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Systems Theory Model

The system can be defined as a union formed of several elements (elements). Element,
component, or part of it to each other in the binding and functional linkages. Each cohesive with
one another, so that the effectiveness of its existence is maintained intact. The review is the
outlook in terms of its shape. So understanding the system, in addition can be applied to things
that are "immaterial" or a process "immaterial", can also be applied to the material. To be
"immaterial" decomposition or determination "model" was more likely to function as an analytical
tool and a way, governance, plan, scheme, procedure or method. The system is a way that the
mechanism is patterned and consistent, even the mechanism is often called automatically.
Meanwhile, according to David Easton (1984: 395) system are:
System theory is a model that describes a certain relationship between the sub-systems with
the system as a unit (which may reflect a society, trade unions, government organizations).
Easton also summarizes its characteristics as follows:
1. The system has a limit in which there is a functional relationship with each other which is
mainly based on some form of communication.
2. The system is divided into sub-systems which each other mutual exchanges (such as the
village with local governments or between local governments and the central government).
3. The system can generate code that is receiving the information, learn and translate inputs
(input) into some type of output (output).
Carl. D. Friedrich in his book "Man and his Government" proposed definition of the system,
When several different parts and different from each other to form a union, to implement a
permanent functional relationship with each other and create the parts depend on each other.
So that damage to a part of the overall damage, the relationship of such a system is called.
(Sukarna, 1981: 19)
While systems theory by Michael Rush and Philip Althoff (1988: 19) states that social
phenomena are part of a political behavior consistent, internal and regular and can be seen and
distinguished, therefore we could call it: social system, political system and a number of subsystems of interdependent as the economic and political.
Actually, every system that exists in the community is not autonomous or closed but open, in the
sense of a system will be influenced by other systems. Each system will receive input from other
systems and the system will process the input in the form of output for other systems.
David Easton in his A System Analysis of Political Life (in Susser, 1992: 189) tried to describe
the possibility of seeing the political life of the terminology system. System simulation is the
concept of totality. To see a social life, social reality means that the system can be integrated on
the complexity of the existing units and are interdependent. So changes in social units will result
in changes to other units in the totality. When looking at the political life of a country, with a
system perspective, the focus is the co-variation and interdependence of the various political

units in a country that is part of the system itself. Political life is interpreted as a system of
behavior that is adaptive and automatically performs the adjustment process to a variety of
environmental pressures and functional changes of the units.
David Easton (1984: 395) defines the political system as a system of interaction in the
community in which the allocation of a tie or also containing authorities are created and
According to SP Varma (1990: 298), the system definition Easton is divided into three
components: (1) the allocation of values, (2) the allocation of authority and (3) allocations
authoritative as something that binds society as a whole, adding the most satisfactory way.
Another understanding about the political system submitted Rusadi Kantaprawira (1988: 8) that
the mechanism set of functions or roles in political structures in relation to one another that
shows a lasting, process meant to contain the dimensions of time (past, present and future)
then that means the structure is all activity that can be observed or identified to determine the
political system itself.
According to Robert. S. Dahl (in Mohtar M. 1982: 2) in his book entitled Modern "Political
Analysis", stated about the meaning of the political system as follows:
A political system as any persistent pattern of human relationships that involves to a significant
extent, control, influence, power or authority. (So according to Dahl's political system is as fixed
patterns of relationships between people involved at the level of the means of control, influence
and power.
Gabriel A. Almond defines the political system as a system of interaction that occurs in all
communities independent exercise the functions of integration and adaptation (both internally
and in dealing with other people with the tools or the threat of physical force or less valid. (SP.
Varma, 1990: 298)
There are three things that clearly emerges from Almond definition of the political system (SP.
Varma, 1990: 199) is:
1. That a political system is a concrete whole which affects and is affected by the environments,
the presence of legitimate force simultaneously maintaining the system.
2. The interactions that occur not between individuals but between the roles they play.
3. The political system is an open system that is tied in a constant communication with the
Based in notions or limitations presented by distinguished scholars such as the above one can
draw an understanding that political system was a system of interactions or relationships that
occur in society, through the allocation of values to the public and the allocation of those values
using physical force more or less valid.
Parson Talcot with structural functionalism believe that there are four basic functions in the
political system, that is, the adjustment of goals, integration and maintenance patterns. Each of
these basic functions produced by four subsystems analysis, social, cultural, personality and

behavior of organisms. Taken together these functions Parsons regarded as an essential

prerequisite for the preservation of each community. According to Parsons, the community
consists of four basic structures or sub-systems which are economic, political, legal and social
control and cultural and commitments that each driver used to run one of the functions of
society. (SP. Varma, 1990: 282)
In the political system there is a common mechanism through which, following the model of
political system David Easton (1984: 165)
In the mechanism of the political system, the input consists of demand (demand) and support
(support). Claims against the political system can vary in shape, such as a claim to get a decent
service, decent income, security, morality and so on. Claim is the work of the machine and in
the political system operates to convert the claim in the form of policies authoritative as its
So the maintenance system demands a claim processed in a level that can be redirected. To
meet this goal the political system to set a filter that serves to select and limit the claims. Filters
main processing is institutional, cultural, and political structure. In addition to the claims, the
system also need support. The support is open in the form of actions which clearly and
expressly supports and covered the actions and sentiments that support. Following the
conversion process in the political system "output" in the form of a decision. Authoritative
decisions can be produced, the conversion process can be called black box. This is because
the process is not clear where the dominant institution in the process. However it is known that
they are a group of so-called elite, that is the most important layer of the policies of a country.
Input / output is then processed into input after going through the process of feedback
(feedback). In such a system is also affected by both internal and external environment, that
environment includes social, economic and political give inputs, system variables, output and
outcome of policies.