0 Up votes0 Down votes

3 views28 pagesApplied OR Network Models

May 04, 2015

620362_NetworkModels

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Applied OR Network Models

© All Rights Reserved

3 views

620362_NetworkModels

Applied OR Network Models

© All Rights Reserved

- Steve Jobs
- The Woman Who Smashed Codes: A True Story of Love, Spies, and the Unlikely Heroine who Outwitted America's Enemies
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook, Red Letter Edition
- Cryptonomicon
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data, and What the Internet Can Tell Us About Who We Really Are
- Make Your Mind Up: My Guide to Finding Your Own Style, Life, and Motavation!
- Console Wars: Sega, Nintendo, and the Battle that Defined a Generation
- The Golden Notebook: A Novel
- Alibaba: The House That Jack Ma Built
- Life After Google: The Fall of Big Data and the Rise of the Blockchain Economy
- Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone
- Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- Autonomous: A Novel

You are on page 1of 28

Network Models

Department of Mathematics and Statistics

The University of Melbourne

This presentation has been made in accordance with the provisions

provisions of Part VB of the copyright

act for the teaching purposes of the University.

For use of students of the University of Melbourne enrolled in the

the subject 620620-362.

Some contents of this presentation are adapted from year 2005 course

course notes for 620620-362

Applied Operations Research, Department of Mathematics and Statistics,

Statistics, The University of

Melbourne (compiled by Prof Natashia Boland and Dr Renata Sotirov)

Sotirov)

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

Network Models

very special mathematical programs

extremely fast and efficient techniques available

enormous problems can be solved

special properties e.g. naturally integer

total unimodularity

problems

many, many real problems have network structure

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

Network Models

References:

R. Ahuja, T. Magnanti & J. Orlin

Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms and Applications

Winston Chapters 7 & 8

We will look at

spanning trees

shortest paths

network flows

multicommodity flows

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

Graph, Digraph

N = set of nodes or vertices

A = set of edges or arcs or links

{i, j}

(i, j )

undirected edge

directed edge

Graph = (N,A)

Digraph = (N,A), A consists of directed edge

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

Network

Graph or digraph + extra information

e.g. cost of an edge, cij, for edge (i,j)

s is referred to as the source node

t is referred to as the terminal node, sink or

destination

A path is a sequence of nodes (s = i0, i1,,in = t),

{i0,i1,,in}N, (ij-1, ij)A for all j=1,,n

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

Example 1:

4

6

2

5

9

10

3

7

N = {1,2,,10}

A = {(1,3), (2,1), (3,2), (3,8), (4,2), (4,3), (4,5), }

A path from 1 to 9 is

(1,3,8,7,4,5,10,6,9)

(1,3,8,7,10,6,9)

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

Simple cycle

a path from sN to itself in which no node is repeated

e.g.

(4,5,6,10,6,9)

4

6

2

5

9

10

(1,3,2,1)

3

7

6

9

(9,10,6,10,6,9) is a cycle

10

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

Acyclic graph

does not contain any cycles

no cycles

4

6

2

5

9

10

3

7

Example 2

8

no directed cycle

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

Tree

undirected, acyclic, connected graph.

Predecessor of node iN

any node jN such that there is a path

from j to i in the graph

4

6

2

5

1

3

predecessor of 7 since (1,3,8,7) is a

path

4

6

2

5

predecessor of 7 but 5 is not

9

10

9

10

3

7

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

Immediate predecessor of node i

is a node j where (j,i)A; the set of these

nodes is denoted P(i)

e.g. from Example 2, immediate

predecessors of 7 are nodes 4, 8 and 10,

so P(7) = {4,8,10}

2

Successor of iN

4

6

5

9

10

3

7

is node j, where (i,j)A, the set of these

nodes is denoted S(i)

e.g. from Example 2, immediate successors

of 3 are nodes 4 and 8, so S(3) = {4,8}

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

10

General Assumptions

For all nodes i,jN:

1. there is at most one arc (i,j)A, i.e. there are no

parallel edges.

j

i

i

(ANxN, (i,i)A,

forall iN)

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

11

Properties

For a digraph,

A N ( N 1) N

1

1 2

A N ( N 1) N

2

2

In general, we expect |A| is O(|N|2)

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

12

Definition

Given a graph with nodes 1,,N and arcs (i,j)A:

1. The graph is connected if for any two nodes, there is at

least one path connection these nodes; otherwise the

graph is disconnected.

2. The graph is a tree if it is undirected, connected and

acylic.

3. A subgraph is a spanning tree if it is a tree containing

every vertex of the graph.

Given an undirected network, with arc lengths aij for (i,j)A:

4. A minimal spanning tree or MST is the spanning tree

whose cost or weight, i.e. the sum of all the arcs lengths of

the tree, is the least cost amongst all spanning trees.

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

13

Spanning Tree

Note: a spanning tree in a graph of N nodes has N nodes and (N1) arcs.

Some spanning trees on 8 nodesall have 7 arcs!

1

5

2

4

1

8

1

5

7

4

6

8

7

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

14

Spanning Tree

Exercise

Write down all the spanning trees of

1

3

3

What is an MST?

{{1,3}, {2,3}, {3,4}},

{{1,4}, {3,4}, {2,3}},

{{1,2}, {2,3}, {3,4}},

{{1,4}, {1,2}, {2,3}},

{{1,3}, {2,3}, {1,4}},

{{1,2}, {1,3}, {3,4}},

{{1,2}, {1,4}, {3,4}},

Cost = 4 + 1 + 3 = 8

Cost = 3 + 2 + 3 = 8

Cost = 1 + 3 + 2 = 6

Cost = 4 + 2 + 3 = 9

Cost = 1 + 4 + 2 = 7

Cost = 3 + 2 + 1 = 6

Cost = 4 + 3 + 3 = 10

Cost = 4 + 1 + 3 = 8

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

15

Spanning Tree

Applications (Two examples)

Geographic Network Design

Cable TV in Canada where cable network originates in

northern USA: Form an MST connecting cable HQ with

Canadian towns/cities.

USA

HQ

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

16

Spanning Tree

Data compression

Store vectors of similar data, e.g. sequences of amino acids in

genetics, using similarities to reduce volume of data

required.

For each pair of vectors Vi, Vj (i=1,,N), let

aij = # if components in vi different from the corresponding components

of vj.

an arc of cost aij between each Vi and Vj (ij).

Choose V1 as the reference vector. For each immediate

successor Vj of V1 in the MST, store only the differences

between Vj and V1. Continue this process from Vj.

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

17

Spanning Tree

Cut

a subset of nodes SV

4

6

2

5

9

10

3

7

e.g. S = {1,2,3,4}

arcs across cut are:

arcs into cut: (6,4), (7,4)

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

18

Spanning Tree

4

6

2

5

9

10

3

7

e.g. S = {1,5,6,9}

arcs out of cut:

(1,3), (5,10), (5,7), (6,10), (6,4), (9,10)

(2,1), (4,5), (10,6)

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

19

Spanning Tree

5

2

1

e.g. S = {2,3,5}

edges across cut:

{1,2}, {3,4}, {3,6}, {3,7}, {5,6}, {5,7}

edges across cut are the same!!

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

20

1A. Any edge in a spanning tree induces a cut in the graph:

remove the edge and the spanning tree breaks into 2

disconnected components nodes of one component form the

cut.

6

2

5

4

9

7

10

8

Consider spanning tree T = {{1,2}, {2,4}, {3,4}, {4,7}, {5,7}, {7,10}, {6,10}, {7,8},

{9,10}}

Edge {4,7} removed: cut?

Edge {5,7} removed: cut?

Edge {7,10} removed: cut?

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

21

1B. If edge {i,j} is in spanning tree T, {i,j} induces a cut SV, and

{i,j} is an edge across the cut, then T\{{i,j}} U {{i,j}} is also a

spanning tree.

6

2

5

4

9

7

10

8

edges across cut are

{3,8}, {4,7}, {4,5}, {4,6}

T\{4,7} U {4,5} is a spanning tree

T\{4,7} U {4,6} is a spanning tree

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

22

6

2

5

4

9

7

10

8

edges across cut are {7,10}, {5,10}, {4,6}

T\{7,10} U {5,10} is a spanning tree

T\{7,10} U {4,6} is a spanning tree

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

23

2A. Any edge not in a spanning tree induces a unique

path in the spanning tree, between the terminal

vertices of the edge.

6

2

5

4

9

7

10

8

e.g.

for {4,6}, path is 4-7-10-6

for {4,5}, path is 4-7-5

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

24

2B. If {i,j} is not in spanning tree T, and {i,j} is some

edge on unique path in T between i and j, then T\{i,j}

U {i,j} is also a spanning tree.

6

2

5

4

9

7

10

8

e.g.

T\{3,4} U {3,8} is a spanning tree

T\{4,7} U {3,8} is a spanning tree

T\{7,8} U {3,8} is a spanning tree

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

25

A spanning tree T* is an MST iff for every arc {i,j}T*,

cij ckl for all {k,l} contained in the cut formed by deleting {i,j}

from T*

S

i

l

k

If cij > ckl then new tree (T*U{k,l})\{i,j} is a cheaper spanning tree.

Therefore, contradicts minimality of T*.

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

26

S

i

l

k

Say {i,j}T*\T0.

Consider cut S induced by {i,j} in T*.

{k,l} with kS, lS, {k,l}T0.

Then cij = ckl otherwise T0 could be improved!

So T0:= (T0U{i,j})\{k,l} is MST.

Repeat until T0 = T*.

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

27

A spanning tree T* is a MST with respect to cost c iff for

all {k,l}A\T*, every arc {i,j} in the path connecting k

and l in T* has cij ckl.

if {i,j}T* on path from k to l and cij > ckl

then (T* U {k,l})\{i,j} gives cheaper spanning tree.

Therefore, contradicts minimality.

Suppose T* satisfies path condition. Let {i,j}T* and

consider cut S induced by {i,j} in T*. If arc {k,l} crosses cut,

then the (only) path from k to l in T* must use {i,j}. So {i,j} is

on path connecting k and l, thus cij ckl T* satisfies cut

condition T* is MST.

620362 Applied Operations Research (Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Melbourne)

28

- 221639253 Algorithm Graph TheoryUploaded bySagnik Saha
- Degree, Order and Size in Intuition is Tic Fuzzy GraphsUploaded byPalanivel Kasilingam
- igraphUploaded bydhabah
- Algo Mod6 GraphsUploaded byISSAM HAMAD
- BSc Sem4 Algorithms Assignment 1 AnsUploaded byMukesh Kumar
- Gml Technical ReportUploaded byz.muhemmed1997
- graph based EAUploaded byJoeamal
- Vidhya.maths JournalUploaded byVijayakumar M
- TJUSAMO 2014-15 Graph TheoryUploaded byWithoon Chinchalongporn
- NotesRGCNUploaded byLucas Pereira
- Graph With Given Number of Perfect Matchings of ItsUploaded byPuscasu Emanuel
- 20122sols1 METRIC SPACESUploaded byPeterLang
- Developing the Project PlanUploaded byMuhammad Sohaib
- Discuss Math GT 2012Uploaded byMuhammad Imran
- 09 Graph Decomposition Problems 1Uploaded byGuru Prasad Iyer
- NetworkDynamicsHW2.pdfUploaded byBanyan Vines
- s6_1Uploaded byClarawohon
- hw3-14Uploaded byJiyang Xie
- TopologyUploaded byaditya mandal
- bc.psUploaded byjeevan
- mapandsummaryUploaded byapi-431410685
- Cs6702 GTA ND16 SolutionsUploaded byPavi Paffi
- Minimum k-cutUploaded byLupu Razvan
- Unit1Test-Functions.docxUploaded byMelissa Ward
- randomwalknotes.pdfUploaded byGagan Saini
- I. Moerdijk and I. Weiss- On Inner Kan Complexes In the Category of Dendroidal SetsUploaded byCore0932
- 2010 January Examiners Report Decision Mathematics D1 (6689)Uploaded bygerikaalhu
- Parallel ComputingUploaded bySara Martinez
- 1827.pdfUploaded byRavi Kumar
- WulanUploaded byDewie WuLandd

- Schaum's Operations ResearchUploaded byMhz Reg
- L05-1_MTB _DESC_DATAUploaded byAzri Zanuri
- Minitab One-Way ANOVAUploaded byAzri Zanuri
- Lezione MMAI CC Best ANP TutorialUploaded byMuhammad Fadhil Rezka
- Plan-j Chemistry (Form 4)2011Uploaded byAzri Zanuri
- Sensitivity Analysis Using Excel (1)Uploaded byUNsha bee kom

- Saxophone catalogueUploaded bygbirchley
- Google Ads Certification Knowledge Check AssessmentUploaded bykristine de vale
- Mix Design HP Print ConcreteUploaded bycpessoasales
- Good Occupational Health PracticeUploaded bybenny1004
- HT7L4661v120Uploaded byEnéas Barone
- Learning AssessmentUploaded byMohd Isa Shamsuddin
- Oea Big Data Guide 1522052Uploaded byJuan Felipe Sampedro
- 64. Valley Golf and Country Club, Inc. vs. Vda. de CaramUploaded bypoiuytrewq9115
- Nano Robot HeartUploaded byUtkarsh Saxena
- Fiat 500 2008 Blue Me KitabıUploaded byvijayakumar3661
- previews_HI_9-6-4_pre.pdfUploaded byMuhara Tansrenaka
- Brian Wernham - Part 1 of Talk to BCS on 5 February 2013 - The FBI Goes AgileUploaded byBWernham
- Windows8 Hardware Cert Requirements Device Blackline 20120918Uploaded byDevon Sutherland
- Marketing Strategy - Nimex - V10.5Uploaded bySanjaya Wijesekare
- 16600407 Assignment IstisnaUploaded bymudey
- Comprehensive CvUploaded byapi-3832684
- Islamic Fest Proposal TemplateUploaded bydslugo
- microeconomics term paperUploaded byapi-242891804
- BC0047 - Java Programming - Assignment - AnsUploaded bymkbosmiya
- ricemillusaUploaded byYadhav
- Muhammad Abid Hussain Roll # 10791Uploaded byKashif Khurshid
- publication.pdfUploaded byAlicia Mary Piccone
- 99249-42110_00.pdfUploaded byFalgon Islam
- Business CombinationUploaded byNatasha Zeb
- Spring 2010 FinalTerm OPKST MGT101 Session-1Uploaded byVirtulian :)
- T5. Polymeric Anti Redeposition (Clariant)Uploaded byMaria Ofelia Toloza Vaca
- NYS AttestationUploaded byMhmd Iraky
- SS29-CPGKUploaded byHARRIS NGUYEN
- MACT317_PP(12)_1.docUploaded byHussein Seoudi
- NR 320205 Power Systems IIIUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.