of love.” “Let every one their fancy suit. And quick the trembling vixen slew. JUNO AND THE PEACOCK. Which lately from Minerva came. I choose the olive for its fruit. Her fav’rite bird to Juno came. thou shalt be reckon’d wise By all the world.” The Grasshopper. Lest we give honour up for gain. and justly too.” The sire of gods and men replies.” . And. For whatsover things we do. XVI. And was in dudgeon at the dame. THE TREES PROTECTED.” says Jupiter. approach’d with glee. The gods took certain trees (th’ affair Was some time since) into their care. extremely dry. How vain is all pretence to praise!” Whate’er experiments you try.“Since ’tis impossible to nod. XVII. The god of music and the day Vouchsafed to patronise the bay. stead of a nap. Minerva upon this inquired Why they all barren trees admired? “The cause. But when I speak the audience sneers. A batch of nectar will I tap. The pine Cybele chanced to please. If not a life of useful days. “is plain.

Nor to that flaĴ’ring hope aĴend. Your neck the em’rald’s gloss outvies. THE ASS AND PRIESTS OF CYBELE. And what a blaze of gemmeous dies Shines from the plumage of your tail!” “All this dumb show will not avail. The eagle’s strength his prey secures. XVIII. as he ran. The crow and raven may forebode: All these in sheer contentment crave No other voice than Nature gave. I’m looking for a man. Esop (no other slave at hand) Received himself his lord’s command An early supper to provide. But as when first he sallied out He made his tour quite round about. The nightingale can sing an ode.” Cries he. He’d found that Esop had no sense Of manhood in impertinence. “Esop.” “The fates entirely have the choice Of all the lots—fair form is yours. (Willing to have him pacified. On his return he took a race Directly. Which must in disappointment end. Where Nature has not lent her aid. ESOP AND THE IMPORTUNATE FELLOW. “if I’m surpass’d in voice. “Fellow. From house to house he therefore tried To beg the favor of a light. cross the market-place: When thus a talkative buffoon.) “You are above the rest endued With beauty and with magnitude.The goddess to the bird replied. what means this light at noon?” He answer’d briefly. XIX. At length he hit upon the right. The luckless wretch that’s born to woe Must all his life affliction know— .” Now if this jackanapes had weigh’d The true intent of what was said.” By affectation be not sway’d.

’Tis a choice spirit that has pried Where clean contrivance chose to hide. A Weasel. Still with our blows his back resounds. But see his mis’ry knows no bounds. I shall produce upon this head A fable of an arch device. and lame. Then negligent her limbs she spread In a sly nook.” BOOK IV. An Ass about the village led. PROLOGUE. That could not overtake its game. About the Weasel and the Mice. Appearance is not always true. and lay for dead. This seems no beĴer than a joke. Disguised herself with barley meal. Now with the nimble Mice to deal. . Cybele’s priests. “He thought of peace In death. and perish’d in the deed. worn with years. Yet if you look with care intense. And light for mere amusement made. and that his toils would cease. THE WEAZEL AND MICE. Then question’d “how it came to pass They thus could serve their darling Ass?” The answer was. They made them drums out of his hide. his cruel fate Will on his very ashes wait. With things for sale from door to door. That this is not at random said. These tales your toil shall recompense. Yet still we drive the scribbling trade. A Mouse that thought she there might feed. Leapt up. who’ve graver things bespoke.And harder still. And from the pen our pleasure find. FABLE I. To you. At length. when the poor creature died. When we’ve no greater things to mind. Till work’d and beaten more and more. And thousands err by such a view. in quest of bread.

And seeing how the trick was played.” II. THE HORSE AND BOAR. An hungry Fox with fierce aĴack Sprang on a Vine. To bear with any kind of scorn. As thou art not an errant bite. “I’m glad you came to me for aid. Nor could aĴain the point in view. To feel the spur and champ the bit. Then he his sorrow thus express’d: “I needs must have my wrongs redress’d. a chap That oĞ escaped both snare and trap. I’ve got at once a spoil and thee.” On which the fields he made him quit. A Wild-Boar wallow’d in the flood. Then to the steed the victor said. And bore upon his back the knight.” Says he. So near the sky the bunches grew. Sought man’s alliance for the fight. And rather all complaint withdraw Than either go to war or law.” This tale the passionate may warn. “and not half ripe enough— And I’ve more rev’rence for my tripes Than to torment them with the gripes. but tumbled back. . Thus to his craĞy foe he said:— “So may’st thou prosper day and night. “They’re scurvy stuff. Who being skill’d his darts to throw. A third.A second in like manner died. And troubled all the stream with mud. Just where a horse to drink repair’d— He therefore having war declared. III. Despatched the Wild-Boar at a blow. THE FOX AND THE GRAPES. As he went off. For taught how useful you can be. And making tyrant man the judge.” For those this tale is very pat Who lessen what they can’t come at. Must all my life become a drudge. and sundry more beside: Then comes the brindled Mouse.

The second giv’n to spin and card. and dress.IV. A certain man on his decease. But in such sort. With eyes still hunting for the male. Besides. that this bequest Should not be holden or possess’d. LeĞ his three girls so much a-piece: The first was beautiful and frail. The prudent widow takes advice. and for her life Sole tenant. trinkets. When a long time was spent in vain. that loved her glass. . Thus as she strove th’ affair to close. That one man sometimes is more shrewd Than a stupendous multitude. to the Guzzler she consigns The cellar stored with good old wines. A country housewife working hard. How they from nothing should confer The money that was due to her. But not a lawyer could unfold How they should neither have nor hold The very things that they were leĞ. Notable she stocks With all the fields. A handsome house to see a friend. With pleasant gardens at the end. Then Mrs. ESOP AND THE WILL. She gave the Lady to possess. Last. To aĞer-times I shall rehearse In my concise familiar verse. Then soon as they should be bereav’n Of all the substance that was giv’n.” This spread through Athens in a trice. A homely slut. with a supply Of all the tools of husbandry. She leĞ the counsellors unfeed. And no one could the will explain. when once they were bereĞ. And thus of her own self decreed: The minstrels. farm. plate. if she should fulfil These strange provisos of his will: “That she should give th’ estate in fee In equal portions to the three. The third but very ill to pass. the kine and flocks: The workmen. The dying man had leĞ his wife Executrix. They must for their good mother’s ease Make up an hundred sesterces.

What with their weakness and their fright Each scarce could get into his cave: Howe’er. For garments to set off her charms. “The gardens. Her rustic genius to employ. The fields. Thus none their portions shall enjoy. The slut to fill her cellar straight Her wardrobe will evacuate. Be all the tippling lady’s share. the jewels. house. THE BATTLE OF THE MICE AND WEASELS. the barns. But their commanders (who had tied Horns to their heads in martial pride. But in the hurry of the flight. and flocks of sheep. Which as a signal they design’d For non-commission’d mice to mind) Stick in the entrance as they go. And there are taken by the foe. which had all involved. and wine vaults too. Who. The lady soon will sell her farms. And those that knew them every one Highly applauded what was done Esop arose. But she that loves the flocks and kine Will alienate her stores of wine. and such ware. The clothes. And from the money each has made Their mother shall be duly paid. at last their lives they save. gluts . and thus address’d The crowd that to his presence press’d: “O that the dead could yet perceive! How would the prudent father grieve.” Thus one man by his wit disclosed The point that had so many posed. V.By giving each the things they chose. Give to the spinster as her due. That all th’ Athenians had not skill Enough to understand his will!” Then at their joint request he solved That error. The routed Mice upon a day Fled from the Weasels in array. greedy of the victim. Give the gay courtesan to keep. Not one will bear the very touch Of things that thwart their tastes so much.

PHÆDRUS TO THE CAVILLERS. In which th’ inhospitable main Was first laid open for the bane Of Grecians and barbarians too. that squeam At every thing of good esteem. And at another could betray The daughters their own sire to slay. As Esop comes upon the stage. While for a time I play you off. She—while in various forms she tries Her furious spirit to disguise. And made adventures on the sea. stern as Cato’s self. Plague not too much the man of parts.— “O that the fair Thessalian pine Had never felt the wrath divine. In which at first. How then shall you and I agree? Since. Egregious critic. And dress’d entirely new in Rome. At one place in her flight bestow’d Her brother’s limbs upon the road.— This threat is to the fools. While folks subordinate and poor Are by their liĴleness secure. without dismay. . VI. Each great and national distress Must chiefly mighty men oppress. Death’s bold professors won their way.With mouse-flesh his ungodly guts. And fearless of the axe’s wound. And strive to soothe your puny rage. And whence Medea’s crimes to nought The house and reign of Pelias brought. For he that does it surely smarts. you hate All tales alike. Which made the proud Æetas rue. Had still the Pelian mountain crown’d! That Argus by Palladian aid Had ne’er the advent’rous vessel made. cease to scoff. Thus enters with the tragic plume. both small and great. Thou that against my tales inveigh’st. And that they may to taste pretend.” How think you now?—What arrant trash! And our assertions much too rash!— Since prior to th’ Ægean fleet Did Minos piracy defeat. As much too pleasant for thy taste.

And can corrode an iron bar?” VIII. THE VIPER AND THE FILE.Ev’n heaven itself will discommend. He that a greater biter bites. The subtle Fox herself avails. A Fox by some disaster fell Into a deep and fenced well: A thirsty Goat came down in haste. And leaves the Goat in all the mire. Great Jove. His folly on himself requites.” This said. Be quick. VII. the silly Goat comes down. When once he gets into a scrape. At any other man’s expense. To gratify his heart’s desire. Was answer’d in this rugged style: “Why do you think. A craĞy knave will make escape. your sorrows drown. Where a poor Viper chanced to steal. I thought I never should have done. And by his horns the mound she scales. Hence we’re inevitably blind. If it was plentiful and sweet? At which the Fox. But that which others’ vice aĴests Swags full in view before our breasts.— There was a hovel of a smith. That which his own default contains Behind his back unseen remains. THE TWO BAGS. my friend. THE FOX AND THE GOAT. in his paternal care. And being greedy of a meal. Who’ve sharper teeth than thine by far. O stupid snake! On me your usual meal to make. When she had seized upon a file. “So great the solace of the run. in rank deceit. IX. . Still meditating self-defence. As we shall manifest forthwith. Has giv’n a man two Bags to bear. And ask’d about the water’s taste.

THE SACRILEGIOUS THIEF. A villain to Jove’s altar came To light his candle in the flame. Our censures are exceeding keen. XI. But rather at a destined hour. HERCULES AND PLUTUS. And robb’d the god in dead of night. Was taken up to heav’n from earth. for matchless worth. Yet. for the future. Since men are from the truth suborn’d. That they are oĞen most your foes Who from your fost’ring hand arose. Thy life shall answer for thy crime. Should guide the wicked. Lastly. Nor from a candle e’er presume The holy light to re-illume. How many things are here contain’d. To keep ourselves. But. by care intense. that the harden’d villain’s fate Is not from wrath precipitate. And their removal from the fane Can cause the Deity no pain. Next. And a full chest perverts their ways From giving or deserving praise. lest this blaze. I decree That no such intercourse there be. As in their turns to all the crowd . From all connexions with offence. herein is meant. In the first place. Wealth by the brave is justly scorn’d. As with the sacrilege he went: “Though all this gold and silver plate As giĞs of evil men I hate. When Hercules. By his own consecrated light: Then thus an awful voice was sent. caitiff. X.Relating to the Bag behind. at th’ appointed time. But when our neighbours misdemean. By him alone can be explain’d Who could this useful tale invent. we’re charg’d with all our pow’r.” Hence to this day all men decline To light their candle at the shrine. At which the pious pray and praise.

The Mariners gave all for lost. But midst their tears and dread. Because alternate hope and fright Make up our lives of black and white. To wicked men the most inclined.Of gratulating gods he bow’d. the vessel speeds. “’Tis right to put a due restraint On joy. And grand corrupter of mankind. THE PILOT AND SAILORS. “Suffer. Esop this tale began to write. And bear their beard’s most graceful length. He from his face averts his eyes. A Man. th’ indignant Males complain’d. As they can never have your strength. That females by this near approach Would on their gravity encroach. Fortune’s son.” Warn’d by this liĴle tale. For consolation and delight. He. and all serene. XIII. . Jove ask’d the cause of this disgust: “I hate him. THE HE-GOATS AND SHE-GOATS. His folly in a season grieves. that malicious men relieves. “Their eminence in this degree. he spies. my sapient friends. While you by virtue still exceed.” says he. the scene Is changed at once. On hearing a poor man lament His worldly thoughts in discontent.” XIV. THE MAN AND THE ADDER. When the She-Goats from Jove obtain’d A beard. When Plutus. and to retard complaint. The ship by furious tempests toss’d. Was prompted to philosophise. The Sailors’ boist’rous joy exceeds: The Pilot then. by peril wise. as he is unjust. against himself humane. The wind is fair. And in the spirit take the lead. agree With men in gen’ral form’d like thee.” XII.

Why in the blindness of your heart Do you torment your noble part?” All this to thee do I indite. “but I must Jove obey. Who robb’st the gods of incense due. Whom seeing. A Dragon in his den he found. sir. THE FOX AND THE DRAGON. Since to that place you needs must speed. Thyself of food and raiment too. thy heir’s delight. “’Tis others to dissuade From giving wickedness their aid. Where she with speed recov’ring breath. that had lain And stiffen’d in the frosty air. A Fox was throwing up the soil. And in his bosom placed with care. Have patience. Was told.” “What! will you therefore nothing take Yourself. Her benefactor stung to death. as you very plainly see That gold is of no use to me.” XV. but your life consume Thus in an everlasting gloom?” “’Tis not my profit here to stay. Thou grudging churl.Took up an Adder. On asking why she was so base. for your pardon I apply For breaking on your privacy. what can be the gain Of all this care. Who’rt full of heavy groans and sighs When in their price provisions rise. To whom the piper gives the spleen. nor others welcome make?” “Ev’n so the fates decree:” —“Then. and what the fruit. Another Adder near the place. whilst I do aver That he who like affections knows Is born with all the gods his foes. That you should not with sleep recruit Your spirits. Renard speaks him fair: “First.” He cries. And while with his assiduous toil He burrow’d deep into the ground. Where all your ancestors precede. Who hear’st the harp with sullen mien. A-watching hidden treasure there. Your gentle leave let me obtain To ask you. Then. Who with thy frauds heaven’s patience tire .

the wealth demand. But waiving things to our distaste. A man. But one more curious.” says he. XVII. It happen’d for the shipwreck’d crew . Were smother’d in the whelming floods). Let them dissemble e’er so much. They’ll say ’tis Esop to be sure— But what appears of mean design. When by this trade much wealth was earn’d. as some suppose): On board he went. in thy will Hast tax’d the undertaker’s bill. And leave them naked on the strand. ON HIS FABLES. a tempest rose. The praise of heroes to rehearse. And. Homewards by shipping he return’d (A Cean born. Who gave him money for his verse. XVI. What certain envious hearts intend I very clearly comprehend. Simonides. have you got nothing here?” “My all. His circuit took through every town In Asia of the first renown. THE SHIPWRECK OF SIMONIDES. “is what I am. “Poet.— When they perceive the master’s touch. Some purses. Which shook th’ old ship to that degree. some their jewels tie About them for a sure supply. The spoilers came. PHÆDRUS. Has always riches of his own. These in a word I would refute: Whether of great or no repute.To make thy heap a liĴle higher. And find ’tis likely to endure. who was the head Of lyric bards. lest death thank thee. What sprung from Esop’s fertile thought This hand has to perfection brought.”— On this some few for safety swam (For most o’erburden’d by their goods. yet wrote for bread. At any rate they’ll vouch for mine. whose learned worth is known. Let’s to the destined period haste. She founder’d soon as out at sea. ask’d the seer.

trollop. XIX. I with impunity can taste The kiss of matrons fair and chaste. Whene’er I please I set me down Upon the head that wears a crown. And in all temples show my face. The Mountain labor’d. Precede the gods. groaning loud.” XVIII. An Ant and Fly had sharp dispute Which creature was of most repute. voluminous and vast. When thus began the flaunting Fly: “Are you so laudible as I? I. And pleasure without labor claim— Say. THE MOUNTAIN IN LABOR. Who oĞen read. “That all my wealth was in myself. “I plainly told you all. though unknown. and money too. The verses of Simonides.An ancient city was in view. On which ye did so much depend. And soon equipp’d the bard anew. . Whose threats. With servants. Him by his converse when he traced. in which There lived a scholar learn’d and rich. When. By name Clazomena.” he cried. first served— Before the altar take my place. clothes. lo! a mouse was brought to light! This tale’s for men of swagg’ring cast. With all their verse and all their prose. THE ANT AND THE FLY. God knows. They’re come to nothing in the end. ere the sacrifice is carved. his cares to ease. He with much heartiness embraced. As for your chaĴels and your pelf. canst thou do the same?” “The feasts of gods are glorious fare. On which a num’rous gaping crowd Of noodles came to see the sight. And was a vast admirer grown Of this great poet. With case depicted on a board: Which when Simonides espied. Can make but liĴle on’t. The rest benevolence implored. first come.

’tis true. He warranted his work. he was forced to use Th’ accustom’d license of the muse. when the cold thy life bereaves. as of much offence. And so have nothing when you need. With these the rather making free. As heroes in the same degree. Me. And introduced and praise bestow’d On Leda’s sons to raise his ode. He therefore a retirement sought. Of men self-praised and falsely vain. you talk with pride Of things that modesty should hide. who with wakeful care and pains Against the winter hoard my grains. A life of toil you will not lead. Th’ aĴention leĴers can engage. THE ESCAPE OF SIMONIDES. But when the winter comes you cease. I. And tell a memorable tale.— You talk of matron’s lips and kings. A plenteous magazine receives. while days increase.No doubt. and yet Could but one third of payment get. Agreed for such a sum to blaze A certain famous champion’s praise. Upon demanding all the due. I’ve shown before.— The altars you frequent. and now shall show Their lustre in another view. You plague me here. How much they can with heav’n prevail. Simonides. Who take two places in the song. And men of real worth in grain.” The tenor of this tale infers Two very diff’rent characters. But still are driv’n away from thence. the very same We lately had a call to name. “Let them. Besides all this. I think I need no more advance To cure you of your arrogance. But not for such detested things. But found the theme on which he wrote So scanty. to those who’re welcome there.” says he. “pay t’other two. Thee feeding upon ordure view. XX. Ev’n from a base degen’rate age. And elsewhere. .

The splendid banquet shone with plate. whose state And avocations are so great: And then. in trouble and dismay. Rather than maĴer for the man. . And I shall share your love the less The longer you your hand repress: The sooner you the boon insure.” Choused and chagrined. Keep your kind word. yet shunning blame. He promised. They may have something to pursue:— Yet if the spacious field we view. I yet have stock in hand to spare.— The thing soon spread the country round.— The slave.But lest you think I do you wrong And part in dudgeon—I invite Your company to sup this night. More men are wanting for the plan. EPILOGUE TO EUTYCHUS. For then my friends and kin I see. Who scarce had stirr’d a single yard Before the room at once fell in. And when each circumstance was weigh’d. and came. ’Mongst which I choose to reckon thee. That ’twas his int’rest not to stay. lest I tire a friend. if other pens should try This moral scheme as well as I. Is daily nearer to its end. And charged forthwith a liĴle scout To bid Simonides come out. And preparations full of state Made the glad house with clamors roar— When on a sudden at the door Two youths. No youths before the door are found. my friend. Above the human form appear’d. As fearful lest a favour spurn’d Should to an open breach be turn’d. Now for that prize I make my plea You promised to my brevity. for life. set the hour. And could write on—but will forbear— First. And crush’d the champion and his kin. Roused from his seat the feasting bard. with sweat and dust besmear’d. And saved the poet’s life in lieu Of those two-thirds which yet were due. They knew the gods that visit made.

And in rotation more and more Will soon communicate their store. While yet declining age subsists. at whom I hint— In time they may appear in print. BOOK V. An innocent offender’s case Is far more worthy of your grace. With a clear conscience all the while. Consider in your mind how far At stake your word and honour are. You for example sake begin. A room for friendly aid exists. Anon with tasteless years grown weak. But give me leave to cite a phrase I met with in my boyish days. By fair confession of his deeds. If e’er a miscreant succeeds. Whose gen’rous bounty is propense. In vain benevolence will seek To do me good—when Death at hand Shall come and urge his last demand. “’Tis dangerous for the mean and low Too plain their grievances to show. PROLOGUE.The more the tenure must endure. you’ll be apt to say. And if I quick possession take. The greater profit must I make. You’ll ask me. And let your closing the debate By what I may congratulate. sir. Then others to the lure you’ll win. On reconsidering of my part . TO PARTICULO WHEN I resolved my hand to stay For this. ’Tis folly. I have been guilty of excess Beyond my thought in this address But ’tis not easy to refrain A spirit work’d up to disdain By wretches insolent and vile. A thousand times to beg and pray Of one with so much worth and sense.” This is advice I shall retain While life and sanity remain. that others might have play.

if as against the rest. I. To strengthen my authority. in disgust To new improvements. That you may not be at a stand. As like to live of classic note. in justice. and some entirely new. favors rust. but Esopian call. How can he possibly devise The things that I have let alone. It is th’ ambition of my pen To win th’ applause of learned men.I soon recanted in my heart: For if a rival should arise. Since each man’s fancy is his own. The more aĴention to engage. A fiĞh shall shortly come to hand. Malignant cavillers protest. the curious please. My fame’s secure. And raise their price. My liĴle book transcribe and quote. DEMETRIUS AND MENANDER. aĞer all. As pictures for their age bespoke: For biting envy. And likewise colouring of the piece?— It was not therefore mere caprice. By forging of Praxiteles. Which I. As at your leisure you peruse The fourth collection of my muse. Since he invented but a few. I with th’ old fabulist make free. ’Tis thus our fables we can smoke. But now a tale comes in of course. Not Esop’s. Let them carp on. If Esop’s name at any time I bring into this measured rhyme. To whom I’ve paid whate’er I owe. With fresh materials all the while. I more. As certain sculptors of the age. and make it plain They carp at what they can’t aĴain. since I can show How men of eminence like you. Keeping indeed the ancient style. ’Gainst which. And in like manner they purloin A Myro to their silver coin. But strong reflection made me write: Wherefore since you in tales delight. . Let all men by these presents know.

though he was not known by sight. And. II. The nobles came. in the end Came sneaking. one without dismay. Two men equipp’d were on their way. The idlers also. THE THIEF AND THE TRAVELLERS. my friend. lest they should offend. I might have been confirm’d the more. . changed at once from fierce to bland. “I wish. At which the man of spirit drew. Came. But now you’d had such words to lend. with the tribe Of those who to themselves prescribe Their ease and pleasure. with inward stings Of anguish for the face of things. And drew his sword.) In flowing robes bedaub’d with nard. his honor to maintain. The crowd. As they went. Struck with the genius of the bard. Soon as the rogue was fairly slain.Which these assertions will enforce. he said: “How dares that fribble show his head In this our presence?” he was told— “It is Menander you behold. Amongst this troop Menander hies. And held o’er Athens impious sway. upon pain of death.” Then he who fought. And saunt’ring tread he came along. The tim’rous chap began to puff. A robber came with black intent. and stripp’d in buff— “Leave me alone with him! stand back! I’ll teach him whom he should aĴack. Demanding. Demetrius. at the boĴom of the throng. An able fencer. who was justly call’d The tyrant. And instantly disarm’d and slew The Thief. as ever is the way. (Him. So famous for his comedies. the throne address’d: The hand by which they were oppress’d They meekly kiss’d. Whom. eager rushing far and wide. Their gold and silver in a breath. and took him by the hand. “Fortunate event!” they cried. The tyrant read with great delight. When Phalereus beheld. got himself install’d. One fearful. He call’d.” Then.

for special aid To Hercules. And keep your tongue within your teeth. THE MAN AND THE ASS. A certain Man. deriding said. IV. He. most shamefully recede. is due. in wrath so strict. I with myself can soon agree. but to those that do Severity. Dealt on himself a grievous blow: At which the Fly.” What by this moral tale is meant Is—those who wrong not with intent Are venial. What punishment will you inflict Upon yourself. I think.” This narrative to those I tell Who stand their ground when all is well.Supposing truth to all you swore. But he. when he had made A sacrifice. who have seen this very day How lustily you ran away.” says the party. rejecting it with scorn. As on his head she chanced to sit. Did for his Ass’s share assign All the remainder of the corn. But in the hour of pressing need Abash’d. For he you faĴed up and fed . Thus said: “I gladly would partake— But apprehend that life’s at stake. I. detested cannibal! Blood-sucker! to have thee secured More would I gladly have endured. THE BALD MAN AND THE FLY. A Man’s bald pate a Gadfly bit. Though you may play an actor’s part On them who do not know your heart. The spirit of th’ intention’s all. who was so blunt To do yourself this gross affront?”— “O. “You that would strike an insect dead For one slight sting. Experience when one comes to blows How far your resolution goes. and kill’d a swine. prompt to crush the liĴle foe. But thou. “as for me. Then put your weapon in the sheath. III.

So wondrous well took off a pig. You’ll find by far the major part Have been conducted in the cart: Temerity for some may do. and fully known. Without a prompter or parade. But when the thing is clearly shown. For that. those that have come Unjustly by a handsome sum. Having a mind to show away. I have succeeded to prevail Upon my passions. And the whole house was like a fair. A search was made—no pig was found— With thund’ring claps the seats resound. But.With store of this. And built a large commodious stage For the choice spirits of the age: But.” Struck with the import of this tale. a country clown. V. on a day. if we reckon up the list. Men err the most by prepossession. and gall’ries roar With— “O rare! bravo!” and “encore. And silence gagg’d the audience. From peril of immod’rate gain. A certain noble. But many more their rashness rue. But soon his entry as he made. ’Twas all expectance and suspense. amongst the rest There came a genius who profess’d To have a curious trick in store That never was perform’d before. And penitence succeeds to pride. All swore ’twas serious. and abstain. stooping down and looking big. And pit. . is stuck and dead. Is fairly urged. In ev’ry age. Invited by reward the mimes And play’rs and tumblers of the times. We soon applaud what we deride.” Old Roger Grouse. Through all the town this soon got air. THE BUFFOON AND COUNTRY-FELLOW. above all. or underneath his cloak He had concealed some grunting elf. you will say. He. in each profession. and box. Upon the pillage still subsist— Why. Or was a real hog himself. and no joke.

But can from fresh materials speak. “SoĞ ye. and with his nail He pinch’d the urchin by the tail. for whom my pen Immortal honour will insure.Who yet knew something of the town. Produced the pig. The morrow came—the crowd was greater— But prejudice and rank ill-nature Usurp’d the minds of men and wenches. thou worthiest. and thus aloud Bespoke the stupid partial crowd: “Behold. Beheld the mimic of his whim. All bellow’d out ’twas very sad! Sure never stuff was half so bad. best of men Particulo.” Quoth honest Hodge. Long tales their purposes defeat. And our poetic fountain springs With rich variety of things. a word before I go. Which may the more to praise aspire. Long as a rev’rence shall endure For Roman learning—if this strain Cannot your approbation gain. ’tis very high. The mimic took his usual station. and stooping low. amidst this racket. from out his throat. and catcall’d from the house. and learn from this poor cratur. “That like a pig!” each cried in scoff. and Grouse Was hiss’d. Wherefore. The tortured pig. yet my brevity admire. Yet. Produced the genuine nat’ral note. And on the morrow challenged him Declaring to each beau and belle That he this grunter would excel.” Old Grouse conceal’d. A real pig beneath his jacket— Then forth he came. How much you critics know of natur!” TO PARTICULO As yet my muse is not to seek. But you’re for sallies short and sweet. The more our poets now-a-days . Who came to hiss and break the benches. Again “Encore! encore!” they cry— “’Tis quite the thing. “Pshaw! nonsense! blockhead! off! off! off!” The mimic was extoll’d. And squeak’d with general approbation.

) While they pull’d down the booth in haste. Itself with vanity it plumes. VII. Borne by the kind officious crowd.” They by this tale may be relieved Whose sanguine hopes have been deceived. The droll frequenters of the play Had a great miss of him. A liĴle. Is by fond lightness brought with ease To any ridicule you please. We’re to no purpose fortunate. PRINCE THE PIPER. with a head as bare. . as the proverb says. abject mind. as fast as pride presumes. Some months elapsed before he found Himself recover’d of his wound: Meantime. Another. whose touch The dancers’ spirits raised so much. “Good Providence was on our side. friv’lous. according to their way. a piper to the play. puff’d with wind. (I do not well remember where. Pursued. his leg displaced. He being at a certain fair. He from the scaffold fell so hard— (Would he his pipes had rather marr’d! Though they. He found a comb by accident. As call’d upon to show his art. groaning loud. VI. Not taking heed. A certain man of high renown Was just preparing for the town Some games the mob to entertain. and hollow’d for a share. THE TWO BALD MEN. One Prince. and cried. But by the strange caprice of Fate. have found A hobnail. And. As on his way a Bald-pate went.Are tedious in their lifeless lays. When once. The first produced the prize. for a hundred pound. Whene’er Bathyllus did his part. Home he’s conducted. Was rather noted in his way. poor fellow! were to him As dear almost as life and limb). Pleased with the rabble.

And these high honours he received. what with bribes and pray’rs. White frock.— The ancients. . white pumps. when seized. First the equestrian order smoke The fool’s mistake. Whom.” Others cried out. Bald. An ode. The picture that we here have drawn Is Opportunity so brief.” The curtain draws.” They all at once stand up and clap. Command the song to be encored. the lightnings flash. For Jove himself cannot retake The fugitive when once he’s gone. in a bas-relief. Which he was order’d to repeat. Thus made an effigy of Time. VIII. Which ended. Poor Prince was kick’d out of the play. OPPORTUNITY. by all means— And while he waits behind the scenes. Thy Prince just rescued from his tomb. that “the piper’s dead. Now all the seats perceived the jest. naked. a perfect beauty Proud of the feats he had achieved. and scrapes and bows To his good patrons in the house. his grace Prevail’d upon to show his face In this performance. the knights acclaim. Was to the chorus leader shown. not to the Piper known. At which my most facetious chap Kisses his hand.When Prince began to walk again. With fleet wings ready to escape. for goodness’ sake. “The man is here. flat upon the board The Piper falls. A rumour through the house is spread. By certain. And with his bandage white as snow. And which was closed with this conceit— “Receive with joy. With one unanimous huzza. O loyal Rome. And will immediately appear. The gods speak out their usual trash. of a human shape. The people think that Prince’s aim Is for a crown of bays at least. Upon a razor’s edge his toes. and high in joke. And lock that on his forehead grows— Him hold.

At which the huntsman. THE OLD DOG AND THE HUNTSMAN. One day. His ear he seized. A Bull was struggling to secure His passage at a narrow door. And whensoever he assail’d. much concern’d. Praise what I was. THE END. all this. A Calf officious. His horns so much were in his way. “Ere thou wert calved was known to me.” Philetus. by dull delay. IX. Against the forest-beasts prevail’d Both by activity and strength. with which I take my leave. Th’ effectual business of to-day. A Dog. when hounded at a boar. that a wiser man by half Would teach. may think himself this Calf. decay’d and old. are still the same. Could not succeed to keep his hold. LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. as heretofore. “Hold thou thy prate. Nor e’er impede. and what I did. And scarce could reach the rack of hay. you the driĞ perceive Of this. The vet’ran huff’d. STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. For what I am if I am chid. Though not my strength. who thus return’d: “My resolution and my aim. X. fain would show How he might twist himself and go. His master always satisfied.That every one might use their prime. Through years began to flag at length. But with his teeth.” says he. that time and oĞen tried. LIMITED.” He. . THE BULL AND THE CALF.

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