Chapter 37 - The Eisenhower Era, 1952-1960 I. Affluence and Its Anxieties 1.

With the 50s economic expansion, the transistor became the key item that made the electronics business go big o The transistor helped IBM become successful 2. The first passenger-jet airplane by Boeing was made from the super-bomber designs of the Strategic Air Command giving birth to the Boeing 707 3. 1956-marked the first time office white collars surpassed the industrial blue collars in number. o Unions found their peak in ’54 and slowly, but surely declined from there o Despite pop culture in the form of shows such as “Ozzie and Harriet” and “Leave It to Beaver” portraying women as subservient housewives, many would enter the workforce during the 50s  40+ million new jobs came into existence 4. A handful were rather shocked with the movement of women into the workplace but most simply now just regarded them as workers and housewives o The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan in ’63 made many women yearn for a life outside of the home  Friedan is considered a matriarch of the feminists II. Consumer Culture in the Fifties 1. Diner’s Club cards, Disneyland, Mickey D’s, and the expansion of TV all came into being during the 50s 2. TV ads became the norm in advertising and Billy Graham, Fulton J. Sheen, and Oral Roberts all used TV to preach marking the beginning of televangelism 3. Los Angeles and San Francisco became home to the Dodgers and Giants in ’58 4. Elvis Presley, King of Rock, wooed the girls with sexually-provocative pelvic work, singing rock n’ roll, and redefining music o Drugs would kill him in ’77 at the age of 42 5. The open sexuality of the king flabbergasted those who were used to the old way o Marilyn Monroe helped promote the definition of sexuality and sensuality via her spreads in Playboy o The transition into a consumerist society was lamented critics such as David Riesman, William H. Whyte, Jr., and Sloan Wilson o Comparison started being made such as when John Kenneth of Harvard analysed the relationship between private wealth and public good in The Affluent Society III. The Advent of Eisenhower 1. The election of ’52 saw Adlai E. Stevenson running for the Democrats whereas the Republicans rejected Robert A. Taft and went with Dwight D. Eisenhower, certified war hero with anti-communist Nixon by his side 2. Heavily liked and considered a war hero, Eisenhower let Nixon do the dirty work

and communism o Instead of being kicked from the seat of VP for being caught with a “slush fund”. McCarthy even extended his scorn to General George Marshall. He hounded after possible communists. Nixon would berate Stevenson about corruption. He became a big deal by accusing Secretary of State Dean Acheson of employing 205 Communist members o He never managed to prove his Acheson accusations but didn’t stop there.3. McCarthy shocked everyone with just how successful his misguided crusade was. weakness in Korea. Nixon saved his hide by delivering the “Checkers Speech” in which he talked about his daughter’s cocker spaniel. considering his incredible popularity o IV. Freedom of speech was now in jeopardy 3. declaring that there were loads of undeclared and unknown communists hiding under everyone’s noses 2. 5. the ex army chief of staff in the war 5. Seeing the lack of evidence. damaging the Americans dealing capabilities when Vietnam rolled along 4. 6. when McCarthy accused the army . February 1950-McCarthy would suddenly explode onto the political landscape. This armistice was successful but was violated on numerous occasions Korea saw to 54. ’54 marked the breaking point. he did manage to make the Koreans sign an armistice by threatening nuclear attack 1. but never did much to stop the crusader due to his views being shared by the population 1. 4. but could have done more for civil rights. He begged to keep his position in front of a national audience and producers even later edited a clip that made it look as though he was having a Q and A from a live audience o TV would prove to be vital in the future as it would allow loners to influence the people directly instead of become entangled in the dangerous game of party machines and leaders Eisenhower dominated with 442 to 89 and fulfilled his promise to his supporters. and war o He was extremely successful in leading his country as a commander and negotiator. ripping apart families and destroying people’s lives o Eisenhower absolutely hated McCarthy behind closed doors. flying to Korea to try to negotiate peace o Despite failing. Ike would end up removing all major Asian experts in the State Department. capable of negotiating peace between practically any two parties o This made him absolutely qualified to lead a nation that had gone through 20 years of nuclear tension. People found the speech to be touching and let him keep his station This “Checkers Speech” would be a testament to the new power of TV. the American people began asking the question of whether or not this was pushing it. Checkers. The Rise and Fall of Joseph McCarthy 1.000 casualties and expenditure in the tens of billions o People took solace in the fact that they managed to “contain” communism Eisenhower was a highly effective leader. depression.

and TVA curbing via the opening of a new private company o Strangely enough. Eisenhower Republicanism at Home 1. Seeds of the Civil Rights Revolution 1.000 miles of freeway 5. Instead of following Truman’s example of desegregating the armed forces after the ’46 lynching of black soldiers. The Bracero Program that helped during wartime was being undermined by illegal Mexican immigrants of whom Eisenhower rounded up 1 million of and sent back to Mexico in 1954 4. Desegregating American Society 1. Also included in his 1944 book. taxed the polls. An American Dilemma was an observation of how the Americans failed to defeat both dictatorial racism overseas and racism at home o Despite successes in breaking the race barrier such as Jackie Robinson. Many New Deal Programs ended up being kept since Social Security and insurance for the unemployed were important to the public o Ike would also improve the Interstate Highway Act. 1. In his two terms. with no praise or condolence V. and schemed to keep the black man from casting his vote 2.o The drunk and liar was finally exposed. Whites discriminated. education. Earl Warren Chief Justice on the SC. Ike failed to support civil rights laws o The law of the land alone worked to improve civil rights 2. Eisenhower only managed to balance the budget thrice o His peacetime deficit was also the largest in all of US history . only a fifth of blacks could vote. transfer of offshore oil to the states. The Jim Crow Laws acted as the de jure method of segregation in the South o Despite being eligible. Government expenditure was reduced via decreased military spending. lynching and murdering blacks o They were practically never convicted 3. but the white man oppressed the black. Swedish scholar Gunnar Myrdal managed to point out the prevalent American hypocrisy in which all were supposed to be created equal. making the black man suffer longer 4. Sweat v. the national conscience was yet to be swayed. Painter (1950) showed that professional schools for blacks failed to meet requirements of equality VI. Vigilantes took matters into their own hands. “Dynamic conservatism” would be what Ike dubbed his new policy which promised liberal interactions with people and conservative maintenance of money 2. would often rule in favour of blacks and surprise conservatives by attacking injustice against blacks 3. intimidated. backing it in its building of 42. Ike’s secretary of health. resigning him to die three years later. Board of Education v. and welfare called the distribution the Salk anti-polio vaccine as a socialist act o The Secretary of Agriculture was ultimately unsuccessful at helping farmers despite buying a surplus of grain and storing it in massive silos 3. Brown (1954) VII.

Wishing to help the French at the pivotal battle of Dien Bien Phu in March of 1954. President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt appealed to both the Soviets and the Americans and British for funds . Containment was simply not enough for Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and he said that the US needed to liberate the people under Communism and push it back o This method of combating was dubbed “rollback” and Dulles called for a cut on defence expenditure and the formation of the Strategic Air Command which would be comprised of an impressive fleet of super-bombers that had the capability of dropping huge nuclear bombs 2. Cold War Crises in Europe and the Middle East 1. IX. American hypocrisy would garner much scorn from the Hungarians that requested American assistance in their revolt against their Soviet lords. ’53 saw the installation of the young Shah Mohammed Reza Phalevi in Iran as result of a CIA-instigated coup in the Middle East to protect American oil supplies o The vengeful Arabs would pay the Americans back in the 70s 3. he held back and the Viet Minh won Dien Bien Phu.o Saying he lacked economic cojones. The Vietnam Nightmare 1. Woodrow Wilson was called on by the revolutionary Ho Chi Minh to fight against the French o His communist leanings turned the Americans against him 2. 1955 saw the forming of the Warsaw Pact. splitting the country at the 17th parallel o Free elections were promised by Ho Chi Minh but it soon became apparent that the north was Communist and the south was pro-West o The Battle of Dien Bien Phu was the beginning of US dealings with Vietnam o The creation of the Southeast Asian Treaty Organisation by Dulles was an attempt to copy NATO but was rather ineffective X. with Ike asking to reduce arms and the Soviets agreeing o The Soviet premier would also denounce the evils of Stalin publicly o The Hungarian revolt against in the Soviets in ’56 however. A New Look in Foreign Policy 1. prompting a shift in immigration laws 2. was met with much blood and brutishness o 30. Needing to build a dam in the upper Nile. in response to NATO o Good progress was being made in the Cold War. Eisenhower planned to bomb the guerrilla forces of the Viet Minh o Afraid of getting the Americans in another Asian war so soon after Korea. Appeals for peace were met with rejection as Khrushchev refused Ike’s peaceful advances at the Geneva Conference in ’55 3. Ike’s critics blamed the economic downturn in ’57-’58 on that VIII.000 Hungarians fled to the United States.

Venezuela. Secretary of State Dulles took back his offer and forced Nasser to make the dam a national matter o October ’56 saw to the sudden attack of Egypt by Israel. with the Soviet premier saying that the Berlin evacuation ultimatum would be extended forever o . Landrum-Griffin Act (1959)-brought about to punish labour leaders for their financial misdeeds as well as keep them from bullying 6. With his most reliable aides gone due to the death and scandal. The Republicans declared themselves the “party of peace” whereas the Democrats would use an offensive based mainly on Ike’s weakened health due to his myocardial infarction in ’55 and abdominal surgery in ’56 o The Democrats did manage to hold the House and Senate 3. The Continuing Cold War 1. Ike invited Khrushchev to America in ’59 to talk o Khrushchev started right off the bat with talk about disarmament but lacked a way to do it o Camp David would set the stage for positive talks. resulting in the aggressors withdrawing from Egypt o This incident would be the final chance the Americans would have to flex their oil weapon 4. consisted of Saudi Arabia.5 pound American satellite made it into orbit  There were concerns however. Britain. with Ike coming out on top 2. a cartel. ’57 marked the first year of the space race o October 4. Iraq. and Kuwait and was formed in 1960 XI. Iran. ’56 once again saw Stevenson and Ike butt heads. XII. A bill was passed in ’59 to reform labour due to repeated strikes in vital industries 5. Round Two for “Ike” 1. Scientists with the future of humanity in mind called for the ceasing of atmospheric nuclear testing o October 1958-Both the US and USSR cease atmospheric testing but regulation proved rather unsuccessful and difficult 2. about the quality of education in the US in comparison to in the USSR *The 1958 National Defense and Education Act (NDEA) gave $887 million in loads to needy college students and grants for the improvement of schools. and France who thought the US would back them up with crucial oil of which Eisenhower refused.Learning of his dealings with the communists. 1957-Sputnik I is sent into space followed by Sputnik II a month afterwards  This proved communist superiority in the sciences  This demoralisation was added on to the fact that Soviets could fire upon the US from space o Critics would blame this on missile programs being underfunded and American ingenuity being funnelled into television o 3 months after Sputnik II. The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Eisenhower now had to focus his attention to the governance of his people 4. a 2.

swaying the nation after debating four times on national television 1. An Old General Fades Away 1. with the most vigour and control over Congress 3. toppling American-backed Fulgencio Batista. Despite criticism. Eisenhower let them be instead of taking them head on . the American intervention such as in ’54 with Guatemala. angry about the flying of a U2 spy plane over Soviet land XIII. and American support of dictators that were supposedly fighting against communism 2. regained him that support o JFK won comfortably. Against him with the Democrats was John F. the Latin Americans began resenting the American’s generosity for Europe as opposed to them. missiles would be launched to the American mainland o $500 million was finally given up by Eisenhower in a “Marshall Plan” 1. and divvied up American property to distribute o The US retaliation of cutting off American import of Cuban sugar triggered even more American property confiscation o ’61-The Cubans and Americans were no longer diplomatically speaking 3. The Americans created the Organisation of American States as a way to fight against communism in the country o Khrushchev warned that if the US were to attack Cuba. In contrast to the Good Neighbour policies set in place in previous decade. 1959-Fidel Castro rises to power. The Soviets entered the conference at Paris rather pissed however. Many saw it as something that was far too late to be effective XIV. by his side. Being Catholic. Kennedy found himself antagonised in the South. his second terms showed him at his strongest. Despite the 22nd Amendment preventing him from taking more than two terms. Nixon became the choice of the Republicans with Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. Kennedy Challenges Nixon for the Presidency 1. calls the Americans imperialists. Instead of dealing with the social problems of the time. He would become the youngest president ever elected XV. Kennedy with Lyndon B. Eisenhower would be remembered for ending a war and preventing involvement in others 2.3. 1959-The Union is made into 50 states with the inclusion of Alaska and Hawaii 4. Johnson beside him 2. Cuba’s Castro-ism Spells Communism 1. The staunch Catholics of the North however.