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# Cambridge Pre-U Revised Syllabus

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SINGAPORE
in collaboration with
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE LOCAL EXAMINATIONS SYNDICATE
General Certificate of Education Advanced Level

LIST OF FORMULAE
AND

STATISTICAL TABLES
for Mathematics, Statistics and Further
Mathematics
For use from 2017 in all papers for the H1, H2 and H3 Mathematics, H1 Statistics and
H2 Further Mathematics syllabuses.

CSTXXX

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This document consists of 11 printed pages and 1 blank page.

where n is a positive integer and 1  2  3 n n!   =  r  r!(n − r )! Maclaurin expansion: x2 x n (n) f ′′(0) + K + f (0) + K n! 2! n(n − 1) 2 n(n − 1) K (n − r + 1) r x +K (1 + x) n = 1 + nx + x +K+ 2! r! f( x) = f(0) + x f ′(0) + ( x < 1) x2 x3 xr + +K+ +K r! 2! 3! (all x) sin x = x − (−1) r x 2 r +1 x3 x5 + −K+ +K 3! 5! (2r + 1)! (all x) cos x = 1 − (−1) r x 2 r x2 x4 + −K+ +K 2! 4! (2r )! (all x) ex =1+ x + ln(1 + x) = x − (−1) r +1 x r x2 x3 + −K+ +K r 2 3 Partial fractions decomposition Non-repeated linear factors: px + q A B = + (ax + b)(cx + d ) (ax + b) (cx + d ) Repeated linear factors: px 2 + qx + r (ax + b)(cx + d ) 2 = A B C + + (ax + b) (cx + d ) (cx + d ) 2 Non-repeated quadratic factor: px 2 + qx + r 2 2 (ax + b)( x + c ) 2 = A Bx + C + 2 (ax + b) ( x + c 2 ) ( −1< x ≤1) .PURE MATHEMATICS Algebraic series Binomial expansion: n n n (a + b) n = a n +   a n −1b +   a n − 2b 2 +   a n − 3b3 + K + b n .

Trigonometry sin( A ± B) ≡ sin A cos B ± cos A sin B cos( A ± B) ≡ cos A cos B m sin A sin B tan( A ± B) ≡ tan A ± tan B 1 m tan A tan B sin 2 A ≡ 2 sin A cos A cos 2 A ≡ cos 2 A − sin 2 A ≡ 2 cos 2 A − 1 ≡ 1 − 2 sin 2 A tan 2 A ≡ 2 tan A 1 − tan 2 A sin P + sin Q ≡ 2 sin 12 ( P + Q) cos 12 ( P − Q) sin P − sin Q ≡ 2 cos 12 ( P + Q) sin 12 ( P − Q) cos P + cos Q ≡ 2 cos 12 ( P + Q) cos 12 ( P − Q) cos P − cos Q ≡ −2 sin 12 ( P + Q) sin 12 ( P − Q) Principal values: − 12 π ≤=sin−1x ≤ 1 π 2 ( x ≤ 1) 0 ≤ cos−1x ≤ π ( x ≤ 1) − 12 π < tan −1 x < 12 π Derivatives f ′( x) f(x) 1 sin −1 x 1− x 2 cos −1 x − 1 1− x 2 tan −1 x 1 1 + x2 cosec x – cosec x cot x sec x sec x tan x 3 .

) f(x) ∫ f( x) dx 1 x + a2 1  x tan −1   a a 2 1 2 a −x  x sin −1   a 2 (x < a) 1  x−a ln  2a  x + a  (x > a) 1 a+x ln  2a  a − x  ( x <a) tan x ln(sec x) ( x < 12 π ) cot x ln(sin x) (0 < x <π ) cosec x − ln(cosec x + cot x) (0 < x <π ) sec x ln(sec x + tan x) ( x < 12 π ) 1 2 x −a 2 1 2 a −x 2 Vectors The point dividing AB in the ratio λ : µ has position vector Vector product:  a1   b1   a 2 b3 − a 3 b2        a × b =  a 2  ×  b2  =  a 3 b1 − a1b3  a  b   a b − a b  2 1   3  3  1 2 4 µa + λb λ+µ . a denotes a positive constant.Integrals (Arbitrary constants are omitted.

f ′( x1 ) where x1 is a first approximation.Numerical methods Trapezium rule (for single strip): Simpson’s rule (for two strips): ∫ ∫ b a b a f ( x)dx ≈ 2 (b − a )[f (a ) + f (b)] 1   a +b 1 f ( x)dx ≈ 6 (b − a ) f (a ) + 4f   + f (b)   2    The Newton-Raphson iteration for approximating a root of f(x) = 0: x2 = x1 – f ( x1 ) . u 2 )] 2 5 . Euler Method with step size h: y 2 = y1 + hf ( x1 . y1 ) Improved Euler Method with step size h: u 2 = y1 + hf ( x1 . y1 ) + f (x2 . y1 ) y 2 = y1 + h [f (x1 .

Mean Variance λe–λx 1 λ 1 λ2 Sampling and testing Unbiased estimate of population variance: s2 = n  Σ( x − x ) 2  n − 1  n  1  2 ( Σx ) 2  =  n − 1  Σx − n       Unbiased estimate of common population variance from two samples: s2 = Σ( x1 − x1 ) 2 + Σ( x 2 − x 2 ) 2 n1 + n 2 − 2 Regression and correlation Estimated product moment correlation coefficient: r= Σ( x − x )( y − y ) {Σ( x − x ) }{Σ( y − y ) } 2 2 Σxy − =  2 ( Σx ) 2  Σx −  n  ΣxΣy n   2 ( Σy ) 2   Σy −  n  Estimated regression line of y on x : y − y = b( x − x ).f.p ) Poisson Po(λ ) e −λ λx x! (1 – p)x–1p Geometric Geo(p) Standard continuous distribution Distribution of X Exponential p.d. where b = 6 Σ( x − x )( y − y ) Σ( x − x ) 2     .PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS Standard discrete distributions P( X = x) Mean Variance n x   p (1 − p ) n − x  x np np (1 − p ) λ λ 1 p 1− p p2 Distribution of X Binomial B(n.

9938 0.0 0.7580 0.9678 0.9370 0.9726 0.9984 5 6 ADD 20 20 19 19 18 24 24 23 22 22 Critical values for the normal distribution If Z has a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1 then.9162 0.9943 0.9934 0.9032 0.6480 0.9890 0.5832 0.5948 0.9515 0.9974 0.8438 0.7324 0.5 0.9599 0.8869 0.9641 0.5080 0.8621 0.5359 0.9693 0.5120 0.6217 0.9838 0.9881 0.9664 0.6985 0.9980 0.5557 0.9854 0.6331 0.7454 0.5987 0.9953 0.8212 0.8485 0.9875 0.8830 0.9916 0.95 1.282 0.4 0.8810 0.7704 0.6915 0.8133 0.9115 0.9251 0.8925 0.7157 0.6255 0.3 0.9015 0.291 .6103 0.6591 0.7 1.9864 0.5478 0.9082 0.9686 0.7019 0.9761 0.7794 0.9946 0.9977 0.9049 0.995 2.645 0.9975 0.9394 0.4 0.8 1.9985 0.6950 0.9981 0.8665 0.9878 0.9966 0.9951 0.9812 0.9979 0.9901 0.5199 0.9319 2 2 2 2 1 5 4 4 3 3 7 6 6 5 4 9 12 14 16 19 21 8 10 12 14 16 18 7 9 11 13 15 17 6 8 10 11 13 14 6 7 8 10 11 13 0.7190 0.6179 0.8264 0.9978 0.9940 0.8023 0.9931 0.9982 0.90 1.9965 0.5871 0.9868 0.9803 0.6554 0.9099 0.9279 1.8289 0.9783 0.8749 0.9591 0. p z 0.9826 0.9713 0.7088 0.9192 0.8944 0.8962 0.9265 0.8078 0.9484 0.2 0.5753 0.6443 0.9955 0.9616 0.090 0.9936 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 4 3 3 2 2 4 4 3 2 2 0.9846 0.8849 0.5675 0.8159 0.8554 0.3 1.9463 0.7764 0.9357 0.6736 0. 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 0.9909 0.9495 0.6772 0.9418 0.9750 0.9963 0.9977 0.9545 0.9808 0.8708 0.9382 0.7852 0.9732 0.7673 0.9911 0.9830 0.6293 0.8790 0. For negative values of z use Φ(− z) = 1 − Φ( z) .9995 3.9975 2.9861 0.9932 0.576 0.9306 0.9964 0.5 2.9896 0.8 0.9772 0.975 1.326 7 0.9957 0.9887 0.8340 1.8508 0.7054 0.9429 0.9 0.9778 0.9904 0. the table gives the value of Φ(z) .9960 0.9857 0.8997 0.7123 0.9893 0.9345 0.9406 0.9505 0.5910 0.9929 0.8315 0.9984 0.8106 0.9207 0.9970 0.9633 0.8643 0.5398 0.8599 0.9927 2.9767 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 4 3 3 2 2 5 4 4 3 2 6 5 4 4 3 7 6 5 4 4 8 10 11 7 8 9 6 7 8 5 6 6 4 5 5 0.6 0.9981 0.7257 0.9573 0.6664 0.9976 0.9625 0.9798 0.0 1.7224 0.9474 0.7422 0.9817 0.5596 0.9986 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.9535 0.5517 0.5636 0.5793 0.9920 0.9608 0.9821 0.9332 0.7642 0.6517 0.8770 0.9850 0.674 0.9962 0.8365 0.8531 0.8888 0.5319 0. for each value of p.9972 0.6808 0.9925 0.5040 0.5000 0.5438 0.9066 0.8413 0.9985 0.5160 0.6406 0.9945 0.2 2.9706 0.9177 0.9525 0.7549 0.9969 0.9941 0.5239 0.9974 0.6064 0.9952 0.8051 0.8 2.9842 0.9949 0.7939 0.9788 0.6628 0.9656 0.7389 0.9834 0.7517 0.9871 0.9671 0.9131 0.9 0.7995 0.9898 0.4 0.7486 0.9961 0.960 0.9147 0.6026 0.8238 0.9884 0.9554 0. for each value of z.9738 0.7734 0.9719 0.6141 0.99 2.8729 0.9 0.9649 0.9968 0.6 2.9564 0.7910 0.9918 0.807 0.8980 0.5 1.5714 0.6844 0.9982 0.9699 0.9756 0.9956 0.75 0.9582 0.THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION If Z has a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1 then.999 3.6 1.8907 0.1 1.9452 0.9292 0.0 2.2 1.9979 0.9744 2.6879 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 7 7 12 12 12 11 11 16 16 15 15 14 28 28 27 26 25 32 32 31 30 29 36 36 35 34 32 0.9973 0.1 0.3 2.7 2.7967 0.8577 0. where Φ (z ) = P(Z ⩽ z).6700 0.7611 0.8186 0.7823 0.8461 0.9222 0.7291 0.7881 0.8389 3 3 3 3 3 7 10 14 17 20 24 7 10 13 16 19 23 6 9 12 15 18 21 5 8 11 14 16 19 5 8 10 13 15 18 27 26 24 22 20 31 29 27 25 23 0.9906 0.7 0.9236 0.9967 0.9971 0.9959 0.9913 0.6368 0.8686 0.9793 0.9983 0.5279 0.9922 0.9441 0.9986 0. the table gives the value of z such that P(Z ⩽ z) = p.1 2.9948 0.7357 0.

372 3.781 10 11 12 13 14 0.959 5.718 0.925 5.579 4.262 3.638 1.447 2.160 2.71 4.768 3.763 2.6 31.372 1.064 2.541 3.552 3.029 3.567 2.015 3.785 4.729 2.143 2.252 3.073 4.086 2.169 3.921 2.773 4.750 2.021 2.450 3.316 1.173 636.067 3.681 0.683 1.CRITICAL VALUES FOR THE t-DISTRIBUTION If T has a t-distribution with ν degrees of freedom then.119 3.228 2.930 3.160 3.860 1.080 2.052 2.701 1.552 2.485 3.721 1.598 318.144 4.681 2.697 0.690 0.397 1.307 3.055 3.831 2.326 2.145 2.90 0.660 30 40 60 120 ∞ 0.685 0.467 3.677 0.703 1.485 2.500 2.060 2.60 12.796 1.610 3.303 3.250 4.686 0.624 3.093 2.453 5.717 1.797 3.771 2.032 3.733 3.3 22.819 2.012 2.576 3.646 3.396 3.3 14.025 3.684 0.333 1.328 1.833 3.995 0.508 2.208 4.296 1.000 0.291 8 .860 2.704 2.104 3.421 3.533 6.886 1.091 3.82 6.898 2.587 4.306 2.920 2. for each pair of values of p and ν.408 3.131 2.057 3.725 1.689 0.679 0.101 2.687 0.078 1.473 2.311 1.518 2.9975 0.690 5.355 3.440 1.041 4.350 1.581 3.467 2.106 3.09 7.689 3.674 3.492 2.896 2.501 4.325 1.356 1.771 1.383 2.821 4.711 0.365 2.318 1.323 1.807 2.074 2.753 1.779 2.140 15 16 17 18 19 0.182 2.756 3.303 1.92 8.179 2.683 0.571 2.685 1.765 0.706 0.462 2.683 0.069 2.741 3.869 5.691 0.617 2.695 0.551 3.671 1.132 12.499 3.66 9.740 1.313 1.315 1.317 4.310 1.527 3. the table gives the value of t such that P(T ⩽ t) = p. p 0.437 4.373 3.319 1.415 1.110 2.99 0.776 31.197 3.221 4.833 2.850 3.706 1.812 1.943 1.688 1.120 2.746 1.345 1.314 1.015 1.684 1.684 0.980 1.390 2.602 2.363 1.674 1.423 2.894 5.153 3.700 0.045 2.505 3.583 2.686 3.714 1.727 0.048 2.718 2.725 3.318 4.658 1.703 1.761 2.286 3.660 2.650 2.960 2.915 2.947 2.707 3.845 2.042 2.038 3.816 0.460 3.289 1.408 5.684 0.365 3.337 1.232 3.326 4.764 2.692 1.047 3.457 2.999 0.861 3.697 1.965 4.479 2.385 3.965 3.792 3.435 3.282 1.852 3.745 25 26 27 28 29 0.787 2.000 1.497 3.708 1.895 1.95 0.33 10.707 3.539 2.358 2.841 4.782 1.428 3.971 2.883 20 21 22 23 24 0.688 0.819 3.699 2.078 3.694 0.297 6.21 7.9995 ν=1 2 3 4 1.998 2.174 3.528 2.476 1.747 63.977 3.922 3.090 3.878 2.330 1.610 5 6 7 8 9 0.711 2.807 3.646 3.201 2.604 127.135 3.314 2.975 0.341 1.056 2.321 1.75 0.686 0.645 2.787 4.353 2.734 1.222 3.030 2.

31 19 20 7.167 12.68 25.80 22 9.53 34.18 49.16 24.58 31.08 41.325 3.088 2.647 2.49 86.378 9.48 48.95 26.81 22.260 8.8 90 61.672 24.841 5.31 45.92 36.247 3.816 4.20 34.28 15.605 5.86 11.09 32.1026 4.93 51.348 11.75 18.81 18.93 41.83 2 0.40 46.99 28.36 24.58 40.1 118.77 27.733 13.00 34.908 7.01 18.1 124.2158 0.53 83.42 37.59 25.3 124.93 118.34 63.06 22. for each pair of values of p and ν.34 26.69 13.72 40.50 71.78 40.32 32.76 63.82 3 0.64 44.84 16.05 2 0.95 16.66 60 70 37.28 19.12 13.59 11 3.408 7.3 116.69 29.975 0.19 27.49 29.79 18 7.49 40.8721 1.54 26.907 9.48 21.4 9 .59 14.015 8.53 20.77 46.75 65.237 1.56 46.59 30.67 23.180 2.29 42.6 112.21 23.38 36. p 0.76 43.779 9.82 45.239 1.85 32.41 35.52 12.40 85.70 16 5.18 52.2 99.4 91.20 28.812 6.02 14.2 149.690 2.15 79.48 45.65 42.3 137.51 17.488 11.31 23.571 4.210 10.34 12.7107 1.0 1571 0.12 37.00 43.81 33.53 14 15 4.571 7.98 50.251 7.73 26.14 30.57 38.91 13 4.962 23.55 22.107 5.48 38.02010 0.575 17.CRITICAL VALUES FOR THE χ 2 -DISTRIBUTION If X has a χ 2 -distribution with ν degrees of freedom then.43 26.30 28.2 100 70.39 96.2971 0.95 104.12 27.27 39.19 37.67 59.58 101.61 112.99 0.17 36.591 10.9 106.25 17 6.22 28.99 16.995 0.236 9.87 31.41 32.74 27.22 77.67 35.47 20.82 34.86 16.5543 0.74 74.700 3.19 51.4844 0.20 11.633 8.48 20.542 10.85 34.81 37.999 0.1148 0.17 67.40 13.30 32.64 12.70 40 22.12 10.0 3932 2.12 9 10 2.06 74.31 21 8.635 7.262 6.564 8.706 3.28 24.65 39.15 60.92 24.8 140.17 38.1 128.88 29.07 16.30 95.54 57.635 10.68 21.26 43.404 5.42 76.660 5.19 33.9 0.226 18.14 12.40 50 29.44 40.03 23.26 12 3.02 88.145 7.00 26.27 4 5 0.80 48.940 14.558 2.41 30.229 5.8312 0.16 42.83 13.6 135.53 79.76 31.01 ν=1 3 0.71 32.85 27.59 29.38 100.32 8 1.55 21.6 113.46 7 1.08 90.76 59.024 6. the table gives the value of x such that P(X ⩽ x) = p.61 33.5 124.36 40.815 9.053 3.897 10.45 16.3 80 53.60 13.34 30.68 15.31 19.261 21.98 44.51 6 0.98 12.3 129.62 30 14.07 11.85 14.05064 0.3518 6.13 107.95 0.02 20.01 35.892 19.79 18.36 15.390 25.629 6.009 5.51 51.65 69.81 55.09 21.36 34.8794 10.89 53.025 3 0.28 11.62 32.09 14.27 23 10.77 73.80 36.14 31.231 9.69 66.0 9821 0.73 24 25 10.991 7.92 18.

Critical values of T One Tail Two Tail n=6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 0.1 2 3 5 8 10 13 17 21 25 30 35 41 47 53 60 Level of significance 0. T is the smaller of P and Q.01 0 1 3 5 7 9 12 15 19 23 27 32 37 For larger values of n .05 0.02 0 2 0 3 1 5 3 8 5 10 7 13 9 17 12 21 15 25 19 29 23 34 27 40 32 46 37 52 43 0.05 0. For each value of n the table gives the largest value of T which will lead to rejection of the null hypothesis at the level of significance indicated. each of P and Q can be approximated by the normal distribution with mean 1 n(n + 1) 4 and variance 1 n(n + 1)(2n + 1) . 24 10 . Q is the sum of the ranks corresponding to the negative differences.WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST P is the sum of the ranks corresponding to the positive differences.005 0.01 0.025 0.

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This booklet is the property of SINGAPORE EXAMINATIONS AND ASSESSMENT BOARD 12 .