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Copyright information
Permission has been obtained from the copyright holders to reproduce certain quoted material in this report. Further reproduction of this material is prohibited without specific permission of the copyright holder. All other material contained in this report is in the public domain and may be used and reprinted without special permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

Suggested citation
National Center for Health Statistics Health, United States, 2006 With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans Hyattsville, MD: 2006

Library of Congress Catalog Number 76–641496. For sale by Superintendent of Documents U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, DC 20402

Preface

Preface
Health, United States, 2006 is the 30th report on the health status of the Nation and is submitted by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services to the President and Congress of the United States in compliance with Section 308 of the Public Health Service Act. This report was compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics served in a review capacity. The Health, United States series presents national trends in health statistics. Each report includes an executive summary, highlights, a chartbook, trend tables, extensive appendixes, and an index.

States website. Tables with additional data years are listed in Appendix III.

Racial and Ethnic Data
Many tables in Health, United States present data according to race and Hispanic origin consistent with Department-wide emphasis on expanding racial and ethnic detail when presenting health data. Trend data on race and ethnicity are presented in the greatest detail possible after taking into account the quality of data, the amount of missing data, and the number of observations. Standards for classification of federal data on race and ethnicity are described in Appendix II, Race.

Education and Income Data Chartbook
The Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans updates and expands information from previous chartbooks and introduces this year’s special feature on pain. Pain affects physical and mental functioning, affects quality of life, reduces productivity, and is a major reason for health care utilization. The chartbook assesses the Nation’s health by presenting trends and current information on selected determinants and measures of health status and utilization of health care. Many measures are shown separately for persons of different ages because of the strong effect of age on health. Selected figures also highlight differences in determinants and measures of health status and utilization of health care by such characteristics as sex, race, Hispanic origin, education, and poverty status. Many tables in Health, United States present data according to socioeconomic status, using education and poverty level as proxy measures. Education and income data are generally obtained directly from survey respondents, and are not generally available from records-based data collection systems including the National Health Care Survey (see Appendix I). State vital statistics systems currently report mother’s education on the birth certificate and, based on information from an informant, decedent’s education on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Education; Family income; Poverty.

Disability Data
Disability is a complex concept and can include presence of physical or mental impairments that limit a person’s ability to perform an important activity, and use of or need for accommodations or interventions required to improve functioning. Information on disability in the U.S. population is critical to health planning and policy. Although some information is currently available from federal data collection systems, the information is limited by a lack of standard definitions and survey questions on disability. Several current initiatives are underway to coordinate and standardize measurement of disability across federal data systems. Until such standardized information is available, Health, United States includes the following disability-related information for the civilian noninstitutionalized population: prevalence of limitations of activity due to chronic conditions (Table 58),

Trend Tables
The chartbook section is followed by 147 trend tables organized around four major subject areas: health status and determinants, health care utilization, health care resources, and health care expenditures. A major criterion used in selecting the trend tables is availability of comparable national data over a period of several years. The tables present data for selected years to highlight major trends in health statistics. Earlier editions of Health, United States may present data for additional years that are not included in the current printed report. Where possible, these additional years of data are available in Excel spreadsheet files on the Health, United

Health, United States, 2006

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Preface

vision and hearing limitations for adults (Table 59), and limitations in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) for the population age 65 and over (Table 58). In addition, disability-related information is provided for the nursing home population (Table 102), Medicare enrollees (Table 139), Medicaid recipients (Table 140), and veterans with service-connected disabilities (Table 142).

categories: (1) Government Sources and (2) Private and Global Sources. Appendix II is an alphabetical listing of terms used in the report. It also presents standard populations used for age adjustment (Tables I, II, and III); ICD codes for causes of death shown in Health, United States from the Sixth through Tenth Revisions and the years when the Revisions were in effect (Tables IV and V); comparability ratios between ICD–9 and ICD–10 for selected causes (Table VI); ICD–9–CM codes for external cause-of-injury, diagnostic, and procedure categories (Tables VII, X, and XI); effects of adding probe questions for Medicare and Medicaid on health insurance rates in the National Health Interview Survey (Table VIII); industry codes according to the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (Table IX); National Drug Code (NDC) Therapeutic Class recodes of generic analgesic drugs (Table XII); and sample tabulations of NHIS data comparing the 1977 and 1997 Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity (Tables XIII and XIV). Appendix III lists tables for which additional years of trend data are available electronically in Excel spreadsheet files on the Health, United States website and CD-ROM, described below under Electronic Access.

Changes in This Edition
Each volume of Health, United States is prepared to maximize its usefulness as a standard reference source while maintaining its continuing relevance. Comparability is fostered by including similar trend tables in each volume. Timeliness is maintained by (1) adding new tables each year to reflect emerging topics in public health and (2) improving the content of ongoing tables. Health, United States, 2006 includes five new trend tables on: the population in federal and state prisons and local jails (Table 2), based on data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics; joint pain (Table 57) and access to care problems due to cost (Table 78), based on the National Health Interview Survey; physician practice characteristics (Table 117), based on the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey; and health professionals’ wages (Table 108), based on data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Health, United States, 2006 Chartbook section includes new charts on the population in group quarters (Figure 2), length of time without health insurance (Figure 7), binge drinking and marijuana use among high school students (Figure 11), untreated dental caries among children (Figure 14), percentage of the adult population with three or more chronic conditions (Figure 15), dental visits among children (Figure 19), influenza vaccination among adults (Figure 20), emergency department visits for falls (Figure 21), and hospitalizations with bariatric procedures (Figure 23). The Special Feature includes 10 new charts on pain prevalence and associated health care treatment and costs (Figures 28–37).

Index
The Index to Trend Tables and Chartbook Figures is a useful tool for locating data by topic. Tables are cross-referenced by such topics as Child and adolescent health; Elderly population age 65 years and over; Women’s health; Men’s health; state data; American Indian, Asian, Black, and Hispanic origin populations; Education; Injury; Disability; and Metropolitan and nonmetropolitan data.

Electronic Access
Health, United States may be accessed in its entirety on the World Wide Web at www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm. From the Health, United States website, one may also register for the Health, United States electronic mailing list to receive announcements about release dates and notices of updates to tables. Health, United States, 2006, the chartbook, and each of the trend tables are available as Acrobat PDF files on the website. Chartbook figures are available as downloadable

Appendixes
Appendix I describes each data source used in the report and provides references for further information about the sources. Data sources are listed alphabetically within two broad

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Health, United States, 2006

Preface

PowerPoint® slides. Trend tables and chartbook data tables are available as downloadable Excel spreadsheet files. Trend tables listed in Appendix III include additional years of data not shown in the printed report or .pdf files. Both PDF and spreadsheet files for selected tables will be updated on the website if more current data become available near the time when the printed report is released. Readers who register with the electronic mailing list will be notified of these table updates. Previous editions of Health, United States and chartbooks, starting with the 1993 edition, also may be accessed from the Health, United States website. Health, United States is also available on CD-ROM, where it can be viewed, searched, printed, and saved using Adobe Acrobat software on the CD-ROM.

Copies of the Report
Copies of Health, United States, 2006, and the CD-ROM can be purchased from the Government Printing Office (GPO) through links to GPO on the National Center for Health Statistics website, Publications and Information Products page.

Questions?
For answers to questions about this report, contact: Office of Information Services Information Dissemination Staff National Center for Health Statistics Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 3311 Toledo Road, Fifth Floor Hyattsville, MD 20782 Phone: 301-458-INFO or toll free 866-441-NCHS E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov Internet: www.cdc.gov/nchs

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Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments
Overall responsibility for planning and coordinating the content of this volume rested with the Office of Analysis and Epidemiology, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), under the direction of Amy B. Bernstein, Diane M. Makuc, and Linda T. Bilheimer. Production of Health, United States, 2006, highlights, trend tables, and appendixes was managed by Amy B. Bernstein, Sheila Franco, and Virginia M. Freid. Trend tables were prepared by Amy B. Bernstein, Alan J. Cohen, Margaret A. Cooke, La-Tonya D. Curl, Catherine R. Duran, Sheila Franco, Virginia M. Freid, Ji-Eun Lee, Andrea P. MacKay, Livia Navon, Patricia N. Pastor, Mitchell B. Pierre, Jr., Rebecca A. Placek, Laura A. Pratt, Cynthia A. Reuben, and Henry Xia, with assistance from Zahiyah J. Hines, Anita L. Powell, and Ilene B. Rosen. Appendix II tables and the index were assembled by Anita L. Powell. Production planning and coordination of trend tables were managed by Rebecca A. Placek. Administrative and word processing assistance were provided by Lillie C. Featherstone, Lamont Henderson, and Rhonda Robinson. Production of the Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans was managed by Virginia M. Freid. Data and analysis for specific charts were provided by Amy B. Bernstein, Margaret A. Cooke, Sheila Franco, Virginia M. Freid, Deborah D. Ingram, Ji-Eun Lee, Rebecca L. Middendorf, Patricia N. Pastor, and Cynthia A. Reuben. Graphs were drafted by La-Tonya D. Curl and data tables were prepared by Rebecca A. Placek. Technical assistance and programming were provided by Alan J. Cohen, Catherine R. Duran, Livia Navon, Mitchell B. Pierre, Jr., and Henry Xia. Publications management and editorial review were provided by Demarius V. Miller, Office of Information Services, Information Design and Publishing Staff. Oversight review for publications and electronic products was provided by Margot A. Palmer, Acting Director, Office of Information Services. The designer was Sarah Hinkle, CDC/CoCHIS/ NCHM/Division of Creative Services; production was done by Jacqueline M. Davis and Zung T. Le, CDC/CoCHIS/NCHM/ Division of Creative Services; and printing was managed by Patricia L. Wilson, CDC/OCOO/MASO. Electronic access through the NCHS Internet site and CD-ROM was provided by Christine J. Brown, Jacqueline M.

Davis, Zung T. Le, Demarius V. Miller, Sharon L. Ramirez, and Patricia L. Wilson. Data and technical assistance were provided by staff of the following NCHS organizations: Division of Health Care Statistics: Catharine W. Burt, Carol J. DeFrances, Marni J. Hall, Esther Hing, Lola Jean Kozak, Karen L. Lipkind, Eric Nawar, Maria F. Owings, William Pearson, Michelle Podgornik, Robert Pokras, Robin E. Remsburg, Susan M. Schappert, and Genevieve W. Strahan; Division of Health Examination Statistics: Lisa Broitman, Margaret D. Carroll, Bruce Dye, Rosemarie Hirsch, Clifford L. Johnson, Ryne Paulose, and Susan E. Schober; Division of Health Interview Statistics: Patricia F. Adams, Veronica E. Benson, Barbara Bloom, Viona I. Brown, Margaret Lethbridge-Cejku, Pei-Lu Chiu, Robin A. Cohen, Richard H. Coles, Marcie Cynamon, Achintya Dey, Cathy C. Hao, Kristina Kotulak-Hays, Susan S. Jack, Jane B. Page, Eve Powell-Griner, Jeannine Schiller, Charlotte A. Schoenborn, Mira L. Shanks, and Luong Tonthat; Division of Vital Statistics: Robert N. Anderson, Elizabeth Arias, Thomas D. Dunn, Donna L. Hoyert, Joyce A. Martin, Kenneth D. Kochanek, T.J. Mathews, Arialdi M. Minino, Sherry L. Murphy, and Stephanie J. Ventura; Office of Analysis and Epidemiology: Lois Fingerhut, Richard F. Gillum, Deborah D. Ingram, Patricia A. Knapp, and Rashmi Tandon; Office of International Statistics: Juan Rafael Albertorio-Diaz and Francis C. Notzon; Office of the Director: Donna Pickett; and Office of Research and Methodology: Meena Khare. Additional data and technical assistance were also provided by the following organizations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Epidemiology Program Office: Samuel L. Groseclose and Patsy A. Hall; National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: Laura Kann, Steve Kinchen, Shari L. Shanklin, and Lilo Strauss; National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention: Chandra M. Pendergraft; National Immunization Program: Natalie J. Darling; by the following organizations within the Department of Health and Human Services: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: David Kashihara, Steven Machlin, and Marc W. Zodet; Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services: Cathy A. Cowan, Cherron A. Cox, Frank Eppig, Denise F. Franz, David A. Gibson, Deborah W. Kidd, and Anna Long; National Institutes of Health: Catherine C. Cowie, Lynn A. G. Ries, and Douglas Rugh; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: Daniel Foley; and by the following governmental and nongovernmental organizations: U.S.

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Health, United States, 2006

Acknowledgments

Census Bureau: Bernadette D. Proctor; Bureau of Justice Statistics: Allen Beck; Bureau of Labor Statistics: Stella Cromartie, Kay Ford, Daniel Ginsburg, John Stinson, and Peggy Suarez; Department of Veterans Affairs: William Kloiber, Dat Tran, and Henry Caplan; American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy: Jennifer M. Patton; American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine: Moraith G. North; American Dental Education Association: Richard Weaver; Association of Schools of Public Health: Mah-Sere K. Sow; Cowles Research Group: C. McKeen Cowles; and InterStudy: Tracy Coats.

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Contents

Contents

Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Chartbook Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Trend Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii vi xiii xv

Morbidity and Limitation of Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three or More Chronic Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limitation of Activity: Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limitation of Activity: Working-Age and Older Adults . . . . Health Care Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dental Visit Among Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influenza Vaccination: Adults 50 Years of Age and Over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency Department Visits for Falls. . . . . . . . . . . . Visits to Physician Offices and Hospital Outpatient Departments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bariatric Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Life Expectancy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infant Mortality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leading Causes of Death for All Ages . . . . . . . . . . . Special Feature: Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction: Prevalence and Duration of Pain among Adults in the Month Prior to Interview. . . . . . . . . . . . Low Back, Migraine/Severe Headache, Neck, and Face Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low Back Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joint Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Narcotic Analgesic Drug Visits in Emergency Departments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prescription Narcotic Drug Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knee and Nonfracture Hip Replacements . . . . . . . . . Ambulatory Medical Care Expenses Associated with Headaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Status Measures among Adults with and without Low Back Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technical Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Tables for Figures 1–37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42 42 44 46 50 50 52 54 56 58 60 60 62 66 68 68 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 91

Executive Summary and Highlights
Executive Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Life Expectancy and Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Status and Risk Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Care Access and Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Care System Influences, Resources, and Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Insurance Coverage and Payors . . . . . . . . . . . Uninsured Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Private Health Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal and State Health Insurance Programs . . . . Health Care Expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Feature: Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 7 7 8 8 9 11 11 11 12 12 12 13

Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans
Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group Quarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Insurance and Expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Insurance at the Time of Interview . . . . . . . . . Length of Time Without Health Insurance. . . . . . . . . . Health Care Expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Risk Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cigarette Smoking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Binge Drinking and Current Marijuana Use Among High School Students. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overweight and Obesity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Untreated Dental Caries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 16 18 20 22 26 26 28 30 32 32 34 36 38 40

Trend Tables
Health Status and Determinants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fertility and Natality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determinants and Measures of Health . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 127 134 160 239

Utilization of Health Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Ambulatory Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Inpatient Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

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Contents
Health Care Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 Health Care Expenditures and Payors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National Health Expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health Care Coverage and Major Federal Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State Health Expenditures and Health Insurance . . . . 373 373 395 413

Appendixes
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 I. II. III. Data Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Definitions and Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 Additional Data Years Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530

Index to Trend Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533

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List of Chartbook Figures

List of Chartbook Figures
Click on title for figure, PowerPoint, and Excel file.

Morbidity and Activity Limitation
15. Three or more chronic conditions among adults 45 years of age and over, by age and percent of poverty level: United States, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . Selected chronic health conditions causing limitation of activity among children, by age: United States, 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selected chronic health conditions causing limitation of activity among working-age adults, by age: United States, 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selected chronic health conditions causing limitation of activity among older adults, by age: United States, 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Population
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Total population and older population: United States, 1950–2050 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Population in group quarters, by type of setting: United States, 1990 and 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Population in selected race and Hispanic origin groups, by age: United States, 1980–2005 . . . . . . Poverty by age: United States, 1966–2004 . . . . . . Low income by age, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 19 21 23 25 16.

43

45

17.

47

18.

49

Health Insurance and Expenditures
6. Health insurance coverage at the time of interview among persons under 65 years of age: United States, 1984–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uninsured for at least part of the 12 months prior to interview among persons under 65 years of age, by length of time uninsured and selected characteristics: United States, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . National health expenditures as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product: United States, 1960–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal health care expenditures, by source of funds and type of expenditures: United States, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Health Care Utilization
19. 27 20. Dental visit in the past year among children, by age, race and Hispanic origin: United States, 2004. . . . Influenza vaccination during the past year among adults 50 years of age and over, by race and Hispanic origin: United States, 2003–2004 . . . . . . Emergency department visits for falls, by sex and age: United States, 2002–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visits to physician offices and hospital outpatient departments, by sex and age: United States, 1997–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Average annual hospital inpatient gastric bypass and other bariatric procedures among adults 18–64 years of age with obesity, by sex and age: United States, 1999–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

7.

53 55

29

21. 22.

8.

30 23. 31

9.

57

59

Health Risk Factors
10. Cigarette smoking among men, women, high school students, and mothers during pregnancy: United States, 1965–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Binge drinking and current marijuana use among high school students, by sex, grade level, and year: United States, 1991, 1993, 2003, and 2005 . . . . . Regular leisure-time physical activity among adults 18 years of age and over, by percent of poverty level, race and Hispanic origin: United States, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overweight and obesity, by age: United States, 1960–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Untreated dental caries among children, by age, race and Hispanic origin: United States, 1971–2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mortality
33 24. 25. 35 26. 27. 37 39 Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, by sex: United States, 1900–2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates: United States, 1950–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infant mortality rates, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, 2001–2003 . . . . . Death rates for leading causes of death for all ages: United States, 1950–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 63 65 67

11.

12.

13. 14.

41

Health, United States, 2006

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List of Chartbook Figures

Special Feature: Pain
28. Adults 20 years of age and over reporting pain in the month prior to interview, by selected characteristics: United States, 1999–2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Duration of pain among adults reporting pain, by age: United States, 1999–2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Adults reporting low back pain, migraine, neck, and face pain in the 3 months prior to interview, by age: United States, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Adults 18 years of age and over reporting low back pain in the 3 months prior to interview, by selected characteristics: United States, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Adults 18 years of age and over reporting joint pain in the 30 days prior to interview, by severity level and selected characteristics: United States, 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Narcotic analgesic drug visits to the emergency department among visits with a severe pain level recorded, by age, sex, and race: United States, 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Adults 18 years of age and over reporting narcotic drug use in the month prior to interview, by sex and age: United States, 1988–1994 and 1999–2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Hospital discharges for knee and nonfracture hip replacement surgery among adults 45 years of age and over, by sex and age: United States, 1992–1993 and 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Adults reporting ambulatory medical care use for headaches and associated ambulatory medical care expenses, by age and sex: United States, 2002–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Health status measures among adults 18 years of age and over with and without low back pain, by age: United States, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

29. 30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

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Summary List of Trend Tables by Topic

Summary List of Trend Tables by Topic
All Topics (Tables 1–147) Population (Tables 1–3)
Resident population Persons in poverty and more . . .

Personnel (Tables 103–111)
Physicians Dentists Nurses Health professions school enrollment and more . . .

Fertility and Natality (Tables 4–18)
Births Low birthweight Breastfeeding and more . . .

Facilities (Tables 112–118)
Hospitals Nursing homes and more . . .

Mortality (Tables 19–49)
Infant mortality Life expectancy Death rates, by cause and more . . .

National Health Expenditures (Tables 119–132)
Personal health expenditures Out-of-pocket costs Prescription drugs Nursing home costs and more . . .

Determinants and Measures of Health (Tables 50–75)
Health status Cigarette smoking Alcohol consumption High blood pressure Overweight and obese and more . . .

Health Care Coverage and Major Federal Programs (Tables 133–142)
Insurance coverage: Medicare Medicaid Private coverage Uninsured HMOs and more . . .

Ambulatory Care (Tables 76–94)
Visits: health care, dentists, emergency departments, and more . . . Prevention: mammograms, pap smears, vaccinations

State Health Expenditures and Health Insurance (Tables 143–147)
Medicare, Medicaid, HMO expenditures/enrollees Uninsured persons and more . . .

Inpatient Care (Tables 95–102)
Hospital stays and procedures Nursing homes and more . . .

List of Trend Tables

List of Trend Tables
Click on title for table and Excel file.

16. Legal abortions and legal abortion ratios, by selected patient characteristics: United States, selected years 1973–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. Contraceptive use among women 15–44 years of age, by age, race, Hispanic origin, and method of contraception: United States, selected years 1982–2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. Breastfeeding among mothers 15–44 years of age, by year of baby’s birth, and selected characteristics of mother: United States, average annual 1986–1988 through 1999–2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

154

Health Status and Determinants
Population
1. Resident population, by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . . . 2. Inmates in state or federal prisons and local jails, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1999–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Persons and families below poverty level, by selected characteristics, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1973–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

155

159

130

Mortality
19. Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1983–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. Infant mortality rates among mothers 20 years of age and over, by education, detailed race, and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1983–2003 . . . . . . . .

132

160

Fertility and Natality
4. Crude birth rates, fertility rates, and birth rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Live births, by plurality, and detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1970–2004 . . . . . . . . 6. Twin and higher order multiple births, by race, Hispanic origin, and age of mother: United States, selected years 1971–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Prenatal care for live births, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1970–2004 . . . . 8. Early prenatal care by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1996–1998, 1999–2001, and 2002–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Teenage childbearing, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1970–2004 . . . . 10. Nonmarital childbearing by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother, and maternal age: United States, selected years 1970–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Maternal education for live births, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1970–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. Mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, by detailed race, Hispanic origin, age, and education of mother: United States, selected years, 1989–2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. Low-birthweight live births, by detailed race, Hispanic origin, and smoking status of mother: United States, selected years 1970–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. Low-birthweight live births among mothers 20 years of age and over, by detailed race, Hispanic origin, and education of mother: United States, selected years 1989–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. Low-birthweight live births, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1996–1998, 1999–2001, and 2002–2004 . . .

163 165

134 137

21. Infant mortality rates by birthweight: United States, selected years 1983–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. Infant mortality rates, fetal mortality rates, and perinatal mortality rates, by race: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. Infant mortality rates, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1989–1991, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003 . . . . . . . . . 24. Neonatal mortality rates, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1989–1991, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003 . . . . . . . . . 25. Infant mortality rates and international rankings: Selected countries and territories, selected years 1960–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, by sex: Selected countries and territories, selected years 1980–2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. Life expectancy at birth, at 65 years of age, and at 75 years of age, by race and sex: United States, selected years 1900–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. Age-adjusted death rates, by race, Hispanic origin, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1979–1981, 1989–1991, and 2002–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30. Years of potential life lost before age 75 for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1980–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

166

139 140

167

170

141 144

173

145

174

146

176

147

177

148

179

183

149

31. Leading causes of death and numbers of deaths, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 1980 and 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

187

151

Health, United States, 2006

xv

List of Trend Tables

32. Leading causes of death and numbers of deaths, by age: United States, 1980 and 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33. Age-adjusted death rates, by race, sex, region, and urbanization level: United States, average annual 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34. Age-adjusted death rates among persons 25–64 years of age for selected causes of death, by sex and educational attainment: Selected states, 1994–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. Death rates for all causes, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . 36. Death rates for diseases of heart, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . 37. Death rates for cerebrovascular diseases, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38. Death rates for malignant neoplasms, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. Death rates for malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lung, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40. Death rates for malignant neoplasm of breast among females, by race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41. Death rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1980–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42. Death rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1987–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. Maternal mortality for complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium, by race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . . . . 44. Death rates for motor vehicle-related injuries, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. Death rates for homicide, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . 46. Death rates for suicide, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . 47. Death rates for firearm-related injuries, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1970–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48. Deaths from selected occupational diseases among persons 15 years of age and over: United States, selected years 1980–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49. Occupational injury deaths and rates, by industry, sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1992–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Determinants and Measures of Health
191 50. Occupational injuries and illnesses with days away from work, job transfer, or restriction, by industry: United States, 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. Selected notifiable disease rates: United States, selected years 1950–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 198 202 52. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases, by year of diagnosis and selected characteristics: United States and outlying U.S. areas, 1999–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for selected cancer sites, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: Selected geographic areas, selected years 1990–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54. Five-year relative cancer survival rates for selected cancer sites, by race and sex: Selected geographic areas, selected years 1975–1977 through 1996–2002 . . . . . . . . . . 55. Diabetes among adults 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin: United States, 1988–1994 and 2001–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56. Severe headache or migraine, low back pain, and neck pain among adults 18 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1997–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57. Joint pain among adults 18 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, 2002–2004 . . . . . . . . 58. Limitation of activity caused by chronic conditions, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1997–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59. Vision and hearing limitations among adults 18 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1997–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60. Respondent-assessed health status, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1991–2004. . . . 61. Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, average annual 1997–1998, 2000–2001, and 2003–2004 . . . 62. Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and injurious suicide attempts among students in grades 9–12, by sex, grade level, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1991–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63. Current cigarette smoking among adults 18 years of age and over, by sex, race, and age: United States, selected years 1965–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64. Age-adjusted prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults 25 years of age and over, by sex, race, and education: United States, selected years 1974–2004. . . . . . . 65. Current cigarette smoking among adults, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, age, and education: United States, average annual 1990–1992, 1995–1998, and 2002–2004 . . . . . . . . . 66. Use of selected substances in the past month among persons 12 years of age and over, by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 2002–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 240

193

242

244

205

247

208

248

212

249 251

215

217

255

220

258 260

222

223 227 230

262

264

266

233

268

236

269

237

271

xvi

Health, United States, 2006

List of Trend Tables

67. Use of selected substances among high school seniors, tenth-, and eighth-graders, by sex and race: United States, selected years 1980–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68. Alcohol consumption by adults 18 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1997–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69. Hypertension and elevated blood pressure among persons 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty level: United States, 1988–1994 and 2001–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70. Serum total cholesterol levels among persons 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty level: United States, selected years 1960–1962 through 2001–2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71. Mean energy and macronutrient intake among persons 20–74 years of age, by sex and age: United States, 1971–1974 through 1999–2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72. Leisure-time physical activity among adults 18 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1998–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73. Overweight, obesity, and healthy weight among persons 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty level: United States, 1960–1962 through 2001–2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74. Overweight among children and adolescents 6–19 years of age, by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty level: United States, 1963–1965 through 2001–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75. Untreated dental caries, by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty level: United States, 1971–1974, 1988–1994, and 1999–2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

273

80. Health care visits to doctors’ offices, emergency departments, and home visits within the past 12 months, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1997–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81. Vaccinations of children 19–35 months of age for selected diseases, by race, Hispanic origin, poverty level, and residence in metropolitan statistical area (MSA): United States, selected years 1995–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82. Vaccination coverage among children 19–35 months of age, by geographic division, state, and selected urban area: United States, selected years 1995–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination among adults 18 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1989–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84. Use of mammography among women 40 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1987–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85. Use of Pap smears among women 18 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1987–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86. Emergency department visits within the past 12 months among children under 18 years of age, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1997–2004. . . .

303

276

306

279

308

281

310

284

313

285

315

317

287

87. Emergency department visits within the past 12 months among adults 18 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1997–2004. . . . 88. Injury-related visits to hospital emergency departments, by sex, age, and intent and mechanism of injury: United States, average annual 1995–1996, 1999–2000, and 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89. Visits to physician offices and hospital outpatient and emergency departments, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1995–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90. Visits to primary care generalist and specialist physicians, by selected characteristics and type of physician: United States, selected years 1980–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91. Dental visits in the past year, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1997–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

320

291

322

292

Utilization of Health Resources
Ambulatory Care
76. No usual source of health care among children under 18 years of age, by selected characteristics: United States, average annual selected years 1993–1994 through 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77. No usual source of health care among adults 18–64 years of age, by selected characteristics: United States, average annual 1993–1994 through 2003–2004. . . . . . . . . . 78. Reduced access to medical care during the past 12 months due to cost, by selected characteristics: United States, 1997, 2003, and 2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79. No health care visits to an office or clinic within the past 12 months among children under 18 years of age, by selected characteristics: United States, average annual 1997–1998, 2001–2002, and 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

324

327 329

295

297

92. Selected prescription and nonprescription drugs recorded during physician office visits and hospital outpatient department visits, by sex and age: United States, 1995–1996 and 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93. Prescription drug use in the past month by sex, age, race and Hispanic origin: United States, 1988–1994 and 1999–2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94. Admissions to mental health organizations, by type of service and organization: United States, selected years 1986–2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

331

299

334

335

301

Health, United States, 2006

xvii

List of Trend Tables

Inpatient Care
95. Persons with hospital stays in the past year, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1997–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96. Discharges, days of care, and average length of stay in non-federal short-stay hospitals, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1980–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97. Discharges and days of care in non-federal short-stay hospitals, by sex, age, and selected first-listed diagnoses: United States, selected years 1990–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98. Discharges and average length of stay in non-federal short-stay hospitals, by sex, age, and selected first-listed diagnoses: United States, selected years 1990–2004 . . . . . . 99. Discharges with at least one procedure in non-federal short-stay hospitals, by sex, age, and selected procedures: United States, average annual 1993–1994 and 2003–2004 . . . . 100. Hospital admissions, average length of stay, outpatient visits, and outpatient surgery, by type of ownership and size of hospital: United States, selected years 1975–2004 . . . . . . 101. Nursing home residents 65 years of age and over, by age, sex, and race: United States, selected years 1973–1999 102. Nursing home residents 65 years of age and over, by selected functional status and age, sex, and race: United States, 1985, 1995, and 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

111. First-year and total enrollment of women in schools for selected health occupations: United States, selected academic years 1980–1981 through 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

363

Facilities
112. Hospitals, beds, and occupancy rates, by type of ownership and size of hospital: United States, selected years 1975–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113. Mental health organizations and beds for 24-hour hospital and residential treatment, by type of organization: United States, selected years 1986–2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114. Community hospital beds and average annual percentage change, by geographic division and state: United States, selected years 1960–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115. Occupancy rates in community hospitals and average annual percent change, by geographic division and state: United States, selected years 1960–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116. Nursing homes, beds, occupancy, and residents, by geographic division and state: United States, selected years 1995–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117. Selected characteristics of office-based physician practices: United States, 1999–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118. Medicare-certified providers and suppliers: United States, selected years 1980–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

339

364

341

365

344

366

347

367

350 351

368 370 371

352

Health Care Resources
Personnel
103. Persons employed in health service sites, by sex: United States, selected years 2000–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104. Active physicians and doctors of medicine in patient care, by geographic division and state: United States, selected years 1975–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105. Doctors of medicine, by activity and place of medical education: United States and outlying U.S. areas, selected years 1975–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106. Doctors of medicine in primary care, by specialty: United States and outlying U.S. areas, selected years 1949–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107. Active health personnel, by occupation: United States, selected years 1980–2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108. Employees and wages, by selected healthcare occupations: United States, selected years 1999–2004 . . . . . 109. First-year enrollment and graduates of health professions schools, and number of schools, by selected profession: United States, selected years 1980–2004 . . . . . . 110. Total enrollment of minorities in schools for selected health occupations, by race and Hispanic origin: United States, selected academic years 1980–1981 through 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

Health Care Expenditures and Payors
National Health Expenditures
119. Total health expenditures as a percent of gross domestic product and per capita health expenditures in dollars, by selected countries: Selected years 1960–2003 . . . 120. Gross domestic product, federal, and state and local government expenditures, national health expenditures, and average annual percent change: United States, selected years 1960–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121. Consumer Price Index and average annual percent change for all items, selected items, and medical care components: United States, selected years 1960–2005 . . . . . 122. Growth in personal health care expenditures and percent distribution of factors affecting growth: United States, 1960–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123. National health expenditures, average annual percent change, and percent distribution, by type of expenditure: United States, selected years 1960–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124. Personal health care expenditures, by source of funds and type of expenditure: United States, selected years 1960–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125. Expenses for health care and prescribed medicine, by selected population characteristics: United States, selected years 1987–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

373

354

374

356

375

357 358 359

376

377

360

379

381

xviii

Health, United States, 2006

List of Trend Tables

126. Sources of payment for health care, by selected population characteristics: United States, selected years 1987–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127. Out-of-pocket health care expenses among persons with medical expenses, by age: United States, selected years 1987–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128. Expenditures for health services and supplies and percent distribution, by type of payer: United States, selected years 1987–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129. Employers’ costs per employee-hour worked for total compensation, wages and salaries, and health insurance, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1991–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130. Hospital expenses, by type of ownership and size of hospital: United States, selected years 1980–2004 . . . . . . . . 131. Nursing home average monthly charges per resident and percent of residents, by source of payment and selected facility characteristics: United States, 1985, 1995, and 1999. . . . 132. Mental health expenditures, percent distribution, and per capita expenditures, by type of mental health organization: United States, selected years 1975–2002 . . . . .

384

142. Department of Veterans Affairs health care expenditures and use, and persons treated, by selected characteristics: United States, selected fiscal years 1970–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

412

387

State Health Expenditures and Health Insurance
143. State mental health agency per capita expenditures for mental health services and average annual percent change, by geographic region and state: United States, selected fiscal years 1981–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144. Medicare enrollees, enrollees in managed care, payment per enrollee, and short-stay hospital utilization by geographic region and state: United States, 1994 and 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145. Medicaid recipients, recipients in managed care, payments per recipient, and recipients per 100 persons below the poverty level, by geographic region and state: United States, selected fiscal years 1989–2003 . . . . . . . . . . 146. Persons enrolled in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) by geographic region and state: United States, selected years 1980–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147. Persons without health insurance coverage by state: United States, average annual 1995–1997 through 2002–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

388

413

390 392

415

393

417

394

419

Health Care Coverage and Major Federal Programs
133. Private health insurance coverage among persons under 65 years of age, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1984–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134. Medicaid coverage among persons under 65 years of age, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1984–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135. No health insurance coverage among persons under 65 years of age, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1984–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136. Health insurance coverage for persons 65 years of age and over, by type of coverage and selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1992–2003. . . . 137. Medicare enrollees and expenditures and percent distribution, by Medicare program and type of service: United States and other areas, selected years 1970–2005. . . 138. Medicare enrollees and program payments among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, by sex and age: United States and other areas, 1994–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139. Medicare beneficiaries by race and ethnicity, by selected characteristics: United States, 1992, 2001, and 2002 . . . . . . 140. Medicaid recipients and medical vendor payments, by basis of eligibility, and race and ethnicity: United States, selected fiscal years 1972–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141. Medicaid recipients and medical vendor payments, by type of service: United States, selected fiscal years 1972–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Executive Summary and Highlights

Executive Summary

Executive Summary
Health, United States, 2006, is the 30th annual report on the health status of the Nation prepared by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services for the President and Congress. In a chartbook and 147 detailed tables, it provides an annual picture of health for the entire Nation. Trends are presented on health status and health care utilization, resources, and expenditures. For those entrusted with safeguarding the Nation’s health, monitoring the health of the American people is an essential step in making sound health policy and setting priorities for research and programs. Measures of the population’s health provide essential information for assessing how the Nation’s resources should be directed to improve the health of the population. Examination of emerging trends identifies diseases, conditions, and risk factors that warrant study and intervention. Health, United States presents trends and current information on measures and determinants of the Nation’s health. It also identifies differences in health and health care among people of differing races and ethnicities, genders, education and income levels, and geographic locations, and it shows whether these differences are narrowing or increasing. Given the increasing diversity of the Nation and the continuing changes in the health care infrastructure, this is a challenging task, but it is a critically important undertaking.

decline in deaths from cardiovascular disease is a major public health achievement that resulted in large part from public education campaigns emphasizing a healthy lifestyle and increased use of cholesterol and hypertension-lowering medications (2). Advances in medical technology, including diagnostic imaging technologies, procedures, and new prescription drugs have extended and improved the quality of countless lives. Yet, even as progress is made in improving life expectancy, increased longevity is accompanied by increased prevalence of chronic conditions and their associated pain and disability. In recent years, progress in some arenas—declines in infant and cause-specific mortality, morbidity from chronic conditions, reduction in prevalence of risk factors including smoking and lack of exercise—has not been as rapid as in earlier years or trends have been moving in the wrong direction. Moreover, improvements have not been equally distributed by income, race, ethnicity, education, and geography.

Health Status and Its Determinants
In 2003, American men could expect to live 3 years longer, and women more than 1 year longer, than they did in 1990 (Table 27 and Figure 24). Mortality from heart disease, stroke, and cancer continued to decline in recent years (Table 29 and Figure 27). With longer life expectancy, however, comes increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and conditions that are associated with aging. Some diseases, including diabetes and hypertension, produce cumulative damage if not properly treated, while others, such as emphysema and some types of cancer, develop slowly or after long periods of environmental exposure. In 2001–2004, 10% of persons 20 years of age and over and more than one-fifth of adults 60 years and over had diabetes, including those with diabetes previously diagnosed by a physician and those with undiagnosed diabetes determined by results of a fasting blood sugar test (Table 55). About 30% of adults age 20 and over had elevated blood pressure or reported they were taking medications for high blood pressure in 2001–2004, and 17% had high serum cholesterol (Tables 69 and 70). The percentage of the population reporting fair or poor health status, or a limitation of their usual activity due to any chronic condition, increases sharply with age (Tables 58 and 60). In 2004, 32% of those 75 years of age and over reported fair or poor health compared with 22% of people age 65–74 and 6% of young adults age 25–44 years.

Overall Health of the Nation
The health of the Nation continues to improve overall in many respects, in part because of the significant resources devoted to public health programs, research, health care, and health education. Life expectancy in the United States continues a long-term upward trend, although the most dramatic increases were in the early part of the 20th century. Over the past century, many diseases have been controlled or their morbidity and mortality substantially reduced. Notable achievements in public health have included the control of infectious diseases such as typhoid and cholera through decontamination of water; implementation of widespread vaccination programs to contain polio, diphtheria, pertussis, and measles; fluoridation of water to drastically reduce the prevalence of dental caries; and improvements in motor vehicle safety through vehicle redesign and efforts to increase usage of seatbelts and motorcycle helmets (1). A sharp

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Of particular concern in recent years has been the increase in overweight and obesity, which are risk factors for many chronic diseases and disabilities including heart disease, hypertension, and back pain. The rising number of children and adults who are overweight, and the large percentage of Americans who are not physically active (Figures 12, 13, and Tables 72–74) raise additional concerns about Americans’ future health (3). Decreased cigarette smoking among adults is a prime example of a trend that has contributed to overall declines in mortality. However, the rapid drop in cigarette smoking in the two decades following the first Surgeon General’s Report in 1964 has slowed in recent years. About one-quarter of men and one-fifth of women were current smokers in 2004 (Figure 10 and Table 63). The percentage of the population with high serum cholesterol has also been decreasing, in part due to the increased use of new cholesterol-lowering medications (Table 70) (4). Prevalence of some risky behaviors among children and young adults remains at unacceptable levels. In 2005, 30% of high school students in grades 11–12 reported binge drinking, and 22% had used marijuana in the past 30 days. Marijuana use increased from 12% to 20% between 1991 and 2003 among students in grades 9–10 (Figure 11). The percentage of high school students who seriously considered suicide has declined since 1991, but the percentage who attempted suicide has remained stable (7%–9%) (Table 62).

recommended in 1996 (Table 81). The percentage of women receiving Pap smears and mammograms has increased since 1987 but has leveled off in recent years (Tables 84 and 85). Rates of ambulatory care visits to office-based physicians and hospital outpatient departments have remained steady since the mid-1990s at 3 to 4 visits per person (data table for Figure 22 and Table 89). Admissions to hospitals and length of stay declined substantially in the 1980s and 1990s, but these declines appear to have leveled off (Tables 96–98). Hospital inpatient care is becoming more intensive and complex, with more procedures such as insertion of coronary artery stents, and hip and knee replacements being performed, particularly on older persons (Table 99). Hospitalizations for procedures that can be performed on an outpatient basis, such as hernia repairs and knee arthroscopies have declined sharply in inpatient settings, and imaging procedures such as diagnostic ultrasound and computerized axial tomography are increasingly performed on an outpatient basis. The numbers of hospitals and hospital beds continue to decrease. Occupancy rates declined from 1975 to 1990 and have been stable since then (Table 112). The number of physicians in the United States has been increasing along with the overall population, but physicians are not distributed equally across the Nation (Table 104). New and different types of health practitioners and healthcare support occupations continue to evolve. The numbers of dental hygienists and dental assistants, pharmacy technicians, diagnostic medical sonographers, massage therapists, medical assistants, and medical equipment preparers have increased, on average, by 5% or more per year since 1999, while the numbers of audiologists, respiratory therapy technicians, recreational therapists, and occupational therapist aides have all declined, on average, by 5% or more per year (Table 108). Projections indicate that there may be an increasing shortage of nurses and pharmacists, as well as other health professionals, needed to care for our aging population (5,6).

Health Care Utilization and Resources
People use health care services for many reasons: to treat illnesses, injuries, and health conditions; to prevent or delay future health care problems; to reduce pain and increase quality of life; and to obtain information about their health status and prognoses. The study of trends in health care utilization provides important information on these phenomena and spotlights areas that warrant further study. Utilization trends may also be used to project future health care needs and expenditures, as well as training and supply needs. Americans are increasingly using many types of preventive or early-detection health services. In 2004, 83% of children 19–35 months of age had received a combined vaccination series protecting them against several childhood infectious diseases, and the percentage of children receiving varicella (chickenpox) vaccine has increased sharply since it was first

Expenditures and Health Insurance
The United States spends more on health per capita than any other country, and health spending continues to increase rapidly. Much of this spending is for care that controls or reduces the impact of chronic diseases and conditions affecting an aging population. In 2004, national health care expenditures in the United States totaled $1.9 trillion, a 7.9%

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increase from 2003 (Table 120). Hospital spending, which accounts for 30% of total national health expenditures, increased by 8.6% in 2004 (Table 123). Spending for prescription drugs increased 8.2% in 2004, compared with an average annual growth of 13% from 2000 to 2003. Spending for prescription drugs accounted for 10% of national health expenditures in 2004. Overall, private health insurance paid for 36% of total personal health care expenditures in 2004, the federal government 34%, state and local government 11%, and out-of-pocket payments paid for 15% (Figure 9). The percentage of the population under 65 years of age with no health insurance coverage at the time they were interviewed fluctuated around 16%–18% between 1994 and 2004 (Figure 6 and Table 135). Many people under age 65, particularly those with low incomes, do not have health insurance coverage consistently throughout the year. In 2004, about 20% of people under age 65 reported that they had been uninsured for at least part of the 12 months prior to their interview (Figure 7). In 2004, only 2% of people under age 65 who were insured continuously for all 12 months before their interview reported that they did not receive needed medical care due to cost, compared with about 20% of people who were uninsured for at least part of the 12 months before their interview (Table 78).

Health, United States, 2006, identifies major disparities in health and health care by socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and insurance status. Persons living in poverty are considerably more likely to be in fair or poor health and to have disabling conditions, and less likely to have used many types of health care than those with incomes of 200% of the poverty line or higher (Tables 58, 60, and 78–80). In 2004, adults living in poverty were almost twice as likely to report having trouble seeing—even with eyeglasses or contact lenses—as higher income persons (Table 59). Adults 45–64 years of age living below the federal poverty line were two to three times as likely to have three or more chronic conditions as those with incomes of 200% of the poverty line or higher (Figure 15). Significant racial and ethnic disparities remain across a wide range of health measures. The gap in life expectancy between the black and white populations has narrowed, but persists (Table 27). Disparities in risk factors, access to health care, and morbidity also remain. Hispanic and American Indian persons under 65 years are more likely to be uninsured than those in other racial and ethnic groups (Table 135). Obesity, a major risk factor for many chronic diseases, varies by race and ethnicity—51% of black non-Hispanic women age 20 and over were obese in 2001–2004, compared with 39% of women of Mexican origin and 31% of non-Hispanic white women (Table 73, age adjusted). In 2003–2004, about two-thirds of non-Hispanic white older adults and about one-half of Hispanic and non-Hispanic black older adults received influenza vaccinations in the past year (Figure 20). In 1999–2002, Mexican-origin children 6–17 years of age were almost twice as likely to have untreated caries as were non-Hispanic white school-age children (Figure 14 and Table 75). Many aspects of the health of the Nation have improved, but the health of some racial and ethnic groups has improved less than others. The large differences in health status by race and Hispanic origin documented in this report may be explained by factors including socioeconomic status, health practices, psychosocial stress and resources, environmental exposures, discrimination, and access to health care (7). Socioeconomic and cultural differences among racial and ethnic groups in the United States will likely continue to influence future patterns of disease, disability, and health care use.

Disparities in Risk Factors, Access, and Utilization
Efforts to improve Americans’ health in the 21st century will be shaped by important changes in demographics. Ours is a Nation that is growing older and becoming more racially and ethnically diverse. In 2005, nearly one-third of adults and about two-fifths of children were identified as black, Hispanic, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native. In 2005, 14% of Americans identified themselves as Hispanic, 12% as black, and 4% as Asian (Figure 3). Residents of institutions such as nursing homes, military barracks, and prisons have specialized health care needs and these populations are not generally included in many of the surveys that assess our Nation’s health. Among men age 20–34 years, 11%–13% of non-Hispanic black men, 3%–4% of Hispanic men, and about 2% of white non-Hispanic men resided in local jails or state or federal prisons on June 30, 2004 (Table 2).

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Special Feature: Pain
Pain is a major determinant of quality of life, and affects physical and mental functioning. In addition to the direct costs of treating pain—including health care for diagnosis and treatment, drugs, therapies, and other medical costs—it results in lost work time and reduced productivity and concentration at work, or while conducting other activities (8,9). Although pain serves the important function of identifying tissue damage or inflammation, when the damage has healed and the pain remains, identifying either the cause of the remaining pain, or how to treat it, can be frustrating, time-consuming, and expensive. In 1999–2002, more than one-quarter of Americans (26%) age 20 and over reported that they had a problem with pain—of any sort—that persisted for more than 24 hours in duration at some time during the month preceding their interview (Figure 28). Almost 60% of adults 65 years of age and over who reported pain indicated that it lasted for 1 year or more, compared with 37% of younger adults age 20–44 years who reported pain (Figure 29). In general, women reported pain more than men, and non-Hispanic white adults reported pain more than people of other races and ethnicities. Lower-income adults also reported pain more than higher-income adults (Figures 28, 31, and 32). Prevalence of joint pain increased with age with about one-fifth of adults age 18–44 years, and one-half of people age 65 and over, reporting any joint pain in the last 30 days (Figure 32). Severe headaches or migraines were twice as common among adult women as men (21% compared with 10%), and are most common among women in their reproductive years (Table 56). A considerable amount of health care resources is devoted to treating pain, and the amount has been increasing. For example, rates of hospitalizations with procedures to replace painful hips and knees have increased substantially in the last decade (Figure 35). In 2002–2003, ambulatory medical care or prescribed medicine expenses for headaches averaged $566 per person for headache-related care among noninstitutionalized adults who reported a headache expense, representing more than $4 billion in total expenses—not including self-treatment, over-the-counter drugs, and inpatient hospital expenses for this condition (Figure 36). The percentage of people using prescription narcotic drugs in the past month increased by 30% between 1988–1994 and 1999–2002, largely due to increased use among non-Hispanic white women and women age 45 years and over (Figure 34 and data table for Figure 34). Yet, even with greater use of

pain relieving medications, surgical interventions, and other treatments, in 1999–2002 more than 10% of Americans age 20 and over reported pain that had lasted for more than 1 year (data tables for Figures 28 and 29). To improve the health of all Americans and to enable policymakers to chart future trends, target resources most effectively, and set program and policy priorities, it is critical that the Nation keep collecting and disseminating reliable and accurate information about all components of health, including current health status, the determinants of health, resources, and outcomes. The following highlights from Health, United States, 2006 With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans summarize the latest findings gathered from across the public and private health care sectors to help the Department of Health and Human Services, the President, and the Congress in carrying out this essential mission.

References
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ten great public health achievements—United States, 1900–1999. MMWR 1999;48(12):241–3. Available from: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/ preview/mmwrhtml/00056796.htm. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Achievements in Public Health, 1900–1999: Decline in deaths from heart disease and stroke—United States, 1900–1999. MMWR 1999;48(30):649–56. Available from: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/ preview/mmwrhtml/mm4830a1.htm. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549–55. Carroll MD, Lacher DA, Sorlie PD, Cleeman JI, Gordon DJ, Wolz M, Grundy SM, Johnson CL. Trends in serum lipids and lipoproteins of adults, 1960–2002. JAMA 2005;294(14):1773–81. Kenreigh CA, Wagner LT. The pharmacist shortage: where do we stand? Medscape Pharmacists 2006;7(1) Medscape posted 01/13/2006. Available from: www.medscape.com/viewarticle/521115. Buerhaus PI, Staiger DO, Auerbach DI. New signs of a strengthening U.S. nurse labor market? Health Aff 2004;23(6):w526–w533. Williams DR, Rucker TD. Understanding and addressing racial disparities in health care. Health Care Finan Rev 2000;21(4):75–90. McCool WF, Smith T, Aberg C. Pain in women’s health: A multi-faceted approach toward understanding. J Midwifery Womens Health 2004;49(6):473–81. Luo X, Pietrobon R, Sun SX, Liu GG, Hey L. Estimates and patterns of direct health care expenditures among individuals with back pain in the United States. Spine 2004;29(1):79–86.

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Highlights

Highlights
Health, United States, 2006, is the 30th report on the health status of the Nation. In a chartbook and 147 trend tables, it presents current and historic information on the health of the U.S. population. The trend tables are organized around four major subject areas: health status and determinants, health care utilization, health care resources, and health care expenditures and payors. The 2006 Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans focuses on selected determinants and measures of health and includes a special feature on pain, which affects quality of life for virtually all Americans at some point in their lives.

In 2004, the infant mortality rate decreased to 6.8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births (preliminary data). In 2002, the infant mortality rate had increased for the first time in more than 40 years (Figure 25 and Table 22). Large disparities in infant mortality rates among racial and ethnic groups continue to exist. In 2003, infant mortality rates were highest for infants of non-Hispanic black mothers (13.6 deaths per 1,000 live births), American Indian mothers (8.7 per 1,000), and Puerto Rican mothers (8.2 per 1,000); and lowest for infants of Cuban mothers (4.6 per 1,000 live births) and Asian or Pacific Islander mothers (4.8 per 1,000) (Table 19). The leading cause of death differs by age group. In 2004, the leading cause of death was congenital malformations for infants; unintentional injuries for children, adolescents, and young adults (age 1–44 years); cancer for middle-aged adults age 45–64 years; and heart disease for older adults age 65 years and over (preliminary data and Table 32). Age-adjusted mortality from heart disease, the leading cause of death overall, declined 16% between 2000 and 2004 (preliminary data), continuing a long-term downward trend (Figure 27 and Table 36). Age-adjusted mortality from cancer, the second leading cause of death overall, decreased 8% between 2000 and 2004 (preliminary data), continuing the decline that began in 1990 (Figure 27 and Table 38). The age-adjusted death rate for motor-vehicle injuries has remained stable between 2000 and 2004 (preliminary data) after declining steadily between 1970 and 2000. Death rates for motor vehicle injuries are higher at age 15–24 years and 75 years and over than at other ages (Table 44). The age-adjusted death rate for HIV disease has declined slowly between 1999 and 2004 (preliminary data), after a sharp decrease between 1995 and 1999. The death rate for HIV disease is higher at age 35–54 years than at other ages (Table 42). In 2004, homicide continued to be the leading cause of death for young black males 15–24 years of age. The homicide rate for young black males declined by 12% from 2003 to 2004 (preliminary data and Table 45). In 2003, young American Indian males 15–24 years of age continued to have substantially higher death rates for motor vehicle-related injuries and for suicide than young males in

Life Expectancy and Mortality
Life expectancy and infant mortality rates are often used to gauge the overall health of a population. Life expectancy shows a long-term upward trend and infant mortality shows a long-term downward trend. As overall death rates have declined, racial and ethnic disparities in mortality persist, but the gap in life expectancy between the black and white populations has narrowed. In 2004, life expectancy at birth for the total population reached a record high of 77.9 years (preliminary data), up from 75.4 years in 1990 (Table 27). Between 1990 and 2004, life expectancy at birth increased 3.4 years for males and 1.6 years for females (preliminary data). The gap in life expectancy between males and females narrowed from 7.0 years in 1990 to 5.2 years in 2004 (Figure 24 and Table 27). Between 1990 and 2004 (preliminary data), life expectancy at birth increased more for the black than for the white population, thereby narrowing the gap in life expectancy between these two racial groups. In 1990, life expectancy at birth for the white population was 7.0 years longer than for the black population. By 2004, the difference had narrowed to 5.0 years (Table 27). Overall mortality was 29% higher for black Americans than for white Americans in 2004 (preliminary data) compared with 37% higher in 1990. In 2004, age-adjusted death rates for the black population exceeded those for the white population by 44% for stroke, 30% for heart disease, 23% for cancer, and 774% for HIV disease (preliminary data and Table 29).

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Highlights

other race/ethnicity groups. Death rates for the American Indian population are known to be underestimated (Tables 44 and 46). The suicide rate for non-Hispanic white men 65 years of age and over is higher than in other groups. In 2003, the suicide rate for older non-Hispanic white men was 2–4 times the rate for older men in other race/ethnicity groups and about 8 times the rate for older non-Hispanic white women (Table 46).

(15–19 years of age) were more than 4 times as likely to die from suicide as were adolescent girls, in part reflecting their choice of more lethal methods, such as firearms (Tables 46 and 62). The percentage of adults who reported consuming five or more alcoholic drinks in one day declines with age. In 2004, among current drinkers, 56% of adults 18–24 years of age compared with 9% of adults 65 years of age and over reported this level of alcohol consumption in the past year (Table 68). In 2004, 23% of men and 19% of women 18 years of age and over were current smokers. This is a sharp decline from 1965, when more than one-half of adult men and one-third of adult women smoked, but declines have slowed since 1990 (Table 63). In 2004, almost one-third of adults 18 years of age and over engaged in regular leisure-time physical activity. Adults in families with incomes above twice the poverty level were more likely to engage in regular leisure-time physical activity (34%) than adults in lower-income families (20%–21%) (age adjusted) (Table 72). More than one-half of adults 65 years of age and over were inactive in their leisure-time, one-quarter had some level of leisure-time activity with an additional 22% reporting regular leisure-time activity in 2004 (Table 72).

Health Behaviors
Health behaviors have a significant effect on health status. Pregnant teenagers are less likely to receive early prenatal care and more likely to drop out of school and to live in poverty, than are other parents. Heavy and chronic use of alcohol and use of illicit drugs increase the risk of disease and injuries. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema, and other diseases. Regular physical activity lessens the risk of disease and enhances mental and physical functioning. The birth rate for teenagers declined in 2004 for the 13th consecutive year, to 41.1 births per 1,000 women age 15–19 years, 1% lower than in 2003. Rates declined for teenagers age 15–17 years and 18–19 years, but increased for teenagers age 10–14 years (Table 4). In 2004, the birth rate for unmarried women reached a record high of 46.1 births per 1,000 unmarried women age 15–44 years, up 3% from 2003. In 2004, 36% of all births were to unmarried women and the percentages generally increased for all age, race, and Hispanic origin subgroups (Table 10). Between 2003 and 2005, the percentage of high school students who reported smoking cigarettes in the past month remained stable at 22%–23% after declining from 36% in 1997 (Figure 10). In 2005, 30% of students in grades 11–12 reported binge drinking five or more alcoholic drinks in a row and 22% reported marijuana use in the past month (Figure 11). Between 1993 and 2005, the percentage of high school students who reported attempting suicide (8%–9%) and whose suicide attempts required medical attention (2%–3%) remained fairly constant. Girls were more likely than boys to consider or attempt suicide. However in 2003 adolescent boys

Health Status and Risk Factors
Measures of morbidity presented in this report include the incidence and prevalence of specific diseases and conditions. Other measures of health status include limitation of activity and limitations in activities of daily living caused by chronic conditions, and respondent-assessed health status. Low birthweight is associated with elevated risk of death and disability in infants. In 2004, the low birthweight rate (less than 2,500 grams, or 5.5 pounds, at birth) increased to 8.1%, up from 7.0% in 1990 (Table 13). Between 1976–1980 and 2003–2004, the prevalence of overweight among children 6–11 years of age more than doubled from 7% to 19% and the prevalence of overweight among adolescents 12–19 years of age more than tripled from 5% to 17% (Figure 13 and Table 74).

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Highlights

Among adults 20–74 years of age, overweight and obesity rates have increased since 1960–1962. These increases are driven largely by increases in the percentage of adults who are obese. From 1960–1962 through 2003–2004, the percentage of adults who are overweight but not obese has remained steady at 32%–34% (age adjusted). During that time period, the percentage of obese adults has increased from 13% to 34% (age adjusted) (Figure 13 and Table 73). The prevalence of hypertension, defined as elevated blood pressure or taking antihypertensive medication, increases with age. In 2001–2004, 30% of men and 33% of women age 45–54 years had hypertension, compared with 69% of men and 82% of women age 75 years and over (Table 69). Between 1988–1994 and 2001–2004, the percentage of adults with elevated serum cholesterol levels greater than 240 mg/dL declined substantially for older adults. However, older women were more likely to have high serum cholesterol than men. In 2001–2004, 26% of women age 65–74 years had high serum cholesterol, compared with 11% of men age 65–74 years (Table 70). In 2001–2004, the prevalence of diabetes (including diagnosed and undiagnosed) increased with age from 11% among adults 40–59 years of age to 23% among adults 60 years of age and over. The percentage of adults with undiagnosed diabetes was 3% among those 40–59 years of age and 6% among those 60 years of age and over (Table 55). In 2004, approximately 2.2 million workplace injuries and illnesses in the private sector involved days away from work, job transfer, or restricted duties at work for a rate of 2.5 cases per 100 full-time workers. Transportation and warehousing reported the highest injury and illness rate, 4.9 cases per 100. The next highest rates were reported by the agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting (3.7 per 100), and manufacturing industries (3.6 per 100) (Table 50). Poor and near poor children are more likely to have untreated dental caries than children in families with incomes above twice the poverty level. In 1999–2002, 32% of poor children 6–17 years of age had untreated dental caries, compared with 13% of children in families with incomes at least twice the poverty level (Table 75). Between 1988–1994 and 1999–2002, approximately one-quarter (24%–28%) of adults 18–64 years of age had

untreated dental caries, down from nearly one-half (48%) in 1971–1974 (Table 75). In 2004, 17% of persons 65 years of age and over had any trouble seeing even with glasses and 11% were deaf or had a lot of trouble hearing (Table 59). In 2004, limitation of activity due to chronic health conditions was reported for 7% of children under the age of 18 years. Among school-age children (5–17 years of age), learning disabilities and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD or ADD) were frequently reported as a cause of activity limitation (Figure 16 and Table 58). Arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions were the leading cause of activity limitation among working-age adults 18–64 years of age in 2003–2004. Mental illness was the second most frequently mentioned condition causing activity limitation among adults 18–44 years of age and the third most frequently mentioned among adults 45–54 years of age (Figure 17). Among persons age 65 years of age and over, arthritis and heart disease or other circulatory conditions were the two most frequently reported causes of activity limitation in 2003–2004 (Figure 18).

Health Care Access and Utilization
People use health care services for many reasons: to treat illnesses, injuries, and health conditions; to prevent or delay future health care problems; to reduce pain and increase quality of life; and to obtain information about their health status and prognoses. The health care delivery system offers a wide variety of services, ranging from preventive and primary care, to new and better medicines, to use of sophisticated and increasingly technological and complex procedures and interventions. In 2003–2004, 6% of children under 6 years of age and 15% of children 6–17 years of age had no health care visit to a doctor or clinic within the past 12 months (Table 79). Adults 18–64 years of age were the most likely to report not receiving needed medical care or delaying their care due to cost. In 2004, 7% of adults 18–64 years of age reported that they did not get needed care during the past 12 months, 10% delayed care, and 9% did not get prescription drugs due to the cost (Table 78).

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Highlights

In 2004, 20%–21% of people under age 65 years who were uninsured for all or part of the preceding year did not receive needed health care in the past 12 months due to cost, compared with 2% of people with health insurance for the full year (Table 78). Almost all adults 65 years of age and over have Medicare coverage. Despite having this health insurance, among those with incomes below or near the poverty level, in 2004, 4%–6% did not get needed medical care during the past 12 months, 6%–9% delayed their care, and 8%–12% did not get the prescription drugs they needed due to the cost. Medicare coverage for prescription drugs began in 2006 (Table 78). In 2003–2004, visit rates to physician offices and hospital outpatient departments among persons 18–44 years of age were more than twice as high for women as for men, largely due to medical care associated with female reproduction (Figure 22). The percentage of mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy remained unchanged at 84% for the 43-state reporting areas for which comparable trend data were available in 2004. In 2004 the percentage of mothers with early prenatal care varied substantially by race and ethnicity, from 70% for American Indian mothers to 89% for non-Hispanic white mothers (Table 7). In 2004, 83% of children 19–35 months of age received the combined vaccination series of four doses of DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis) vaccine, three doses of polio vaccine, one dose of MMR (measles-mumps-rubella vaccine), and three doses of Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b) vaccine. Children living below the poverty threshold were less likely to have received the combined vaccination series than were children living at or above poverty (78% compared with 85%) (Table 81). In 2004, 65% of noninstitutionalized adults 65 years of age and over reported an influenza vaccination within the past year, more than double the percentage in 1989. In 2004, the percentage of older adults ever having received a pneumococcal vaccine was 57%, up sharply from 14% in 1989 (Table 83). In 2004, 54% of children 2–5 years of age and 84% of children 6–17 years of age had a dental visit in the past year. Children with family income below or near the poverty

level were less likely than children with higher family income to have had a visit (Figure 19 and Table 91). Use of prescription medications among adults increases with age. In 1999–2002, the percentage of adults who reported using prescription medications in the prior month rose from 36% of those 18–44 years of age to 64% at 45–64 years of age and 85% at 65 years of age and over. In each age group women were more likely than men to use prescription drugs (Table 93). In 1999–2002, more than one-half of adults 65 years of age and over took three or more prescription drugs in the past month (Table 93). In 2004, adults 75 years of age and over had a higher rate of visits to the hospital emergency department than other age groups (58 visits per 100 persons compared with 29–45 per 100 persons in other age groups) (Table 89). Children under 6 years of age were more likely than children 6–17 years of age to have had an emergency department (ED) visit within the past 12 months in 2004 (26% compared with 18%) (Table 86). In 2003–2004, falls accounted for 34% of hospital emergency department injury visits for men 65 years of age and over and 48% for women in that age group. Falls also accounted for 22%–24% of children’s injury-related visits to emergency departments (Table 88). Heart disease and injuries were among the most common reasons for inpatient hospitalization among adults 45–64 years of age in 2004. Among this age group, the discharge rate for heart disease was 80% higher for men than for women and the discharge rate for injuries was 18% higher for men than women (Table 97). Between 1993–1994 and 2003–2004, the hospital discharge rate for cardiac catheterization among adults 75 years of age and over increased 42%, while the rate among adults 65–74 years of age remained stable. By 2003–2004, the cardiac catheterization rate for adults 75 years of age and over had risen to a level similar to that for adults 65–74 years of age (Table 99). The number of gastric bypass and other inpatient bariatric procedures performed on obese adults 18–44 years of age more than tripled between 1999–2001 and 2002–2004 (data table for Figure 23). Bariatric procedures were more common among women than men (Figure 23).

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Highlights

Between 1992–1993 and 2003–2004, the hospital discharge rate for knee replacement surgery, which is typically performed for osteoarthritis, nearly doubled among adults 65 years of age and over (Figure 35).

hospices increased to over 2,600 after remaining stable at about 2,300 from 1997 to 2003 (Table 118). In 2004, there were nearly 1.8 million nursing home beds in about 16,000 facilities certified for use by Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. Between 1995 and 2004, nursing home bed occupancy was relatively stable, estimated at 83% in 2004. Occupancy rates were 90% or higher in 11 states and the District of Columbia in 2004 (Table 116). Between 1999 and 2004, the number of dental hygienists and assistants, diagnostic medical sonographers, pharmacy technicians, message therapists, and medical equipment preparers increased by 6%–12% annually. The hourly wages of pharmacists, radiation therapists, physician assistants, and nuclear medicine technologists rose 6%–8% annually (Table 108). In 2003–2004, 27% of physicians reported they were not accepting new Medicaid patients and 41% were not accepting new capitated privately insured patients, compared with 12%–14% not accepting new Medicare and non-capitated privately-insured patients. Two-fifths of physician offices perform some lab tests in the office. Practices with 10 or more physicians were more likely to perform lab tests in the office (62%) than offices with one physician (27%) (Table 117).

Health Care System Influences, Resources, and Personnel
Major changes continue to occur in the delivery of health care in the United States, driven in part by changes in payment policies intended to rein in rising costs and by advances in technology that have allowed more complex treatments to be performed on an outpatient basis. Hospital inpatient utilization has been stable in recent years. The number of physicians continues to increase, but supply is not equally distributed across the country, and some office-based physicians are not accepting new patients. The supply of other practitioners, including pharmacists and nurses, may not be increasing as rapidly as needed to keep in pace with our aging population. In 2004, 43% of doctor visits were to specialty care physicians, up from 34% in 1980. During this period, the proportion of office-based doctor visits to general and family practice physicians decreased from 34% to 23% (Table 90). In 2004, 63% of surgeries were performed on an outpatient basis, compared with 51% in 1990 and 16% in 1980 (Table 100). The age-adjusted average length of inpatient hospital stays has remained stable at 4.8 to 4.9 days during the period 2000–2004, after declining from 7.5 days in 1980 (Table 96). Between 1990 and 2004, the number of community hospital beds declined from about 927,000 to 808,000. Since 1990, the community hospital occupancy rate has remained steady at 62%–67% (Table 112). Between 1990 and 2002, the overall number of inpatient mental health beds in the United States declined by 22%. In Veterans Affairs medical centers the number of mental health beds declined by 55%, in state and county mental hospitals and private psychiatric hospitals the decline was 42%, and in psychiatric units of non-federal general hospitals the decline was 25% (Table 113). In 2004, there were over 7,500 Medicare-certified home health agencies, up from about 6,900 in 2003, but below the high of 10,800 in 1997. The number of Medicare-certified

Health Insurance Coverage and Payors
Major payors for health care include public programs such as Medicare and Medicaid, and private health insurers. Medicaid is jointly funded by the federal and state governments to provide health care for certain groups of low-income persons. Medicare is funded through the federal government and covers the health care of most persons 65 years of age and over and disabled persons. Almost 70% of the population under 65 years of age has private health insurance, most of which is obtained through the workplace.

Uninsured Population
Between 1995 and 2004, the percentage of the population under 65 years of age with no health insurance coverage (public or private) at a point in time ranged between 16.1% and 17.5%. Among the under 65 population, the poor and near poor (those with family incomes less than 200% of

Health, United States, 2006

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Highlights

poverty) were much more likely than the nonpoor to be uninsured (Figure 6 and Table 135). In 2004, 9% of children under 18 years of age had no health insurance coverage at a point in time. Between 2000 and 2004, among children in families with income just above the poverty level (100%–150% of poverty), the percentage uninsured dropped from 25% to 16%. However, children in low-income families remained substantially more likely than children in higher-income families to lack coverage (Table 135). In 2004, 30% of young adults 18–24 years of age were uninsured at a point in time. This age group was more than twice as likely to be uninsured as those 45–64 years of age (Table 135). In 2004, persons of Hispanic origin and American Indians under 65 years of age were more likely to have no health insurance coverage at a point in time than were those in other racial and ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic white persons were the least likely to lack coverage (Table 135). Many people under 65 years of age, particularly those with a low family income, do not have health insurance coverage consistently throughout the year. In 2004, one-fifth of people under 65 years of age were uninsured for at least part of the 12 months prior to interview. Two-fifths of people of Mexican origin were similarly uninsured for at least part of the 12 months prior to interview (data table for Figure 7). The likelihood of being uninsured varies substantially among the states. In 2002–2004, the average percentage of the population with no health insurance coverage ranged from 8.5% in Minnesota to 25% in Texas (Table 147).

Federal and State Health Insurance Programs
In 2005, the Medicare program had about 43 million enrollees and expenditures of $336 billion (preliminary data Table 137). Of the 36 million Medicare enrollees in the fee-for-service program in 2003, 11% were 85 years of age and over and 16% were disability beneficiaries under 65 years of age (Table 138). In 2004, among children under 18 years of age, 26% were covered by Medicaid or the State Children’s Health Insurance Program, a 7 percentage point increase since 2000 (Table 134). In 2003, children under 21 years of age accounted for 48% of Medicaid recipients but only 17% of expenditures. Aged, blind, and disabled persons accounted for 23% of recipients and 67% of expenditures (Table 140).

Health Care Expenditures
The United States spends more on health per capita than any other country, and health spending continues to increase rapidly. Spending increases are due to increased intensity and cost of services, and a higher volume of services needed to treat an aging population. The United States spends a larger share of the gross domestic product (GDP) on health than does any other major industrialized country. In 2003, the United States devoted 15% of its GDP to health, compared with over 11% in Switzerland and Germany, and more than 10% in Iceland, France, and Norway, the countries with the next highest shares (Table 119). In 2004, national health care expenditures in the United States totaled $1.9 trillion, a 7.9% increase compared with an 8.6% per year increase from 2000–2003. In the 1990s, annual growth had slowed to 6.6% following an average annual growth rate of 11% during the 1980s (Table 120). In 2004, national health expenditures in the United States grew 7.9%, compared with 7.0% growth in the GDP. Health expenditures as a percentage of the GDP was 16% in 2004 (Figure 8 and Table 120).

Private Health Insurance
During 2002 to 2004, 69% of the population under 65 years of age had private health insurance. Between 1995 and 2001 the proportion had fluctuated between 71%–73% after declining from 77% in 1984 (Figure 6 and Table 133). Between 2001 and 2004, the proportion of the population under 65 years of age with private health insurance obtained through the workplace (a current or former employer or union) declined from 67% to 64% (Table 133).

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Highlights

Prescription drug expenditures increased 8.2% in 2004, compared with 10.2% in 2003 and 14.3% in 2002. Prescription drugs posted annual increases of 3%–5% in the Consumer Price Index in 2000 to 2005 (Tables 121 and 123). Expenditures for hospital care accounted for 30% of all national health expenditures in 2004. Physician services accounted for 21% of the total in 2004, prescription drugs for 10%, and nursing home care for 6% (Table 123). In 2003, 96% of persons 65 years of age and over in the civilian noninstitutionalized population reported medical expenses that averaged about $8,210 per person with expense. Nineteen percent of expenses were paid out-of-pocket, 16% by private insurance, and 63% by public programs (primarily Medicare and Medicaid) (Tables 125 and 126). The burden of out-of-pocket expenses for health care varies considerably by age. In 2003, over two-fifths of those 65 years of age and over with health care expenses paid $1,000 or more out-of-pocket, compared with 29% of those 45–64 years of age, and 12% of adults 18–44 years of age (Table 127). In 2004, 34% of personal health care expenditures were paid by the federal government and 11% by state and local government; private health insurance paid 36% and consumers paid 15% out-of-pocket (Figure 9 and Table 124).

In 2004, more than one-quarter of adults 18 years of age and over reported experiencing low back pain in the past 3 months (Figure 30 and Table 56). In 2004, 15% of adults 18 years of age and over reported experiencing migraine or severe headache in the past 3 months. The percentage of young adults 18–44 years of age who reported migraine or severe headache was almost three times the percentage for adults 65 years of age and over (Figure 30 and Table 56). In 2004, almost one-third of adults 18 years of age and over and one-half of older adults 65 years of age and over reported joint pain, aching, or stiffness (excluding the back or neck) during the 30 days prior to interview. The knee was the site of joint pain most commonly reported in all age groups (Table 57). In 2003, the percentage of adults 18 years of age and over who reported severe joint pain increased with age. Women were more likely to report severe joint pain than men (10% compared with 7%) (Figure 32). In 2003–2004, 50% of ED visits for persons with a severe pain recorded had narcotic analgesic drugs prescribed, or provided during the visit. Among visits with severe pain recorded, those made by children under 18 years of age and adults 65 years of age and over were less likely than visits by persons in other age groups to have a narcotic drug provided in the ED (Figure 33). The percentage of adults who reported using a narcotic drug in the past month increased from 3.2% in 1988–1994 to 4.2% in 1999–2002 (age adjusted). This increase has been driven largely by an increase in narcotic drug use among white non-Hispanic women and women 45 years of age and over (Figure 34). Between 1992–1993 and 2003–2004, the hospital discharge rate for knee replacement among adults 65 years of age and over increased by nearly 90%, from 39 to 73 discharges per 10,000 persons. Knee replacement was more common among older women than older men (Figure 35). Between 1992–1993 and 2003–2004, the hospital discharge rate for hip replacement among adults 65 years of age and over (excluding those performed for fractured hips) increased almost 60% from 25 to 40 discharges per 10,000 population. Nonfracture hip replacement rates were similar among older men and women (Figure 35).

Special Feature: Pain
Pain affects physical and mental functioning, and can profoundly affect quality of life. In addition to the direct costs of treating pain—including visits for diagnosis and treatment, drugs, therapies, and other medical costs—it can cause loss of productivity and concentration. Patterns of self-reported pain vary considerably by age, sex, race and ethnicity, and poverty. In 1999–2002, more than one-quarter of Americans (26%) 20 years of age and over reported that they had a problem with pain in the past 30 days that persisted for more than 24 hours (Figure 28). Nearly 60% of adults 65 years of age and over who reported pain lasting more than 24 hours stated that it lasted for one year or more compared with 37% of young adults 20–44 years of age who reported pain in 1999–2002 (Figure 29).

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Highlights

In 2002–2003, 3.5% of adults 18 years of age and over had ambulatory care visits or prescribed medicine purchases to treat migraines or other types of headache during the year. Their average annual expenditure for these treatments was $566 (in 2003 dollars) (data table for Figure 36). In 2004, 28% of adults 18 years of age and over with low back pain in the past 3 months said they had a limitation of activity caused by a chronic condition, compared with 10% of adults who did not report recent low back pain. People with recent low back pain were almost five times as likely to have serious psychological distress as people without recent low back pain (Figure 37).

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Population

Population
Age
The population age 65 and over is increasing at a faster rate than the total population.

From 1950 to 2005, the total resident population of the United States increased from 151 million to 296 million, representing an average annual growth rate of 1.2% (Figure 1). During the same period, the population 65 years of age and over grew on average 2.0% per year, increasing from 12 to 37 million persons. The population 75 years of age and over grew the fastest (on average, 2.8% per year), increasing from 4 to 18 million persons. Projections indicate that the rate of growth for the total population from now to 2050 will be slower, but older age groups will continue to grow more rapidly than the total population (1). By 2029, all of the baby boomers (those born in the post World War II period 1946–1964) will be age 65 years and over. As a result, the population age 65–74 years will increase from 6% to 10% of the total population between 2005 and 2030 (data table for Figure 1). As the baby boomers age, the population 75 years and over will also rise from 6% to 9% of the population by 2030 and continue to grow to 12% in 2050. By 2040 the population age 75 years and over will exceed the population 65–74 years of age.

Reference
1. Day JC. National population projections. U.S. Census Bureau. Available from: www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/ natproj.html.

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Population

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NOTE: See data table for data points graphed and additional notes.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau.

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Population

Population in Group Quarters
About four million Americans live in institutions—the largest numbers in correctional institutions and nursing homes.

include some assisted living facilities and group homes for dementia patients. Data presented in Health, United States come from more than 60 different data sets and although most are nationally representative, because of methodological or cost issues many of them represent only the civilian or the civilian noninstitutionalized populations and exclude institutionalized people. Appendix I, Data Sources, describes the population that each data set represents.

The U.S. Census Bureau defines two general categories of people residing in group quarters: the institutionalized population and the noninstitutionalized population. The institutionalized group quarters population includes people under formally authorized supervised care or custody in institutions. The noninstitutionalized group quarters population includes people in settings such as college dormitories, military quarters, group homes, and emergency or transitional shelters. The population living in group quarters is diverse and often has specialized health needs. Some segments of the group quarters population, such as college students or Armed Forces personnel living in barracks are relatively healthy. Other populations such as nursing home, mentally ill or disabled group home, and shelter residents might have disabilities or conditions requiring medical care and may need assistance or supervision with activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living (See Appendix II, Group quarters). In 2000, the most recent year for which estimates are available, about 2.8% of the U.S. population, or 7.8 million people, lived in group quarters. About one-half of group quarters residents lived in institutional settings such as nursing homes, long-stay hospitals, and correctional facilities and the other half lived in noninstitutionalized group quarters residences (Figure 2). Between 1990 and 2000, the institutionalized population increased by 22% because the number of people in correctional institutions almost doubled (from 1.1 million to 2.0 million). This increase is largely due to changes in sentencing guidelines, increases in illegal drug use, and a more punitive approach to crime reduction (Table 2) (1). During the same period, the noninstitutionalized group quarters population grew by 11%. This increase was fueled by the population residing in group homes, which more than doubled between 1990 and 2000. Group homes include community-based homes for the mentally ill, mentally retarded, physically handicapped, and drug/alcohol halfway houses not operated for correctional purposes. They also

Reference
1. Golembeski C, Fullilove R. Criminal (In)justice in the city and its associated health consequences. Am J Public Health 2005; 95:1701–6.

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Population

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NOTES: Other institutions include hospital or wards, hospices, and schools for the handicapped. See data table for data points graphed and additional notes.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau.

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Population

Race and Ethnicity
The percentage of Americans who identify themselves as Hispanic or Asian continues to increase.

References
1. 2. Grieco EM, Cassidy RC. Overview of race and Hispanic origin. Census 2000 brief. U.S. Census Bureau. March 2001. Waters MC. Immigration, intermarriage, and the challenges of measuring racial/ethnic identities. Am J Public Health 2000; 90(11):1735–7. U.S. Census Bureau. Monthly postcensal resident population, by single year of age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Available from: www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/2004_nat_res.html [data for July 1, 2005].

Changes in the racial and ethnic composition of the population have important consequences for the Nation’s health because many measures of disease and disability differ significantly by race and ethnicity. One of the overarching goals of U.S. public health policy is elimination of racial and ethnic disparities in health. Diversity has long been a characteristic of the U.S. population, but the racial and ethnic composition of the Nation has changed over time. In recent decades, the percentage of the population that is of Hispanic origin or Asian has more than doubled (data table for Figure 3). In 2005, nearly 30% of adults and almost 40% of children identified themselves as Hispanic, black, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, or Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. In the 1980 and 1990 decennial censuses, Americans could choose only one racial category to describe their race (1). Beginning with the 2000 census, the question on race was modified to allow the choice of more than one racial category. Although overall, a small percentage of persons of non-Hispanic origin selected two or more races in 2005, the percentage of children described as being of more than one race was more than twice as high as the percentage of adults (Figure 3). The number of American adults identifying themselves or their children as multiracial is expected to increase in the future (2). The percentage of persons reporting two or more races varies considerably among racial groups. For example, the percentage of persons reporting a specified race in combination with one or more additional racial groups was 1.6% for white persons and 35.7% for American Indian or Alaska Native persons in 2005 (3).

3.

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Population

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Not Hispanic. NOTES: Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Race data for 2005 are not directly comparable with data for 1980 and 1990. Individuals could report only one race in 1980 and 1990, and more than one race in 2005. Persons who selected only one race in 2005 are included in single-race categories; persons who selected more than one race in 2005 are shown as having 2 or more

1

races and are not included in single-race categories. In 1980 and 1990 the Asian category includes Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; in 2005, this category includes only Asian. See data table for data points graphed and data for Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau.

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Population

Poverty
The poverty rate has increased in recent years among people under age 65.

Children and adults in families with incomes below or near the federal poverty level have worse health than those with higher incomes (see Appendix II, Poverty for a definition of the federal poverty level). Although, in some cases, illness can lead to poverty, more often poverty causes poor health by its connection with inadequate nutrition, substandard housing, exposure to environmental hazards, unhealthy lifestyles, and decreased access to and use of health care services (1). In 2004, the overall percentage of the U.S. population living in poverty was 12.7%, up from 11.3% in 2000 (2). Poverty rates for children under 18 years of age and working-age adults have increased since 2000, whereas the percentage of people age 65 years and over living in poverty has declined since 2002. Starting in 1974, children have been more likely than either working-age or older adults to be living in poverty (Figure 4). In 2004, 13 million children (17.8%) lived in poverty and another 16 million children (21.4%) were classified as near-poor with family income between 100% and less than 200% of the poverty level (data table for Figure 5). Prior to 1974, persons 65 years of age and over were more likely to live in poverty than people of other ages. With the availability of inflation-adjusted government social insurance programs such as Social Security and Supplemental Security Income, the poverty rate of older adults declined rapidly until 1974 and continued to decline gradually to 9.7% in 1999 (3). In 2004, 3.5 million persons age 65 years and over or 9.8% of older adults lived in poverty. An additional 10 million were near-poor (data table for Figure 5).

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Population

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NOTES: Data shown are the percentage of persons with family income below the poverty level. See data table for data points graphed and additional notes.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey.

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Population

Poverty (Continued)
At all ages, a higher percentage of Hispanic and black persons than non-Hispanic white persons were poor (Figure 5). In 2004, 29%–34% of Hispanic and black children were poor compared with 10%–11% of Asian and non-Hispanic white children. Similarly, among persons 65 years of age and over, almost one-fifth of Hispanic and one-quarter of black persons were poor, compared with 8% of non-Hispanic white persons and 14% of Asians. In 2002–2004, nearly one-quarter of American Indian or Alaska Native persons lived in poverty (estimate based on 3 years of data) (2). References
1. Pamuk E, Makuc D, Heck K, Reuben C, Lochner K. Socioeconomic Status and Health Chartbook. Health, United States, 1998. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 1998. DeNavas-Walt C, Proctor B, Hill LC. Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2004. Current population reports, series P-60 no 229. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2005. Available from: www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p60-229.pdf. Hungerford T, Rassette M, Iams H, Koenig M. Trends in the economic status of the elderly. Social Security Bulletin 2001–2002; 64(3):12–22.

2.

3.

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Health, United States, 2006

Population

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NOTES: Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Black and Asian races include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. See data table for data points graphed and additional notes.

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey.

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Health Insurance and Expenditures

Health Insurance and Expenditures
Health Insurance at the Time of Interview
Between 1999 and 2004, the percentage of people under age 65 with no health insurance coverage at a given point in time has remained between 16% and 17%, whereas the percentage with private health insurance has declined and public programs have expanded to fill in some of the gaps.

Reference
1. Institute of Medicine. Committee on the consequences of uninsurance. Series of reports: Coverage matters: Insurance and health care; Care without coverage; Health insurance is a family matter; A shared destiny: Community effects of uninsurance; Hidden costs, value lost: Uninsurance in America. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 2001–2003.

Health insurance coverage is an important determinant of access to health care (1). Uninsured children and adults under 65 years of age are substantially less likely to have a usual source of health care or a recent health care visit than their insured counterparts (Tables 76, 77, 79, and 80). Uninsured people are more likely to forego needed health care due to cost concerns (Table 78). The major source of coverage for persons under 65 years of age is private employer-sponsored group health insurance. Private health insurance may also be purchased on an individual basis, but is generally more costly and provides less adequate coverage than group insurance. Public programs such as Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) provide coverage for many low-income children and adults. Almost all adults age 65 and over are covered by the Medicare program, resulting in very few older adults without health insurance. Medicare enrollees may have additional private or public coverage to supplement their Medicare benefit package. Between 1984 and 1994, private coverage declined among persons under 65 years of age, while Medicaid coverage and the percentage with no health insurance increased (Figure 6). After rising to 73% in 1999, the percentage with private health insurance decreased reaching 69% between 2002 and 2004. This decrease was offset by an increase in the percentage with Medicaid, resulting in little change in the percentage uninsured.

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Health Insurance and Expenditures

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NOTE: See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Health Insurance and Expenditures

Length of Time Without Health Insurance
Persons of Mexican origin were more likely than those in other race/ethnicity groups to be uninsured for more than 12 months.

Many people under age 65, particularly those with low incomes, do not have health insurance coverage consistently throughout the year. Reasons for discontinuities in coverage may include loss or change of employment and financial reverses, divorce, births and other changes in life circumstances, and migration between states. Respondents to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were asked whether they had health insurance at the time of their interview and the type of coverage. Those covered by health insurance at the time of interview were asked whether there was any time during the 12 months prior to the interview when they did not have health insurance. People who were uninsured at the time of interview were asked how long it had been since they last had health coverage. These questions provide estimates of the percentage of persons without coverage at a point in time (Figure 6), as well as estimates of the percentage without coverage for different lengths of time (Figure 7). In 2004, 20% of people under 65 years of age reported being uninsured for at least part of the 12 months prior to interview. Among those who reported any time without insurance coverage during the 12 months prior to interview, the majority reported being uninsured for more than 12 months. About 11% of persons under 65 years reported being uninsured for more than 12 months, 8% reported being uninsured for any period up to 12 months, and 1% reported being uninsured and had missing data for the length of time they were uninsured (data table for Figure 7). Children under 18 years of age were less likely to be uninsured than were adults, because low-income children are eligible for public programs such as SCHIP, designed specifically for them. The percentage of adults under 65 years of age without health insurance coverage decreased with age (Figure 7). In 2004, adults 18–24 years of age were more likely than adults age 55–64 years to lack coverage for at least part of the 12 months prior to interview (36% compared with 13%). About 20% of persons 18–24 years of age lacked coverage for more than 12 months.

People with family income below or near the poverty level were almost three times as likely to have no health insurance coverage for at least part of the 12 months prior to interview as those with family income twice the poverty level or higher, and were more than three times as likely to be uninsured for more than 12 months. Persons of Mexican origin were more likely than those in any other race/ethnicity group to be uninsured for at least part of the 12 months prior to interview. In 2004, 41% of Mexican-origin persons lacked coverage for at least part of the 12 months prior to interview with 32% of Mexican-origin persons lacking coverage for more than 12 months.

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Health Insurance and Expenditures

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NOTES: Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Asian and American Indian or Alaska Native races include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Health Insurance and Expenditures

Health Care Expenditures
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In 2004, the United States spent $1.9 trillion on health care, comprising 16% of its Gross Domestic Product.

In 2004, the United States spent 16% (up from 14% in 2000) of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on health care, a greater share than any other developed country for which data are collected by the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (Figure 8 and Tables 119 and 120). In 2004, the United States spent $1.9 trillion on health care, an average of $6,280 per person (Table 120). Personal health care expenditures, a component of national health expenditures that includes spending for hospital care, physician services, nursing home care, dental care, and other types of medical care accounted for 83% of national health expenditures in 2004. The remaining 17% was spent on administration, government public health activities, research, and structures and equipment (Table 123) (1).

NOTE: See data table for data points graphed and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Office of the Actuary, National Health Statistics Group, National Health Accounts.

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Health Insurance and Expenditures

Health Care Expenditures (Continued)
Overall, private health insurance paid for 36% of total personal health expenditures in 2004, the federal government 34%, state and local government 11%, and out-of-pocket payments accounted for 15% (Figure 9). Since 1980, the share of total expenditures paid out-of-pocket declined by 12 percentage points (Table 124). This decline resulted from an expansion of benefits in both private health insurance plans and in government programs. Despite the decline in the share of health care expenditures paid out-of-pocket, the

inflation in health care costs over recent years means that consumers may still have significant out-of-pocket expenditures for their health care. In 2004, 37% of personal health care expenditures were for hospital care, 26% for physician care, 12% for prescription drugs, 7% for nursing home care, and the remaining 18% for other personal health care, including visits to nonphysician medical providers, medical supplies, and other health services (Figure 9). Since 1980, the share of total personal health care expenditures devoted to hospital care has declined by 9 percentage points and the prescription drug expenditure share has doubled,

reflecting the shift in health care from inpatient to ambulatory care settings and the increasing contribution of prescription drugs to health care services and spending (Table 123).

Reference
1. Smith C, Cowan C, Heffler S, Catlin A. National health spending in 2004: recent slowdown led by prescription drug spending. Health Aff 2006;25(1):186–96.

Figure 9. Personal health care expenditures, by source of funds and type of expenditures: United States, 2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version
Expenditures $1.6 trillion

Out-of-pocket payments State and local government Private health insurance

Other Hospital

Prescription drugs Nursing Nursing home home Physician

Federal Federal government Government Other private funds

Physician

Source of funds
NOTE: See data table for data points graphed and additional notes.

Type of expenditures
SOURCE: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Office of the Actuary, National Health Statistics Group, National Health Accounts.

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Health Risk Factors

Health Risk Factors
Cigarette Smoking
Fewer Americans are smoking, but nearly one-fifth of women and one-quarter of men and high school students still are current smokers, as are 10% of pregnant women.

References
1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004. Available from: www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/index.htm. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among young people: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1994. Available from: www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_1994/. Mathews TJ. Smoking during pregnancy in the 1990s. National vital statistics reports 2001;49(7). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2001. Available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr49/nvsr49_07.pdf. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2005. MMWR 2006;55(SS-5):1–33.

2.

Smoking is associated with a significantly increased risk of heart disease, stroke, lung and other types of cancer, and chronic lung diseases (1). Decreasing cigarette smoking among adolescents and adults is a major public health objective for the Nation. Preventing smoking among teenagers and young adults is critical because smoking usually begins in adolescence (2). Smoking during pregnancy contributes to elevated risk of miscarriage, premature delivery, and having a low birthweight infant (3). Following the first Surgeon General’s Report on smoking in 1964, cigarette smoking declined sharply for men and at a slower pace for women (Figure 10). Since 1990, the percentage of men and women who smoke has declined more slowly. By 2004, 23% of men and 19% of women were smokers. Cigarette smoking by adults continues to be strongly associated with educational attainment. Adults with less than a high school education were almost three times as likely to smoke as those with a bachelor’s degree or more education (Table 64). Cigarette smoking among high school students in grades 9–12 decreased between 1997 and 2005 after increasing in the early 1990s. In 2005, 8% of high school students had used smokeless tobacco, 14% had smoked cigars, and 9% had smoked frequently in the past 30 days (4). Among mothers with a live birth, the percentage reporting on the birth certificate that they smoked cigarettes during pregnancy declined between 1989 and 2004 from 20% to 10%. Maternal smoking has declined for all racial and ethnic groups, but differences among these groups persist (Table 12).

3.

4.

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NOTES: Estimates for men and women are age adjusted. Cigarette smoking is defined as: (for men and women 18 years of age and over) at least 100 cigarettes in lifetime and now smoke every day or some days; (for students in grades 9–12) 1 or more cigarettes in the 30 days preceding the survey; and (for mothers with a live birth) during pregnancy. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey (data for men and women); National Vital Statistics System (data for mothers during pregnancy); National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Youth Risk Behavior Survey (data for high school students).

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Health Risk Factors

Binge Drinking and Current Marijuana Use Among High School Students
In 2005, 30% of high school students in grades 11–12 reported binge drinking and 22% reported marijuana use in the past 30 days.

grade level in 2003–2005 (Figure 11). Marijuana use by students in grades 9–10 in 2003 was similar to marijuana use by students in grades 11–12 ten years earlier. In 2005, 25% of male students and 19% of female students in grades 11–12 reported marijuana use in the past 30 days.

References
1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Consequences of underage alcohol use. Available from: ncadi.samhsa.gov/govpubs/rpo992/. National Institute on Drug Abuse. InfoFacts: Marijuana. Available from: www.drugabuse.gov/Infofacts/marijuana.html/.

Binge drinking and marijuana use among high school students have serious consequences. Alcohol use has been related to academic difficulties, social problems, risky sexual behavior, and motor vehicle accidents (1). Some studies have found that high school students who use marijuana get lower grades and are less likely to graduate than students who do not use marijuana (2). Tracking changes in binge drinking and marijuana use is important for evaluating efforts to prevent these behaviors among adolescents. Estimates from the 1991 and 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys are presented for students in grades 9–10, and from the 1993 and 2005 surveys for students in grades 11–12. Presentation of these years of data shows changes in binge drinking and marijuana use as students progress through high school, as well as changes in these behaviors over a 12-year period. Binge drinking was measured by asking students if they drank five or more drinks of alcohol in a row on one or more of the 30 days preceding the survey and current marijuana use by asking students if they used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey. Between 1991–1993 and 2003–2005, binge drinking by male students decreased, while binge drinking by female students remained relatively stable (Figure 11). Among male students, binge drinking increased markedly between grades 9–10 and grades 11–12 in both time periods. Among female students, binge drinking increased between grades 9–10 and grades 11–12 in 1991–1993, but showed little change by grade level in 2003–2005. In 2005, 33% of male students and 27% of female students in grades 11–12 reported binge drinking in the past 30 days. Between 1991–1993 and 2003–2005, current marijuana use increased among students in grades 9–10, but marijuana use remained unchanged among students in grades 11–12 (data table for Figure 11). Marijuana use increased markedly among both male and female students between grades 9–10 and grades 11–12 in 1991–1993, but showed little change by

2.

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NOTES: Binge drinking is drinking five or more drinks of alcohol in a row on one or more of the 30 days preceding the survey. Current marijuana use is using marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey. See data table for data points graphed and standard errors.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

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Health Risk Factors

Physical Activity
Most adults do not exercise as much as recommended, with people living in or near poverty less likely to engage in regular leisure-time physical activity than those with higher family income.

References
1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1996. Available from: www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/sgr.htm. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005. Available from: www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines/.

2.

Benefits of regular physical activity include reduced risks of premature mortality, coronary heart disease, diabetes, colon cancer, hypertension, and osteoporosis. Regular physical activity also improves symptoms associated with musculoskeletal conditions and mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety. In addition, physical activity can enhance physical functioning and aid in weight control (1). National recommendations are for adults to engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity on most days of the week. Additional recommendations for physical activity target older age groups and weight loss or weight maintenance goals (2). In the National Health Interview Survey, adults are asked about the frequency and duration of leisure-time physical activity. Adults classified as having regular leisure-time physical activity reported at least 20 minutes of vigorous activity 3 or more sessions per week or at least 30 minutes of light/moderate activity 5 or more sessions per week. The percentage of adults who engaged in leisure-time physical activity has remained stable in recent years (Table 72). In 2004, 30% of adults engaged in regular leisure-time activity. Regular leisure-time activity was more common among younger adults than older adults and more common among men than women. Regular leisure-time physical activity levels vary by poverty and race and ethnicity (Figure 12). Adults living in families with income more than twice poverty were about 60% more likely than lower-income adults to engage in regular leisure-time activity (Table 72). Within family income groups, non-Hispanic white adults were more likely than Hispanic and non-Hispanic black adults to report regular leisure-time physical activity. Among adults living in families with income less than twice the poverty level, 24% to 25% of nonHispanic white adults compared with 16% to 18% of Hispanic and non-Hispanic black adults reported regular leisure-time physical activity (percents are age adjusted).

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NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population and are age adjusted. Adults classified with regular leisure-time physical activity reported 3 or more sessions per week of vigorous activity of at least 20 minutes duration or 5 or more sessions per week of light/moderate activity lasting at least 30 minutes in duration. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition

using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Health Risk Factors

Overweight and Obesity
Two-thirds of American adults are overweight and one-third are obese.

References
1. National Institutes of Health. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: The evidence report. NIH Pub. No. 98–4083. 1998. Available from: www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ob_gdlns.htm. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General’s call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2001. Available from: www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/obesity/. Dietz WH. Health consequences of obesity in youth: Childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics 1998;101(3 Pt 2): 518–25.

Surplus body weight is associated with excess morbidity and mortality (1). Among adults, overweight and obesity elevate the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and some types of cancer. Overweight and obesity also increase the severity of disease associated with hypertension, arthritis, and other musculoskeletal problems (2). Additionally, obesity has serious health consequences among younger persons. Among children and adolescents, obesity increases the risk of high cholesterol, liver abnormalities, diabetes, and becoming an overweight adult (3). Diet, physical activity, genetic factors, environment, and health conditions all contribute to overweight in children and adults. The potential health benefits from reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity are of significant public health importance. The prevalence of overweight and obesity changed little between the early 1960s and 1976–1980 (Figure 13). Findings from the 1988–1994 and 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, however, showed substantial increases in overweight among adults. The upward trend in overweight since 1980 reflects primarily an increase in the percentage of adults 20–74 years of age who are obese. In 2003–2004, 67% of adults in that age group were overweight with 34% obese (age adjusted). Since 1960–1962, the percentage of adults who were overweight but not obese has remained steady at 32%–34% (age adjusted). The percentage of children (6–11 years of age) and adolescents (12–19 years of age) who are overweight has risen since 1976–1980. In 2003–2004, 17%–19% of children and adolescents were overweight. The prevalence of obesity varies among adults by sex, race, and ethnicity (Table 73). In 2001–2004, 30% of men and 34% of women 20–74 years of age were obese (age adjusted). The prevalence of obesity among women differed significantly by racial and ethnic group. In 2001–2004, one-half of non-Hispanic black women were obese compared with nearly one-third of non-Hispanic white women. In contrast, the prevalence of obesity among men was similar by race and ethnicity.

2.

3.

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Figure 13. Overweight and obesity, by age: United States, 1960-2004
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100

90

80

70 Overweight including obese, 20-74 years 60 Percent

50

40 Overweight, but not obese, 20-74 years 30

20 Obese, 20-74 years Overweight, 6-11 years 10 Overweight, 12-19 years 0 1960- 19631962 1965 19661970 19711974 19761980 Year
NOTES: Estimates for adults are age adjusted. For adults: overweight including obese is defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25, overweight but not obese as a BMI greater than or equal to 25 but less than 30, and obese as a BMI greater than or equal to 30. For children: overweight is defined as a BMI at or above the sex- and age-specific 95th percentile BMI cut points from the 2000 CDC Growth Charts: United States. Obese is not defined for children. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Examination Survey and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

19881994

19992000

20032004

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Health Risk Factors

Untreated Dental Caries
Throughout the period 1971–1974 to 1999–2002, children of Mexican origin and non-Hispanic black children had a higher prevalence of untreated dental caries than non-Hispanic white children.

References
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for dental caries, dental sealants, tooth retention, edentulism, and enamel fluorosis—United States, 1988–1994 and 1999–2002. MMWR 54(SS-3):1–44. 2005. Available from: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5403a1.htm. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement. Diagnosis and management of dental caries throughout life. J Dent Educ 2001;65(10):1162–8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ten great public health achievements—United States, 1900–1999. MMWR 48(12):241–3. 1999. Available from: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00056796.htm.

2.

Dental caries, or tooth decay, is caused by bacteria and is one of the most common chronic diseases in young children. If left untreated, it can cause pain, infection, and even loss of teeth (1). Good oral hygiene, including tooth brushing, flossing, regular professional cleaning, and the application of dental sealants can help prevent damage caused by dental caries. The progression of caries can be stopped by treatment. Once destroyed, tooth structure does not regenerate. Although primary or baby teeth are eventually replaced by permanent teeth, early childhood caries is a major predictor of caries in later years (2). Between 1971–1974 and 1988–1994, the percentage of children with untreated dental caries declined, especially among children 6–17 years of age. This decline was largely due to fluoridation of the water supply and to topically applied fluoride treatments (1,2,3). Since 1988–1994, the percentage of children with untreated dental caries has not significantly changed, except for a decrease among non-Hispanic black children 6–17 years of age (data table for Figure 14). Throughout the period 1971–1974 to 1999–2002, children of Mexican origin and non-Hispanic black children had a higher prevalence of untreated caries than non-Hispanic white children (Figure 14). In 1999–2002, Mexican children 6–17 years of age had untreated dental caries almost twice as frequently as non-Hispanic white children of the same age. Non-Hispanic black school-age children were 58% more likely to have untreated dental caries than non-Hispanic white children.

3.

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NOTES: Persons of Mexican origin may be of any race. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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Morbidity and Limitation of Activity

Morbidity and Limitation of Activity
Three or More Chronic Conditions
Poverty was strongly associated with having three or more chronic conditions among adults age 45–74 years in 2004.

References
1. Pamuk E, Makuc D, Heck K, Reuben C, Lochner K. Socioeconomic Status and Health Chartbook. Health, United States, 1998. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 1998. Freidland RB. Multiple chronic conditions. Data Profiles, Challenges for the 21st Century: Chronic and Disabling Conditions: Number 12. Georgetown University Center on an Aging Society. November 2003.

2.

Many studies of adult health have shown a strong association between poverty and a wide array of chronic health conditions (1). Given the association between poverty and the risk factors for many chronic health conditions, it is not surprising that adults with low incomes more often report multiple serious health conditions than adults with higher incomes. The relationship between poverty and serious health problems reflects both the effect of low income on health and the effect of poor health on income (1,2). Data from the National Health Interview Survey were used to assess chronic health conditions of adults age 45 years and over living in the community. Adults with three or more chronic conditions included persons ever diagnosed with three or more of the following conditions: hypertension, heart disease, stroke, emphysema, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, or asthma. Among adults ever diagnosed with asthma, only those who reported currently having asthma were considered to have a chronic condition. The percentage of adults with three or more chronic conditions increased with age in 2004 from 7% of adults 45–54 years of age to 36% of adults 75 years of age and over. Among adults 45–74 years of age, the percentage of persons reporting three or more chronic conditions rose as income declined (Figure 15). Among adults 75 years of age and over, the percentage of persons with three or more chronic conditions did not vary significantly by income. Adults 55–64 years of age in the lowest income group (below 100% of the poverty level) were as likely to have three or more chronic conditions as older adults 75 years of age and over in the highest income group (400% or more of the poverty level).

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NOTES: Adults who had ever been told by a physician they had 3 or more of the following conditions: hypertension, heart disease, stroke, emphysema, diabetes, cancer, arthritis and related diseases, or current asthma. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Morbidity and Limitation of Activity

Limitation of Activity: Children
Conditions associated with learning, emotional, and behavioral problems are leading causes of activity limitation among children.

References
1. Newacheck PW, Strickland B, Shonkoff JP, et al. An epidemiologic profile of children with special health care needs. Pediatrics 1998;102(1):117–23. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2005. Washington, D.C. 2005.

2.

Limitation of activity due to chronic physical, mental, or emotional conditions is a broad measure of health and functioning that gauges a child’s ability to engage in major age-appropriate activities and is related to a child’s need for special educational and medical services. The National Health Interview Survey identifies children with activity limitation through questions about specific limitations in activities such as play, self-care, walking, memory, and other activities, and the current use of special education or early intervention services. Estimates of the number of children with an activity limitation may differ depending on the type of limitations included and the methods used to identify them (1). Between 1997 and 2004, the share of children with activity limitation was 7% (Table 58). In 2003–2004, the percentage of school-age children with activity limitation (8%) was double the percentage of preschoolers with limitation (4%) primarily due to the large number of school-age children who were identified as limited solely by their participation in special education (2). In 2003–2004, chronic health conditions causing activity limitation in children varied by age (Figure 16). Speech problems, mental retardation, and asthma were the leading causes of activity limitation among preschool children. Learning disability and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD or ADD) were the leading causes of activity limitation among all school-age children. Among younger school-age children, speech problems were another important cause of activity limitation and among older school-age children, other mental, emotional, and behavioral problems were an important cause.

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NOTES: Children with more than one chronic health condition causing activity limitation are counted in each category. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Morbidity and Limitation of Activity

Limitation of Activity: Working-Age and Older Adults
Arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions are the most frequently reported cause of activity limitation among both working-age and older adults.

Chronic physical, mental, and emotional conditions can limit the ability of adults to carry out important activities such as working and doing everyday household chores. With advancing age, an increasing percentage of adults experience limitation of activity. Estimates of the number of working-age and older adults with limitation of activity are important for determining current and future types of health care needs and associated costs (1). Between 1997 and 2004, the percentage of working-age adults 18–64 years of age reporting an activity limitation caused by a chronic health condition remained relatively stable (Table 58). In 2003–2004, the percentage of working-age adults who reported limitations ranged from 6% at age 18–44 years to 21% at age 55–64 years (2). Arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions were the most frequently mentioned conditions causing limitation among working-age adults of all ages in 2003–2004 (Figure 17). Among adults 18–44 years of age, mental illness was the second leading cause of activity limitation followed by fractures or joint injury. Among adults 45–64 years of age, heart and circulatory conditions were the second leading cause of limitation. Other frequently mentioned conditions included mental illness and diabetes.

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NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Persons may report more than one chronic health condition as the cause of their activity limitation. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Morbidity and Limitation of Activity

Limitation of Activity: Working-Age and Older Adults (Continued)
Between 1997 and 2004, the percentage of adults 65 years of age and over in the noninstitutionalized population reporting an activity limitation caused by a chronic health condition declined slightly (Table 58). In 2003–2004, the percentage of older adults with limitation of activity ranged from 26% of 65–74 year olds to 62% of adults 85 years old and over (2). Arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions were the most frequently mentioned chronic conditions causing limitation of activity (Figure 18). Heart and circulatory conditions were the second leading cause of limitations. Among adults 85 years and over, senility, vision conditions, and hearing problems were frequently mentioned causes of activity limitation.

References
1. Guralnik JM, Fried LP, Salive ME. Disability as a public health outcome in the aging population. Annu Rev Public Health 1996;17:25–46. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, unpublished analysis.

2.

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NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Persons may report more than one chronic health condition as the cause of their activity limitation. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Health Care Utilization

Health Care Utilization
Dental Visit Among Children

References:
1. American Dental Association. ADA statement on early childhood caries. 2000. Available from: www.ada.org/prof/resources/positions/statements/caries.asp. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guideline on periodicity of examination, preventive dental services, anticipatory guidance, and oral treatment for children. Available from: www.aapd.org/media/Policies_Guidelines/G_Periodicity.pdf.

2.

Hispanic children 6–17 years of age are less likely to have a recent dental visit than children in other racial and ethnic groups.

The American Dental Association recommends that children see a dentist for the first time within 6 months of the appearance of the first tooth and no later than the child’s first birthday (1). The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry also recommends that all children should visit a dentist in their first year of life and every 6 months thereafter, or as indicated by the individual child’s risk status or susceptibility to disease (2). Attitudes and habits established at an early age are critical in maintaining good oral health throughout life. Benefits of early dental intervention include assessment of risk status, analysis of fluoride exposure and feeding practices, such as excessive sugar consumption, and oral hygiene counseling. Preschool children 2–5 years of age are less likely to have a recent dental visit than school-age children 6–17 years of age (Figure 19). On average, 54% of preschool-age children had a dental visit in the past year compared with 84% of school-age children in 2004 (data table for Figure 19). No difference in the recent use of dental visits among preschool-age children was noted by race and ethnicity. In contrast to younger children, the proportion of school-age children with a recent dental visit varies by race and ethnicity (Figure 19). Among school-age children 6–17 years of age, Hispanic children had lower levels of recent dental visits than children in other racial and ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-origin children were more likely to have untreated dental caries than non-Hispanic white children (Figure 14 and Table 75).

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NOTES: Asian race includes children of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Data for Asian children 2–5 years of age are not shown because they are not reliable. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Health Care Utilization

Influenza Vaccination: Adults 50 Years of Age and Over
Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adults age 50 and over were less likely to receive influenza vaccinations than non-Hispanic white adults in 2003–2004.

References
1. Hak E, Buskens E, van Essen GA, et al. Clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in persons younger than 65 years with high-risk medical conditions: the PRISMA study. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:274–80. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and Control of Influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 2000;49(RR03):1–38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, unpublished analysis.

2.

Annual influenza vaccination can lessen the risk of hospitalization and death among persons 65 years of age and over and also prevent influenza-related complications for persons 18–64 years of age with medical conditions (1). In 2000, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) broadened the universal recommendations for influenza vaccination to include adults 50–64 years of age, in addition to adults 65 years of age and over, due to the high prevalence of chronic medical conditions in adults 50–64 years of age (2). In 2003–2004, about 64% of adults 50–64 years of age had one or more chronic medical conditions (3). In 2003–2004, 65% of adults 65 years of age and over reported an influenza vaccination during the preceding 12 months, compared with 36% of adults 50–64 years of age (data table for Figure 20). Although influenza vaccination rates have increased for non-Hispanic and Hispanic population groups, substantial gaps persist by race and ethnicity (Table 83). Influenza vaccination coverage among adults 50–64 years of age was about 30% lower for non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanic persons than non-Hispanic white persons (Figure 20). Similarly, influenza vaccination rates among adults 65 years of age and over were about 30% lower for non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanic persons than for non-Hispanic whites.

3.

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NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Health Care Utilization

Emergency Department Visits for Falls
Falls are the reason for many emergency department visits, including about 20% of all emergency department visits for women age 85 years and over.

that occurs disproportionately in post-menopausal women may explain, in part, women’s greater rate of hip fracture (4).

References
1. Chang JT, Morton SC, Rubenstein LZ, et al. Interventions for the prevention of falls in older adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. BMJ 2004;328:680, doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7441.680. McDonald E, Girasek D, Gielen A. Home Injuries pp. 123–61 in K. Liller (Ed), Injury Prevention for Children and Adolescents. APHA: Washington, DC. 2006. Roudsari BS, Ebel BE, Corso PS, Molinari NM, Koepsell TD. The acute medical costs of fall-related injuries among the U.S. older adults. Injury, Int. J Care Injured 2005;26:1316–22. Stevens JA, Sogolow ED. Gender differences for non-fatal unintentional fall-related injuries among older adults. Injury Prevention 2005;11:115–9.

Falls are among the leading causes of injury for persons of all ages. They can result in fractures, sprains and strains, open wounds, and other injuries that require medical treatment and are a significant reason for emergency department (ED) visits (Table 88). Encouraging adults to exercise and improve their balance can help reduce the prevalence of falls among frail seniors. Making homes and playgrounds safer can reduce falls among young children (1,2). Falls account for a large share of ED services. In 2002–2004, almost 8 million ED visits per year had falls recorded as their first-listed external cause of injury—accounting for 7% of all ED visits (data table for Figure 21). About 8% of ED visits for children under age 18 were fall-related. Among adults, the percentage of ED visits that were fall-related increased with age from 5% at 18–44 years to 18% for adults age 85 years and over. In 2002–2004, fall-related ED visit rates per 10,000 population were lowest among adults 18–64 years of age, higher among children and adults 65–74 years, and higher still among adults 75 years of age and over (data table for Figure 21). Fall visit rates for adults 85 years and over were almost 8 times that of adults 18–64 years of age. ED visit rates due to falls vary by gender (Figure 21). Boys under 18 years of age had higher ED visit rates for falls than girls. Starting at age 45–64 years, women had higher rates than men. ED visits for falls have varying outcomes. Whereas most fall visits resulted in the person being discharged home, 12% of all ED visits made for fall-related injuries were severe enough to result in hospitalization, transfer to another hospital or health care facility, or death in the ED. Among men and women age 85 and over, ED visits for falls were more likely to have a severe outcome than visits for younger persons. Fracture of the hip and other lower extremities are among the most common types of fall-related injuries that resulted in hospitalization among older adults (3). Loss of bone mass

2.

3.

4.

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NOTES: Visits with a severe disposition for males 65–74 years and females 44 years or younger have a relative standard error of 20%–30%. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

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Health Care Utilization

Visits to Physician Offices and Hospital Outpatient Departments
Physician office and hospital outpatient department visit rates were higher among women age 18–44 years than for men in that age group, but the gender difference disappears with age.

Americans of all ages visit physician offices and hospital outpatient departments (OPDs) to receive preventive and screening services, diagnosis and treatment of health conditions, medical counseling, and other types of ambulatory health care. In 2003–2004, there were, on average, one billion visits per year to physician offices and OPDs (data table for Figure 22). Many OPD clinics provide preventive services and primary care similar to services received in private physicians’ offices. About 8% of visits were made in OPDs overall, but OPDs were more frequently used as sites of care for black persons than for white persons (Table 89). Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey Outpatient Department component, which are abstracted from medical records, provide a snapshot of care from office-based physicians and OPDs. Between 1997–1998 and 2003–2004, physician and OPD visit rates fluctuated between 3.2 and 3.7 visits per person (data table for Figure 22). Visit rates increased with age with rates among adults 65 years of age and over were more than twice as high as rates among children and young adults. In 2003–2004, women 18–64 years of age had higher visit rates than men, with the largest gender difference in visit rates occurring among adults 18–44 years of age (Figure 22). In this age group, visit rates for women were more than twice as high as for men, largely due to care associated with female reproduction. This gender difference narrows among middle-age adults and disappears among adults 65 years of age and over.

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NOTE: See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

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Health Care Utilization

Bariatric Procedures
The number of inpatient bariatric procedures among obese adults age 18–64 years has increased substantially since 1996–1998, with more than four-fifths of these procedures performed on women.

are hospitalized in the first year following their procedures and some patients experience serious complications including wound infection, bowel obstruction, and hernia (3). The long-term health consequences of the procedures are unknown. As more Americans undergo these procedures, a clearer picture of the risks and benefits of bariatric procedures will emerge.

Almost one-third of American adults are obese (Table 73). Obesity has serious health consequences, including increased risk for hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and heart disease (1). Because losing weight by dieting is often ineffective for long-term weight loss (2), bariatric procedures—including gastric bypass—have become an increasingly popular option for those who are morbidly obese. Bariatric procedures are recommended for those who are morbidly obese (body mass index 40 or higher or body mass index 35 or higher with comorbid conditions (see Appendix II, Body Mass Index (BMI)). Bariatric procedures to treat obesity involve reducing the size of the stomach or bypassing part of the intestines. These approaches promote weight loss by reducing the body’s ability to absorb food and increasing the sensation of fullness. Bariatric procedures usually result in substantial weight loss. On average, patients lose more than half of their body weight after the procedures (2). Many patients see a reversal or substantial improvement in many of the comorbidities associated with obesity, including diabetes, hypertension, and sleep apnea (2). From 1996–1998 to 2002–2004, the average annual number of inpatient bariatric procedures among obese patients 18–64 years of age increased more than nine-fold, from about 10,000 to more than 100,000 (data table for Figure 23). In 2002–2004, there were about five times as many bariatric surgeries among women as men age 18–64 years (Figure 23). There were more than 60,000 bariatric procedures among adults 18–44 years of age in 2002–2004 and over 40,000 among those 45–64 years of age. Bariatric procedures may be performed on an inpatient or outpatient basis. These estimates include only inpatient procedures. Therefore, the total number of bariatric procedures performed is greater than the estimates presented here. Bariatric procedures have many serious side effects and a reported mortality of approximately 1% in the year following the procedures (3). Between 1998 and 2003, 10% of hospitalizations in which gastric bypass was performed had a complication during the hospital stay (4). One-fifth of patients

References
1. National Institutes of Health. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: The evidence report. NIH Pub. No. 98–4083. 1998. Available from: www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ ob_gdlns.htm. Buchwald H, Avidor Y, Braunwald E, Jensen MD, Pories W, Fahrbach K, Schoelles K. Bariatric surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2004;292(14):1724–37. Zingmond DS, McGory ML, Ko CY. Hospitalization before and after gastric bypass surgery. JAMA 2005;294(15):1918–24. Shinogle JA, Owings MF, Kozak LJ. Gastric bypass as treatment for obesity: Trends, characteristics, and complications. Obes Res 2005;13(12):2202–9.

2.

3. 4.

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NOTES: Up to four procedures were coded for each hospital stay. Bariatric procedures were any-listed procedures. See data table for data points graphed, procedure codes, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Discharge Survey.

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Mortality
Mortality
Life Expectancy
Life expectancy continues to increase, and the gap in life expectancy between males and females has been narrowing.

References
1. 2. 3. Arriaga EE. Measuring and explaining the change in life expectancies. Demography 1984;21(1):83–96. Fried LP. Epidemiology of aging. Epidemiol Rev 2000; 22(1):95–106. Arias E. United States life tables, 2003. National vital statistics reports. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

Life expectancy is a measure often used to gauge the overall health of a population. As a summary measure of mortality, life expectancy represents the average number of years of life that could be expected if current death rates were to remain constant. Shifts in life expectancy are often used to describe trends in mortality. Life expectancy at birth is strongly influenced by infant and child mortality. Life expectancy later in life reflects death rates at or above a given age and is independent of the effect of mortality at younger ages (1). From 1900 through 2003, life expectancy at birth increased from 48 to 75 years for men and from 51 to 80 years for women (Figure 24). Life expectancy at age 65 has also increased since the beginning of the 20th century. Among men, life expectancy at age 65 rose from 12 to 17 years and among women from 12 to 20 years. In contrast to life expectancy at birth, which increased sharply early in the 20th century, life expectancy at age 65 improved primarily after mid-century. Improved access to health care, advances in medicine, healthier lifestyles, and better health before age 65 are factors underlying decreased death rates among older Americans (2). Athough the overall trend in life expectancy for the United States was upward throughout the 20th century, the gain in years of life expectancy for women generally exceeded that for men until the 1970s, widening the gap in life expectancy between men and women. After the 1970s, the gain in life expectancy for men exceeded that for women and the gender gap in life expectancy began to narrow. Between 1990 and 2003, the total gain in life expectancy for women was 1.3 years compared with 3.0 years for men, reflecting proportionately greater decreases in heart disease and cancer mortality for men than for women and proportionately larger increases in chronic lower respiratory diseases mortality among women (3).

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NOTE: See data table for data points graphed and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

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Mortality
Infant Mortality
Infant mortality rates have decreased for most racial and ethnic groups, but large disparities between the groups persist. The infant mortality rate, the risk of death during the first year of life, is related to the underlying health of the mother, public health practices, socioeconomic conditions, and availability and use of appropriate health care for infants and pregnant women. Disorders related to short gestation and low birthweight, and congenital malformations are the leading causes of death during the neonatal period (less than 28 days of life). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and congenital malformations rank as the leading causes of infant deaths during the postneonatal period (28 days through 11 months of life) (1). In 2003, the infant mortality rate decreased to 6.9 infant deaths per 1,000 live births after increasing in 2002 for the first time in more than 40 years (Figure 25 and Table 22). The 2003 infant mortality rate was 76% lower than in 1950. During the period 1950–2003, substantial declines occurred for both neonatal and postneonatal mortality.
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NOTES: Infant is defined as under 1 year of age, neonatal as under 28 days of age, and postneonatal as between 28 days and 1 year of age. See data table for data points graphed and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

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Mortality
Infant Mortality (Continued)
Infant mortality rates have declined for most racial and ethnic groups, but large disparities between the groups remain (Table 19). During 2001–2003, the infant mortality rate was highest for infants of non-Hispanic black mothers (Figure 26). Infant mortality rates were also high among infants of American Indian or Alaska Native mothers and Puerto Rican mothers. Infants of mothers of Cuban origin had the lowest infant mortality rates.

Reference
1. Heron MP, Smith BL. Deaths: Leading causes for 2003, forthcoming.

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NOTES: Infant is defined as under 1 year of age. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Asian or Pacific Islander and American Indian or Alaska Native races include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. See data table for data points graphed and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, National Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Sets.

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Mortality
Leading Causes of Death for All Ages
Mortality from heart disease, stroke, and unintentional injuries is substantially lower than in 1950.

Reference
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Achievements in public health, 1990–1999: Decline in deaths from heart disease and stroke—United States, 1990–1999. MMWR 1999;48(30):649–56.

In 2003, a total of 2.4 million deaths were reported in the United States (Table 31). The overall age-adjusted death rate was 42% lower in 2003 than in 1950. The reduction in overall mortality during the last half of the 20th century was driven mostly by declines in mortality for such leading causes of death as heart disease, stroke, and unintentional injuries (Figure 27). In 2003, the age-adjusted death rate for heart disease, the leading cause of death, was 60% lower than the rate in 1950 (Table 36). The age-adjusted death rate for stroke, the third leading cause of death, declined 70% since 1950 (Table 37). Heart disease and stroke mortality are associated with risk factors such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking, and dietary factors. Other important factors include socioeconomic status, obesity, and physical inactivity. Factors contributing to the decline in heart disease and stroke mortality include better control of risk factors, improved access to early detection, and better treatment and care, including new drugs and expanded uses for existing drugs (1). Overall age-adjusted death rates for cancer, the second leading cause of death, rose between 1960 and 1990 and then reversed direction (Table 38). Between 1990 and 2003 overall death rates for cancer declined 12%. The trend in the overall cancer death rate reflects the trend in the death rate for lung cancer (Table 39). Since 1970, the death rate for lung cancer for the total population has been higher than the death rate for any other cancer site. Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRD) were the fourth leading cause of death in 2003. The age-adjusted death rate for CLRD in 2003 was 53% higher than the rate in 1980. CLRD mortality increased during the period 1980 to 1999. Since 1999, CLRD mortality has decreased slightly (Table 41). The fifth leading cause of death in 2003 was unintentional injuries. Age-adjusted death rates for unintentional injuries declined during the period 1950–1992 (Table 29). Since 1992, the unintentional injury mortality rate has gradually increased. Despite recent increases, the death rate for unintentional injuries in 2003 was still 52% lower than the rate in 1950.

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NOTES: Estimates are age adjusted. Causes of death shown are the five leading causes of death for all ages in 2003. CLRD is chronic lower respiratory diseases. Starting with 1999 data, causes of death were coded according to ICD-10. See data table for data points graphed and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

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Special Feature: Pain

Special Feature: Pain
Introduction: Prevalence and Duration of Pain among Adults in the Month Prior to Interview
More than one-quarter of American adults experienced pain that lasted a day or more during the month prior to interview.

pain, resignation to the presence of pain, and skepticism about the beneficial effects of potential treatments (4). Perceptions of pain differ by the context in which it occurs; expectations about how much pain one ‘‘should’’ feel; anxiety and feelings about a loss of control that can increase pain; past pain experiences; coexisting physical and mental conditions; and many other factors (5). Research has shown that distracting patients in severe pain can lessen it, and that focusing on pain can make it worse. Data from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey show that more than one-quarter of Americans (26%) age 20 years and over reported that they had a problem with pain—of any sort—that persisted for more than 24 hours in duration in the month prior to interview (Figure 28). Adults age 45–64 years were the most likely to report pain lasting more than 24 hours (30%). Twenty-five percent of young adults age 20–44 reported pain, and adults age 65 years and over were the least likely to report pain (21%). Women reported pain more often than men, and non-Hispanic white adults reported pain more often than adults of other races and ethnicities. Adults living in families with income less than twice the poverty level reported pain more often than higher income adults.

Pain hurts—physically, mentally, emotionally, and at times financially. All persons experience pain at some time during their lives. It affects physical and mental functioning, and can profoundly affect quality of life. Treating it is often expensive, time-consuming, and sometimes extremely frustrating. In addition to the direct costs of treating pain—including medical practitioner and hospital visits for diagnosis and treatment, drugs, therapies, and other medical costs—it causes work-loss time, and loss of productivity and concentration at work or while conducting other activities (1,2). Because of these and other factors, the 106th U.S. Congress passed Title VI, Sec. 1603, of H.R. 3244, which declared the 10-year period beginning January 1, 2001, as the ‘‘Decade of Pain Control and Research.’’ The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines pain as ‘‘an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage’’ (3). Pain is a symptom produced when inflammation or changes to the nervous system due to illness or injury are transmitted to the brain, producing a physical sensation that alerts the brain that damage has occurred. Generally, as the inflammation subsides or the wound heals the pain lessens and eventually goes away, although in some cases it does not. Pain can be constant or episodic, last for a minute or most of a lifetime, and can be dull or sharp, throbbing or piercing, localized or widespread, severe or less severe, and ultimately, tolerable or intolerable. Pain can have an undetectable or a nonphysical cause, making it hard to treat. Pain is always subjective. Although it is a physical sensation, perceptions of pain are influenced by social, cultural, and psychological factors, producing different sensations in different people. Pain in older adults has been shown to be underreported, possibly because of a reluctance to report

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NOTES: Respondents were asked to report pain that lasted more than 24 hours. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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Special Feature: Pain

Introduction: Prevalence and Duration of Pain among Adults in the Month Prior to Interview (Continued)
Measures of pain prevalence are affected not only by how different people perceive pain, but whether it is reported at all. One factor in whether pain is considered salient enough to report is the duration of the pain that is experienced. Adults 20 years of age and over who reported pain in the month prior to interview (Figure 28) were asked a follow-up question about the duration of that pain. Nearly one-third of adults 20 years of age and over who reported pain said that it lasted less than 1 month, 12% reported pain that lasted 1–3 months, 14% reported pain that lasted 3 months to 1 year, and 42% reported pain that lasted more than 1 year (data table for Figure 29). Although persons age 65 years and over are less likely to report pain lasting 24 hours or more, 57% of older adults who reported pain indicated that the pain lasted for more than 1 year compared with 37% of adults 20–44 years of age who reported pain (Figure 29). Conversely, adults 20–44 years were considerably more likely to report relatively short-lived pain. Therefore the duration of pain (long- or short-lived) reported by different age groups may explain, in part, differences in pain reporting and pain prevalence by age. This Special Feature provides a general overview of pain experienced by adults in the United States. It focuses on common types of pain using data from several national data sources. Some data are collected during in-person interviews with the participant reporting the location, extent, duration, and severity of selected sites of pain. Because some types of pain persist, while other types recur more or less frequently, pain questions have different recall periods. For example, people are asked about any pain that lasted a day or more in the month prior to interview but about severe headaches and back pain during the 3-month period prior to interview. Prevalence estimates with different recall periods are not directly comparable. (See Technical Notes for pain questions and recall periods.) Another way to gather information on pain is to ask respondents about use of medications to control severe pain, such as prescription narcotic drugs. Pain in individuals can be indirectly inferred from measures of health care utilization, for example, use of hospital procedures for pain reduction such as hip and knee replacement.

The Special Feature presents data on the prevalence and possible effects of pain in terms of health status and health care utilization measures, as well as some economic implications including ambulatory medical care expenditures for headache. The relationships between reported pain and race/ethnicity, gender, age, income level, and health status are complex and raise important issues for individuals, the health care system, and society at large. Focusing on pain prevalence and its effects for population subgroups may provide insight for public health initiatives and policies with the ultimate goal of reducing disparities in quality of life and level of functioning.

References
1. McCool WF, Smith T, Aberg C. Pain in Women’s Health: A multi-faceted approach toward understanding. J Midwivery Womens Health 2004;49(6):473–81. Luo X, Pietrobon R, Sun SX, Liu GG, Hey L. Estimates and patterns of direct health care expenditures among individuals with back pain in the United States. Spine 2004;29:79–86. IASP website. Available from: www.iasp-pain.org/termsp.html#Pain. Yong HH, Gibson SJ, de L Horne DJ, Helms RD. Development of a pain attitudes questionnaire to assess stoicism and cautiousness for possible age differences. Journal of Gerontology 2001;56B:279–84. Hansen GR, Streltzer J. The Psychology of Pain. Emerg Med Clin of N Am 2005;23:339–48.

2.

3. 4.

5.

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NOTES: Respondents who reported pain lasting more than 24 hours in duration in the month prior to interview (Figure 28) were asked a follow-up question about the duration of that pain. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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Special Feature: Pain

Low Back, Migraine/Severe Headache, Neck, and Face Pain
The prevalence of low back pain, migraine/severe headache, neck, and face pain varies significantly by age.

Reference
1. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Low back pain fact sheet. Available from: www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/pubs/back_pain.htm.

Pain occurs in many different parts of the body, each with its own prevalence and presentation patterns. Low back pain and severe headache are two of the most common sources of pain that interfere with an individual’s ability to enjoy social activities and negatively affect quality of life (1). In the National Health Interview Survey, adults 18 years of age and over were asked a series of questions about whether they have had four types of pain during the 3 months prior to interview (low back, migraine/severe headache, neck, and facial ache in the jaw or joint in front of the ear). Respondents were instructed to report pain that lasted a whole day or more and not to include minor aches or pains. Respondents could report more than one type of pain and were included in each reported category. Trends in the percentage of Americans reporting each of these types of pain have been stable in recent years (Table 56). Low back pain was the most commonly reported of the four types of pain overall and in each age group (Figure 30). In 2004, more than one-quarter of adults reported low back pain in the past 3 months (data table for Figure 30). Low back pain was most commonly reported among adults 45 years of age and over. In 2004, 15% of adults reported migraine/severe headache and 15% also reported neck pain. Adults 18–44 years of age reported migraine/severe headache pain almost three times as frequently as adults 65 years and over. Migraine/severe headache is particularly prevalent among women in their reproductive years (Table 56). In contrast to the pattern for migraine/severe headache, prevalence of neck pain varied less by age and was higher among adults 45–64 years of age than among those in other age groups. Facial ache or pain in the joint in front of the ear was reported by 4% of adults in 2004. It was more common among younger and middle-age adults than among older adults 65 years of age and over.

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NOTES: Respondents were asked to report pain that lasted a whole day or more. Respondents reporting more than one type of pain were included in each category. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Special Feature: Pain

Low Back Pain
Women of all ages, race and ethnicity groups, and income levels report low back pain more often than men.

References
1. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Low back pain fact sheet. Available from: www.ninds.nih.gov/ health_and_medical/pubs/back_pain.htm. Hemp P. Presenteeism: at work—but out of it. Harv Bus Rev 2004;82(10):49–58.

2.

Low back pain is the second most common neurological ailment in the United States—only headache (when all types and severity levels are considered) is more common (1). Obesity, smoking, weight gain during pregnancy, stress, poor physical condition, posture inappropriate for the activity being performed, and poor sleeping position can contribute to low back pain. Low back pain places considerable stress on the health care system in terms of visits and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and medication management. In addition, there are substantial indirect costs associated with reduced productivity. Low back pain is the most common cause of job-related disability and a leading contributor to missed work, and reduced productivity at work (1,2). In the National Health Interview Survey, the presence of pain is measured by asking adult respondents 18 years of age and over about low back pain and other selected types of pain during the 3 months prior to interview. Respondents were instructed to report low back pain that lasted a whole day or more and not to include minor aches or pains. Trends in the percentage of adults reporting low back pain have remained stable in recent years (Table 56). Women reported low back pain more often than men (29% compared with 25%) (data table for Figure 31). Gender differences persist within age, race and ethnicity (except among Asian adults), and income subgroups (Figure 31). Older women reported low back pain more often than older men (33% compared with 27%). Non-Hispanic black women reported low back pain about 30% more often, and Hispanic women reported it 40% more often than their male counterparts. Non-Hispanic white women and men had a higher prevalence of low back pain than other race and Hispanic origin groups, and they had a smaller male/female difference in prevalence than other racial and ethnic groups. Women of each income level reported low back pain more often than men at the same income level. Poor women were more likely to report low back pain than higher income women. Conversely, about one-quarter of men at all income levels reported low back pain.

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NOTES: Asian race includes persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. See data table for data points graphed and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Special Feature: Pain

Joint Pain
Severe joint pain is more common among adults age 65 years and over, low-income adults, and non-Hispanic black adults than among adults in other age, income, and racial and ethnic groups.

References
1. Medline Plus, National Library of Medicine: Osteoarthritis. Available from: www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/ 000423.htm. Latko WA, Armstrong TJ, Franzblau A, et al. Cross-sectional study of the relationship between repetitive work and the prevalence of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. Am J Ind Med 1999 Aug;36:248–59.

2.

Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disorder and is characterized by joint pain, stiffness, and swelling. Joint pain can also be caused by injury, prolonged abnormal posture, or repetitious movements (1,2). In 2003, almost one-third of adults age 18 years and over and one-half of adults age 65 years and over reported joint pain, aching, or stiffness (excluding the back or neck) during the 30 days prior to interview (Table 57). The knee was the site of joint pain most commonly reported, followed by the shoulder, fingers, and hips. Trends in the prevalence of joint pain have remained stable in recent years. In the 2003 National Health Interview Survey only, respondents who reported any joint pain, aching, or stiffness in or around a joint during the past 30 days were asked a follow-up question ‘‘During the past 30 days, how bad was your joint pain on average? Please answer on a scale of 0 to 10 where 0 is no pain or aching and 10 is pain or aching as bad as it can be.’’ In this analysis, a reported score of 7–10 was classified as severe pain and 0–6 as lesser pain. Severe joint pain increased with age (Figure 32). Women were more likely to report severe joint pain than men (10% compared with 7%). Although non-Hispanic black adults reported overall joint pain less often than non-Hispanic white adults, they were more likely to report severe joint pain. Asian adults had a lower percentage of severe joint pain than adults in other racial and ethnic groups. Persons with family income below 200% of the poverty line were nearly twice as likely to report severe joint pain as adults with family income of 200% or more of poverty (12%–13% compared with 7%).

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NOTES: Adults who reported joint pain, aching, or stiffness during the past 30 days were asked to report on average the severity of the pain on a scale of 0–10 where 0 is no pain and 10 is pain or aching as bad as it can be. In this analysis, lesser pain is defined as 0–6 and severe pain as a response of 7–10. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Special Feature: Pain

Narcotic Analgesic Drug Visits in Emergency Departments
In one-half of emergency department visits with severe pain recorded, a narcotic analgesic drug was prescribed or received.

References
1. Tamayo-Sarver JH, Dawson NV, Cydulka RK, Wigton RS, Baker DW. Variability in emergency physician decisionmaking about prescribing opioid analgesics. Ann Emerg Med. 2004 Apr;43(4):483–93. Rupp T, Delaney KA. Inadequate analgesia in emergency medicine. Ann Emerg Med. 2004 Apr;43(4):494–503. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, unpublished analysis.

2. 3.

The presence of pain can be discerned directly by asking people about the presence, type, location, and duration of specific types of pain (Figures 28–32). In addition, pain can be examined by investigating health care utilization involving pain treatments, such as emergency department (ED) visits during which narcotic analgesic drugs were prescribed. Narcotic analgesic drugs are used primarily to treat severe pain (Appendix II, Table XII). Physicians’ decisions to prescribe narcotic analgesics are highly variable (1). Some studies conclude that narcotic analgesic drugs are underused in EDs, particularly among children, older adults, and minority populations (2). In 2003–2004, 23% of all ED visits had a narcotic analgesic drug prescribed or provided during the visit (data table for Figure 33). In the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey Emergency Room Component, presenting level of pain is abstracted from ED records. The presenting level of pain is recorded as none, mild, moderate, severe, or unknown or missing. About 16% of all ED visits in 2003–2004 had a recorded presenting pain level of no pain, 16% mild pain, 21% moderate pain, 14% severe pain, and 33% were unknown or missing on pain level (3). Children under 11 years of age were more likely to have an unknown or missing presenting pain level, but no difference in the percentage of unknown or missing pain level was noted by gender or by race. Among ED visits with severe pain recorded, 50% had narcotic analgesic drugs prescribed or provided during the visit (data table for Figure 33). Males and females had similar rates of narcotic drugs for severe pain during ED visits (Figure 33). Children under age 18 were less likely than adults to receive a narcotic drug in the ED, regardless of presenting level of pain. Adults 65 years of age and over with severe pain were less likely to receive a narcotic drug than other adults with severe pain. Black people were less likely than white people to receive narcotic drugs for severe pain in the ED (40% compared with 53%).

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NOTES: Narcotic drug visits are hospital emergency department visits with narcotic drugs prescribed or provided during the visit. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, Emergency Department Component.

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Special Feature: Pain

Prescription Narcotic Drug Use
The use of narcotic drugs among women has increased from 1988–1994 to 1999–2002, largely due to increased use among non-Hispanic white women and women age 45 years and over.

In 1999–2002, women of all ages reported more narcotic drug use than men (Figure 34). Non-Hispanic white women were almost twice as likely to report narcotic use as women of Mexican origin (5.9% compared with 3.2%).

References
1. Phillips DM. JCAHO pain management standards are unveiled. JAMA 2000;284(4):428–9. National Pharmaceutical Council, Inc. and Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Pain: Current understanding of assessment, management, and treatments. Reston, VA: NPC; 2001.

In recent decades, the medical community has increasingly recognized the importance of treating and controlling pain (1). The goal of pain management is to return patients to a pain level that allows them to function better in their daily lives. Pain may be managed by nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic means. Nonpharmacologic treatments include biofeedback, relaxation techniques, massage, and heat or cold application. These approaches usually supplement pharmacologic treatment (2). Pharmacologic approaches include a variety of medication options. Minor pain may be controlled by non-narcotic medications such as aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen. More severe pain may require the use of narcotic medications, such as codeine and oxycodone. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collects data on the prescription drug use of survey participants living in the community through in-person household interviews. Prescription drug use is determined by examining the prescription labels of the participant’s medications. Between 1988–1994 and 1999–2002, the age-adjusted percentage of women reporting narcotic drug use in the month prior to interview increased by almost one-half from 3.6% to 5.3%. This increase was driven largely by an increase in narcotic drug use among women age 45 years and over (Figure 34). During this period, use of narcotic drugs rose by almost 75% among women 45–64 years of age to 5.7% and by more than 50% among women 65 years and over to 6.8%. This increased use has been primarily among non-Hispanic white women (data table for Figure 34). In contrast, reported narcotic drug use among adult men remained stable from 1988–1994 to 1999–2002 and there were no significant differences in use for men by race or ethnicity.

2.

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NOTES: *1999–2002 data have a relative standard error of 20%–30%. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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Special Feature: Pain

Knee and Nonfracture Hip Replacements
Rates of hospitalizations to replace painful hips and knees have substantially increased since 1992–1993.

both 1992–1993 and 2003–2004, hospital discharges with knee replacement surgery were more common among women than men. Between 1992–1993 and 2003–2004, nonfracture hip replacement discharge rates increased among men and women 45 years of age and over (Figure 35). In 2003–2004, the nonfracture hip replacement discharge rate was more than twice as great among older adults 65 years and over than adults 45–64 years. Between 1992–1993 and 2003–2004, rates in the 45–64 year age group more than doubled and rates among older adults increased by 70% among men and 50% among women. In contrast to knee replacement, nonfracture hip replacement discharges were equally likely among men and women.

Knee and hip replacement are two types of surgical procedures for treating significant pain, loss of joint function, and impaired mobility most commonly associated with osteoarthritis (1). Painful knees and hips are common symptoms among older adults, with about 30% of adults 65 years of age and over reporting knee pain or stiffness in the past 30 days and 15% reporting hip pain or stiffness (Table 57). In 2003, knee replacement surgery was estimated to cost the Nation $11.9 billion and hip replacement $12.2 billion (2). Aging of the American population and increasing trends in overweight and obesity may further increase the prevalence of joint problems in the future. Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey provide information on trends in knee and hip replacement surgery. In addition to pain, hip replacement surgery is also performed to treat a fractured hip, often on an emergency basis. Because the focus of this Special Feature is on pain and its consequences, the analysis of hip replacement surgery excludes hip replacement surgery with a hip fracture diagnosis. Osteoarthritis is the most common diagnosis associated with knee and nonfracture hip replacement procedures—97% of knee replacements and almost 70% of nonfracture hip replacements in 2003–2004 were for patients with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (3). In 2003–2004 among adults 18 years of age and over, the knee replacement rate was 52% higher than the nonfracture hip replacement rate. There were, on average, approximately 428,000 hospital discharges per year with any mention of a knee replacement and 282,000 hospital discharges with any mention of nonfracture hip replacement (data table for Figure 35). Between 1992–1993 and 2003–2004, knee replacement discharge rates increased among both men and women 45 years of age and over (Figure 35). Knee replacement discharges were more common among adults 65 years of age and over than among those age 45–64 years. During this time period, rates nearly tripled among adults 45–64 years of age and nearly doubled among adults 65 years and over. In

References
1. National Institutes of Health. NIH Consensus Development Conference on Total Knee Replacement. 2003. Available from: consensus.nih.gov/2003/2003TotalKneeReplacement117html.htm. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. HCUP Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Available from: www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Discharge Survey, unpublished analysis.

2.

3.

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NOTES: Up to four inpatient hospital procedures were coded for each stay. Hip replacement excludes procedures for hip fracture. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Discharge Survey.

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Special Feature: Pain

Ambulatory Medical Care Expenses Associated with Headaches
Ambulatory medical care expenses for adults suffering from headaches and who sought ambulatory medical care or purchased prescribed medications averaged about $570 per person per year in 2002–2003.

Reference
1. Machlin SR, Miller GE. Health service use and expenses for migraines and other headaches, 2002–03 (average annual estimates). Statistical Brief #115. February 2006. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. Available from: www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/publications/ st115/stat115.pdf.

Recent statistics on headaches suggest that only a small proportion of adults who experience headaches receive professional medical treatment for their condition, indicating that many people manage their pain themselves using painkillers purchased over the counter, or other self-care. In 2003, 15% of adults reported a migraine or severe headache in the 3 months prior to interview (Table 56). However, data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys for 2002 and 2003 indicate only 3.5% of adults had ambulatory visits and/or prescribed drug purchases for treatment of headaches over a one-year period (1). Ambulatory medical care includes care obtained in doctors’ offices, hospital outpatient clinics, and emergency rooms, as well as prescribed medicines purchased during the survey year. Ambulatory medical care expenses for headaches averaged about $570 per person with such expenses, although expenses of individuals varied substantially. The median ambulatory medical care headache expense per person with any such expense reported was $212 in 2002–2003. The percentage of adults who received ambulatory medical care for headaches varied by age and sex (Figure 36). Women were more likely to obtain care than men, reflecting their higher prevalence of headaches. Adults age 45–64 years were most likely to have ambulatory medical care expenses for headaches and those age 65 years or over were least likely to have these expenses. Average ambulatory medical care expenses for headaches ($566) per adult with such expenses varied little by age and sex (Figure 36). Ambulatory care expenses for headache accounted for 15% of total ambulatory expenses for these adults (1). This percentage decreased with age from 18% among adults age 18–44 years to 10.5% among those 65 years or over. The smaller share of ambulatory care expenses for headaches among adults 65 years and over compared with younger adults resulted in large part from increasing expenses for other medical conditions among older adults.

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NOTES: Estimates are for adults age 18 and over who had ambulatory medical care (office-based, hospital outpatient, and emergency room settings) and/or prescribed medicine expenses for headaches. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Agency for Heathcare Research and Quality, Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Household Component, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

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Special Feature: Pain

Health Status Measures among Adults with and without Low Back Pain
People with recent low back pain have worse overall health status as measured by activity limitation, respondent-assessed health status, and serious psychological distress than people without recent low back pain.

example, among adults 65 years and over more than one-half who reported recent low back pain had a limitation in their usual activity compared with 27% without recent low back pain, and 40% with recent low back pain rated their health as fair or poor, compared with 19% of older people who did not report recent low back pain.

Pain interferes with an individual’s ability to work and engage in many social activities. It may be directly related to health status measures such as activity limitation—for example, people with low back pain may be unable to function in some jobs or to work at all. Moreover, even intermittent pain may affect people’s assessments of their physical and mental health. Pain does not necessarily cause serious psychological distress, limitation of activity, or poor health status, but may interact with physical and mental health status to affect perceptions of pain, care-seeking behaviors, speed of recovery, and ability to function. In the National Health Interview Survey, adult respondents were asked about low back pain in the 3 months prior to interview. Respondents were instructed to report low back pain that lasted a whole day or more and not to include minor aches or pains. Additional questions included respondent-assessed health status, activity limitation due to chronic health conditions, and a series of questions designed to assess serious psychological distress (See Appendix II, Health status, respondent-assessed; Limitation of activity; Serious psychological distress). In 2004, adults who reported low back pain lasting more than 24 hours during the past 3 months reported worse health status, using a number of different measures, than people who did not report recent low back pain, regardless of age (Figure 37). Overall, 28% of adults with low back pain said they had a limitation of activity caused by a chronic condition, compared with 10% of adults who did not report low back pain. Adults with recent low back pain were about three times as likely to report fair or poor health status and more than four times as likely to experience serious psychological distress as people without low back pain. Within each age group, adults with low back pain reported worse health status than those without low back pain. For

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NOTES: Respondents were asked to report low back pain that lasted a whole day or more. See data table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Technical Notes

Technical Notes
Data Sources and Comparability
Data for The Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans come from many different surveys and data systems and cover a broad range of years. Detailed descriptions of data sources are contained in Appendix I.

1. 2. 3. 4.

A sloping straight line indicates a constant rate (not amount) of increase or decrease in the values, A horizontal line indicates no change, The slope of the line indicates the rate of increase or decrease, Parallel lines, regardless of their magnitude, depict similar rates of change (1).

Tabular Presentation
Following the Technical Notes are data tables that present the data points graphed in each figure. Some data tables contain additional data that were not graphed because of space considerations. Standard errors for data points are provided for many measures. Additional information clarifying and qualifying the data are included in table notes and Appendix I and II references.

Data Presentation
Many measures in The Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans are shown for people in specific age groups because of the strong effect age has on most health outcomes. Some estimates are age adjusted using the age distribution of the 2000 standard population, and this is noted in the data tables that accompany each figure (see Appendix II, Age adjustment). For some figures, data years are combined to increase sample size and reliability of the estimates. Time trends for some measures are not presented because of the relatively short amount of time that comparable national estimates are available.

Special Feature: Pain
Data on pain prevalence, location, and characteristics presented in the Special Feature on Pain come from a variety of data sources, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) Emergency Department Component, the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Data on pain prevalence is self-reported using a survey questionnaire in the NHANES and the NHIS. The NHANES also contains data on prescription drug use in the past month, which is collected from the participant by viewing medication containers (when available). Data from the NHDS and NHAMCS are abstracted from medical records. Exact wording of the questions, including reference periods for which the pain occurred, vary by survey. Detailed descriptions of these data sources are contained in Appendix I and information about the specific questions used in the Special Feature are below.

Graphic Presentation
Most line charts, for which only selected years of data are displayed, have dot markers on the data years. Line charts for which data are displayed for every year in the trend are shown without the use of dot markers. Figures 24 and 27 do not show dot markers, although selected years of data are graphed for years prior to 1997 and 1995 respectively. Most trends are shown on a linear scale to emphasize absolute differences over time. The linear scale is the scale most frequently used and recognized, and it emphasizes the absolute changes between data points over time (1). The time trend for overall mortality measures is shown on a logarithmic (or log) scale to emphasize the rate of change and to enable measures with large differences in magnitude to be shown on the same chart. Log scales emphasize the relative or percentage change between data points. Readers are cautioned that one potential disadvantage to log scale is that the absolute magnitude of changes may appear smaller than the untransformed statistics would indicate (2). When interpreting data on a log scale, the following points should be kept in mind:

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
NHANES self-reported questions on pain: The 1999–2002 NHANES contained a series of questions for respondents concerning pain they experienced during the past month. Figures 28 and 29 use data based on the following questions:

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Technical Notes

‘‘DURING THE PAST MONTH, (have you/has sampled adult) had a problem with pain that lasted more than 24 hours?’’ For people who responded ‘‘yes’’ to this question, a follow-up question was asked: ‘‘For how long (have you/has sample adult) experienced this pain? Would you say . . . 1 2 3 4 7 = Less than a month, = At least 1 month but less than 3 months, = At least 3 months but less than 1 year, or = Greater than 1 year? = Refused

pain, respondents were asked about pain that occurred at any time in the past 3 months. Respondents were also asked about joint pain they experienced in the past 30 days. The exact questions used were: ‘‘The following questions are about pain you may have experienced in the PAST 3 MONTHS. Please refer to pain that LASTED A WHOLE DAY OR MORE. Do not report aches and pains that are fleeting or minor. DURING THE PAST 3 MONTHS, did [you/sample adult] have severe headaches or migraines?’’ This identical question was asked for several types of pain, substituting the following types of pain for ‘‘severe headaches or migraines’’: neck pain; low back pain; and facial ache or pain in the jaw muscles or the joint in front of the ear. Additionally, respondents were also asked: ‘‘DURING THE PAST 30 DAYS, have you had any symptoms of pain, aching, or stiffness in or around a joint?’’ In 2003 only, respondents who reported joint symptoms were asked a follow-up question: ‘‘DURING THE PAST 30 DAYS, how bad was your joint pain on average?’’ Respondents were instructed to answer on a scale of 0–10 where 0 is no pain or aching and 10 is pain or aching as bad as it can be. In the Figure 32 analysis, lesser joint pain was defined as 0–6 and severe pain was defined as a response of 7–10. This analysis excludes a small number of adults who did not provide information on both joint pain questions.

9 = Don’t know’’ NHANES prescription drug data: The questionnaire administered to all participants also included a question on whether they had taken a prescription drug in the past month. Those who answered ‘‘yes’’ were asked to show the interviewer the medication containers for all the prescriptions. For each drug reported, the interviewer entered the product’s complete name from the container. If no container was available, the interviewer asked the participant to verbally report the name of the drug. Additionally, participants were asked how long they had been taking the drug and the main reason for use. All reported medication names were converted to their standard generic ingredient name. For multi-ingredient products, the ingredients were listed in alphabetical order (i.e., Tylenol #3 would be listed as Acetaminophen; Codeine). No trade or proprietary names were provided on the data file. More information on prescription drug data collection and coding in the NHANES is available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/frequency/rxq_rxdoc.pdf. More information on NHANES III prescription drug data collection and coding is available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/ data/nhanes/nhanes3/PUPREMED-acc.pdf. Also see Appendix I, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) Emergency Department Component
For each hospital emergency department (ED) visit sampled in the NHAMCS, the presenting level of pain as recorded on the medical record is abstracted to the patient record form, using the following categories: Unknown, None, Mild, Moderate, and Severe. In 2003–2004, presenting level of pain was unknown or missing in 33% of ED visits. This could be due to unconsciousness, poor communication with the patient (or young child), or failure to record the pain level on the medical record for some other reason. Narcotic drugs were prescribed or provided in 16% of ED visits with unknown or missing pain level (see data table for Figure 33).

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)
NHIS self-reported questions on pain: Sample adults and knowledgable proxy respondents (1% of sample adult respondents) were asked a series of questions about pain. The recall period varies by the type of pain mentioned. For back pain, severe headache or migraine, neck pain, and face

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Technical Notes

NHAMCS drug data: Data collection in the NHAMCS-ED component is from the medical record rather than from individuals. Medications that were prescribed or provided during the ED visit are recorded on the patient record form. Generic as well as brand name drugs are included, as are nonprescription and prescription drugs. Up to eight medications per visit could be listed in 2003–2004. For more information on drugs collected by the NAMCS/ NHAMCS, see the Ambulatory Care Drug Database, available from: www2.cdc.gov/drugs/, or ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/ Health_Statistics/NCHS/Dataset_Documentation/NAMCS/ doc01.pdf, or ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/Health_Statistics/NCHS/ Dataset_Documentation/NHAMCS/doc01.pdf. Also see Appendix I, National Ambulatory Care Medical Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, and Appendix II, Drugs; National Drug Code Directory (NDC).

ICD–9–CM codes 346, 784.0, and 307.81. See Appendix I: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

References
1. Page RM, Cole GE, Timmreck TC. Basic epidemiological methods and biostatistics: A practical guidebook. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1995. Jekel JF, Elmore JG, Katz DL. Epidemiology biostatistics and preventive medicine. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company, 1996.

2.

National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS)
The National Hospital Discharge Survey collects data on hospital stays in non-federal short-stay hospitals in the United States, including diagnoses, procedures performed, age, sex, and race. Up to four procedures are coded for each hospital stay. Procedure codes are based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD–9–CM). In Figure 35, ICD–9–CM codes used for knee replacement are 81.54 and for hip replacement 81.51–52, excluding hip fracture codes 820 and 733.14). In 2003–2004, 28% of hip replacements were for hip fracture. Data in Figure 35 show any-listed procedures; if more than one procedure with the same ICD code (e.g., hip replacement) is performed during the hospitalization it is counted only once.

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS)
The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey produces nationally representative estimates of health care use, expenditures, source of payment, and insurance coverage for the United States civilian noninstitutionalized population. For each medical care visit or prescription drug during a 1-year period, the respondent reports the condition for which the visit was made, which is then coded using the ICD–9–CM system. Expenses associated with each visit or prescription drug are recorded. In Figure 36, headache is classified using

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data Tables for Figures 1–37
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Data table for Figure 1. Total population and older population: United States, 1950–2050 Year All ages 65 years and over Number 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2004 2005 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150,697,361 179,323,175 203,211,926 226,545,805 248,709,873 281,421,906 293,655,404 296,496,649 308,935,581 335,804,546 363,584,435 391,945,658 419,853,587 12,194,612 16,559,580 20,065,502 25,549,427 31,078,895 34,991,753 36,293,985 36,681,501 40,243,713 54,631,891 71,453,471 80,049,634 86,705,637 Percent 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2004 2005 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 8.1 9.2 9.9 11.3 12.5 12.4 12.4 12.4 13.0 16.3 19.7 20.4 20.7 5.5 6.1 6.1 6.9 7.3 6.5 6.3 6.3 6.9 9.5 10.4 9.0 9.0 2.6 3.1 3.8 4.4 5.2 5.9 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.8 9.2 11.4 11.6 8,339,960 10,996,842 12,435,456 15,580,605 18,045,495 18,390,986 18,463,472 18,615,309 21,269,509 31,779,159 37,947,933 35,469,908 37,942,437 3,854,652 5,562,738 7,630,046 9,968,822 13,033,400 16,600,767 17,830,513 18,066,192 18,974,204 22,852,732 33,505,538 44,579,726 48,763,200 65–74 years 75 years and over

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NOTES: Data are for the resident population. Data for 1950 exclude Alaska and Hawaii. Data for 2010–2050 are projected. See Appendix II, Population. SOURCES: U.S. Census Bureau: 1950 Nonwhite population by race. Special Report P-E, No.3B. Washington, DC. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1951 [data for 1950]; U.S. Census of Population: 1960, Number of inhabitants, PC(1)-A1, United States Summary, 1964 [data for 1960]; Number of inhabitants, final report PC(1)-A1, United States Summary, 1971 [data for 1970]; U.S. Census Bureau, 1980 Census of Population, General population characteristics, United States Summary (PC80–1-B1) [data for 1980]; 1990 Census of Population, General population characteristics, United States Summary (CP-1-1) [data for 1990]; Table 1. Annual estimates of the population by sex and five-year age groups for the United States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2004 (NC-EST2004-01) available from: www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/NC-EST2004/NC-EST2004-01.xls [data for Census 2000]; U.S. Census Bureau: Monthly postcensal resident populations, from April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005 by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin available from: www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/2004_nat_res.html [data for 2004 and 2005]; U.S. interim projections by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin detail file. Available from: www.census.gov/ipc/www/usinterimproj/ [data for projections].

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

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Data table for Figure 2. Population in group quarters, by type of setting: United States, 1990 and 2000 1990 Population and setting Total U.S. population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total in group quarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Institutionalized group quarters . . . . . . Correctional institutions . . . . . . . . . . Nursing homes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Noninstitutionalized group quarters . . . College dormitories . . . . . . . . . . . . . Military quarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group homes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergency and transitional shelters . Other noninstitutional group quarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Number 248,709,870 6,697,740 3,334,020 1,115,110 1,772,030 104,200 342,680 3,363,730 1,953,560 589,700 211,680 178,640 430,160 Percent 100.00 2.69 1.34 0.45 0.71 0.04 0.14 1.35 0.79 0.24 0.09 0.07 0.17 Number

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2000 Percent 100.00 2.76 1.44 0.70 0.61 0.05 0.08 1.32 0.73 0.13 0.16 0.06 0.24

281,421,910 7,778,630 4,059,040 1,976,020 1,720,500 128,280 234,240 3,719,590 2,064,130 355,160 454,060 170,710 675,550

NOTES: Numbers are rounded to the nearest 10. Other institutions include hospitals or wards, hospices, and schools for the handicapped. Other noninstitutional group quarters include shelters for abused women, soup kitchens, crews of maritime vessels, agriculture workers’ dormitories, and religious group quarters. See Appendix II, Group quarters; Population. SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 1, Matrix PCT16; 1990 Summary tape file 1 (STF 1)-100-Percent data.

Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Data table for Figure 3. Population in selected race and Hispanic origin groups, by age: United States, 1980–2005
All ages Race and Hispanic origin Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . Asian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 or more races . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . Category not applicable. NOTES: Data are for the resident population. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Race data for 2000 and beyond are not directly comparable with data for 1980 and 1990. Individuals could report only one race in 1980 and 1990, and more than one race beginning in 2000. Persons who selected only one race in 2000 and beyond are shown in single-race categories; persons who selected more than one race in 2000 and beyond are shown as having 2 or more races and are not included in the single-race categories. In 1980 and 1990, the Asian category included Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; in 2000 and beyond this category includes only Asian. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race. SOURCES: U.S. Census Bureau: U.S. population estimates, by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 1980 to 1991. Current population reports, series P-25, no 1095. Washington, DC. U.S. Government Printing Office, February 1993 [data for April 1, 1980 and April 1, 1990]; U.S. Census Bureau: Monthly postcensal resident populations, from July 1, 2000 to July 1, 2004 by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin, available from: www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/2004_nat_res.html [data for April 1, 2000 and July 1, 2005].

Under 18 years 2005 100.0 14.4 66.9 12.3 0.8 4.2 0.1 1.3 1980 100.0 8.8 74.2 14.5 0.8 1.7 ... ... 1990 100.0 12.2 68.9 14.7 1.0 3.1 ... ... 2000 100.0 17.1 61.3 14.9 1.0 3.5 0.2 2.2 2005 100.0 19.7 58.3 14.7 0.9 3.8 0.2 2.4 1980 100.0 5.5 82.1 10.4 0.5 1.5 ... ...

18 years and over 1990 100.0 7.9 78.1 10.7 0.6 2.7 ... ... 2000 100.0 11.0 72.3 11.3 0.7 3.8 0.1 0.9 2005 100.0 12.7 69.7 11.4 0.7 4.3 0.1 1.0

1980 100.0 6.4 79.9 11.5 0.6 1.6 ... ...

1990 100.0 9.0 75.7 11.8 0.7 2.8 ... ...

2000 100.0 12.5 69.5 12.2 0.7 3.7 0.1 1.2

..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..... .....

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Data table for Figure 4. Poverty by age: United States, 1966–2004 Year All ages

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18–64 years

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65 years and over

Under 18 years

Percent of persons with family income below the poverty level 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.7 14.2 12.8 12.1 12.6 12.5 11.9 11.1 11.2 12.3 11.8 11.6 11.4 11.7 13.0 14.0 15.0 15.2 14.4 14.0 13.6 13.4 13.0 12.8 13.5 14.2 14.8 15.1 14.5 13.8 13.7 13.3 12.7 11.9 11.3 11.7 12.1 12.5 12.7 17.6 16.6 15.6 14.0 15.1 15.3 15.1 14.4 15.4 17.1 16.0 16.2 15.9 16.4 18.3 20.0 21.9 22.3 21.5 20.7 20.5 20.3 19.5 19.6 20.6 21.8 22.3 22.7 21.8 20.8 20.5 19.9 18.9 17.1 16.2 16.3 16.7 17.6 17.8 10.5 10.0 9.0 8.7 9.0 9.3 8.8 8.3 8.3 9.2 9.0 8.8 8.7 8.9 10.1 11.1 12.0 12.4 11.7 11.3 10.8 10.6 10.5 10.2 10.7 11.4 11.9 12.4 11.9 11.4 11.4 10.9 10.5 10.1 9.6 10.1 10.6 10.8 11.3 28.5 29.5 25.0 25.3 24.6 21.6 18.6 16.3 14.6 15.3 15.0 14.1 14.0 15.2 15.7 15.3 14.6 13.8 12.4 12.6 12.4 12.5 12.0 11.4 12.2 12.4 12.9 12.2 11.7 10.5 10.8 10.5 10.5 9.7 9.9 10.1 10.4 10.2 9.8

NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. See Appendix II, Poverty. See related Table 3. SOURCES: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March 1967–2005. U.S. Census Bureau. DeNavas-Walt C, Proctor B, Hill LC. Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2004. Current population reports, series P-60, no 229. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2005.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

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Data table for Figure 5. Low income by age, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 2004 Percent of poverty level Characteristic Below 100% Percent All ages All races and origins . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. . . Asian only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only, not Hispanic or Latino Under 18 years All races and origins . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. . . Asian only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only, not Hispanic or Latino 18–64 years All races and origins . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. . . Asian only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only, not Hispanic or Latino 65 years and over All races and origins . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. . . Asian only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only, not Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8 18.7 23.9 13.6 7.5 28.1 34.0 34.7 25.5 27.1 3.5 0.4 0.7 0.1 2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 18.3 20.3 9.3 8.3 15.5 28.3 21.1 14.0 11.9 20.5 4.6 4.5 0.8 10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.8 28.9 33.6 10.0 10.5 21.4 33.3 26.9 19.4 16.2 13.0 4.1 3.8 0.3 4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.7 21.9 24.7 9.8 8.6 18.5 30.3 24.0 16.3 15.1 37.0 9.1 9.0 1.2 16.9 100%–less than 200%

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Below 100%

100%–less than 200%

Number in millions

53.8 12.6 8.7 2.0 29.4

15.7 4.7 3.0 0.6 7.0

28.2 7.2 4.7 1.2 14.7

9.9 0.7 1.0 0.3 7.8

NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Black and Asian races include persons of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. See related Table 3. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Poverty; Race. SOURCES: DeNavas-Walt C, Proctor B, Hill LC. Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2004. Current population reports, series P-60 no 229. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2005; Age and sex of all people, family members, and unrelated individuals iterated by income-to-poverty ratio and race: 2004, available from: pubdb3.census.gov/macro/032005/pov/new01_000.htm.

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Data table for Figure 6. Health insurance coverage at the time of interview among persons under 65 years of age: United States, 1984–2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Health insurance coverage at the time of interview Private Year 1984 1989 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent 76.8 75.9 69.9 71.3 71.2 70.7 72.1 72.8 71.5 71.2 69.4 68.9 68.8 SE 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 Medicaid Percent 6.8 7.2 11.2 11.5 11.1 9.7 8.9 9.1 9.5 10.4 11.8 12.3 12.5 SE 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Uninsured Percent 14.5 15.6 17.5 16.1 16.6 17.5 16.6 16.1 17.0 16.4 16.8 16.5 16.4 SE 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2

SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Medicaid includes other public assistance through 1996; includes state-sponsored health plans starting in 1997; and includes State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) starting in 1999. Uninsured persons are not covered by private insurance, Medicaid, SCHIP, public assistance (through 1996), state-sponsored or other government-sponsored health plans (starting in 1997), Medicare, or military plans. Persons with Indian Health Service only are considered uninsured. Percents do not add to 100 because the percentage of persons with Medicare, military plans, and other government-sponsored plans is not shown and because persons with both private insurance and Medicaid appear in both categories. Starting with third-quarter 2004 data, persons under 65 years of age with no reported coverage were asked explicitly about Medicaid coverage. Estimates for Medicaid coverage shown in this table include the additional information. See Appendix II, Health insurance coverage. See related Tables 133–135. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 7. Health insurance status prior to interview among persons under 65 years of age, by selected characteristics: United States, 2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Length of time uninsured prior to interview Total uninsured prior to interview Characteristic Age Under 65 years . . Under 18 years 18–24 years. . . 25–34 years. . . 35–44 years. . . 45–54 years. . . 55–64 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1 12.5 36.1 31.1 20.9 16.2 13.4 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 11.4 5.4 19.9 18.1 13.0 10.1 8.7 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 7.6 6.3 14.8 11.7 6.7 5.0 3.7 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 Percent SE More than 12 months Percent SE Any period up to 12 months Percent SE

Percent of poverty level Below 100% . . . . . . . . 100%–less than 150% . 150%–less than 200% . 200% or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35.8 36.3 32.7 13.1 0.7 0.8 1.1 0.3 23.2 23.2 19.9 6.3 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.2 11.4 11.8 11.7 5.8 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.2

Race and Hispanic origin Black or African American only, not Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only, not Hispanic or Latino . Hispanic or Latino (total) . . . . . . . Mexican. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Total uninsured prior to interview includes 1.1% of people with unknown length of time uninsured. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Total for Hispanic includes groups not shown separately. Asian only race includes persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Uninsured persons are not covered by private insurance, Medicaid, State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), state-sponsored or other government-sponsored health plans, Medicare, or military plans. Persons with Indian Health Service only are considered uninsured. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. Missing family income data were imputed for 32% of persons under 65 years of age in 2004. See Appendix II, Family income; Health insurance coverage, length of time uninsured; Hispanic origin; Poverty; Race. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Hispanic or ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... .........

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

21.3 18.7 15.6 38.2 41.2 24.9 24.2

0.6 1.3 0.3 0.7 0.8 2.1 1.8

11.1 11.4 7.6 28.4 31.5 18.3 14.2

0.4 1.0 0.2 0.6 0.8 2.0 1.5

8.8 5.7 7.1 8.9 8.9 6.3 9.2

0.4 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.4 1.2 1.2

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Data table for Figure 8. National health expenditures as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product: United States, 1960–2004 Year 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent 5.2 5.9 7.2 8.2 9.1 10.5 12.4 13.1 13.5 13.8 13.7 13.8 13.7 13.6 13.7 13.7 13.8 14.6 15.4 15.9 16.0

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NOTES: See related Table 120. See Appendix I, National Health Accounts. SOURCE: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Office of the Actuary, National Health Statistics Group, National Health Accounts.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

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Data table for Figure 9. Personal health care expenditures, by source of funds and type of expenditures: United States, 2004 Type of expenditures Personal health care expenditures and source of funds Total Hospital care Physician services Nursing home Prescription drugs Other

Amount in billions All personal health care expenditures . . . . . . . . . $1,560.2 $570.8 $399.9 $115.2 $188.5 $285.9

Percent distribution All personal health care expenditures . . . . . . . . . Source of funds All sources of funds . . . . . Out-of-pocket payments Private health insurance Other private funds . . . . Government. . . . . . . . . Medicaid . . . . . . . . . Medicare . . . . . . . . . Other government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.0 15.1 36.1 4.4 44.4 17.5 19.2 7.7 33.9 10.5 100.0 3.3 35.6 4.9 56.3 17.3 28.6 10.4 45.3 10.9 100.0 36.6 25.6 7.4 12.1 18.3

Percent distribution 100.0 10.0 48.5 6.9 34.6 6.9 20.5 7.2 28.5 6.1 100.0 27.7 7.8 3.6 60.8 44.3 13.9 2.6 42.0 18.8 100.0 24.9 47.6 0.0 27.5 19.3 1.8 6.4 16.9 10.6 100.0 34.4 23.5 3.2 38.9 20.1 12.2 6.3 26.9 12.0

Federal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State and local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

NOTES: Other expenditures include dental services, other professional services, home health care, nonprescription drugs and other medical nondurables, vision products and other medical durables, and other personal health care, not shown separately. See related Tables 123–124. See Appendix I, National Health Accounts. SOURCE: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Office of the Actuary, National Health Statistics Group, National Health Accounts.

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Data table for Figure 10. Cigarette smoking among men, women, high school students, and mothers during pregnancy: United States, 1965–2005 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Mothers during pregnancy Percent --------------19.5 18.4 17.8 16.9 15.8 14.6 13.9 13.6 13.2 12.9 12.6 12.2 12.0 11.4 10.7 10.2 ---

Men Year 1965 1974 1979 1983 1985 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent 51.2 42.8 37.0 34.8 32.2 30.9 30.3 --28.0 27.6 28.1 27.3 27.6 26.5 --27.1 25.9 25.2 25.2 24.6 24.6 23.7 23.0 --SE 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 --0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 --0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 ---

Women Percent 33.7 32.2 30.1 29.4 27.9 26.5 25.7 --22.9 23.5 24.6 22.6 23.1 22.7 --22.2 22.1 21.6 21.1 20.7 20.0 19.4 18.7 --SE 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 --0.3 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 --0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 ---

High school students Percent ------------------27.5 --30.5 --34.8 --36.4 --34.8 --28.5 --21.9 --23.0 SE ------------------1.4 --1.0 --1.2 --1.1 --1.3 --1.0 --1.1 --1.2

SE is standard error. - - - Data not available. NOTES: Data for men and women are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Estimates for men and women are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population using five age groups: 18–24 years, 25–34 years, 35–44 years, 45–64 years, and 65 years and over. Age-adjusted estimates in this table may differ from other age-adjusted estimates based on the same data and presented elsewhere if different age groups are used in the adjustment procedure. Cigarette smoking is defined as follows: among men and women 18 years and over, those who ever smoked 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and now smoke every day or some days; among high school students in grades 9–12, those who smoked cigarettes on 1 or more of the 30 days preceding the survey; and among mothers with a live birth, those who smoked during pregnancy. Data for mothers who smoked during pregnancy are based on the 1989 Revision of the U.S. Certificate of Live Birth. Some states did not require the reporting of mother’s tobacco use during pregnancy on the birth certificate and are not included in this analysis. Reporting of tobacco use during pregnancy increased from 43 states and the District of Columbia (DC) in 1989 to 49 states and DC in 2000–2002. Starting with 2003 data, some reporting areas adopted the 2003 Revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth and 1 state continued to not report data. Tobacco use during pregnancy data based on the 2003 Revision are not comparable with data based on the 1989 Revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth and are excluded from this analysis. See Appendix II, Age adjustment; Cigarette smoking; Tobacco use. See related Tables 12 and 63. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey (data for men and women); National Vital Statistics System (data for mothers during pregnancy); National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Youth Risk Behavior Survey (data for high school students).

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 11. Binge drinking and current marijuana use among high school students, by sex, grade level, and year: United States, 1991, 1993, 2003, and 2005 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Binge drinking Sex, grade level, and year Both sexes Attended grades 9–10 in 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attended grades 11–12 in 1993. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attended grades 9–10 in 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attended grades 11–12 in 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male Attended grades 9–10 in 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attended grades 11–12 in 1993. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attended grades 9–10 in 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attended grades 11–12 in 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female Attended grades 9–10 in 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attended grades 11–12 in 1993. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attended grades 9–10 in 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attended grades 11–12 in 2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SE is standard error. NOTES: Binge drinking is drinking five or more drinks of alcohol in a row on one or more of the 30 days preceding the survey. Current marijuana use is using marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, National Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

Current marijuana use SE Percent SE

Percent

24.8 35.4 23.4 30.1

1.6 1.4 1.2 1.5

11.5 20.3 20.1 21.9

1.1 1.3 1.4 1.0

28.2 41.2 22.9 33.2

2.0 1.8 1.3 1.7

13.0 23.6 22.5 24.7

1.3 1.8 1.6 1.1

21.3 29.2 23.9 27.0

1.6 1.3 1.4 1.6

9.9 16.7 17.7 19.0

1.1 1.3 1.3 1.4

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 12. Regular leisure-time physical activity among adults 18 years of age and over, by percent of poverty level, race and Hispanic origin: United States, 2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Characteristic Below 100% of poverty level Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%–less than 200% of poverty level Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200% or more of poverty level Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Data are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population using five age groups: 18–44 years, 45–54 years, 55–64 years, 65–74 years, and 75 years and over. Adults were asked about the frequency and duration of vigorous and light/moderate physical activity during leisure time. Adults classified with regular leisure-time physical activity reported 3 or more sessions per week of vigorous activity of at least 20 minutes duration or 5 or more sessions per week of light/moderate activity lasting at least 30 minutes in duration. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. Missing family income data were imputed for 35% of adults in 2004. See Appendix II, Age adjustment; Family income; Physical activity, leisure-time; Poverty. See related Table 72. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Percent

SE

24.8 17.1 15.5

1.3 1.6 1.3

24.3 17.6 17.0

1.1 1.7 1.2

35.5 28.4 29.3

0.5 1.3 1.3

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Click here for spreadsheet version Data table for Figure 13. Overweight and obesity, by age: United States, 1960–2004
Children 6–11 years Adolescents 12–19 years Overweight including obese SE ----0.3 0.6 0.5 0.9 0.9 1.1 1.7 Percent 44.8 ----47.7 47.4 56.0 64.1 65.7 67.1 SE 1.0 ----0.7 0.8 0.9 1.9 0.9 1.3

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Adults 20–74 years Overweight but not obese Percent 31.5 ----33.1 32.3 32.7 33.1 33.6 33.2 SE 0.5 ----0.6 0.6 0.6 1.1 1.1 1.1 Obese Percent 13.3 ----14.6 15.1 23.3 31.0 32.1 33.9 SE 0.6 ----0.5 0.5 0.7 1.5 1.2 1.3

Overweight Year 1960–1962. 1963–1965. 1966–1970. 1971–1974. 1976–1980. 1988–1994. 1999–2000. 2001–2002. 2003–2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent --4.2 --4.0 6.5 11.3 15.1 16.3 18.8 SE --0.4 --0.5 0.6 1.0 1.4 1.6 1.3 Percent ----4.6 6.1 5.0 10.5 14.8 16.7 17.4

SE is standard error. - - - Data not available. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Estimates for adults are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population using five age groups: 20–34 years, 35–44 years, 45–54 years, 55–64 years, and 65–74 years. Age-adjusted estimates in this table may differ from other age-adjusted estimates based on the same data and presented elsewhere if different age groups are used in the adjustment procedure. For children and adolescents: overweight is defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the sex- and age-specific 95th percentile BMI cut points from the 2000 CDC Growth Charts: United States (See www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/); obese is not defined for children. For adults: overweight including obese is defined as a BMI greater than or equal to 25; overweight but not obese as a BMI greater than or equal to 25 but less than 30; and obese as a BMI greater than or equal to 30. Data for 1966–1970 are for adolescents 12–17 years, not 12–19 years. Pregnant adolescents were excluded beginning in 1971–1974. Pregnant women 20 years of age and over were excluded in all years. See Appendix II, Age adjustment; Body mass index (BMI). See related Tables 73 and 74. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. National Health Examination Survey and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

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Data table for Figure 14. Untreated dental caries among children, by age, race and Hispanic origin: United States, 1971–2002 1971–1974 Characteristic Percent SE 1988–1994 Percent SE 1999–2002 Percent SE

Children 2–17 years Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic origin Not Hispanic or Latino: White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45.7 61.0 53.7 1.5 2.6 4.2 17.6 30.6 36.1 1.0 1.4 1.6 17.4 26.9 31.9 1.8 1.3 1.4 48.3 1.5 22.4 0.9 21.0 1.0

Children 2–5 years Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic origin Not Hispanic or Latino: White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.7 29.0 34.1 1.8 3.2 6.5 13.8 24.7 34.9 1.6 1.9 1.7 16.9 24.1 31.4 2.1 2.6 1.8 25.0 1.7 19.1 1.2 19.3 1.6

Children 6–17 years Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic origin Not Hispanic or Latino: White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SE is standard error. NOTES: Untreated dental caries refers to untreated coronal caries, that is, caries on the crown or enamel surface of the tooth. Root caries are not included. For children 2–5 years of age, only dental caries in primary teeth was evaluated. Caries in both permanent and primary teeth was evaluated for children 6–11 years of age. For children 12–17 years of age, only dental caries in permanent teeth was evaluated. Total includes children of all other races and Hispanic origins not shown separately. Persons of Mexican origin may be of any race. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are tabulated according to the 1997 Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. See Appendix II, Dental caries; Hispanic origin; Race. See related Table 75. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

54.8

1.6

23.6

1.2

21.5

1.1

51.9 70.1 60.2

1.6 3.3 7.7

18.9 32.8 36.6

1.2 1.5 2.1

17.5 27.7 32.0

2.0 1.2 1.5

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 15. Three or more chronic conditions among adults 45 years of age and over, by age and percent of poverty level: United States, 2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version 45–54 years Percent of poverty level Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Below 100% . . . . . . . . 100%–less than 200% . 200%–less than 400% . 400% or more. . . . . . .
SE is standard error. NOTES: Chronic health conditions, except for asthma, were determined by asking if a doctor or health professional ever told the respondent that he or she had a specified condition. Current asthma was determined by asking if a doctor or health professional ever told the respondent he or she had asthma and whether the respondent still had asthma. The health measure, three or more chronic conditions, includes three or more of the following conditions: hypertension, heart disease, stroke, emphysema, diabetes, cancer, arthritis and related diseases, or current asthma. Heart disease includes coronary heart disease, angina or angina pectoris, heart attack or myocardial infarction, and any other kind of heart condition or heart disease. Diabetes includes all types with the exception of diabetic conditions related to pregnancy. Cancer includes all types with the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer. Arthritis includes arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, or fibromyalgia. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. Missing family income data were imputed for 37% of adults 45 years of age and over in 2004. See Appendix II, Condition; Family income; Poverty. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

55–64 years Percent 17.2 31.3 25.7 17.1 12.0 SE 0.7 2.5 2.1 1.3 0.9

65–74 years Percent 28.2 37.0 32.9 27.7 22.6 SE 1.0 3.0 2.1 1.7 1.7

75 years and over Percent 35.9 38.2 36.7 35.4 33.9 SE 1.1 3.1 1.8 1.8 2.8

Percent 7.3 17.3 12.2 6.0 5.2

SE 0.4 1.7 1.6 0.7 0.5

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Data table for Figure 16. Selected chronic health conditions causing limitation of activity among children, by age: United States, 2003–2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Under 5 years Type of chronic health condition Rate SE 5–11 years Rate SE 12–17 years Rate SE

Number of children with limitation of activity caused by selected chronic health conditions per 1,000 population Speech problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asthma or breathing problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mental retardation or other developmental problem Other mental, emotional, or behavioral problem . . . Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder . . . . . . . . . Learning disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 7.2 7.5 3.4 *1.9 2.7 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.5 19.0 6.8 10.8 13.1 18.7 19.6 1.2 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.2 5.2 5.7 9.8 15.4 21.9 29.1 0.6 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.5

SE is standard error. * Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error (RSE) of 20% to 30%. NOTES: Data are for noninstitutionalized children. Children with limitation of activity caused by chronic health conditions were either identified by enrollment in special programs (special education or early intervention services) or by a limitation in their ability to perform activities usual for their age group because of a physical, mental, or emotional problem. Conditions refer to response categories in the National Health Interview Survey. Children who were reported to have more than one chronic health condition as the cause of their activity limitation were counted in each reported category. Starting in 2001, the condition list for children was expanded to include categories for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD or ADD) and learning disability. Thus, comparable data for this figure are not available prior to 2001. See Appendix II, Condition; Limitation of activity. See related Table 58. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 17. Selected chronic health conditions causing limitation of activity among working-age adults, by age: United States, 2003–2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version 18–44 years Type of chronic health condition Rate SE 45–54 years Rate SE 55–64 years Rate SE

Number of persons with limitation of activity caused by selected chronic health conditions per 1,000 population Mental illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fractures or joint injury. . . . . . . . Lung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diabetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heart or other circulatory . . . . . . Arthritis or other musculoskeletal.
SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Conditions refer to response categories in the National Health Interview Survey; some conditions include several response categories. Mental illness includes depression, anxiety or emotional problem, and other mental conditions. Heart or other circulatory includes heart problem, stroke problem, hypertension or high blood pressure, and other circulatory system conditions. Arthritis or other musculoskeletal includes arthritis or rheumatism, back or neck problem, and other musculoskeletal system conditions. Persons may report more than one chronic health condition as the cause of their activity limitation. See related Table 58. See Appendix II, Condition; Limitation of activity. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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13.3 6.6 5.0 2.4 5.4 20.8

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.7

20.9 13.1 11.6 13.9 26.0 59.1

1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.6

21.7 18.2 23.0 34.1 72.1 97.7

1.3 1.1 1.3 1.5 2.3 2.7

Data table for Figure 18. Selected chronic health conditions causing limitation of activity among older adults, by age: United States, 2003–2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version 65–74 years Type of chronic health condition Rate SE 75–84 years Rate SE 85 years and over Rate SE

Number of persons with limitation of activity caused by selected chronic health conditions per 1,000 population Senility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diabetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heart or other circulatory . . . . . . Arthritis or other musculoskeletal.
SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Conditions refer to response categories in the National Health Interview Survey; some conditions include several response categories. Vision includes vision conditions or problems seeing and hearing includes hearing problems. Heart or other circulatory includes heart problem, stroke problem, hypertension or high blood pressure, and other circulatory system conditions. Arthritis or other musculoskeletal includes arthritis or rheumatism, back or neck problem, and other musculoskeletal system conditions. Senility is the term offered to respondents on a flashcard, but this category may include Alzheimer’s disease or other types of dementia reported by the respondent. Persons may report more than one chronic health condition as the cause of their activity limitation. See related Table 58. See Appendix II, Condition; Limitation of activity. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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7.1 32.9 42.6 19.0 9.9 100.9 127.1

0.8 2.0 1.9 1.5 1.0 3.3 3.7

31.6 41.2 49.1 38.7 24.1 156.7 181.1

2.2 2.5 2.7 2.5 1.9 5.0 5.1

97.8 39.7 47.2 82.8 66.7 223.7 268.3

7.0 4.6 5.2 6.6 5.7 9.9 10.2

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

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Data table for Figure 19. Dental visit in the past year among children, by age, race and Hispanic origin: United States, 2004 2004 Characteristic Percent Children 2–17 years Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic origin Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.9 72.9 65.3 73.8 Children 2–5 years Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic origin Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55.6 47.8 51.8 * Children 6–17 years Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic origin Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88.7 80.4 70.7 80.9 0.6 1.4 1.3 2.8 83.8 0.5 1.6 3.4 2.1 * 53.7 1.1 0.6 1.4 1.1 2.7 76.4 0.5 SE

SE is standard error. * Estimates are considered unreliable. Relative standard error greater than 30%. NOTES: Total includes children of all races not shown separately. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Asian race includes children of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. See Appendix II, Dental visit; Hispanic origin; Race. See related Tables 75, 91, and Figure 14. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 20. Influenza vaccination during the past year among adults 50 years of age and over, by race and Hispanic origin: United States, 2003–2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Influenza vaccination during the past 12 months 50–64 years Race and Hispanic origin Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. . . . . . . . . . . . .
SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Excludes Flu Mist. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race. See related Table 83. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

65 years and over SE 0.5 1.3 0.6 1.2 Percent 65.1 50.1 68.0 46.7 SE 0.5 1.9 0.6 1.7

Percent 36.4 27.5 38.5 27.0

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

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Data table for Figure 21. Emergency department visits for falls, by sex and age: United States, 2002–2004 Emergency department visits for falls Both sexes
Number per 10,000 population

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Male
Number per 10,000 population

Female
Number per 10,000 population

Age and disposition for fall visits All ages: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . Under 18 years: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . 18–44 years: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . See footnotes at end of table.

Average annual in thousands

SE

Average annual in thousands

SE

Average annual in thousands

SE

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

7,857 919 2,314 85 2,247 97 1,377 140 564 127 743 224 611 247

275.0 32.2 317.4 11.6 203.8 8.8 201.9 20.6 311.6 69.9 606.5 182.6 1,554.3 627.8

8.0 1.6 13.8 1.9 7.1 1.2 8.2 2.0 17.9 8.2 31.6 16.4 93.8 53.8

3,607 346 1,311 49 1,141 61 526 68 234 47 243 74 153 46

258.6 24.8 351.7 13.1 208.9 11.2 158.9 20.6 283.5 *57.4 488.4 149.7 1,178.1 355.2

8.5 1.6 17.3 2.4 9.5 1.9 9.3 2.9 27.7 11.9 36.5 22.4 124.9 48.0

4,249 574 1,003 36 1,106 36 852 72 331 79 501 149 458 201

290.7 39.3 281.5 *10.1 198.8 *6.5 242.4 20.6 335.1 80.4 687.1 205.1 1,740.1 762.3

10.0 2.4 15.2 2.7 9.5 1.4 12.2 2.7 22.7 11.3 46.1 20.9 123.1 78.9

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

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Data table for Figure 21. Emergency department visits for falls, by sex and age: United States, 2002–2004—Con. Both sexes Fall visits as a percent of all emergency department visits Male Fall visits as a percent of all emergency department visits Female Fall visits as a percent of all emergency department visits

Age and disposition for fall visits All ages: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . Under 18 years: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . 18–44 years: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over: All visits for falls . . . . . . . . . Fall visits with severe visit disposition . . . . . . . . . . .

SE

SE

SE

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

7.1 0.8 8.3 0.3 4.9 0.2 6.6 0.7 8.4 1.9 11.4 3.4 18.3 7.4

0.1 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.5

7.0 0.7 8.9 0.3 5.7 0.3 5.4 0.7 7.6 *1.5 9.1 2.8 13.9 4.2

0.2 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.4 1.3 0.5

7.1 1.0 7.6 *0.3 4.3 *0.1 7.6 0.6 9.1 2.2 12.9 3.8 20.5 9.0

0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.3 0.7 0.4 1.1 0.8

SE is standard error. * Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error (RSE) of 20% to 30%. 0.0 Quantity more than zero but less than 0.05. NOTES: Visits for falls had a first-listed external cause of injury code of E880–886, E888, E957, E968.1, and E987. Severe visit disposition is an emergency department visit resulting in a hospital admission, transfer to another facility, or the person died in the emergency department. In 2002–2004, 85% of visits with a severe disposition outcome were hospitalized, 15% were transferred to another facility, and less than 1% died in the emergency department. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 22. Visits to physician offices and hospital outpatient departments, by sex and age: United States, 1997–2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Sex and age Both sexes Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 18 years . . 18–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884,528 183,286 279,065 118,642 97,214 107,784 98,538 1997–1998 1999–2000 2001–2002 2003–2004

Average annual visits in thousands 874,094 170,960 263,239 125,585 104,594 104,786 104,930 1,041,286 202,661 293,581 155,717 129,279 127,813 132,235 998,226 194,133 276,862 149,219 134,179 117,042 126,791

Male Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 18 years . . 18–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352,838 95,027 87,262 45,426 42,356 45,399 37,368 356,872 88,472 88,808 49,325 44,327 45,106 40,834 420,251 103,545 96,590 61,611 52,493 55,434 50,578 407,032 101,578 86,681 60,670 55,975 50,878 51,250

Female Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 18 years . . 18–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531,691 88,260 191,804 73,216 54,858 62,385 61,169 517,222 82,488 174,431 76,260 60,266 59,681 64,096 621,035 99,115 196,991 94,106 76,787 72,379 81,657 591,194 92,555 190,182 88,549 78,204 66,164 75,541

See footnotes at end of table.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 22. Visits to physician offices and hospital outpatient departments, by sex and age: United States, 1997–2004—Con. Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Sex and age Both sexes Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 18 years . . 18–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330.0 255.8 257.5 349.8 443.7 598.1 694.3 9.5 9.0 8.8 11.4 15.6 22.8 30.4 Rate SE Rate SE Rate SE Rate SE

Number of visits per 100 persons 318.6 236.9 241.7 342.6 442.0 583.4 700.3 10.8 11.4 9.9 12.9 16.4 23.0 28.1 369.8 279.2 266.8 396.0 501.1 707.9 837.8 9.4 9.9 8.6 12.6 15.9 25.4 33.0 347.9 265.9 251.1 365.1 473.6 644.6 777.4 10.1 12.6 9.4 12.9 17.5 26.1 34.0

Male Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 18 years . . 18–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269.9 259.2 163.1 274.5 405.5 560.6 682.5 8.3 9.9 6.2 10.6 16.4 25.2 32.8 267.0 239.6 165.4 275.9 392.1 555.9 707.6 9.2 11.8 7.5 11.7 16.7 23.7 30.3 306.1 278.9 177.7 321.1 424.5 676.9 834.2 8.3 10.1 7.3 12.3 15.4 26.4 34.5 290.3 272.2 158.5 303.8 411.4 614.8 809.4 9.1 13.8 6.1 12.9 18.4 25.6 38.2

Female Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 18 years . . 18–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75 years and over
SE is standard error. NOTES: For 1997–1999 data, population estimates are 1990-based postcensal estimates as of July 1 and are adjusted for net underenumeration using the 1990 National Population Adjustment Matrix from the U.S. Census Bureau. Starting with 2000 data, population estimates are based on the 2000 census. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. See related Table 89. Starting with Health, United States, 2005, data from 2001 and onwards use a revised weighting scheme. See Appendix I, National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

387.1 252.3 349.4 421.6 478.6 628.8 701.7

11.5 9.0 13.2 15.0 17.6 25.1 32.3

367.7 234.1 315.9 406.2 487.8 606.0 695.7

12.9 11.6 13.8 16.3 19.0 26.4 29.5

430.5 279.5 353.9 467.4 571.5 733.7 840.1

11.5 10.8 12.4 15.9 20.1 29.7 37.4

402.9 259.4 342.2 423.5 531.1 669.7 757.1

12.0 12.2 14.6 15.6 19.8 30.8 35.2

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 23. Average annual hospital inpatient gastric bypass and other bariatric procedures among adults 18–64 years of age with obesity, by sex and age: United States, 1996–2004 Click here for spreadsheet version Click here for PowerPoint 1996–1998 Sex and age Number 1999–2001 Number Average annual Both sexes 18–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18–44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men 18–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18–44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women 18–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18–44 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *9,322 *6,083 *3,239 25,905 17,196 8,709 89,108 54,356 34,751 *11,111 *6,927 *4,184 30,475 19,067 11,409 106,242 63,602 42,640 2002–2004 Number

*1,789 * *

4,570 *1,871 *2,699

17,134 9,246 7,888

*Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error (RSE) of 20% to 30%. Data not shown have an RSE of greater than 30%. NOTES: Obesity is defined as diagnosis codes 278.00 or 278.01 on the discharge record. Up to four procedures were coded for each non-federal hospital stay. Data in this table are for any listed procedure; if more than one bariatric procedure is performed during the same hospital stay, it is counted only once. Procedures codes 44.31, 44.39, 44.69 define bariatric surgery. Starting with 2003 data, procedure codes 43.7, 43.89, 45.51, and 45.91 are also included. In addition to these seven codes, the 2004 data define bariatric surgery using procedures codes 44.68, 44.95, 44.96, 44.97, and 44.98. Procedure groupings and code numbers are based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD–9–CM). Data on adults age 65 and over are considered unreliable because of the small number of procedures performed and therefore are not presented. See Appendix II, International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision,Clinical Modification (ICD–9–CM). SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Discharge Survey.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

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Data table for Figure 24. Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, by sex: United States, 1900–2003 At birth Year Male Female Male

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At 65 years Female

Life expectancy in years 1900–1902 1909–1911 1919–1921 1929–1931 1939–1941 1949–1951 1959–1961 1969–1971 1979–1981 1989–1991 1997 . . . . 1998 . . . . 1999 . . . . 2000 . . . . 2001 . . . . 2002 . . . . 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.9 49.9 55.5 57.7 61.6 65.5 66.8 67.0 70.1 71.8 73.6 73.8 73.9 74.3 74.4 74.5 74.8 50.7 53.2 57.4 60.9 65.9 71.0 73.2 74.6 77.6 78.8 79.4 79.5 79.4 79.7 79.8 79.9 80.1 11.5 11.2 12.2 11.7 12.1 12.7 13.0 13.0 14.2 15.1 15.9 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.4 16.6 16.8 12.2 12.0 12.7 12.8 13.6 15.0 15.8 16.8 18.4 19.0 19.2 19.2 19.1 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.8

NOTES: Death rates used to calculate life expectancies for 1997–1999 are based on postcensal 1990-based population estimates; life expectancies for 2000 and beyond are calculated with death rates based on census 2000. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. Life expectancies prior to 1997 are from decennial life tables based on census data and deaths for a 3-year period around the census year. The middle year in each 3-year period is plotted in Figure 24. Beginning in 1997, the annual life tables are complete life tables based on a methodology similar to that used for decennial life tables. Alaska and Hawaii were included beginning in 1959. For decennial periods prior to 1929–31, data are limited to death registration states: 1900–1902 and 1909–1911, 10 states and the District of Columbia; 1919- 1921, 34 states and the District of Columbia. Deaths to nonresidents were excluded beginning in 1970. See Appendix II, Life expectancy. See related Table 27. SOURCE: Arias, E. United States life tables, 2003. National vital statistics reports; vol 54 no 14. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

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Data table for Figure 25. Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates: United States, 1950–2003 Year Infant Neonatal

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Postneonatal

Deaths per 1,000 live births 1950 1960 1970 1980 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.2 26.0 20.0 12.6 10.6 9.2 7.6 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.1 6.9 6.8 7.0 6.9 20.5 18.7 15.1 8.5 7.0 5.8 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.6 8.7 7.3 4.9 4.1 3.7 3.4 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2

NOTES: Infant is defined as under 1 year of age, neonatal as under 28 days of age, and postneonatal as between 28 days and 1 year of age. See related Table 22. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

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Data table for Figure 26. Infant mortality rates, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, 2001–2003 Race and Hispanic origin of mother White, not Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American, not Hispanic or Latino . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino. . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infant deaths per 1,000 live births 5.7 13.6 5.6 8.3 6.6 5.4 5.0 4.2 4.8 8.9

NOTES: Infant is defined as under 1 year of age. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Asian or Pacific Islander and American Indian or Alaska Native races include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Starting in 2003, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. Estimates are not shown for Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups during the transition from single race to multiple race reporting. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race. See related Table 19. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, National Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Sets.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

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Data table for Figure 27. Death rates for leading causes of death for all ages: United States, 1950–2003

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Year

All causes

Heart disease

Cancer

Stroke

Chronic lower respiratory diseases

Unintentional injuries

Deaths per 100,000 population 1950 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 (Comparability-modified) . 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- - - Data not available. NOTES: Estimates are age adjusted to the year 2000 standard population using age groups from under 1 year, 1–4 years, 10-year age groups from 5–14 through 75–84 years, and 85 years and over. Causes of death shown are the five leading causes of death for all ages in 2003. The 1950 death rates are based on the 6th revision of the International Classification of Disease (ICD-6), 1960 death rates on the ICD-7, 1970 death rates on the ICDA-8, and 1980–1998 death rates on the ICD-9. The 1998 (comparability-modified) death rates use comparability ratios to adjust the rate to be comparable to records classified according to ICD-10. Starting with 1999 data, death rates are based on ICD-10. Comparability ratios across revisions for selected causes are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/statab/comp2.pdf. Death rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases are available from 1980 when a category that included bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and other chronic lung diseases was introduced in ICD-9. Cancer refers to malignant neoplasms; stroke to cerebrovascular diseases; and unintentional injuries is preferred to the term, accidents, in the public health community. Rates for 1991–1999 were computed using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were computed using 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and beyond were computed using postcensal estimates based on the 2000 census. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment; Cause of death; Comparability ratio. See related Tables 29, 31, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, and 41. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System.

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1,446.0 1,339.2 1,222.6 1,039.1 988.1 938.7 909.8 894.1 878.1 870.6 870.6 875.6 869.0 854.5 845.3 832.7

586.8 559.0 492.7 412.1 375.0 321.8 293.4 285.7 277.7 271.3 267.4 266.5 257.6 247.8 240.8 232.3

193.9 193.9 198.6 207.9 211.3 216.0 209.9 206.7 203.4 200.7 202.1 200.8 199.6 196.0 193.5 190.1

180.7 177.9 147.7 96.2 76.4 65.3 63.1 62.5 61.1 59.3 62.8 61.6 60.9 57.9 56.2 53.5

------28.3 34.5 37.2 40.1 40.6 41.1 41.8 43.8 45.4 44.2 43.7 43.5 43.3

78.0 62.3 60.1 46.4 38.5 36.3 34.4 34.5 34.2 34.5 35.6 35.3 34.9 35.7 36.9 37.3

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 28. Adults 20 years of age and over reporting pain in the month prior to interview, by selected characteristics: United States, 1999–2002 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Characteristic Age 20 years and over . . 20–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.8 25.1 29.6 21.0 0.7 0.9 1.4 0.9 Percent SE

Sex Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic origin Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of poverty level Below 100% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%–less than 200% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200% or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Respondents were asked to report pain that lasted more than 24 hours in duration during the month prior to interview. Persons of Mexican origin may be of any race. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. See Appendix II, Family income; Hispanic origin; Poverty; Race. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

24.4 27.1

0.8 0.9

27.8 22.1 15.3

0.8 1.4 1.1

29.8 28.3 24.8

1.7 1.3 0.8

Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Data table for Figure 29. Duration of pain among adults reporting pain, by age: United States, 1999–2002
Less than 1 month Age 20 years and over . . 20–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over
SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Respondents who reported pain lasting more than 24 hours in duration in the month prior to interview (see Figure 28), were asked a question about the duration of that pain. Percentages shown are among adults who reported pain. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

1 month to less than 3 months Percent 12.3 11.9 13.6 10.4 SE 0.9 1.6 1.1 1.4

3 months to less than 1 year Percent 13.7 12.5 15.5 13.4 SE 0.9 1.6 1.6 2.2

1 year or more Percent 42.0 36.5 43.7 57.3 SE 1.0 1.8 1.7 1.6

Percent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.0 39.1 27.2 18.9

SE 1.2 1.9 1.9 2.2

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 30. Adults reporting low back pain, migraine, neck, and face pain in the 3 months prior to interview, by age: United States, 2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Low back pain Age 18 years and over . . 18–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over
SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Respondents were asked: ‘‘During the past 3 months, did you have neck pain? Or low back pain? Or facial ache or pain in the jaw muscles or the joint in front of the ear? Or severe headache or migraine?’’ Respondents were asked to report pain that lasted a whole day or more and to not report aches or pains that are fleeting or minor. Respondents reporting more than one type of pain were included in each category. See related Table 56. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

Severe headache or migraine Percent 15.3 18.4 15.0 6.2 SE 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3

Neck pain Percent 14.8 12.4 18.7 14.4 SE 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5

Face pain Percent 4.3 4.5 4.7 2.9 SE 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2

Percent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.2 23.9 30.8 30.4

SE 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.7

Data table for Figure 31. Adults 18 years of age and over reporting low back pain in the 3 months prior to interview, by selected characteristics: United States, 2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Total Characteristic Age 18 years and over . . 18–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.2 23.9 30.8 30.4 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.7 25.0 22.0 28.9 27.2 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.1 29.2 25.8 32.5 32.8 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.9 Percent SE Percent Men SE Women Percent SE

Race and Hispanic origin Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. Asian only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ ............ ............ ............ 22.1 29.1 23.5 16.9 0.7 0.4 0.8 1.3 18.5 27.4 20.1 14.6 0.9 0.6 1.2 1.8 25.8 30.7 26.3 19.2 1.0 0.5 1.1 2.0

Percent of poverty level Below 100% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%–less than 200% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200% or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Respondents were asked: ‘‘During the past 3 months, did you have low back pain?’’ Respondents were asked to report pain that lasted a whole day or more and to not report aches or pains that were fleeting or minor. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Asian only race includes persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. Missing family income data were imputed for 35% of persons 18 years of age and over in 2004. See Appendix II, Family income; Hispanic origin; Poverty; Race. See related Table 56. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

31.3 29.5 25.9

1.0 0.8 0.4

26.3 26.7 24.4

1.4 1.2 0.5

34.8 31.8 27.3

1.1 0.9 0.5

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 32. Adults 18 years of age and over reporting joint pain in the 30 days prior to interview, by severity level and selected characteristics: United States, 2003 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Any joint pain Characteristic Age 18 years and over . . 18–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.4 20.5 39.9 49.9 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.8 8.4 4.9 11.5 13.6 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 23.0 15.6 28.5 36.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 Percent SE Severe joint pain Percent SE Lesser joint pain Percent SE

Sex Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race and Hispanic origin Hispanic . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . Black only . . . . . . . . Asian only . . . . . . . . ................... ................... ................... ................... 18.9 34.7 27.8 17.2 0.7 0.4 0.9 1.5 7.8 8.2 11.2 3.3 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.7 11.1 26.5 16.6 13.9 0.5 0.4 0.7 1.4 28.5 34.1 0.5 0.5 6.5 10.1 0.2 0.3 21.9 24.0 0.4 0.4

Percent of poverty level Below 100% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%–less than 200% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200% or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Respondents were asked ‘‘During the past 30 days, have you had any symptoms of pain, aching, or stiffness in or around a joint?’’ Respondents, who reported joint symptoms, were asked ‘‘During the past 30 days, how bad was your joint pain on average?’’ Respondents were instructed to answer on a scale of 0–10 where 0 is no pain or aching and 10 is pain or aching as bad as it can be. In this analysis, lesser joint pain was defined as 0–6 and severe pain was defined as a response of 7–10. This analysis excludes a small number of adults who did not provide information on both joint pain questions. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Asian only race includes persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. Missing family income data were imputed for 36% of persons 18 years of age and over in 2003. See Appendix II, Family income; Hispanic origin; Poverty; Race. See related Table 57. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

30.6 34.0 30.9

0.9 0.8 0.4

13.4 11.5 6.7

0.6 0.5 0.2

17.2 22.6 24.2

0.7 0.7 0.4

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 33. Narcotic analgesic drug visits to the emergency department, by pain level, age, sex, and race: United States, average annual 2003–2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Emergency department visit with narcotic analgesic drugs Age, sex, and race Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age Under 11 years . . 11–17 years . . . . 18–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over Sex Male. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.4 18.2 0.5 0.6 5.3 4.3 0.4 0.6 19.9 14.2 0.8 1.0 35.3 26.3 0.9 1.5 53.0 39.5 1.1 1.8 16.6 12.3 0.5 0.8 21.6 24.0 0.5 0.6 5.1 5.1 0.5 0.4 18.1 18.9 0.9 0.9 32.6 33.6 1.0 1.0 50.3 49.5 1.3 1.1 14.3 16.7 0.5 0.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 14.8 30.2 30.0 19.7 0.3 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 *1.4 *2.1 6.7 7.8 5.6 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.0 0.5 4.4 11.8 23.0 24.7 19.8 0.7 1.5 0.9 1.2 1.3 9.1 20.5 37.8 39.0 32.9 1.1 1.6 1.1 1.3 1.6 16.7 32.1 52.8 56.9 46.0 2.3 2.6 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.9 10.8 22.7 21.1 15.1 0.3 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.8 Percent 22.9 SE 0.5 Narcotic analgesic drug visit by level of pain No pain Percent 5.1 SE 0.3 Mild pain Percent 18.5 SE 0.7 Moderate pain Percent 33.1 SE 0.9 Severe pain Percent 49.8 SE 1.0 Unknown/ missing pain level Percent 15.6 SE 0.5

SE is standard error. * Data are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error of 20% to 30%. NOTES: The race groups include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Visits are classified as narcotic analgesic drug visits if at least one narcotic analgesic drug was prescribed or provided during the visit. For listing of narcotic analgesic drugs, see Appendix II, National Drug Code (NDC) Directory therapeutic class; Table XII. Estimates for race in this table are for visits where only one race was recorded. Estimates for visits where multiple races were checked are unreliable and not presented. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, Emergency Department Component.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 34. Adults 18 years of age and over reporting narcotic drug use in the month prior to interview, by sex, age, race and ethnicity: United States, 1988–1994 and 1999–2002 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version 1988–1994 Characteristic Both sexes Total, age adjusted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total, crude . . . 18–44 years. 45–64 years. 65 years and .... .... .... over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 3.2 2.9 3.3 3.9 3.4 3.4 3.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 4.2 4.2 3.6 4.6 5.7 4.6 3.8 2.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.4 Percent SE Percent 1999–2002 SE

Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Men Total, age adjusted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total, crude . . . 18–44 years. 45–64 years. 65 years and .... .... .... over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.8 2.7 2.4 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.8 3.3

0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5

3.0 3.0 2.5 *3.4 4.1 3.3 *2.9 *2.7

0.3 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.6

Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women Total, age adjusted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total, crude . . . 18–44 years. 45–64 years. 65 years and .... .... .... over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.6 3.6 3.5 3.3 4.4 3.8 3.8 3.3

0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.4

5.3 5.4 4.6 5.7 6.8 5.9 4.5 3.2

0.4 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.5 0.8 0.5

Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SE is standard error. * Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error (RSE) of 20% to 30%. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Narcotic drugs are defined as drugs in NDC class 1721. Estimates for 2000 and later years use weights derived from the 2000 census. Total and race-ethnicity estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population using three age groups: 18–44 years, 45–64 years, and 65 years and over. Persons of Mexican origin may be of any race. Starting with data year 1999, race-specific estimates are tabulated according to the 1997 Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. See Appendix II, Age adjustment; Drugs; National Drug Code (NDC) Directory therapeutic class; Hispanic origin; Race. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 35. Hospital discharges for knee and nonfracture hip replacement surgery among adults 18 years of age and over, by sex and age: United States, 1992–1993 and 2003–2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Knee replacement 1992–1993 Average annual number of hospital discharges with procedure performed in thousands 1992–1993 Hospital discharges with procedure performed per 10,000 population 2003–2004 Average annual number of hospital discharges with procedure performed in thousands 2003–2004 Hospital discharges with procedure performed per 10,000 population

Sex and age Both sexes 18 years and over . . . . 18–44 years . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . 75 years and over . . . . Men 18 years and over 18–44 years . . . 45–64 years . . . 65 years and over 65–74 years . . . 75 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SE

SE

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

166 3 38 124 74 50

8.7 0.3 7.8 38.6 40.4 36.1

0.6 0.1 0.7 3.0 3.5 3.1

428 7 158 263 145 118

19.7 0.7 22.7 72.9 78.7 66.9

1.4 0.1 1.8 5.4 6.0 5.2

54 2 12 40 25 15

6.0 0.3 5.2 30.7 30.7 30.8

0.5 0.1 0.6 2.5 3.0 3.3

152 3 56 94 51 42

14.4 0.5 16.4 62.3 61.2 63.7

1.4 0.1 1.9 6.9 7.2 7.4

Women 18 years and over 18–44 years . . . 45–64 years . . . 65 years and over 65–74 years . . . 75 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 2 26 84 49 35 11.2 0.3 10.2 43.9 48.1 39.1 0.9 0.1 1.2 3.8 5.0 3.6 276 5 102 169 93 76 24.5 0.8 28.6 80.5 93.4 68.7 1.6 0.2 2.4 5.2 6.4 5.2

See footnotes at end of table.

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 35. Hospital discharges for knee and nonfracture hip replacement surgery among adults 18 years of age and over, by sex and age: United States, 1992–1993 and 2003–2004—Con. Click here for spreadsheet version Click here for PowerPoint Nonfracture hip replacement 1992–1993 Average annual number of hospital stays with procedure performed in thousands 1992–1993 Hospital stays with procedure performed per 10,000 population 2003–2004 Average annual number of hopital stays with procedure performed in thousands 2003–2004 Hospital stays with procedure performed per 10,000 population

Sex and age Both sexes 18 years and over 18–44 years . . . 45–64 years . . . 65 years and over 65–74 years . . . 75 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SE

SE

126 10 35 81 44 37

6.6 0.9 7.1 25.2 24.0 26.7

0.5 0.1 0.7 1.9 1.9 2.5

282 33 107 142 72 70

13.0 3.0 15.3 39.5 39.2 39.7

1.1 0.4 1.5 3.3 3.8 3.4

Men 18 years and over 18–44 years . . . 45–64 years . . . 65 years and over 65–74 years . . . 75 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 6 17 28 16 11 5.6 1.0 7.3 21.2 20.3 22.8 0.4 0.2 0.8 1.8 2.3 2.7 125 17 53 54 28 26 11.9 3.1 15.8 36.2 33.8 39.2 1.1 0.4 1.6 3.5 4.1 4.2

Women 18 years and over 18–44 years . . . 45–64 years . . . 65 years and over 65–74 years . . . 75 years and over
SE is standard error. NOTES: Up to four inpatient hospital procedures were coded for each stay. Procedure codes are based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (knee replacement 81.54 and hip replacement 81.51–52, excluding hip fracture codes 820 and 733.14). In 2003–2004, 28% of hip replacements were for hip fracture. This table shows any-listed procedures; if more than one procedure with the same ICD code (e.g., hip replacement) is performed during the hospitalization it is counted only once. Rates are based on the civilian population as of July 1. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Hospital Discharge Survey.

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

75 4 17 53 28 26

7.6 0.8 6.9 27.9 27.0 28.9

0.7 0.1 0.9 2.4 2.5 3.1

157 16 53 88 44 44

14.0 2.9 14.9 41.8 43.7 40.0

1.2 0.4 1.6 3.7 4.4 4.1

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 36. Adults reporting ambulatory medical care use for headaches and associated ambulatory medical care expenses, by age and sex: United States 2002–2003 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Headache expenses per person with headache expense in dollars

Age and sex Age 18 years and over . . 18–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Percent with ambulatory medical care for headaches

SE

SE

3.5 3.4 4.5 1.9

0.12 0.16 0.22 0.21

$566 516 633 536

$31 46 43 92

Sex Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Estimates for 2002 have been adjusted to 2003 dollars using the Consumer Price Index (All Urban Consumers: U.S. City Average: All items). Ambulatory medical care is defined as having one or more visits to a medical provider (office-based, hospital outpatient and emergency department settings) and/or at least one prescribed medicine purchase during the year. ICD–9–CM codes 346, 784.0, and 307.81 were used to identify migraines and headaches. SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Household Component, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

1.6 5.3

0.12 0.19

552 570

66 34

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Data Tables for Figures 1–37

Data table for Figure 37. Health status measures among adults 18 years of age and over with and without low back pain, by age: United States, 2004 Click here for PowerPoint Click here for spreadsheet version Low back pain in the 3 months prior to interview Health status measure and age Limitation of activity caused by chronic conditions 18 years and over . . 18–44 years . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.1 14.8 32.4 52.9 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.4 9.6 4.1 10.5 27.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.8 Percent SE No low back pain in the 3 months prior to interview Percent SE

Fair or poor health, respondent-assessed 18 years and over . . 18–44 years . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.5 12.6 28.8 39.8 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.4 8.1 3.7 10.1 19.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.7

Serious psychological distress 18 years and over . . 18–44 years . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over .
SE is standard error. NOTES: Data are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Respondents were asked: ‘‘During the past 3 months, did you have low back pain?’’ Respondents were instructed to report pain that lasted a whole day or more and to not report aches or pains that were fleeting or minor. See related Tables 56 and 58. Serious psychological distress is measured by a six-question scale that asks respondents how often they experience six symptoms. See Appendix II, Health status, respondent-assessed; Limitation of activity; Serious psychological distress. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.

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. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

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. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

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7.2 6.4 9.3 5.0

0.3 0.5 0.6 0.6

1.5 1.7 1.4 1.1

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2

124

Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans

Health, United States, 2006

Trend Tables

Table 1 (page 1 of 3). Resident population, by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on decennial census updated with data from multiple sources]

Click here for spreadsheet version
75–84 years 85 years and over

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and year All persons 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Total resident population

Under 1 year

1–4 years

5–14 years

15–24 years

25–34 years

35–44 years

45–54 years

55–64 years

65–74 years

Number in thousands 150,697 179,323 203,212 226,546 248,710 281,422 288,369 290,811 293,655 3,147 4,112 3,485 3,534 3,946 3,806 4,034 4,004 4,077 13,017 16,209 13,669 12,815 14,812 15,370 15,575 15,766 15,994 24,319 35,465 40,746 34,942 35,095 41,078 41,037 40,969 40,751 22,098 24,020 35,441 42,487 37,013 39,184 40,590 41,206 41,701 23,759 22,818 24,907 37,082 43,161 39,892 39,928 39,873 40,032 21,450 24,081 23,088 25,635 37,435 45,149 44,917 44,371 44,109 17,343 20,485 23,220 22,800 25,057 37,678 40,084 40,805 41,619 13,370 15,572 18,590 21,703 21,113 24,275 26,602 27,900 29,079 8,340 10,997 12,435 15,581 18,045 18,391 18,274 18,337 18,463 3,278 4,633 6,119 7,729 10,012 12,361 12,735 12,869 12,971 577 929 1,511 2,240 3,021 4,240 4,593 4,713 4,860

Male 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74,833 88,331 98,912 110,053 121,239 138,054 141,661 143,037 144,537 1,602 2,090 1,778 1,806 2,018 1,949 2,064 2,046 2,085 6,634 8,240 6,968 6,556 7,581 7,862 7,962 8,060 8,178 12,375 18,029 20,759 17,855 17,971 21,043 21,013 20,977 20,860 10,918 11,906 17,551 21,419 18,915 20,079 20,821 21,183 21,438 11,597 11,179 12,217 18,382 21,564 20,121 20,203 20,222 20,336 10,588 11,755 11,231 12,570 18,510 22,448 22,367 22,134 22,034 8,655 10,093 11,199 11,009 12,232 18,497 19,676 20,044 20,453 6,697 7,537 8,793 10,152 9,955 11,645 12,784 13,424 13,999 4,024 5,116 5,437 6,757 7,907 8,303 8,301 8,349 8,428 1,507 2,025 2,436 2,867 3,745 4,879 5,081 5,154 5,218 237 362 542 682 841 1,227 1,390 1,445 1,508

Female 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75,864 90,992 104,300 116,493 127,471 143,368 146,708 147,773 149,118 1,545 2,022 1,707 1,727 1,928 1,857 1,970 1,958 1,992 6,383 7,969 6,701 6,259 7,231 7,508 7,614 7,706 7,817 11,944 17,437 19,986 17,087 17,124 20,034 20,025 19,992 19,890 11,181 12,114 17,890 21,068 18,098 19,105 19,769 20,024 20,263 12,162 11,639 12,690 18,700 21,596 19,771 19,726 19,650 19,696 10,863 12,326 11,857 13,065 18,925 22,701 22,550 22,237 22,075 8,688 10,393 12,021 11,791 12,824 19,181 20,408 20,761 21,166 6,672 8,036 9,797 11,551 11,158 12,629 13,817 14,475 15,079 4,316 5,881 6,998 8,824 10,139 10,088 9,973 9,988 10,036 1,771 2,609 3,683 4,862 6,267 7,482 7,654 7,714 7,753 340 567 969 1,559 2,180 3,013 3,203 3,269 3,352

White male 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67,129 78,367 86,721 94,976 102,143 113,445 115,966 116,875 117,916 1,400 1,784 1,501 1,487 1,604 1,524 1,603 1,594 1,625 5,845 7,065 5,873 5,402 6,071 6,143 6,212 6,296 6,381 10,860 15,659 17,667 14,773 14,467 16,428 16,363 16,322 16,229 9,689 10,483 15,232 18,123 15,389 15,942 16,482 16,726 16,896 10,430 9,940 10,775 15,940 18,071 16,232 16,214 16,159 16,205 9,529 10,564 9,979 11,010 15,819 18,568 18,368 18,129 17,994 7,836 9,114 10,090 9,774 10,624 15,670 16,553 16,807 17,116 6,180 6,850 7,958 9,151 8,813 10,067 11,045 11,590 12,062 3,736 4,702 4,916 6,096 7,127 7,343 7,288 7,308 7,358 1,406 1,875 2,243 2,600 3,397 4,419 4,580 4,638 4,688 218 331 487 621 760 1,109 1,257 1,307 1,361

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2002 2003 2004

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

White female .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

67,813 80,465 91,028 99,835 106,561 116,641 118,780 119,474 120,353

1,341 1,714 1,434 1,412 1,524 1,447 1,528 1,525 1,551

5,599 6,795 5,615 5,127 5,762 5,839 5,915 5,999 6,081

10,431 15,068 16,912 14,057 13,706 15,576 15,519 15,488 15,405

9,821 10,596 15,420 17,653 14,599 14,966 15,471 15,658 15,831

10,851 10,204 11,004 15,896 17,757 15,574 15,412 15,310 15,302

9,719 11,000 10,349 11,232 15,834 18,386 18,115 17,813 17,625

7,868 9,364 10,756 10,285 10,946 15,921 16,794 17,034 17,329

6,168 7,327 8,853 10,325 9,698 10,731 11,716 12,263 12,741

4,031 5,428 6,366 7,951 9,048 8,757 8,590 8,576 8,595

1,669 2,441 3,429 4,457 5,687 6,715 6,825 6,859 6,874

314 527 890 1,440 2,001 2,729 2,895 2,950 3,020

Black or African American male 1950 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

7,300 9,114 10,748 12,585 14,420 17,407 17,979 18,190 18,417

--281 245 269 322 313 344 336 337

944 1,082 975 967 1,164 1,271 1,290 1,301 1,320

1

1,442 2,185 2,784 2,614 2,700 3,454 3,454 3,444 3,414

Number in thousands 1,162 1,105 1,003 772 1,305 1,120 1,086 891 2,041 1,226 1,084 979 2,807 1,967 1,235 1,024 2,669 2,592 1,962 1,175 2,932 2,586 2,705 1,957 3,107 2,589 2,726 2,149 3,180 2,613 2,705 2,218 3,248 2,650 2,695 2,278

459 617 739 854 878 1,090 1,177 1,232 1,293

299 382 461 567 614 683 701 711 722

2

113 137 169 228 277 330 349 355 359

--29 46 53 66 87 93 96 101

Health, United States, 2006

127

Table 1 (page 2 of 3). Resident population, by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on decennial census updated with data from multiple sources]

Click here for spreadsheet version
75–84 years 85 years and over

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and year Black or African American female 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Total resident population

Under 1 year

1–4 years

5–14 years

15–24 years

25–34 years

35–44 years

45–54 years

55–64 years

65–74 years

7,745 9,758 11,832 14,046 16,063 19,187 19,769 19,958 20,184

--283 243 266 316 302 330 323 324

941 1,085 970 951 1,137 1,228 1,249 1,260 1,279

1

1,446 2,191 2,773 2,578 2,641 3,348 3,351 3,337 3,306

1,300 1,404 2,196 2,937 2,700 2,971 3,091 3,140 3,193

Number in thousands 1,260 1,112 796 1,300 1,229 974 1,456 1,309 1,134 2,267 1,488 1,258 2,905 2,279 1,416 2,866 3,055 2,274 2,855 3,079 2,503 2,862 3,052 2,579 2,886 3,037 2,651

443 663 868 1,059 1,135 1,353 1,464 1,531 1,607

322 430 582 776 884 971 987 999 1,011

2

125 160 230 360 495 587 616 627 636

--38 71 106 156 233 243 247 254

American Indian or Alaska Native male 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native female 1980 1990 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

702 1,024 1,488 1,535 1,553 1,572

17 24 28 21 21 22

59 88 109 101 96 90

153 206 301 295 293 290

161 192 271 287 294 300

114 183 229 237 240 244

75 140 229 233 232 233

53 86 165 181 187 192

37 55 88 101 107 114

22 32 45 51 53 56

9 13 18 22 24 25

2 3 5 6 6 7

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

718 1,041 1,496 1,541 1,558 1,576

16 24 26 20 21 21

57 85 106 98 93 88

149 200 293 287 286 282

158 178 254 271 278 285

118 186 219 223 224 227

79 148 236 238 235 233

57 92 174 192 198 204

41 61 95 109 115 122

27 41 54 60 62 65

12 21 28 32 33 35

4 6 10 12 13 14

Asian or Pacific Islander male 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander female 1980 1990 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

1,814 3,652 5,713 6,180 6,419 6,633

35 68 84 95 94 101

130 258 339 358 367 387

321 598 861 900 917 927

334 665 934 946 983 994

366 718 1,073 1,163 1,211 1,238

252 588 947 1,040 1,068 1,112

159 347 705 793 832 866

110 208 399 461 496 531

72 133 231 261 277 292

30 57 112 130 138 146

6 12 27 33 36 39

. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,915 3,805 6,044 6,618 6,783 7,005 7,280 11,388 18,162 19,991 20,599 21,347 7,329 10,966 17,144 18,770 19,300 19,975

34 65 81 91 89 96 187 279 395 426 442 463 181 268 376 408 424 443

127 247 336 352 354 368 661 980 1,506 1,598 1,682 1,769 634 939 1,441 1,530 1,611 1,694

307 578 817 868 882 898 1,530 2,128 3,469 3,721 3,832 3,919 1,482 2,039 3,318 3,545 3,659 3,744

325 621 914 936 947 954 1,646 2,376 3,564 3,656 3,759 3,794 1,546 2,028 3,017 3,147 3,235 3,303

423 749 1,112 1,235 1,254 1,281 1,256 2,310 3,494 3,978 4,016 4,163 1,249 2,073 3,016 3,354 3,363 3,454

269 664 1,024 1,118 1,137 1,179 761 1,471 2,653 3,027 3,101 3,242 805 1,448 2,476 2,782 2,815 2,919

192 371 812 919 950 983 570 818 1,551 1,823 1,910 2,023 615 868 1,585 1,832 1,908 2,006

126 264 451 529 565 609 364 551 804 935 991 1,058 411 632 907 1,040 1,097 1,164

71 166 305 337 351 365 200 312 474 523 542 566 257 403 603 658 680 705

33 65 152 181 196 208 86 131 203 244 261 280 117 209 303 356 380 405

9 17 41 53 59 64 19 32 50 60 65 71 30 59 101 121 128 139

Hispanic or Latino male 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . .

female ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

See footnotes at end of table.

128

Health, United States, 2006

Table 1 (page 3 of 3). Resident population, by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on decennial census updated with data from multiple sources]

Click here for spreadsheet version
75–84 years 85 years and over

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and year White, not Hispanic or Latino male 1980 1990 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Total resident population

Under 1 year

1–4 years

5–14 years

15–24 years

25–34 years

35–44 years

45–54 years

55–64 years

65–74 years

Number in thousands 88,035 91,743 96,551 97,329 97,660 97,986 1,308 1,351 1,163 1,198 1,173 1,184 4,772 5,181 4,761 4,729 4,718 4,706 13,317 12,525 13,238 12,941 12,797 12,623 16,554 13,219 12,628 13,086 13,237 13,376 14,739 15,967 12,958 12,480 12,393 12,301 10,284 14,481 16,088 15,534 15,225 14,957 9,229 9,875 14,223 14,851 15,025 15,228 8,803 8,303 9,312 10,168 10,660 11,071 5,906 6,837 6,894 6,793 6,796 6,824 2,519 3,275 4,225 4,348 4,390 4,422 603 729 1,062 1,201 1,245 1,294

White, not Hispanic or Latino female 1980 1990 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92,872 96,557 100,774 101,363 101,555 101,789 1,240 1,280 1,102 1,140 1,121 1,128 4,522 4,909 4,517 4,496 4,488 4,477 12,647 11,846 12,529 12,263 12,125 11,964 16,185 12,749 12,183 12,567 12,673 12,783 14,711 15,872 12,778 12,296 12,188 12,095 10,468 14,520 16,089 15,531 15,201 14,916 9,700 10,153 14,446 15,091 15,261 15,466 9,935 9,116 9,879 10,740 11,236 11,652 7,707 8,674 8,188 7,970 7,935 7,932 4,345 5,491 6,429 6,489 6,499 6,491 1,411 1,945 2,633 2,780 2,829 2,888

- - - Data not available. 1 Population for age group under 5 years. 2 Population for age group 75 years and over. NOTES: The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with Health, United States, 2003, intercensal population estimates for the 1990s and 2000 are based on the 2000 census. Population estimates for 2001 and later years are 2000-based postcensal estimates. Population figures are census counts as of April 1 for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000; estimates as of July 1 for other years. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. Populations for age groups may not sum to the total due to rounding. Although population figures are shown rounded to the nearest 1,000, calculations of birth rates and death rates shown in this volume are based on unrounded population figures for decennial years and for all years starting with 1991. See Appendix II, Rate. Unrounded population figures are available in the spreadsheet version of this table. Available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: U.S. Census Bureau: 1950 Nonwhite Population by Race. Special Report P-E, No. 3B. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1951; U.S. Census of Population: 1960, Number of Inhabitants, PC(1)-A1, United States Summary, 1964; 1970, Number of Inhabitants, Final Report PC(1)-A1, United States Summary, 1971; U.S. population estimates, by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 1980 to 1991. Current population reports, series P–25, no 1095. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Feb. 1993; National Center for Health Statistics. Estimates of the July 1, 1991–July 1, 1999, April 1, 2000, and July 1, 2001–July 1, 2004 United States resident population by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin, prepared under a collaborative arrangement with the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates Program. Available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/dvs/popbridge/popbridge.htm. 2004.

Health, United States, 2006

129

Table 2 (page 1 of 2). Inmates in state or federal prisons and local jails, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1999–2004
[Data are based on reporting by a census of departments of correction and the Federal Bureau of Prisons and a sample of jails]

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age

1999

2000

2003

2004

1999

2000

2003

Number of inmates in thousands 1 Total 3,4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male 3,4 . . . . . . . . . . . Female 3,4 . . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic: 4 Male . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . Black, not Hispanic: 4 Male . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . Hispanic: 4 Male . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . Male 18–19. 20–24. 25–29. 30–34. 35–39. 40–44. 45–54. 55 and 18–19. 20–24. 25–29. 30–34. 35–39. 40–44. 45–54. 55 and .... .... .... .... .... .... .... over .... .... .... .... .... .... .... over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 299 317 321 282 190 157 49 4 19 29 37 29 16 12 3 24 91 96 114 106 74 71 27 35 136 152 142 130 79 59 13 81 310 330 334 294 198 165 51 4 20 30 39 31 17 12 3 26 100 105 125 116 81 78 30 37 143 160 150 136 83 62 13 72 346 332 314 292 241 224 66 4 25 26 33 36 27 20 4 24 103 93 104 109 99 94 37 33 161 154 135 127 102 93 19 73 352 340 316 292 250 238 72 5 27 27 34 36 29 22 4 24 107 98 107 111 105 101 40 33 162 156 135 125 105 99 21 1,868 3,130 3,363 3,193 2,474 1,699 896 193 92 205 303 370 257 144 63 8 885 1,462 1,535 1,674 1,302 897 522 129 5,787 10,407 12,334 11,225 9,548 6,224 3,399 611 ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ 1,861 1,711 149 610 54 757 68 296 23 1,932 1,776 156 664 64 792 70 291 20 2,079 1,902 176 665 76 832 67 364 28 2,131 1,948 183 696 82 843 68 367 29 --1,261 106 630 53 4,617 375 1,802 142

Inmates per 100,000 population 2 686 1,297 110 683 63 4,777 380 1,715 117 1,917 3,177 3,580 3,362 2,613 1,747 903 199 96 210 324 391 272 149 64 8 942 1,560 1,732 1,861 1,460 972 553 139 6,027 10,593 13,118 11,892 10,054 6,399 3,409 635 716 1,331 119 681 75 4,834 352 1,778 148 1,709 3,316 3,417 2,944 2,641 2,096 1,129 238 109 255 277 316 322 232 97 11 882 1,610 1,607 1,545 1,467 1,206 626 162 5,365 11,329 12,809 10,627 9,570 7,639 4,425 842 726 1,348 123 717 81 4,919 359 1,717 143 1,727 3,255 3,390 3,060 2,755 2,187 1,162 247 112 264 283 330 346 247 101 11 911 1,641 1,666 1,691 1,607 1,314 664 170 5,473 11,054 12,603 10,979 10,036 7,993 4,546 898

Female ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......

White, not Hispanic 18–19. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20–24. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–29. . . . . . . . . . . . . 30–34. . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–39. . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–44. . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54. . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 and over . . . . . . . . 18–19. 20–24. 25–29. 30–34. 35–39. 40–44. 45–54. 55 and .... .... .... .... .... .... .... over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

male .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Black, not Hispanic male

See footnotes at end of table.

130

Health, United States, 2006

Table 2 (page 2 of 2). Inmates in state or federal prisons and local jails, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1999–2004
[Data are based on reporting by a census of departments of correction and the Federal Bureau of Prisons and a sample of jails]

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Hispanic male 18–19. 20–24. 25–29. 30–34. 35–39. 40–44. 45–54. 55 and 18–19. 20–24. 25–29. 30–34. 35–39. 40–44. 45–54. 55 and .... .... .... .... .... .... .... over .... .... .... .... .... .... .... over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1999

2000

2003

2004

1999

2000

2003

Number of inmates in thousands 1 16 62 60 56 40 31 22 7 2 7 10 13 10 6 5 1 1 7 13 19 14 7 4 1 16 60 58 55 40 31 22 8 2 8 11 15 13 7 6 2 1 7 14 19 14 8 5 1 13 74 78 68 51 36 33 9 2 11 11 14 16 12 9 2 2 9 10 13 14 11 8 1 14 75 79 69 50 36 34 9 2 12 12 15 16 13 10 2 2 9 10 12 14 11 8 1 2,524 4,141 4,220 3,844 2,898 2,746 1,521 460 63 121 154 185 128 73 33 5 224 524 956 1,362 940 512 214 27

Inmates per 100,000 population 2 2,419 3,885 4,084 3,756 2,781 2,621 1,426 468 71 137 187 224 159 87 39 7 231 525 993 1,409 962 513 209 28 1,888 3,620 3,719 3,451 2,975 2,537 1,761 501 68 178 191 211 211 143 58 8 254 607 744 891 926 732 318 28 1,957 3,577 3,606 3,438 2,866 2,403 1,652 473 71 191 203 237 238 162 63 8 262 625 746 905 993 764 327 29

White, not Hispanic female

Black, not Hispanic female 18–19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20–24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30–34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic female ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. over . . . . . . . . .

18–19. 20–24. 25–29. 30–34. 35–39. 40–44. 45–54. 55 and

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

1 4 5 5 4 2 2 0

1 4 4 4 3 2 2 0

1 5 5 5 5 4 3 1

1 5 5 5 5 4 3 1

94 284 357 372 308 203 133 11

87 246 296 301 247 168 106 9

166 295 268 319 333 276 149 29

162 304 268 313 331 271 136 25

- - - Data not available. 0 is greater than 0 but less than 500. 1 Estimates as of June 30 of year shown. 2 Inmate estimates as of June 30 of year shown. Population is U.S. resident population for July 1 of year shown. 3 Includes all other races not shown separately. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race. 4 Includes all other ages not shown separately. A small number of inmates are under age 18. NOTES: Data are for inmates in custody. See Appendix I, The Annual Survey and Census of Jails; National Prisoner Statistics. Starting with 2004 data, inmates reporting more than one race are excluded. SOURCES: Harrison PM, Beck AJ. Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2004. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 2005. Reports for earlier years are available from: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/prisons.htm.

Health, United States, 2006

131

Table 3 (page 1 of 2). Persons and families below poverty level, by selected characteristics, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1973–2004
[Data are based on household interviews of the civilian noninstitutionalized population]

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Selected characteristics, race, and Hispanic origin 1 All persons All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only . . Asian only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only, not Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1973

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000 2

2002

Percent below poverty 11.1 8.4 31.4 --21.9 ----7.5 13.0 10.2 32.5 --25.7 ----9.1 14.0 11.4 31.3 --29.0 28.8 43.3 9.7 13.5 10.7 31.9 12.2 28.1 28.1 40.6 8.8 13.8 11.2 29.3 14.6 30.3 31.2 38.1 8.5 11.3 9.5 22.5 9.9 21.5 22.9 25.6 7.4 12.1 10.2 24.1 10.1 21.8 ----8.0 12.5 10.5 24.4 11.8 22.5 ----8.2 12.7 10.8 24.7 9.8 21.9 ----8.6

Related children under 18 years of age in families All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only . . Asian only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only, not Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 9.7 40.6 --27.8 ------17.9 13.4 42.1 --33.0 ----11.3 20.1 15.6 43.1 --39.6 37.4 58.6 12.3 19.9 15.1 44.2 17.0 37.7 35.5 56.7 11.6 20.2 15.5 41.5 18.6 39.3 39.3 53.2 10.6 15.6 12.4 30.9 12.5 27.6 29.5 32.1 8.5 16.3 13.1 32.1 11.4 28.2 ----8.9 17.2 13.9 33.6 12.1 29.5 ----9.3 17.3 14.2 33.3 9.5 28.6 ----9.9

Related children under 18 years of age in families with female householder and no spouse present All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only . . Asian only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only, not Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ----------------50.8 41.6 64.8 --65.0 ------53.6 45.2 66.9 --72.4 64.4 85.4 --53.4 45.9 64.7 32.2 68.4 62.4 82.7 39.6 50.3 42.5 61.6 42.4 65.7 65.9 79.6 33.5 40.1 33.9 49.3 38.0 49.8 51.4 55.3 28.0 39.6 34.7 47.5 29.8 47.9 ----29.2 41.8 37.0 49.8 37.4 50.6 ----30.7 41.9 38.2 49.2 18.8 51.9 ----31.5

All persons All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only . . Asian only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only, not Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22,973 15,142 7,388 --2,366 ----12,864

29,272 19,699 8,579 --3,491 ----16,365

33,064 22,860 8,926 --5,236 3,220 1,011 17,839

Number below poverty in thousands 33,585 36,425 31,581 34,570 22,326 9,837 858 6,006 3,764 966 16,622 24,423 9,872 1,411 8,574 5,608 1,183 16,267 21,645 7,982 1,258 7,747 5,460 814 14,366 23,466 8,602 1,161 8,555 ----15,567

35,861 24,272 8,781 1,401 9,051 ----15,902

36,997 25,301 9,000 1,209 9,132 ----16,870

Related children under 18 years of age in families All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only . . . . . Asian only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only, not Hispanic or Latino . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

9,453 5,462 3,822 --1,364 -------

11,114 6,817 3,906 --1,718 ----5,174

12,483 7,838 4,057 --2,512 1,589 535 5,421

12,715 7,696 4,412 356 2,750 1,733 490 5,106

13,999 8,474 4,644 532 3,938 2,655 610 4,745

11,005 6,834 3,495 407 3,342 2,537 329 3,715

11,646 7,203 3,570 302 3,653 ----3,848

12,340 7,624 3,750 331 3,982 ----3,957

12,460 7,868 3,694 269 3,989 ----4,179

132

Health, United States, 2006

Table 3 (page 2 of 2). Persons and families below poverty level, by selected characteristics, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1973–2004
[Data are based on household interviews of the civilian noninstitutionalized population]

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Selected characteristics, race, and Hispanic origin 1 Related children under 18 years of age in families with female householder and no spouse present All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only . . Asian only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only, not Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1973

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000 2

2002

Number below poverty in thousands ----------------5,866 2,813 2,944 --809 ------6,716 3,372 3,181 --1,247 553 449 --7,363 3,597 3,543 80 1,314 615 382 2,411 8,364 4,051 3,954 145 1,872 1,056 459 2,299 6,300 3,090 2,908 162 1,407 938 242 1,832 6,564 3,271 2,855 85 1,501 ----1,949 7,085 3,580 3,026 119 1,727 ----2,033 7,132 3,774 2,952 55 1,837 ----2,109

- - - Data not available. 1 The race groups, white, black, and Asian, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2002 data, race-specific estimates are tabulated according to the 1997 Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. The three single race categories shown in the table conform to the 1997 Standards. For 2002 and later years, race-specific estimates are for persons who reported only one racial group. Prior to data year 2002, data were tabulated according to the 1977 Standards in which the Asian only category included Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. Estimates for single race categories prior to 2002 are based on answers to the Current Population Survey questionnaire which asked respondents to choose only a single race. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race. 2 Estimates are consistent with 2001 data through implementation of the 2000 census-based population controls and a 28,000 household sample expansion. NOTES: Estimates of poverty for 1991–1998 are based on 1990 postcensal population estimates. Estimates for 1999 and later years are based on 2000 census population controls. Poverty level is based on family income and family size using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. See Appendix II, Poverty. The Current Population Survey is not large enough to produce reliable annual estimates for American Indian or Alaska Native persons, or for Native Hawaiians. The 2002–2004 average poverty rate for American Indian or Alaskan Native only was 24.3%, representing 554,000 persons. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey 2000–2005 Annual Social and Economic Supplements; DeNavas-Walt C, Proctor BD, Lee CH. Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004. Current population reports, series P–60, no 229. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2005.

Health, United States, 2006

133

Table 4 (page 1 of 3). Crude birth rates, fertility rates, and birth rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Age of mother 15–19 years Race, Hispanic origin, and year All races 1950 1960 1970 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.1 23.7 18.4 15.9 15.8 16.7 14.6 14.4 13.9 14.1 14.0 106.2 118.0 87.9 68.4 66.3 70.9 64.6 65.9 64.8 66.1 66.3 1.0 0.8 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.3 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.7 81.6 89.1 68.3 53.0 51.0 59.9 56.0 47.7 43.0 41.6 41.1 40.7 43.9 38.8 32.5 31.0 37.5 35.5 26.9 23.2 22.4 22.1 Crude birth rate 1 Fertility rate 2 10–14 years Total 15–17 years 18–19 years 20–24 years 25–29 years 30–34 years 35–39 years 40–44 years 45–54 years 3

Live births per 1,000 women 132.7 166.7 114.7 82.1 79.6 88.6 87.7 78.1 72.8 70.7 70.0 196.6 258.1 167.8 115.1 108.3 116.5 107.5 109.7 103.6 102.6 101.7 166.1 197.4 145.1 112.9 111.0 120.2 108.8 113.5 113.6 115.6 115.5 103.7 112.7 73.3 61.9 69.1 80.8 81.1 91.2 91.5 95.1 95.3 52.9 56.2 31.7 19.8 24.0 31.7 34.0 39.7 41.4 43.8 45.4 15.1 15.5 8.1 3.9 4.0 5.5 6.6 8.0 8.3 8.7 8.9 1.2 0.9 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Race of child: 4 White 1950 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

23.0 22.7 17.4 14.9

102.3 113.2 84.1 64.7

0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6

70.0 79.4 57.4 44.7

31.3 35.5 29.2 25.2

120.5 154.6 101.5 72.1

190.4 252.8 163.4 109.5

165.1 194.9 145.9 112.4

102.6 109.6 71.9 60.4

51.4 54.0 30.0 18.5

14.5 14.7 7.5 3.4

1.0 0.8 0.4 0.2

Race of mother: 5 White 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

15.1 15.0 15.8 14.1 13.9 13.5 13.6 13.5

65.6 64.1 68.3 63.6 65.3 64.8 66.1 66.1

0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5

45.4 43.3 50.8 49.5 43.2 39.4 38.3 37.7

25.5 24.4 29.5 29.6 23.3 20.5 19.8 19.5

73.2 70.4 78.0 80.2 72.3 68.0 66.2 65.0

111.1 104.1 109.8 104.7 106.6 101.6 100.6 99.2

113.8 112.3 120.7 111.7 116.7 117.4 119.5 118.6

61.2 69.9 81.7 83.3 94.6 95.5 99.3 99.1

18.8 23.3 31.5 34.2 40.2 42.4 44.8 46.4

3.5 3.7 5.2 6.4 7.9 8.2 8.7 8.9

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5

Race of child: 4 Black or African American 1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race of mother: 5 Black or African American 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 20.4 22.4 17.8 17.0 15.7 15.7 16.0 84.9 78.8 86.8 71.0 70.0 65.8 66.3 67.6 4.3 4.5 4.9 4.1 2.3 1.8 1.6 1.6 97.8 95.4 112.8 94.4 77.4 66.6 63.8 63.3 72.5 69.3 82.3 68.5 49.0 40.0 38.2 37.2 135.1 132.4 152.9 135.0 118.8 107.6 103.7 104.4 140.0 135.0 160.2 133.7 141.3 127.1 126.1 127.7 103.9 100.2 115.5 95.6 100.3 99.0 100.4 103.6 59.9 57.9 68.7 63.0 65.4 64.4 66.5 67.9 23.5 23.9 28.1 28.4 31.5 31.5 33.2 34.0 5.6 4.6 5.5 6.0 7.2 7.4 7.7 7.9 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 31.9 25.3 22.1 153.5 115.4 88.1 4.3 5.2 4.3 156.1 140.7 100.0 --101.4 73.6 --204.9 138.8 295.4 202.7 146.3 218.6 136.3 109.1 137.1 79.6 62.9 73.9 41.9 24.5 21.9 12.5 5.8 1.1 1.0 0.3

American Indian or Alaska Native mothers 5 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

20.7 19.8 18.9 15.3 14.0 13.8 13.8 14.0

82.7 78.6 76.2 63.0 58.7 58.0 58.4 58.9

1.9 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.9

82.2 79.2 81.1 72.9 58.3 53.8 53.1 52.5

51.5 47.7 48.5 44.6 34.1 30.7 30.6 30.0

129.5 124.1 129.3 122.2 97.1 89.2 87.3 87.0

143.7 139.1 148.7 123.1 117.2 112.6 110.0 109.7

106.6 109.6 110.3 91.6 91.8 91.8 93.5 92.8

61.8 62.6 61.5 56.5 55.5 56.4 57.4 58.0

28.1 27.4 27.5 24.3 24.6 25.4 25.4 26.8

8.2 6.0 5.9 5.5 5.7 5.8 5.5 6.0

* * * * 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.2

134

Health, United States, 2006

Table 4 (page 2 of 3). Crude birth rates, fertility rates, and birth rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Age of mother 15–19 years Race, Hispanic origin, and year Asian or Pacific Islander mothers 5 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.9 18.7 19.0 16.7 17.1 16.5 16.8 16.8 73.2 68.4 69.6 62.6 65.8 64.1 66.3 67.1 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 26.2 23.8 26.4 25.5 20.5 18.3 17.4 17.3 12.0 12.5 16.0 15.6 11.6 9.0 8.8 8.9 Crude birth rate 1 Fertility rate 2 10–14 years Total 15–17 years 18–19 years 20–24 years 25–29 years 30–34 years 35–39 years 40–44 years 45–54 years 3

Live births per 1,000 women 46.2 40.8 40.2 40.1 32.6 31.5 29.8 29.6 93.3 83.6 79.2 64.2 60.3 60.4 59.6 59.8 127.4 123.0 126.3 103.7 108.4 105.4 108.5 108.6 96.0 93.6 106.5 102.3 116.5 109.6 114.6 116.9 38.3 42.7 49.6 50.1 59.0 56.5 59.9 62.1 8.5 8.7 10.7 11.8 12.6 12.5 13.5 13.6 0.7 1.2 1.1 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0

1980 1990 1995 2000 2002 2003 2004

Hispanic or Latino mothers 5,6 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. ..............

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

23.5 26.7 24.1 23.1 22.6 22.9 22.9

95.4 107.7 98.8 95.9 94.4 96.9 97.8

1.7 2.4 2.6 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.3

82.2 100.3 99.3 87.3 83.4 82.3 82.6

52.1 65.9 68.3 55.5 50.7 49.7 49.7

126.9 147.7 145.4 132.6 133.0 132.0 133.5

156.4 181.0 171.9 161.3 164.3 163.4 165.3

132.1 153.0 140.4 139.9 139.4 144.4 145.6

83.2 98.3 90.5 97.1 95.1 102.0 104.1

39.9 45.3 43.7 46.6 47.8 50.8 52.9

10.6 10.9 10.7 11.5 11.5 12.2 12.4

0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7

White, not Hispanic or Latino mothers 5,6 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American, not Hispanic or Latino mothers 5,6 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . .

14.2 14.4 12.5 12.2 11.7 11.8 11.6

62.4 62.8 57.5 58.5 57.4 58.5 58.4

0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2

41.2 42.5 39.3 32.6 28.5 27.4 26.7

22.4 23.2 22.0 15.8 13.1 12.4 12.0

67.7 66.6 66.2 57.5 51.9 50.0 48.7

105.5 97.5 90.2 91.2 84.3 83.5 81.9

110.6 115.3 105.1 109.4 109.3 110.8 110.0

59.9 79.4 81.5 93.2 94.4 97.6 97.1

17.7 30.0 32.8 38.8 40.9 43.2 44.8

3.0 4.7 5.9 7.3 7.6 8.1 8.2

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5

. . . . . . .

22.9 23.0 18.2 17.3 16.1 15.9 15.8

90.7 89.0 72.8 71.4 67.4 67.1 67.0

4.6 5.0 4.2 2.4 1.9 1.6 1.6

105.1 116.2 97.2 79.2 68.3 64.7 63.1

77.2 84.9 70.4 50.1 41.0 38.7 37.1

146.5 157.5 139.2 121.9 110.3 105.3 103.9

152.2 165.1 137.8 145.4 131.0 128.1 126.9

111.7 118.4 98.5 102.8 102.1 102.1 103.0

65.2 70.2 64.4 66.5 66.1 67.4 67.4

25.8 28.7 28.8 31.8 32.1 33.4 33.7

5.8 5.6 6.1 7.2 7.5 7.7 7.8

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5

Health, United States, 2006

135

Table 4 (page 3 of 3). Crude birth rates, fertility rates, and birth rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version

- - - Data not available. * Rates based on fewer than 20 births are considered unreliable and are not shown. 1 Live births per 1,000 population. 2 Total number of live births regardless of age of mother per 1,000 women 15–44 years of age. 3 Prior to 1997, data are for live births to mothers 45–49 years of age per 1,000 women 45–49 years of age. Starting with 1997 data, rates are for live births to mothers 45–54 years of age per 1,000 women 45–49 years of age. See Appendix II, Age. 4 Live births are tabulated by race of child. See Appendix II, Race, Birth File. 5 Live births are tabulated by race and/or Hispanic origin of mother. See Appendix II, Race, Birth File. 6 Prior to 1993, data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the birth certificate were excluded. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. Rates in 1985 were not calculated because estimates for the Hispanic and non-Hispanic populations were not available. NOTES: Data are based on births adjusted for underregistration for 1950 and on registered births for all other years. Starting with 1970 data, births to persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are excluded. Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were computed using the 2000 census counts and starting in 2001 rates were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. Interpretation of trend data should take into consideration expansion of reporting areas and immigration. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File. Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Kirmeyer S. Births: Final Data for 2004. National vital statistics reports. vol 55 no 1. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006; Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ. Revised birth and fertility rates for the 1990s and new rates for Hispanic populations, 2000 and 2001: United States. National vital statistics reports. vol 51 no 12. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2003; Ventura SJ. Births of Hispanic parentage, 1980 and 1985. Monthly vital statistics report. vol 32 no 6 and vol 36 no 11, suppl. Public Health Service. Hyattsville, MD. 1983 and 1988; Internet release of Vital statistics of the United States, 2000, vol 1, natality, tables 1–1 and 1–7 available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/natality/natab2000.htm.

136

Health, United States, 2006

Table 5 (page 1 of 2). Live births, by plurality, and detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1970–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Plurality of birth and race and Hispanic origin of mother All births All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native. Asian or Pacific Islander 1 . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . Hispanic or Latino 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American. . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: 2 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1970

1971

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Number of live births . 3,731,386 3,555,970 3,144,198 3,612,258 3,760,561 4,158,212 3,899,589 4,058,814 4,089,950 4,112,052 . 3,109,956 2,939,568 2,576,818 2,936,351 3,037,913 3,290,273 3,098,885 3,194,005 3,225,848 3,222,928 . 561,992 553,750 496,829 568,080 581,824 684,336 603,139 622,598 599,847 616,074 . 22,264 23,254 22,690 29,389 34,037 39,051 37,278 41,668 43,052 43,927 . --27,004 28,884 74,355 104,606 141,635 160,287 200,543 221,203 229,123 . 7,044 7,222 7,778 11,671 16,405 22,737 27,380 34,271 ----. 7,744 7,846 6,725 7,482 8,035 8,674 8,901 8,969 ----. 8,066 7,946 10,359 13,968 20,058 25,770 30,551 32,107 ----. --3,718 3,711 4,669 4,938 6,099 5,787 6,608 ----. --272 311 36,565 55,170 78,355 87,668 118,588 ----. ----- - - 307,163 372,814 595,073 679,768 815,868 912,329 946,349 . ----- - - 215,439 242,976 385,640 469,615 581,915 654,504 677,621 . ------33,671 35,147 58,807 54,824 58,124 58,400 61,221 . ------7,163 10,024 11,311 12,473 13,429 14,867 14,943 . ------21,268 40,985 83,008 94,996 113,344 135,586 143,520 --------------29,622 43,682 56,307 47,860 49,056 48,972 49,044

.. .. ..

- - - 1,256,777 1,407,460 2,626,500 2,382,638 2,362,968 2,321,904 2,296,683 - - - 300,480 337,448 661,701 587,781 604,346 576,033 578,772

Twin births All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native. Asian or Pacific Islander 1 . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . Hispanic or Latino 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American. . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: 2 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Triplet and higher order multiple births All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native. Asian or Pacific Islander 1 . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . Hispanic or Latino 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American. . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: 2 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

-------------------------------------

63,298 49,972 12,452 362 320 80 98 92 46 4 -----------------

59,192 46,715 11,375 348 505 120 115 176 92 2 -----------------

68,339 53,104 13,638 491 1,045 135 103 173 69 565 5,154 3,599 631 102 371 451 23,004 7,278

77,102 60,351 14,646 537 1,536 232 131 247 74 852 6,550 4,292 705 201 665 687 28,402 8,400

93,865 72,617 18,164 699 2,320 368 161 388 101 1,302 10,713 6,701 1,226 228 1,463 1,095 60,210 17,646

96,736 76,196 17,000 769 2,771 507 217 542 98 1,407 12,685 8,341 1,248 312 1,769 1,015 62,370 16,622

118,916 93,235 20,626 900 4,155 748 218 612 109 2,468 16,470 11,130 1,461 371 2,361 1,147 76,018 20,173

128,665 101,297 20,633 1,047 5,688 ----------19,472 12,954 1,666 465 3,141 1,246 81,691 20,010

132,219 103,438 21,618 1,086 6,077 ----------20,351 13,485 1,759 562 3,393 1,152 83,346 20,605

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------------------------------

1,034 834 196 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -----------------

1,066 909 151 2 4 0 4 0 0 0 -----------------

1,337 1,104 211 9 9 3 6 0 0 0 78 43 12 0 8 15 490 128

1,925 1,648 240 13 23 2 0 4 0 17 106 82 14 3 4 3 779 132

3,028 2,639 321 4 61 13 0 15 3 30 235 121 28 9 59 18 2,358 306

4,973 4,505 352 20 96 21 3 15 3 54 355 202 35 24 59 35 4,050 340

7,325 6,551 521 18 235 29 8 57 6 135 659 391 73 15 122 58 5,821 506

7,663 6,733 650 33 247 ----------784 480 88 28 140 48 5,922 631

7,275 6,326 605 22 322 ----------723 483 103 * 95 24 5,590 577

.. .. ..

Health, United States, 2006

137

Table 5 (page 2 of 2). Live births, by plurality, and detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1970–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version

- - - Data not available. 1 Starting with 2003 data, estimates are not shown for Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups during the transition from single race to multiple race reporting. See Appendix II, Race, Birth File. 2 Prior to 1993, data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the birth certificate were excluded. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. Data for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women for years prior to 1989 are not nationally representative and are provided for comparison with Hispanic data. NOTES: The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. Interpretation of trend data should take into consideration expansion of reporting areas and immigration. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File. Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, Kirmeyer S. Births: Final Data for 2004. National vital statistics reports. vol 55 no 1. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006; Births: Final data for each data year 1997–2003. National vital statistics reports. Hyattsville, MD; Final natality statistics for each data year 1970–1996. Monthly vital statistics report. Hyattsville, MD.

138

Health, United States, 2006

Table 6. Twin and higher order multiple births, by race, Hispanic origin, and age of mother: United States, selected years 1971–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

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2003 2004

Plurality of birth and race, Hispanic origin, and age of mother Twin births All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native. Asian or Pacific Islander 1 . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . Hispanic or Latino 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American. . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: 2 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Age of mother: Under 20 years . 20–24 years . . . 25–29 years . . . 30–34 years . . . 35–39 years . . . 40–44 years . . . 45–49 years . . . 50–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1971

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

1997

2000

2002

Number per 1,000 live births 17.8 17.0 22.5 15.6 11.9 11.1 12.5 11.6 *12.4 * ----------------18.8 18.1 22.9 15.3 17.5 15.4 17.1 17.0 24.8 * ----------------18.9 18.1 24.0 16.7 14.1 11.6 13.8 12.4 14.8 15.5 16.8 16.7 18.7 14.2 17.4 15.2 18.3 24.2 20.5 19.9 25.2 15.8 14.7 14.1 16.3 12.3 15.0 15.4 17.6 17.7 20.1 20.1 16.2 15.7 20.2 24.9 22.6 22.1 26.5 17.9 16.4 16.2 18.6 15.1 16.6 16.6 18.0 17.4 20.8 20.2 17.6 19.4 22.9 26.7 24.8 24.6 28.2 20.6 17.3 18.5 24.4 17.7 16.9 16.0 18.7 17.8 22.8 25.0 18.6 21.2 26.2 28.3 26.8 26.7 30.0 20.6 19.2 19.8 22.7 17.5 16.7 19.4 19.5 18.5 23.0 28.6 20.6 21.1 28.8 30.0 29.3 29.2 33.1 21.6 20.7 21.8 24.3 19.1 16.5 20.8 20.2 19.1 25.1 27.6 20.8 23.4 32.2 33.4 31.1 31.0 34.4 23.2 25.7 27.6 34.2 22.9 23.2 25.5 20.7 19.2 28.8 28.7 22.1 23.8 34.8 34.7 31.5 31.4 34.4 24.3 25.7 ----------21.3 19.8 28.5 31.3 23.2 25.4 35.2 34.7 32.2 32.1 35.1 24.7 26.5 ----------21.5 19.9 28.7 37.6 23.6 23.5 36.3 35.6

.. .. ..

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

11.6 16.2 19.8 23.7 27.3 22.3 *18.1 ---

12.7 17.6 20.9 24.5 25.8 23.3 * ---

12.8 17.4 20.5 23.5 25.3 23.0 * ---

13.0 18.3 21.6 25.5 26.3 20.5 *18.9 ---

14.3 19.2 23.5 27.6 30.2 24.7 *23.8 ---

14.2 19.9 24.8 30.6 35.7 32.3 101.9 ---

15.0 20.4 26.3 33.7 39.3 38.6 133.2 347.2

15.8 22.0 28.2 36.5 43.5 45.2 153.1 313.7

15.8 22.4 29.0 38.9 47.7 52.5 189.7 384.0

15.3 22.4 29.6 39.2 47.8 51.3 189.2 374.6

15.7 22.8 30.2 40.1 48.5 53.7 195.4 379.7

Triplet and higher order multiple births All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native. Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: 2 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Age of mother: Under 20 years . 20–24 years . . . 25–29 years . . . 30–34 years . . . 35–39 years . . . 40–44 years . . . 45–49 years . . . 50–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.1 28.4 35.4 * * ------33.9 35.3 30.4 * * ------37.0 37.6 37.1 * * 25.4 39.0 42.6 51.2 54.2 41.2 * *22.0 28.4 55.3 39.1

Number per 100,000 live births 72.8 80.2 46.9 * 43.1 39.5 89.8 46.2 127.5 145.4 58.4 *53.7 59.9 52.2 170.0 57.8 173.6 195.9 88.3 * 103.1 72.7 230.8 90.0 180.5 205.1 83.7 * 117.2 80.8 246.3 83.7 184.0 206.0 102.6 *54.3 108.1 84.1 250.4 102.2 187.4 208.7 108.4 *76.7 111.7 85.9 255.0 109.5 176.9 196.3 98.2 *50.1 140.5 76.4 243.4 99.7

.. ..

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

9.1 25.4 43.7 36.4 35.7 * * ---

10.9 28.1 45.4 53.5 45.1 * * ---

14.8 31.4 42.8 58.3 47.6 * * ---

13.8 35.0 66.3 71.2 70.0 * * ---

15.9 32.4 73.9 126.3 156.8 *57.6 * ---

17.6 35.3 118.3 217.2 285.3 273.6 *1,466.8 ---

20.7 46.8 151.0 293.6 403.2 315.4 2,100.2 *

23.2 44.2 163.3 307.3 368.5 415.5 1,586.6 *9,019.6

21.5 50.0 153.5 297.7 406.0 393.6 2,010.0 *

12.8 48.4 158.9 309.1 409.5 330.7 1,919.6 *

20.6 41.7 158.7 285.0 375.3 364.6 1,235.2 *

- - - Data not available. * Rates preceded by an asterisk are based on fewer than 50 births. Rates based on fewer than 20 births are considered unreliable and are not shown. 1 Starting with 2003 data, estimates are not shown for Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups during the transition from single race to multiple race reporting. See Appendix II, Race, Birth File. 2 Prior to 1993, data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the birth certificate were excluded. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. Data for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women for years prior to 1989 are not nationally representative and are provided for comparison with Hispanic data. NOTES: The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. Interpretation of trend data should take into consideration expansion of reporting areas and immigration. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File; Martin JA, Park MM. Trends in Twin and Triplet Births: 1980–97. National vital statistics reports. Vol 47 no 24. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 1999.

Health, United States, 2006

139

Table 7. Prenatal care for live births, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1970–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version
43 reporting areas

Prenatal care, race, and Hispanic origin of mother Prenatal care began during 1st trimester All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 5 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American. . . . . . . . . . Prenatal care began during 3rd trimester or no prenatal care All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 5 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2002

20031

2003 2

20041

68.0 72.3 44.2 38.2 --71.8 78.1 60.6 ---------------------

72.4 75.8 55.5 45.4 --76.7 82.7 70.6 ---------------------

76.3 79.2 62.4 55.8 73.7 82.6 86.1 77.3 68.8 67.4 60.2 59.6 55.1 82.7 58.8 66.4 81.2 60.8

76.2 79.3 61.5 57.5 74.1 82.0 84.7 76.5 67.7 69.9 61.2 60.0 58.3 82.5 60.6 65.8 81.4 60.2

Percent of live births 3 75.8 81.3 83.2 83.7 79.2 60.6 57.9 75.1 81.3 87.0 77.1 65.8 71.9 60.2 57.8 63.5 84.8 61.5 66.4 83.3 60.7 83.6 70.4 66.7 79.9 85.7 89.7 80.9 75.9 77.0 70.8 69.1 74.0 89.2 73.2 74.3 87.1 70.4 85.0 74.3 69.3 84.0 87.6 91.0 84.9 79.9 82.5 74.4 72.9 78.5 91.7 77.6 75.8 88.5 74.3 85.4 75.2 69.8 84.8 87.2 90.5 85.4 78.1 83.9 76.7 75.7 79.9 92.0 78.7 76.7 88.6 75.2

84.1 85.7 75.9 70.8 85.4 ----------77.5 76.5 81.2 92.1 79.2 77.0 89.0 75.9

84.0 85.5 76.1 70.6 85.4 ----------77.3 76.9 80.3 86.5 78.1 77.5 89.1 76.2

83.9 85.4 76.4 69.9 85.6 ----------77.5 77.2 79.9 86.6 77.6 78.1 88.9 76.5

.... ....

7.9 6.3 16.6 28.9 --6.5 4.1 7.2 ---------------------

6.0 5.0 10.5 22.4 --4.4 2.7 4.1 ---------------------

5.1 4.3 8.9 15.2 6.5 3.7 2.1 4.0 6.7 9.3 12.0 11.8 16.2 3.9 13.1 9.2 3.5 9.7

5.7 4.8 10.2 12.9 6.5 4.4 3.1 4.8 7.4 8.2 12.4 12.9 15.5 3.7 12.5 9.4 4.0 10.9

6.1 4.9 11.3 12.9 5.8 3.4 2.9 4.5 8.7 7.1 12.0 13.2 10.6 2.8 10.9 8.5 3.4 11.2

4.2 3.5 7.6 9.5 4.3 3.0 2.3 4.1 5.1 5.0 7.4 8.1 5.5 2.1 6.1 6.0 2.5 7.6

3.9 3.3 6.7 8.6 3.3 2.2 1.8 3.0 4.2 3.8 6.3 6.9 4.5 1.4 5.4 5.9 2.3 6.7

3.6 3.1 6.2 8.0 3.1 2.1 2.1 2.8 4.7 3.5 5.5 5.8 4.1 1.3 4.9 5.3 2.2 6.2

3.5 3.0 6.0 7.6 3.1 ----------5.3 5.6 3.7 1.3 4.7 5.4 2.1 6.0

3.6 3.1 5.9 7.7 3.1 ----------5.3 5.5 3.9 2.9 4.9 5.6 2.1 5.9

3.6 3.2 5.7 7.9 3.0 ----------5.4 5.5 3.9 2.9 5.1 5.5 2.2 5.7

.... ....

- - - Data not available. 1 Reporting areas that have adopted the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth are excluded because prenatal care data based on the 2003 revision are not comparable with data based on the 1989 and earlier revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. In 2003, Pennsylvania and Washington adopted the 2003 revision; in 2004, Florida, Idaho, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New York State (excluding New York City), South Carolina, and Tennessee adopted the 2003 Revision. See Appendix II, Prenatal care. 2 Data for 2003 are limited to the 43 reporting areas using the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth in 2004 and are provided for comparison with 2004. 3 Excludes live births where trimester when prenatal care began is unknown. 4 Starting with 2003 data, estimates are not shown for Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups during the transition from single race to multiple race reporting. See Appendix II, Race; Birth File. 5 Prior to 1993, data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the birth certificate were excluded. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. Data for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women for years prior to 1989 are not nationally representative and are provided for comparison with Hispanic data. NOTES: Data are based on the 1989 and earlier revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. Data for 1970 and 1975 exclude births that occurred in states not reporting prenatal care. The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. Interpretation of trend data should take into consideration changes in reporting areas and immigration. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File. Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Kirmeyer S. Births: Final Data for 2004. National vital statistics reports. vol 55 no 1. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006; Births: Final data for each data year 1997–2003. National vital statistics reports. Hyattsville, MD; Final natality statistics for each data year 1970–1996. Monthly vital statistics report. Hyattsville, MD.

140

Health, United States, 2006

Table 8 (page 1 of 3). Early prenatal care by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1996–1998, 1999–2001, and 2002–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

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Not Hispanic or Latino All races Geographic division and state White Black or African American

1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 Percent of live births with early prenatal care (beginning in the 1st trimester) 83.2 83.8 87.7 88.5 88.9 72.4 74.3 89.5 89.2 90.6 92.0 91.9 77.8 80.7 89.1 88.1 91.9 92.9 92.4 79.4 82.1 88.7 87.9 89.7 89.0 88.4 84.3 80.1 89.5 89.8 90.4 92.4 92.4 76.3 79.3 90.8 --89.9 91.6 --77.2 75.7 91.1 90.2 92.0 93.5 92.8 80.0 84.7 88.5 89.8 87.8 88.8 90.2 *73.6 78.3 82.0 --88.2 88.4 --68.3 69.7 80.6 79.8 89.5 89.3 88.9 64.5 63.8 85.0 --89.1 88.9 --70.5 70.6 75.5 79.2 83.1 85.2 88.0 69.4 71.0 85.3 --87.9 88.4 --68.7 72.4 84.0 85.4 87.5 88.2 89.0 70.1 71.7 82.9 85.3 89.3 89.9 90.9 69.5 71.4 80.6 81.2 82.6 83.6 84.5 65.4 68.2 84.2 85.9 88.3 88.8 89.7 71.0 69.7 86.8 87.8 87.8 89.0 89.8 72.7 76.3 84.0 84.9 88.0 87.8 88.5 67.5 69.5 86.0 86.6 88.0 89.0 89.5 72.4 75.3 88.1 88.7 88.7 89.5 90.3 74.1 77.2 86.5 87.0 89.1 90.0 90.1 76.0 78.5 84.6 86.1 87.4 88.7 90.2 65.0 66.7 87.5 88.2 88.4 89.7 90.1 73.4 78.0 83.6 83.2 87.0 87.0 86.7 72.0 69.9 86.2 86.4 87.1 88.9 89.2 76.8 76.9 80.1 78.0 86.0 84.3 83.1 70.5 67.6 84.6 84.3 89.5 89.9 90.3 74.3 76.0 85.4 85.6 88.2 89.9 89.9 73.0 78.2 73.9 76.8 89.4 90.7 90.8 62.7 68.6 83.9 --88.6 89.1 --72.6 74.0 86.8 84.2 91.0 91.7 90.4 78.6 80.8 85.7 83.4 92.9 91.4 90.7 79.8 77.4 84.7 84.3 90.0 91.0 90.7 73.4 75.9 79.7 --87.5 86.4 --69.0 70.4 85.2 85.4 90.0 90.3 90.5 73.4 75.7 85.8 85.9 83.2 86.5 86.4 67.1 72.5 83.7 --87.9 88.5 --70.7 73.1 82.8 83.7 88.7 89.7 90.0 69.7 71.7 86.7 --86.8 87.9 --75.9 78.7 81.8 84.4 89.0 89.4 90.8 69.3 73.3 83.4 --87.7 87.7 --72.0 73.0 79.9 81.2 85.8 86.9 87.2 72.1 74.5 79.5 81.1 80.7 83.6 84.6 63.8 69.5 83.1 84.5 89.1 90.4 90.8 71.2 73.4 78.9 77.6 81.9 82.7 81.7 68.0 71.0 79.5 81.1 86.8 87.6 88.1 74.8 76.7 77.7 77.5 84.8 85.2 85.3 71.3 71.8 76.4 76.5 84.4 86.9 87.5 71.5 74.6 80.7 79.5 87.5 87.8 86.2 76.4 74.3 81.1 --81.6 83.5 --72.2 75.9 83.2 83.8 84.9 86.1 86.7 75.9 86.5 75.1 75.6 83.3 84.5 84.6 66.8 67.6 68.1 69.1 77.8 75.7 76.8 62.3 64.6 79.7 79.9 86.4 83.7 83.7 67.2 60.0 82.9 85.5 83.8 84.4 87.0 69.7 78.3 84.0 86.3 86.8 88.1 89.4 79.0 81.4 80.0 80.2 83.4 83.6 84.0 82.3 83.1 84.5 87.0 87.7 89.7 90.6 79.0 81.8 85.1 82.7 90.1 90.3 86.7 89.5 91.2 81.2 81.1 83.1 84.2 84.4 78.4 76.4 82.9 --86.0 86.0 --77.0 75.8

United States 1 . . . . . New England 1 . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . New Hampshire 1 . . Rhode Island . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . Middle Atlantic 1 . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New York 1 . . . . . . . New York City . . . . Pennsylvania 1 . . . . East North Central . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . West North Central . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Missouri. . . . . . . . . Nebraska. . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . . South Dakota . . . . . South Atlantic 1 . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida 1 . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . South Carolina 1 . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . East South Central 1 . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Kentucky 1 . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . Tennessee 1 . . . . . . West South Central . . Arkansas . . . . . . . . Louisiana. . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Mountain 1 . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Idaho 1 . . . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . New Mexico. . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . Pacific 1 . . . . . . . . . . Alaska. . . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . . Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . . . Washington 1 . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82.4 88.1 88.4 89.3 87.4 89.5 89.6 87.6 81.7 81.6 85.4 73.5 84.3 83.4 82.2 80.1 84.2 85.3 84.3 85.2 87.3 85.6 84.0 85.9 84.1 85.0 82.2 84.3 83.2 67.6 83.6 85.8 88.3 84.0 80.4 84.9 82.6 83.0 82.1 85.6 79.8 83.7 78.9 76.1 81.5 78.6 78.6 78.1 74.7 82.2 78.7 82.5 76.1 69.2 83.2 81.9 81.7 80.9 81.6 84.3 80.4 83.2

76.1 80.1 80.3 76.4 80.0 --81.2 72.1 --63.5 --73.5 --74.2 74.2 69.2 71.9 78.8 74.0 77.5 77.1 79.3 72.2 80.3 71.9 82.6 63.5 77.3 81.2 71.5 --79.1 75.5 76.3 --77.6 75.0 --75.5 --77.2 --76.1 73.3 75.9 70.4 77.4 72.6 78.2 71.2 --85.2 70.0 68.2 60.3 86.1 83.4 83.7 83.5 90.3 75.6 ---

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

141

Table 8 (page 2 of 3). Early prenatal care by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1996–1998, 1999–2001, and 2002–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Hispanic or Latino 2 Geographic division and state

American Indian or Alaska Native 3

Asian or Pacific Islander 3

1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 Percent of live births 74.9 77.1 80.4 81.1 78.8 76.9 80.6 80.5 80.2 83.0 80.4 --86.7 86.8 82.2 79.4 71.6 --68.6 67.9 73.3 --72.4 77.0 73.5 --72.6 77.0 74.0 79.6 63.1 64.5 71.6 77.9 76.7 78.7 69.6 70.7 69.7 73.4 73.3 75.5 69.4 74.1 63.2 69.6 78.2 79.7 68.1 70.0 77.5 80.5 68.5 63.9 77.3 70.4 72.3 72.0 70.8 70.5 81.4 --77.9 71.0 77.3 68.1 69.1 69.9 61.7 --71.6 71.1 67.4 74.2 60.8 --55.7 53.1 68.6 --73.4 77.0 58.5 --72.5 75.6 66.2 70.6 85.0 83.7 66.7 64.6 72.6 76.0 65.0 66.6 65.7 66.8 65.5 67.6 66.9 --79.3 80.1 61.8 64.1 65.5 66.7 61.3 64.1 73.5 79.6 80.3 84.3 80.8 78.2 81.0 84.8 83.7 81.1 69.2 70.2 71.8 --with early prenatal care (beginning in the 1st trimester) 68.2 69.4 69.9 82.2 83.9 75.8 81.0 84.1 82.2 85.4 75.2 82.1 85.4 85.9 87.5 72.9 76.2 78.0 81.5 86.8 71.1 82.3 88.5 81.0 84.7 86.2 81.9 --84.6 85.3 81.5 81.9 80.9 81.5 83.8 *79.3 *82.4 *85.7 75.7 85.6 74.2 77.1 --77.8 78.5 71.8 73.8 67.9 83.2 83.3 72.5 74.8 --81.9 82.7 77.5 77.5 84.7 72.9 73.2 78.2 82.4 --78.5 81.1 72.6 75.2 75.7 82.1 83.4 75.1 77.8 81.4 85.2 85.0 68.1 74.2 70.9 81.8 81.0 73.9 75.6 79.4 85.6 87.0 79.4 80.4 80.9 86.0 88.7 69.3 72.7 71.2 62.3 65.8 66.9 66.3 65.8 73.2 78.2 69.9 74.7 75.9 82.0 83.7 77.7 80.4 82.0 82.5 85.4 62.1 62.2 64.0 61.2 69.5 76.9 77.3 80.4 84.2 87.8 67.5 68.3 68.5 82.1 80.7 70.1 66.8 66.9 78.4 86.3 64.3 61.8 57.7 74.8 80.1 73.9 73.7 80.6 85.4 86.6 *76.2 78.1 87.1 84.0 89.2 *83.3 *61.9 * 73.2 77.9 69.4 64.2 --87.1 87.8 82.9 81.7 83.5 87.3 90.2 84.0 82.6 78.7 89.5 87.0 72.5 76.5 80.2 81.9 83.5 76.1 77.4 --76.0 79.5 81.0 80.2 82.1 83.7 85.7 *84.2 *74.4 *69.2 82.2 80.4 75.7 78.6 --83.4 84.6 80.0 79.4 81.4 83.4 86.7 79.4 85.2 --84.6 87.2 72.8 75.8 72.2 80.1 83.0 73.8 78.2 --84.0 83.1 70.4 70.9 72.5 85.6 87.3 68.4 74.0 75.4 73.4 78.6 78.0 80.7 84.4 83.7 85.7 69.3 69.4 70.2 81.7 80.7 74.1 74.6 79.4 86.6 88.4 60.9 63.8 64.9 78.0 78.9 61.0 65.9 68.0 82.4 84.5 71.9 68.3 67.6 80.0 82.6 59.3 67.5 --78.2 80.4 66.4 65.6 66.1 79.7 80.4 70.3 67.4 68.6 78.5 79.2 55.6 58.8 59.2 74.3 75.0 59.0 55.3 56.7 69.8 64.7 65.1 71.8 70.9 84.4 82.2 72.7 72.5 73.0 83.5 85.5 75.7 71.3 70.3 75.2 76.4 71.8 73.9 76.0 84.2 86.5 82.9 83.4 81.2 82.3 83.4 66.2 68.7 68.9 80.2 81.8 72.1 72.0 --80.5 81.6

United States 1 . . . . . New England 1 . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . New Hampshire 1 . . Rhode Island . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . Middle Atlantic 1 . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New York 1 . . . . . . . New York City . . . . Pennsylvania 1 . . . . East North Central . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . West North Central . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Missouri. . . . . . . . . Nebraska. . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . . South Dakota . . . . . South Atlantic 1 . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida 1 . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . South Carolina 1 . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . East South Central 1 . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Kentucky 1 . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . Tennessee 1 . . . . . . West South Central . . Arkansas . . . . . . . . Louisiana. . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Mountain 1 . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Idaho 1 . . . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . New Mexico. . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . Pacific 1 . . . . . . . . . . Alaska. . . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . . Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . . . Washington 1 . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73.4 77.4 78.2 80.2 75.9 77.3 82.6 82.8 70.7 71.0 73.9 69.3 71.5 72.4 72.6 65.9 73.2 76.8 71.3 67.8 71.0 65.9 61.7 76.8 67.6 73.8 72.2 78.1 68.7 64.1 81.4 76.0 81.4 68.5 65.9 72.8 76.5 66.7 62.5 74.0 77.1 64.5 71.3 59.8 83.8 68.6 71.4 65.3 64.1 68.3 61.2 76.7 64.0 66.2 64.5 71.1 76.6 78.1 77.0 83.0 66.6 70.8

85.3 86.1 87.7 82.1 86.1 --81.8 86.9 --84.8 --77.0 --86.0 88.1 83.5 88.2 90.3 70.0 81.2 87.6 86.2 74.5 88.4 83.7 87.2 72.3 86.1 90.1 81.7 --88.6 84.9 85.0 --85.5 86.1 --87.4 --85.9 --88.1 82.4 88.3 80.3 89.0 79.1 84.2 80.8 --83.7 80.2 76.1 65.7 84.7 87.1 75.1 88.5 81.2 81.7 ---

See footnotes at end of table.

142

Health, United States, 2006

Table 8 (page 3 of 3). Early prenatal care by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1996–1998, 1999–2001, and 2002–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

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* Percents preceded by an asterisk are based on fewer than 50 births. Percents not shown are based on fewer than 20 births. 1 Reporting areas that have adopted the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth are excluded because prenatal care data based on the 2003 revision are not comparable with data based on the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. In 2003, Pennsylvania and Washington adopted the 2003 revision; in 2004, Florida, Idaho, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New York State (excluding New York City), South Carolina, and Tennessee adopted the 2003 revision. See Appendix II, Prenatal Care. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. 3 Includes persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. NOTES: Data are based on the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File.

Health, United States, 2006

143

Table 9. Teenage childbearing, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1970–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Maternal age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother Age of mother under 18 years All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 2 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2001

2002

Percent of live births 6.3 4.8 14.8 7.5 --1.1 2.0 3.7 --------------------7.6 6.0 16.3 11.2 --0.4 1.7 2.4 --------------------5.8 4.5 12.5 9.4 1.5 0.3 1.0 1.6 6.6 1.2 7.4 7.7 10.0 3.8 2.4 6.5 4.0 12.7 4.7 3.7 10.6 7.6 1.6 0.3 0.9 1.6 5.7 1.8 6.4 6.9 8.5 2.2 2.4 7.0 3.2 10.7 4.7 3.6 10.1 7.2 2.1 0.4 0.8 2.0 6.5 2.4 6.6 6.9 9.1 2.7 3.2 8.0 3.0 10.2 5.3 4.3 10.8 8.7 2.2 0.3 0.8 2.2 7.6 2.5 7.6 8.0 10.8 2.8 4.1 9.0 3.4 10.8 4.1 3.5 7.8 7.3 1.5 0.2 0.6 1.6 5.7 1.7 6.3 6.6 7.8 3.1 3.3 7.6 2.6 7.8 3.8 3.3 7.3 6.8 1.3 0.2 0.5 1.5 4.9 1.5 5.8 6.2 7.4 2.7 3.1 6.8 2.3 7.3 3.6 3.1 6.9 6.6 1.1 0.2 0.6 1.2 4.5 1.3 5.6 6.0 6.9 2.7 2.8 6.5 2.2 6.9 3.4 3.0 6.6 6.6 1.1 ----------5.4 5.8 6.9 2.4 2.8 6.3 2.1 6.6 3.4 3.0 6.4 6.4 1.1 ----------5.4 5.8 6.8 2.4 2.8 6.3 2.0 6.5

.... ....

Age of mother 18–19 years All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 1 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 2 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.3 10.4 16.6 12.8 --3.9 4.1 7.1 ---------------------

11.3 10.3 16.9 15.2 --1.7 3.3 5.0 ---------------------

9.8 9.0 14.5 14.6 3.9 1.0 2.3 4.0 13.3 3.8 11.6 12.0 13.3 9.2 6.0 10.8 8.5 14.7

8.0 7.1 12.9 12.4 3.4 0.6 1.9 3.7 12.3 3.5 10.1 10.6 12.4 4.9 5.8 10.5 6.5 12.9

8.1 7.3 13.0 12.3 3.7 0.8 2.0 4.1 11.9 3.9 10.2 10.7 12.6 5.0 5.9 11.1 6.6 13.0

7.9 7.2 12.4 12.7 3.5 0.6 1.7 4.1 11.5 3.8 10.3 10.8 12.7 4.9 6.5 11.1 6.4 12.4

7.7 7.1 11.9 12.4 3.0 0.7 1.4 3.7 11.7 3.2 9.9 10.4 12.2 4.4 6.5 11.3 6.1 12.0

7.5 6.9 11.5 12.5 3.0 0.8 1.2 3.6 11.3 3.1 9.7 10.3 11.8 4.8 6.3 10.5 5.9 11.6

7.1 6.6 11.1 11.9 2.7 0.7 1.1 3.3 10.2 2.8 9.3 9.8 10.9 5.5 5.7 10.2 5.6 11.1

6.9 6.4 10.7 11.6 2.4 ----------8.9 9.5 11.0 5.5 5.6 9.6 5.4 10.8

6.8 6.4 10.7 11.5 2.3 ----------8.9 9.4 10.8 5.4 5.6 9.9 5.4 10.8

.... ....

- - - Data not available. 1 Starting with 2003 data, estimates are not shown for Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups during the transition from single race to multiple race reporting. See Appendix II, Race, Birth File. 2 Prior to 1993, data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the birth certificate were excluded. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. Data for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women for years prior to 1989 are not nationally representative and are provided for comparison with Hispanic data. NOTES: The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. Interpretation of trend data should take into consideration expansion of reporting areas and immigration. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File.

144

Health, United States, 2006

Table 10. Nonmarital childbearing by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother, and maternal age: United States, selected years 1970–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

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2003 2004

Race, Hispanic origin of mother, and maternal age

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2001

2002

All races and origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American 2 . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . Hispanic or Latino 3 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26.4 13.9 95.5 -------

24.5 12.4 84.2 -------

Live births per 1,000 unmarried women 15–44 years of age 1 29.4 32.8 43.8 44.3 44.0 43.8 43.7 18.1 81.1 ------22.5 77.0 ------32.9 90.5 --89.6 24.4 37.0 74.5 --88.7 28.1 38.2 70.5 20.9 87.2 28.0 38.5 68.2 21.2 87.8 27.8 38.9 66.2 21.3 87.9 27.8

44.9 40.4 66.3 22.2 92.2 28.6

46.1 41.6 67.2 23.6 95.7 29.4

Percent of live births to unmarried mothers All races and origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 3 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.7 5.5 37.5 22.4 --3.0 4.6 9.1 --------------------14.3 7.1 49.5 32.7 --1.6 4.6 6.9 --------------------18.4 11.2 56.1 39.2 7.3 2.7 5.2 8.6 32.9 5.4 23.6 20.3 46.3 10.0 27.1 22.4 9.5 57.2 22.0 14.7 61.2 46.8 9.5 3.0 7.9 11.4 37.3 8.5 29.5 25.7 51.1 16.1 34.9 31.1 12.4 62.0 28.0 20.4 66.5 53.6 13.2 5.0 9.6 15.9 45.0 12.6 36.7 33.3 55.9 18.2 41.2 37.2 16.9 66.7 32.2 25.3 69.9 57.2 16.3 7.9 10.8 19.5 49.0 16.2 40.8 38.1 60.0 23.8 44.1 44.0 21.2 70.0 33.2 27.1 68.5 58.4 14.8 7.6 9.5 20.3 50.0 13.8 42.7 40.7 59.6 27.3 44.7 46.2 22.1 68.7 33.5 27.7 68.4 59.7 14.9 8.4 9.2 20.4 50.6 13.7 42.5 40.8 58.9 27.2 44.3 44.2 22.5 68.6 34.0 28.5 68.2 59.7 14.9 9.0 10.3 20.0 50.4 13.5 43.5 42.1 59.1 29.8 44.8 44.4 23.0 68.4 34.6 29.4 68.2 61.3 15.0 ----------45.0 43.7 59.8 31.4 46.0 46.7 23.6 68.5 35.8 30.5 68.8 62.3 15.5 ----------46.4 45.2 61.0 33.2 47.6 46.6 24.5 69.3

.... ....

Live births to unmarried mothers . . . . . . . . . . Maternal age Under 20 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

399

448

666

Number of live births, in thousands 828 1,165 1,254 1,347 1,349

1,366

1,416

1,470

50.1 31.8 18.1

52.1 29.9 18.0

Percent distribution of live births 40.8 33.8 30.9 30.9 35.6 36.3 34.7 34.5 23.5 29.9 34.4 34.7

to unmarried mothers 28.0 26.6 25.4 37.4 38.2 38.6 34.6 35.2 35.9

24.3 38.8 36.9

23.7 38.5 37.8

- - - Data not available. 1 Rates computed by relating births to unmarried mothers, regardless of age of mother, to unmarried women 15–44 years of age. Population data for unmarried American Indian or Alaska Native women are not available for rate calculations. Prior to 2000, population data for unmarried Asian or Pacific Islander women were not available for rate calculations. 2 For 1970 and 1975, birth rates are by race of child. 3 Prior to 1993, data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the birth certificate were excluded. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. Data for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women for years prior to 1989 are not nationally representative and are provided for comparison with Hispanic data. 4 Starting with 2003 data, estimates are not shown for Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups during the transition from single race to multiple race reporting. See Appendix II, Race, Birth File. NOTES: National estimates for 1970 and 1975 for unmarried mothers are based on births occurring in states reporting marital status of mother. Changes in reporting procedures for marital status occurred in some states during the 1990s. Interpretation of trend data should also take into consideration expansion of reporting areas and immigration. See Appendix II, Marital status. The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were computed using the 2000 census counts and starting with 2001, rates were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File. Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Kirmeyer S. Births: Final Data for 2004. National vital statistics reports. vol 55 no 1. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006; Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ. Revised birth and fertility rates for the 1990s and new rates for Hispanic populations, 2000 and 2001: United States. National vital statistics reports. vol 51 no 12. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2003; Births: Final data for each data year 1997–2003. National vital statistics reports. Hyattsville, MD; Final natality statistics for each data year 1993–1996. Monthly vital statistics report. Hyattsville, MD; Ventura SJ. Births to unmarried mothers: United States, 1980–1992. Vital Health Stat 21(53). 1995.

Health, United States, 2006

145

Table 11. Maternal education for live births, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1970–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

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43 reporting areas

Education, race, and Hispanic origin of mother Less than 12 years of education All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 5 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American. . . . . . . . . . 16 years or more of education All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 5 White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2002

2003 1

2003 2

2004 1

30.8 27.1 51.2 60.5 --23.0 11.8 26.4 ---------------------

28.6 25.1 45.3 52.7 --16.5 9.1 22.3 ---------------------

23.7 20.8 36.4 44.2 21.0 15.2 5.0 16.4 20.7 27.6 51.1 62.8 55.3 24.1 41.2 40.1 18.1 37.3

20.6 17.8 32.6 39.0 19.4 15.5 4.8 13.9 18.7 24.3 44.5 59.0 46.6 21.1 37.0 36.5 15.7 33.4

Percent of live births 3 23.8 22.6 21.7 21.5 22.4 30.2 36.4 20.0 15.8 3.5 10.3 19.3 26.8 53.9 61.4 42.7 17.8 44.2 33.3 15.2 30.0 21.6 28.7 33.0 16.1 12.9 2.6 8.0 17.6 21.2 52.1 58.6 38.6 14.4 41.7 33.8 13.3 28.6 21.4 25.5 31.6 11.6 11.7 2.1 6.2 16.7 13.5 48.9 55.0 33.4 11.9 37.2 31.4 12.2 25.3 21.6 24.4 30.8 10.3 11.3 2.2 5.3 14.3 11.6 48.1 54.2 31.5 11.8 35.8 31.7 11.7 24.3

21.6 21.8 24.0 30.5 9.9 ----------47.5 53.6 29.9 11.5 35.3 30.1 11.5 23.8

22.1 22.5 23.9 30.2 10.0 ----------48.7 53.1 31.7 13.4 38.0 28.3 11.0 23.5

22.2 22.7 23.8 30.1 9.3 ----------48.4 52.5 31.6 13.0 39.1 29.4 11.0 23.4

.... ....

8.6 9.6 2.8 2.7 --34.0 20.7 28.1 ---------------------

11.4 12.7 4.3 2.2 --37.8 30.6 36.6 ---------------------

14.0 15.5 6.2 3.5 30.8 41.5 36.8 37.1 7.9 29.2 4.2 2.2 3.0 11.6 6.1 5.5 16.6 5.8

16.7 18.6 7.0 3.7 30.3 35.2 38.1 35.2 6.5 30.2 6.0 3.0 4.6 15.0 8.1 7.2 19.4 6.7

17.5 19.3 7.2 4.4 31.0 40.3 44.1 34.5 6.8 27.3 5.1 3.3 6.5 20.4 8.6 8.5 22.6 7.3

21.4 23.1 9.5 6.2 35.0 49.0 46.2 36.7 9.7 30.5 6.1 4.0 8.7 26.5 10.3 10.5 27.7 9.5

24.7 26.3 11.7 7.8 42.8 55.6 51.1 40.5 13.5 40.7 7.6 5.1 10.4 31.0 14.1 12.5 32.5 11.7

25.9 27.3 12.7 8.7 45.7 57.3 53.5 43.3 14.6 44.4 8.3 5.5 11.8 30.5 15.5 13.2 34.3 12.7

26.6 27.9 13.4 8.5 47.1 ----------8.7 5.9 12.9 31.3 16.0 14.4 35.5 13.4

26.7 27.8 13.8 8.3 46.8 ----------7.8 5.9 11.7 34.5 14.1 14.5 36.4 13.9

26.9 28.0 13.7 8.6 48.6 ----------8.0 6.1 12.0 35.4 14.2 14.0 37.0 13.8

.... ....

- - - Data not available. 1 Reporting areas that have adopted the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth are excluded because maternal education data based on the 2003 revision are not comparable with data based on the 1989 and earlier revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. In 2003, Pennsylvania and Washington adopted the 2003 revision; in 2004, Florida, Idaho, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New York State (excluding New York City), South Carolina, and Tennessee adopted the 2003 revision. See Appendix II, Education. 2 Data for 2003 are limited to the 43 reporting areas using the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth in 2004 and are provided for comparison with 2004. 3 Excludes live births for whom education of mother is unknown. 4 Starting with 2003 data, estimates are not shown for Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups during the transition from single race to multiple race reporting. See Appendix II, Race, Birth File. 5 Prior to 1993, data are shown only for states with an Hispanic-origin item and education of mother item on the birth certificate. See Appendix II, Education; Hispanic origin. Data for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women for years prior to 1989 are not nationally representative and are provided for comparison with Hispanic data. NOTES: Data are based on the 1989 and earlier revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. Maternal education groups shown in this table generally represent the group at highest risk for unfavorable birth outcomes (less than 12 years of education) and the group at lowest risk (16 years or more of education). In 1992–2002, education of mother was reported on the birth certificate by all 50 states and the District of Columbia. See Appendix II, Education. Prior to 1992, data from states lacking an education of mother item were excluded. The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. Interpretation of trend data should take into consideration changes in reporting areas and immigration. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File.

146

Health, United States, 2006

Table 12. Mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, by detailed race, Hispanic origin, age, and education of mother: United States, selected years, 1989–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version

42 reporting areas Characteristic of mother Race of mother All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native Asian or Pacific Islander 5 . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.5 20.4 17.1 23.0 5.7 2.7 8.2 5.1 19.3 4.2 18.4 19.4 15.9 22.4 5.5 2.0 8.0 5.3 21.0 3.8 13.9 15.0 10.6 20.9 3.4 0.8 5.2 3.4 15.9 2.7 1989 1990 1995 2000 2002 2003 1 2003 2 2004 1

Percent of mothers who smoked 3,4 12.2 13.2 9.1 20.0 2.8 0.6 4.2 3.2 14.4 2.3 11.4 12.3 8.7 19.7 2.5 0.5 4.0 2.9 13.7 2.1 10.7 11.6 8.1 18.1 2.2 ----------10.4 11.1 8.3 18.2 2.2 ----------10.2 11.0 8.2 18.2 2.2 -----------

Hispanic origin and race of mother 6 Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . Age of mother 3 Under 15 years . . . . . . . . . . 15–19 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–17 years . . . . . . . . . . . 18–19 years . . . . . . . . . . . 20–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–29 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 30–34 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–39 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–54 years 7 . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

8.0 6.3 14.5 6.9 3.6 12.1 21.7 17.2

6.7 5.3 13.6 6.4 3.0 10.8 21.0 15.9

4.3 3.1 10.4 4.1 1.8 8.2 17.1 10.6

3.5 2.4 10.3 3.3 1.5 7.4 15.6 9.2

3.0 2.2 9.0 2.8 1.3 6.5 15.0 8.8

2.7 2.0 7.9 2.4 1.1 6.6 14.3 8.3

2.7 2.1 8.5 5.8 1.1 6.9 13.8 8.4

2.6 2.0 8.5 6.4 1.2 6.4 13.8 8.4

.. ..

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

7.7 22.2 19.0 23.9 23.5 19.0 15.7 13.6 13.2

7.5 20.8 17.6 22.5 22.1 18.0 15.3 13.3 12.3

7.3 16.8 14.6 18.1 17.1 12.8 11.4 12.0 10.1

7.1 17.8 15.0 19.2 16.8 10.5 8.0 9.1 9.5

5.8 16.7 13.4 18.2 16.7 9.9 7.1 7.8 8.4

5.3 15.4 11.9 17.1 16.1 9.4 6.5 6.8 8.0

5.1 14.9 11.5 16.5 15.5 9.0 6.2 6.7 7.8

4.1 14.2 10.5 16.0 15.5 9.2 6.1 6.3 7.2

Education of mother 8 0–8 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–11 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–15 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 years or more . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

18.9 42.2 22.8 13.7 5.0

17.5 40.5 21.9 12.8 4.5

Percent of mothers 20 years of age and over who smoked 3,4 11.0 7.9 6.8 6.2 5.7 32.0 28.2 26.8 25.5 24.2 18.3 16.6 16.0 15.2 14.9 10.6 9.1 8.8 8.5 8.3 2.7 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.5

5.5 23.7 14.9 8.4 1.5

- - - Data not available. 1 Reporting areas that have adopted the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth are excluded because maternal tobacco use and education data based on the 2003 revision are not comparable with data based on the 1989 and earlier revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. In 2003, Pennsylvania and Washington adopted the 2003 revision; in 2004 Florida, Idaho, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New York State (excluding New York City), South Carolina, and Tennessee adopted the 2003 revision. In addition, California did not require reporting of tobacco use during pregnancy. See Appendix II, Cigarette smoking. 2 Data for 2003 are limited to the 42 reporting areas using the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth in 2004 and are provided for comparison with 2004. 3 Data from states that did not require the reporting of mother’s tobacco use during pregnancy on the birth certificate are not included. Reporting area for tobacco use increased from 43 states and the District of Columbia (DC) in 1989 to 49 states and DC in 2000–2002. See Appendix II, Cigarette smoking. 4 Excludes live births for whom smoking status of mother is unknown. 5 Maternal tobacco use during pregnancy was not reported on the birth certificates of California, which in 2004 accounted for 30% of the births to Asian or Pacific Islander mothers. Starting with 2003 data, estimates are not shown for Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups during the transition from single race to multiple race reporting. See Appendix II, Race, Birth File. 6 Data from states that did not require the reporting of Hispanic origin of mother on the birth certificate are not included. Reporting of Hispanic origin increased from 47 states in 1989 to include all 50 states and DC by 1993. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. 7 Prior to 1997, data are for live births to mothers 45–49 years of age. 8 Data from states that did not require the reporting of mother’s education on the birth certificate are not included. See Appendix II, Education. NOTES: Data are based on the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. Interpretation of trend data should take into consideration changes in reporting areas and immigration. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File.

Health, United States, 2006

147

Table 13. Low-birthweight live births, by detailed race, Hispanic origin, and smoking status of mother: United States, selected years 1970–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Birthweight, race and Hispanic origin of mother, and smoking status of mother Low birthweight (less than 2,500 grams) All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 3 White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . Cigarette smoker 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonsmoker 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

1999

2000

2002

2003

2004

7.93 6.85 13.90 7.97 --6.67 9.03 10.02 -------------------------

7.38 6.27 13.19 6.41 --5.29 7.47 8.08 -------------------------

6.84 5.72 12.69 6.44 6.68 5.21 6.60 7.40 7.23 6.83 6.12 5.62 8.95 5.62 5.76 6.96 5.69 12.71 -----

6.75 5.65 12.65 5.86 6.16 4.98 6.21 6.95 6.49 6.19 6.16 5.77 8.69 6.02 5.68 6.83 5.61 12.62 -----

Percent of live births 1 6.97 7.32 7.62 5.70 13.25 6.11 6.45 4.69 6.16 7.30 7.24 6.65 6.06 5.55 8.99 5.67 5.84 6.87 5.61 13.32 11.25 6.14 6.22 13.13 6.61 6.90 5.29 7.26 7.83 6.84 7.05 6.29 5.81 9.41 6.50 6.20 7.55 6.20 13.21 12.18 6.79 6.57 13.11 7.15 7.45 5.19 7.95 8.30 7.69 7.76 6.38 5.94 9.30 6.80 6.38 7.63 6.64 13.23 12.06 7.21

7.57 6.55 12.99 6.76 7.31 5.10 7.14 8.46 6.76 7.67 6.41 6.01 9.30 6.49 6.34 7.84 6.60 13.13 11.88 7.19

7.82 6.80 13.29 7.23 7.78 5.52 7.57 8.61 8.14 8.16 6.55 6.16 9.68 6.50 6.53 7.87 6.91 13.39 12.15 7.48

7.93 6.94 13.37 7.37 7.78 ----------6.69 6.28 10.01 7.04 6.70 8.01 7.04 13.55 12.40 7.66

8.08 7.07 13.44 7.45 7.89 ----------6.79 6.44 9.82 7.72 6.70 7.78 7.20 13.74 12.54 7.79

Very low birthweight (less than 1,500 grams) All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 2 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 3 White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . Cigarette smoker 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonsmoker 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.17 0.95 2.40 0.98 --0.80 1.48 1.08 -------------------------

1.16 0.92 2.40 0.95 --0.52 0.89 0.93 -------------------------

1.15 0.90 2.48 0.92 0.92 0.66 0.94 0.99 1.05 0.96 0.98 0.92 1.29 1.02 0.99 1.01 0.87 2.47 -----

1.21 0.94 2.71 1.01 0.85 0.57 0.84 0.86 1.03 0.91 1.01 0.97 1.30 1.18 1.01 0.96 0.91 2.67 -----

1.27 0.95 2.92 1.01 0.87 0.51 0.73 1.05 0.97 0.92 1.03 0.92 1.62 1.20 1.05 1.09 0.93 2.93 1.73 1.18

1.35 1.06 2.97 1.10 0.91 0.67 0.87 1.13 0.94 0.91 1.11 1.01 1.79 1.19 1.13 1.28 1.04 2.98 1.85 1.31

1.45 1.15 3.14 1.26 1.08 0.68 0.86 1.41 1.41 1.09 1.14 1.04 1.86 1.49 1.15 1.32 1.15 3.18 1.91 1.43

1.43 1.14 3.07 1.16 1.05 0.77 0.75 1.38 1.39 1.04 1.14 1.03 1.93 1.21 1.20 1.42 1.14 3.10 1.91 1.40

1.46 1.17 3.13 1.28 1.12 0.74 0.97 1.31 1.55 1.17 1.17 1.06 1.96 1.15 1.20 1.44 1.17 3.15 1.88 1.45

1.45 1.17 3.07 1.30 1.09 ----------1.16 1.06 2.01 1.37 1.17 1.28 1.18 3.12 1.92 1.44

1.48 1.20 3.07 1.28 1.14 ----------1.20 1.13 1.96 1.30 1.19 1.27 1.20 3.15 1.88 1.47

- - - Data not available. 1 Excludes live births with unknown birthweight. Percent based on live births with known birthweight. 2 Starting with 2003 data, estimates are not shown for Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups during the transition from single race to multiple race reporting. See Appendix II, Race, Birth File. 3 Prior to 1993, data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the birth certificate were excluded. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. Data for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women for years prior to 1989 are not nationally representative and are provided for comparison with Hispanic data. 4 Percent based on live births with known smoking status of mother and known birthweight. Data from states that did not require the reporting of mother’s tobacco use during pregnancy on the birth certificate are not included. Reporting area for tobacco use increased from 43 states and the District of Columbia (DC) in 1989 to 49 states and DC in 2000–2002. Data for 2003 and 2004 exclude states that implemented the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth: Pennsylvania and Washington (in 2003), Florida, Idaho, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New York State (excluding New York City), Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington (in 2004). Tobacco use data based on the 2003 revision are not comparable with data based on the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. California has never required reporting of tobacco use during pregnancy. See Appendix II, Cigarette smoking. NOTES: The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. Interpretation of trend data should take into consideration expansion of reporting areas and immigration. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File.

148

Health, United States, 2006

Table 14 (page 1 of 2). Low-birthweight live births among mothers 20 years of age and over, by detailed race, Hispanic origin, and education of mother: United States, selected years 1989–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version

43 reporting areas Education, race, and Hispanic origin of mother Less than 12 years of education All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 5 White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.0 7.3 17.0 7.3 6.6 5.4 4.0 6.9 11.0 6.8 6.0 5.3 11.3 9.4 5.8 8.2 8.4 17.6 8.6 7.0 16.5 7.4 6.4 5.2 10.6 7.2 10.7 6.4 5.7 5.2 10.3 7.9 5.8 8.0 8.3 16.7 1989 1990 1995 2000 2002 2003 1 2003 2 2004 1

Percent of live births weighing less than 2,500 grams 3 8.4 7.1 16.0 8.0 6.7 5.3 11.0 7.5 9.8 6.7 5.8 5.4 10.5 9.2 6.2 7.7 8.9 16.2 8.2 7.1 14.8 7.2 7.2 5.3 6.8 8.6 9.4 7.5 6.0 5.6 10.9 8.4 6.2 8.6 9.0 15.2 8.2 7.1 15.0 8.4 7.4 4.4 4.7 9.0 7.8 8.1 6.0 5.7 10.4 7.5 6.2 7.8 9.3 15.3 8.4 7.3 15.2 8.0 7.5 ----------6.2 5.9 11.2 7.9 6.4 8.1 9.5 15.7 8.2 7.1 15.3 8.0 7.6 ----------6.2 5.9 11.0 9.7 6.5 8.9 9.4 15.9 8.3 7.2 15.3 8.7 7.7 ----------6.2 6.0 10.5 12.1 6.4 7.7 9.6 16.1

.. ..

12 years of education All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 5 White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . 13 years or more of education All races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 5 White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

7.1 5.7 13.4 5.6 6.4 5.1 7.4 6.8 7.0 6.5 5.9 5.2 8.8 5.3 5.7 6.1 5.7 13.6

7.1 5.8 13.1 6.1 6.5 4.9 6.2 7.6 6.7 6.7 6.0 5.5 8.3 5.2 5.8 6.6 5.7 13.2

7.6 6.4 13.3 6.5 7.0 5.7 7.4 7.7 6.6 7.1 6.1 5.6 8.7 6.7 5.9 7.1 6.5 13.4

7.9 6.8 13.0 6.7 7.4 5.6 7.2 8.1 6.8 7.7 6.2 5.8 8.8 6.5 6.0 7.3 6.9 13.1

8.2 7.0 13.4 7.1 7.9 5.2 7.1 8.7 8.3 8.2 6.5 6.1 9.3 6.0 6.4 7.7 7.3 13.5

8.4 7.2 13.5 7.2 7.8 ----------6.5 6.1 9.8 6.4 6.6 7.4 7.5 13.7

8.3 7.2 13.5 7.2 7.8 ----------6.5 6.1 10.1 7.2 6.6 7.8 7.5 13.7

8.4 7.3 13.7 7.2 7.7 ----------6.7 6.4 9.8 8.3 6.8 7.7 7.6 13.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.5 4.6 11.2 5.6 6.1 4.5 6.6 7.2 6.3 6.1 5.5 5.1 7.4 4.9 5.2 5.4 4.6 11.2

5.4 4.6 11.1 4.7 6.0 4.4 6.0 7.0 4.7 6.2 5.5 5.2 7.4 5.0 5.6 5.2 4.5 11.1

6.0 5.3 11.4 5.7 6.6 5.1 7.1 7.6 5.0 6.7 5.9 5.6 7.9 5.6 5.8 6.1 5.2 11.5

6.6 5.8 11.6 6.5 7.0 4.8 7.0 8.3 4.5 7.4 6.2 5.8 7.9 5.9 6.3 6.6 5.8 11.7

7.0 6.2 12.0 7.0 7.6 5.7 7.7 8.4 7.2 7.9 6.6 6.2 8.9 6.4 6.5 7.0 6.2 12.1

7.1 6.4 12.0 7.3 7.6 ----------6.8 6.3 9.1 6.9 6.8 7.6 6.4 12.1

7.1 6.4 12.0 7.4 7.6 ----------6.8 6.3 9.3 7.5 6.8 7.8 6.3 12.1

7.2 6.5 12.2 6.5 7.8 ----------6.8 6.6 8.9 8.1 6.7 6.9 6.5 12.3

.. ..

Health, United States, 2006

149

Table 14 (page 2 of 2). Low-birthweight live births among mothers 20 years of age and over, by detailed race, Hispanic origin, and education of mother: United States, selected years 1989–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version

1 Reporting areas that have adopted the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth are excluded because maternal education data based on the 2003 revision are not comparable with data based on the 1989 or earlier revisions to the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. In 2003, Pennsylvania and Washington adopted the 2003 revision; in 2004, Florida, Idaho, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New York State (excluding New York City), South Carolina, and Tennessee adopted the 2003 revision. See Appendix II, Education. 2 Data for 2003 are limited to the 43 reporting areas using the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth in 2004, and are provided for comparison with 2004. 3 Excludes live births with unknown birthweight. Percent based on live births with known birthweight. 4 Starting with 2003 data, estimates are not shown for Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups during the transition from single race to multiple race reporting. See Appendix II, Race, Birth File. 5 Prior to 1993, data shown only for states with an Hispanic-origin item and education of mother item on the birth certificate. See Appendix II, Education; Hispanic origin.

NOTES: Data are based on the 1989 or earlier revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. In 1992–2002, education of mother was reported on the birth certificate by all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Prior to 1992, data from states lacking an education of mother item were excluded. Starting with 2003 data, states adopting the 2003 revision of the U. S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth are excluded. See Appendix II, Education. The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. Interpretation of trend data should take into consideration changes in reporting areas and immigration. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File.

150

Health, United States, 2006

Table 15 (page 1 of 3). Low-birthweight live births, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1996–1998, 1999–2001, and 2002–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Not Hispanic or Latino All races Geographic division and state White Black or African American

1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 Percent of live births weighing less than 2,500 grams 1 7.94 6.46 6.67 7.05 13.13 7.45 6.06 6.30 6.80 11.79 7.68 6.16 6.33 6.60 12.82 6.42 5.95 6.06 6.41 *13.27 7.64 6.13 6.43 6.98 11.12 6.44 5.31 6.04 6.51 * 8.17 6.46 6.52 7.50 11.35 6.63 6.22 5.79 6.67 * 8.06 6.27 6.56 6.86 13.02 8.13 6.26 6.54 7.03 13.86 7.98 6.19 6.47 6.68 12.32 8.14 6.36 6.68 6.97 13.86 8.05 6.47 6.63 7.03 13.73 8.28 6.44 6.59 7.13 14.22 7.86 7.06 7.04 7.29 13.68 8.17 6.35 6.43 6.90 13.51 8.38 6.64 6.95 7.36 13.34 6.80 5.58 5.82 6.06 13.21 7.12 6.20 6.27 6.63 12.91 6.74 6.11 5.97 6.57 12.66 7.22 6.49 6.66 6.92 13.20 6.34 5.61 5.79 5.86 11.42 8.10 6.65 6.68 7.18 13.48 7.04 6.32 6.37 6.86 11.58 6.46 6.17 6.23 6.26 *11.69 6.90 5.72 6.02 6.74 *10.36 8.87 6.75 7.00 7.38 13.09 9.45 6.50 7.28 7.85 14.41 11.19 6.15 6.56 5.91 16.28 8.49 6.77 6.92 7.29 12.30 9.08 6.58 6.85 7.29 12.83 9.13 6.39 6.70 7.14 13.37 9.00 7.08 7.39 7.64 13.82 10.08 6.99 7.30 7.77 13.60 8.13 6.28 6.52 6.80 12.49 8.96 7.95 8.11 8.80 12.94 9.71 7.42 7.77 8.21 13.48 10.09 7.33 7.58 8.18 13.34 8.69 7.49 7.73 8.25 12.73 11.40 7.34 7.72 8.50 13.31 9.23 7.46 7.96 8.08 14.07 8.30 6.73 6.95 7.43 13.29 8.92 7.31 7.48 7.78 13.41 10.69 6.98 7.36 7.76 14.49 7.92 6.80 7.23 7.63 12.63 7.88 6.54 6.68 7.23 12.51 7.56 7.08 7.08 7.32 13.70 7.00 6.63 6.73 6.94 12.88 8.94 8.34 8.02 8.71 14.48 6.48 5.84 6.31 6.39 * 7.10 6.28 6.69 6.94 * 7.86 7.28 7.38 7.51 13.78 8.21 7.68 7.85 8.01 13.46 6.55 6.44 6.43 6.32 15.06 8.67 8.69 8.15 8.57 *15.82 6.50 5.47 5.59 5.98 11.73 5.93 5.30 5.03 4.98 12.00 6.56 5.61 5.72 6.13 11.90 8.26 5.35 5.60 6.47 9.79 5.99 5.14 5.32 5.92 10.71 6.04 5.25 5.40 5.61 10.32

United States . . . . . . New England . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . New Hampshire . . . Rhode Island . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . Middle Atlantic. . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New York. . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . East North Central . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . West North Central . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Missouri. . . . . . . . . Nebraska. . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . . South Dakota . . . . . South Atlantic . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida. . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . South Carolina . . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . East South Central . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . . West South Central . . Arkansas . . . . . . . . Louisiana. . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Mountain . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . New Mexico. . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . Pacific . . . . . . . . . . . Alaska. . . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . . Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.49 6.78 7.43 5.88 6.77 5.44 7.28 6.32 7.73 7.84 7.77 7.57 7.64 7.96 7.76 7.72 7.66 6.40 6.69 6.38 6.96 5.84 7.68 6.60 6.15 5.73 8.45 8.54 13.60 7.98 8.62 8.68 8.80 9.30 7.77 8.10 8.98 9.26 7.94 10.03 8.89 7.77 8.57 10.05 7.27 7.30 7.34 6.80 8.75 6.02 6.56 7.57 7.63 6.65 8.76 6.07 5.78 6.15 7.34 5.39 5.63

7.62 7.02 7.47 6.03 7.11 6.36 7.27 5.90 7.82 7.94 7.75 7.84 7.76 7.99 7.62 7.95 7.93 6.59 6.78 6.23 6.99 6.17 7.64 6.73 6.26 6.15 8.57 8.84 12.37 8.10 8.72 8.88 8.87 9.69 7.85 8.28 9.32 9.56 8.26 10.55 9.21 7.90 8.66 10.25 7.55 7.43 7.34 6.95 8.43 6.43 6.65 7.45 7.87 6.60 8.32 6.13 5.70 6.20 7.74 5.52 5.74

13.14 11.93 12.53 *9.97 11.44 11.88 12.55 * 12.73 13.45 11.97 13.87 13.81 14.03 12.85 14.47 13.36 13.28 12.47 12.58 12.36 10.61 13.22 12.81 * *11.42 13.07 13.71 15.17 12.42 12.82 13.12 13.72 14.29 12.39 13.20 13.97 13.87 13.69 14.03 14.12 13.42 13.60 14.40 12.93 12.76 13.37 13.19 14.39 * * 12.69 13.37 12.49 *14.29 11.56 10.64 11.73 10.77 10.64 10.30

13.56 12.03 12.60 *8.57 11.86 10.19 11.52 * 13.02 13.42 12.50 13.86 14.06 14.45 13.33 14.21 13.83 13.49 12.62 11.50 12.95 10.51 13.76 12.32 *10.25 *8.08 13.51 14.36 14.09 13.02 13.42 13.16 14.16 15.01 12.82 13.52 14.71 14.63 13.82 15.31 14.37 14.04 14.54 14.91 13.48 13.45 13.68 12.09 14.98 *8.87 *15.63 13.87 14.99 13.76 * 11.96 9.52 12.14 11.47 10.67 10.83

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

151

Table 15 (page 2 of 3). Low-birthweight live births, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1996–1998, 1999–2001, and 2002–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Hispanic or Latino 2 Geographic division and state

American Indian or Alaska Native 3

Asian or Pacific Islander 3

1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 Percent of live births weighing less than 2,500 grams 1 6.68 6.69 7.08 7.35 7.24 8.31 8.17 7.54 8.18 7.19 8.41 *10.94 *8.09 8.97 7.73 *5.46 * * * *5.03 8.46 *6.37 *6.84 *6.13 6.95 5.35 * * * *8.30 8.24 *10.49 *10.67 12.37 8.30 * * * * * 7.59 8.21 8.96 8.60 7.32 7.22 12.20 10.04 10.67 7.52 7.48 7.40 8.44 6.84 7.24 9.11 7.31 9.41 11.03 7.26 6.42 6.51 7.04 7.24 7.52 6.41 7.70 9.05 8.63 8.02 6.19 *10.98 *6.89 *9.54 6.50 6.41 6.12 7.24 6.50 7.25 7.18 7.20 8.39 10.04 7.43 6.10 5.71 5.97 6.29 6.81 6.12 6.12 6.65 7.17 7.04 6.16 8.48 *7.36 8.72 7.63 6.14 6.40 6.36 7.08 7.49 5.85 6.21 6.92 7.18 6.66 6.39 7.87 8.95 6.53 7.18 6.05 6.36 6.32 7.11 7.94 *6.42 5.66 6.21 7.15 * 7.12 5.58 6.25 7.14 * 6.61 9.00 9.22 9.86 7.54 7.06 * * * 8.04 8.20 * * * *8.43 6.90 7.35 7.08 7.68 7.98 5.94 *7.21 9.79 8.48 7.51 7.09 *8.48 9.95 11.07 7.15 6.22 10.22 10.33 11.16 7.61 6.46 *9.40 10.20 *9.11 7.56 6.31 *6.94 *9.23 *10.13 7.30 *8.26 * * * *6.58 6.51 7.73 7.61 8.12 7.60 6.93 *7.60 *8.25 11.50 7.94 7.13 *10.38 * *9.93 6.78 6.79 *6.59 8.42 6.00 6.00 5.97 *7.88 *7.13 *7.43 8.40 7.05 6.20 6.57 6.96 7.50 5.96 *5.97 7.95 8.41 7.40 7.25 8.02 8.41 10.31 8.37 6.55 6.07 6.34 6.53 7.02 7.08 6.34 6.76 7.54 7.45 7.35 6.72 7.14 7.28 8.57 6.67 6.57 7.12 6.84 7.54 8.46 8.16 8.60 9.82 9.92 6.73 7.07 7.82 7.07 *5.97 8.11 7.43 6.77 7.71 *8.97 6.61 6.23 7.80 6.73 9.17 8.38 6.27 6.88 7.18 9.26 7.06 7.44 6.58 7.64 7.50 8.60 7.51 8.93 10.62 * 5.94 6.10 6.38 6.59 6.95 5.62 5.73 5.83 6.08 6.43 5.95 5.85 6.27 6.54 6.84 8.41 *7.37 *6.11 * 7.95 5.28 5.72 6.79 7.35 6.45 5.67 7.09 7.14 7.03 6.12

United States . . . . . . New England . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . New Hampshire . . . Rhode Island . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . Middle Atlantic. . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New York. . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . East North Central . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . West North Central . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Missouri. . . . . . . . . Nebraska. . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . . South Dakota . . . . . South Atlantic . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida. . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . South Carolina . . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . East South Central . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . . West South Central . . Arkansas . . . . . . . . Louisiana. . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Mountain . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . New Mexico. . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . Pacific . . . . . . . . . . . Alaska. . . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . . Hawaii. . . . . . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.38 8.28 8.94 *5.74 8.03 *6.48 7.68 * 7.71 7.30 7.65 9.34 6.33 6.11 7.00 6.48 7.38 6.56 6.09 6.21 5.95 6.13 6.24 6.08 *5.88 *6.14 6.37 7.76 6.73 6.55 5.36 6.29 6.14 5.99 6.68 * 6.53 6.51 7.14 5.26 6.56 6.61 6.34 6.04 6.13 6.63 7.22 6.52 8.71 6.95 7.69 6.26 7.69 7.55 8.33 5.55 6.48 5.53 7.08 5.72 5.53

6.42 8.17 8.60 *4.91 8.28 5.89 7.07 * 7.49 7.19 7.41 8.95 6.40 6.38 6.10 6.37 7.23 6.29 6.06 5.83 6.00 5.98 5.98 6.49 *6.89 *6.07 6.30 6.62 6.99 6.49 5.66 6.80 6.21 6.57 5.96 * 6.73 6.68 7.18 6.92 6.57 6.73 5.92 6.70 6.03 6.76 7.21 6.67 8.23 6.78 7.02 6.21 7.93 7.33 7.86 5.59 6.09 5.59 7.63 5.51 5.31

7.42 7.39 7.59 *5.42 7.38 5.83 8.78 * 7.38 7.67 7.24 7.38 7.85 8.37 7.42 7.72 7.36 7.02 7.42 7.72 7.34 7.48 6.89 7.91 * *9.37 7.75 8.98 *8.79 8.51 7.67 7.37 8.05 7.10 7.15 *7.94 7.84 7.59 7.68 7.75 8.03 7.75 8.80 7.92 7.19 7.74 8.33 7.69 10.10 7.62 *6.42 7.88 8.28 7.18 *17.06 7.10 7.05 6.98 8.29 6.08 6.41

7.82 7.83 7.96 7.85 7.66 6.08 10.83 *6.52 7.85 7.86 7.84 7.91 8.17 8.23 7.59 8.22 8.67 7.45 7.51 7.11 7.15 7.41 7.83 7.70 *6.56 *12.89 8.16 9.61 7.36 8.57 8.40 7.67 7.79 8.97 7.95 *8.24 7.99 8.52 7.35 7.58 8.22 8.09 6.78 8.55 7.13 8.19 8.87 8.20 10.14 6.51 *8.76 9.41 7.62 7.94 * 7.49 6.79 7.33 8.79 7.12 6.88

See footnotes at end of table.

152

Health, United States, 2006

Table 15 (page 3 of 3). Low-birthweight live births, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1996–1998, 1999–2001, and 2002–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]

Click here for spreadsheet version

* Percents preceded by an asterisk are based on fewer than 50 births. Percents not shown are based on fewer than 20 births. 1 Excludes live births with unknown birthweight. 2 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. 3 Includes persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. NOTES: For information on very low birthweight live births, see Table 36 in Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Kirmeyer S. Births: Final Data for 2004. National vital statistics reports. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File.

Health, United States, 2006

153

Table 16. Legal abortions and legal abortion ratios, by selected patient characteristics: United States, selected years 1973–2003
[Data are based on reporting by State health departments and by hospitals and other medical facilities]

Updated February 2007
1999 1 2000 2

Click here for spreadsheet version
2002 2 2003 3

Characteristic

1973

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2001 2

Number of legal abortions reported in thousands Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alan Guttmacher Institute 4 . . . . . . . Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age Under 15 years . . . . 15–19 years. . . . . . . 20–24 years. . . . . . . 25–29 years. . . . . . . 30–34 years. . . . . . . 35–39 years. . . . . . . 40 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616 745 19.6 123.7 53.9 29.4 20.7 28.0 45.1 68.4 855 1,034 27.2 119.3 54.2 28.9 19.2 25.0 42.2 66.8 1,298 1,554 35.9 139.7 71.4 39.5 23.7 23.7 41.0 80.7 1,329 1,589 35.4 137.6 68.8 38.6 21.7 19.9 33.6 62.3 1,429 1,609 1,211 1,359 862 1,315 857 1,313 24.5 70.8 36.1 30.0 19.8 14.5 18.1 30.1 853 1,303 24.6 74.4 36.6 30.4 20.0 14.7 18.0 30.4 854 1,293 24.6 75.3 36.8 30.3 20.0 14.8 18.0 31.0 848 --24.1 83.0 37.4 30.0 19.5 14.4 17.3 29.3

Abortions per 100 live births 5 34.4 31.1 25.6 81.8 51.1 37.8 21.8 19.0 27.3 50.6 66.4 39.9 34.8 22.0 16.4 22.3 38.5 70.9 37.5 31.6 20.8 15.2 19.3 32.9

Race White 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American 7 . . . . . . . Hispanic origin 8 Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . Marital status Married . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unmarried . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Previous live births 9 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 or more10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32.6 42.0 ----7.6 139.8 43.7 23.5 36.8 46.9 44.7 100.0 36.1 29.4 17.9 6.9 8.0 1.7 ---------

27.7 47.6 ----9.6 161.0 38.4 22.0 36.8 47.7 43.5 100.0 44.6 28.4 14.9 5.0 6.1 1.0 81.9 14.9 2.5 0.7

33.2 54.3 ----10.5 147.6 45.7 20.2 29.5 29.8 24.3 100.0 51.7 26.2 12.2 5.1 3.9 0.9 67.6 23.5 6.6 2.3

27.7 47.2 ----8.0 117.4 45.1 21.6 29.9 18.2 21.5 100.0 50.3 26.6 12.5 5.9 3.9 0.8 60.1 25.7 9.8 4.4

25.8 53.7 ----8.7 86.3 36.0 22.7 31.5 30.1 26.6

20.3 53.1 27.1 27.9 7.6 64.5 28.6 22.0 30.6 30.7 23.7

17.7 52.9 26.1 25.2 7.0 60.4 24.3 20.6 29.0 29.8 24.2

16.7 50.3 22.5 23.3 6.5 57.0 22.6 19.4 27.4 28.5 23.7 100.0 58.1 19.8 10.2 6.2 4.3 1.4 54.7 26.4 11.3 7.6

16.5 49.1 23.0 23.2 6.5 57.2 26.4 18.0 25.5 26.4 21.9 100.0 59.1 19.0 10.0 6.2 4.3 1.4 55.5 25.8 11.0 7.7

16.4 49.5 23.3 23.7 6.5 57.0 23.3 19.4 27.9 29.1 23.6 100.0 60.5 18.4 9.6 6.0 4.1 1.4 55.3 25.8 11.3 7.6

16.5 49.1 22.8 23.4 6.3 53.8 22.7 19.0 27.1 28.3 23.4 100.0 60.5 18.0 9.7 6.2 4.2 1.4 55.3 25.7 11.2 7.8

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Period of gestation Under 9 weeks. . . . . . . . . . 9–10 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–12 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . 13–15 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . 16–20 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . 21 weeks and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Percent distribution11 100.0 100.0 100.0 51.6 25.3 11.7 6.4 4.0 1.0 57.1 26.9 10.1 5.9 54.0 23.1 10.9 6.3 4.3 1.4 55.1 26.9 10.9 7.1 57.6 20.2 10.2 6.2 4.3 1.5 53.7 27.1 11.5 7.7

Previous induced abortions 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

- - - Data not available. 1 In 1998 and 1999, Alaska, California, New Hampshire, and Oklahoma did not report abortion data to CDC. For comparison, in 1997, the 48 corresponding reporting areas reported about 900,000 legal abortions. 2 In 2000, 2001, and 2002, Alaska, California, and New Hampshire did not report abortion data to CDC. 3 In 2003, California, New Hampshire, and West Virginia did not report abortion data to CDC. 4 No surveys were conducted in 1983, 1986, 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998, 2001, or 2002. Data for these years were estimated by interpolation. 5 For calculation of ratios by each characteristic, abortions with characteristic unknown were distributed in proportion to abortions with characteristic known. 6 7 For 1989 and later years, white race includes women of Hispanic ethnicity. Before 1989, black race includes races other than white. 8 Reporting area increased from 20–22 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and New York City (NYC) in 1991–1995 to 27 states, DC and NYC, with 12 additional states reporting to CDC, but with more than 15% unknowns, and thus excluded from analysis, for 2002 and 2003. California, Florida, Illinois, and Arizona, states with 9 For 1973–1975, data indicate number of living children. large Hispanic populations, do not report Hispanic ethnicity. 10 For 1975, data refer to four previous live births, not four or more. For five or more previous live births, the ratio is 47.3. 11 For calculation of percent distribution by each characteristic, abortions with characteristic unknown were excluded. NOTES: The number of areas reporting adequate data (less than or equal to 15% missing) for each characteristic varies from year to year. See Appendix I, Abortion Surveillance. For methodological differences between these two data sources, see Appendix I, Abortion Surveillance and Alan Guttmacher Institute Abortion Provider Survey. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: Abortion Surveillance, 1973, 1975, 1979–1980. Atlanta, GA: Public Health Service, 1975, 1977, 1983; CDC MMWR Surveillance Summaries. Abortion Surveillance, United States, 1984 and 1985, Vol. 38, No. SS–2, 1989; 1990, Vol. 42, No. SS–6, 1993; 1995, Vol. 47, No. SS–2, 1998; 1997, Vol. 49, No. SS–11, 2000; 1998, Vol. 51, No. SS–3, 2002; 1999, Vol. 51, No. SS–9, 2002; 2000, Vol. 52, No. SS–12, 2003; 2001, Vol. 53, No. SS–9, 2004; 2002, Vol. 54, No. SS–7, 2005; 2003, Vol. 55, No. SS–11. Alan Guttmacher Institute Abortion Provider Survey. Finer LB, Henshaw SK. Abortion incidence and services in the United States in 2000. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2003;35(1)6–15. Finer LB, Henshaw SK. Estimates of U.S. abortion incidence in 2001 and 2002. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. May 2005, available from: www.guttmacher.org/pubs/2005/05/18/ab_incidence.pdf.

154

Health, United States, 2006

Table 17 (page 1 of 4). Contraceptive use among women 15–44 years of age, by age, race, Hispanic origin, and method of contraception: United States, selected years 1982–2002
[Data are based on household interviews of samples of women of childbearing age]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Age in years Race, Hispanic origin, and year 1 All women: 2 1982 . . . . 1988 . . . . 1995 . . . . 2002 . . . . 15–44 15–19 20–24 25–34 35–44

Number of women in population in thousands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54,099 57,900 60,201 61,561 9,521 9,179 8,961 9,834 10,629 9,413 9,041 9,840 19,644 21,726 20,758 19,522 14,305 17,582 21,440 22,365

Not Hispanic or Latino: White only: 1982 . . . . . . . . . . 1988 . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

41,279 42,575 42,154 39,498 6,825 7,408 8,060 8,250 4,393 5,557 6,702 9,107

7,010 6,531 5,865 6,069 1,383 1,362 1,334 1,409 886 999 1,150 1,521

8,081 6,630 6,020 5,938 1,456 1,322 1,305 1,396 811 1,003 1,163 1,632

14,945 15,929 14,471 12,073 2,392 2,760 2,780 2,587 1,677 2,104 2,450 3,249

11,243 13,486 15,798 15,418 1,593 1,965 2,641 2,857 1,018 1,451 1,940 2,705

Black or African American only: 1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino: 3 1982 . . . . . . . . . 1988 . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Percent of women in population using contraception All women: 1982 . . . 1988 . . . 1995 . . . 2002 . . .
2

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

55.7 60.3 64.2 61.9

24.2 32.1 29.8 31.5

55.8 59.0 63.5 60.7

66.7 66.3 71.1 68.6

61.6 68.3 72.3 69.9

Not Hispanic or Latino: White only: 1982 . . . . . . . . . . 1988 . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

57.3 63.0 66.2 64.6 51.6 56.8 62.3 57.6 50.6 50.4 59.0 59.0

23.6 34.0 30.5 35.0 29.8 35.7 36.1 32.9 * *18.3 26.1 20.4

58.7 62.6 65.4 66.3 52.3 61.8 67.6 50.8 *36.8 40.8 50.6 57.4

67.8 67.7 72.9 69.9 63.5 63.5 66.8 67.9 67.2 67.4 69.2 66.2

63.5 71.5 73.6 71.4 52.0 58.7 68.3 63.8 59.0 54.3 70.8 72.9

Black or African American only: 1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino: 3 1982 . . . . . . . . . 1988 . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

155

Table 17 (page 2 of 4). Contraceptive use among women 15–44 years of age, by age, race, Hispanic origin, and method of contraception: United States, selected years 1982–2002
[Data are based on household interviews of samples of women of childbearing age]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Age in years Method of contraception and year Female sterilization 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.2 27.6 27.8 27.0 10.9 11.7 10.9 10.2 ... ... 1.3 1.2 ... ... 3.0 5.4 28.0 30.8 27.0 31.0 7.1 2.0 0.8 2.2 8.1 5.7 1.9 0.6 12.0 14.6 23.4 23.8 3.3 1.7 3.3 2.0 0.6 0.6 *0.5 *0.4 2.0 2.2 6.1 8.8 4.9 3.2 3.2 1.7 – * * – * * – – ... ... * * ... ... 9.7 13.9 63.9 58.8 43.8 53.8 * – – * *6.0 * * – 20.8 32.8 45.8 44.6 2.0 * * * – – – – 2.9 3.0 13.2 15.0 2.6 * * * 15–44 15–19 20–24 Percent of contracepting women *4.5 *4.6 4.0 3.6 *3.6 * * * ... ... 3.7 * ... ... 6.1 10.2 55.1 68.2 52.1 52.5 *4.2 * * 1.8 10.2 *3.7 * * 10.7 14.5 33.7 36.0 3.1 1.1 *1.5 *2.3 * * * 3.0 3.4 7.1 11.9 5.4 1.8 3.2 * 22.1 25.0 23.8 21.7 10.1 10.2 7.8 7.2 ... ... *1.3 *1.9 ... ... 2.9 5.3 25.7 32.6 33.4 34.8 9.7 2.1 *0.8 3.7 10.3 7.3 1.7 * 11.4 13.7 23.7 23.1 3.3 1.8 3.7 *1.7 0.9 0.7 *0.7 * 1.8 2.8 6.0 10.7 4.8 3.8 3.1 *1.5 43.5 47.6 45.0 45.8 19.9 20.8 19.5 18.2 ... ... * * ... ... *0.8 *1.8 *3.7 4.3 8.7 15.0 6.9 3.1 1.1 * 4.0 6.0 2.8 * 11.3 11.2 15.3 15.6 3.7 2.0 3.9 *2.4 * 0.7 * * 1.3 0.8 4.5 4.7 5.3 3.5 3.4 *1.8 25–34 35–44

Male sterilization

Implant 4 ........ ........ ........ ........ Injectable 4 ........ ........ ........ ........

Birth control pill ............ ............ ............ ............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Intrauterine device

Diaphragm

Condom

Periodic abstinence-calendar rhythm ........................... ........................... ........................... ...........................

Periodic abstinence-natural family 1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Withdrawal ......... ......... ......... ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

planning ....... ....... ....... ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Other methods 5 ............. ............. ............. .............

See footnotes at end of table.

156

Health, United States, 2006

Table 17 (page 3 of 4). Contraceptive use among women 15–44 years of age, by age, race, Hispanic origin, and method of contraception: United States, selected years 1982–2002
[Data are based on household interviews of samples of women of childbearing age]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Not Hispanic or Latino 1 Method of contraception and year Female sterilization ............... ............... ............... ............... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male sterilization ............. ............. ............. ............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implant 4 ....... ....... ....... ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White only Black or African American only Percent of contracepting women 30.0 37.8 39.9 39.2 *1.5 *0.9 *1.8 * ... ... *2.4 * ... ... 5.4 9.4 37.9 38.2 23.7 23.1 9.3 3.2 * * *3.2 *2.0 * * 6.3 10.1 24.9 29.6 2.9 1.9 *1.7 * 0.3 * * * 1.3 1.4 3.3 4.9 7.3 4.4 3.8 *1.9 Hispanic or Latino 3

1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22.0 25.6 24.5 23.9 13.0 14.3 13.7 12.9 ... ... *1.0 *0.8 ... ... 2.4 4.2 26.4 29.5 28.7 34.9 5.8 1.5 0.7 1.7 9.2 6.6 2.3 * 13.1 15.2 22.5 21.7 3.2 1.6 3.3 2.3 0.7 0.7 0.7 * 2.1 2.0 6.4 9.5 4.6 3.0 3.3 *1.7

23.0 31.7 36.6 33.8 * * *4.0 4.7 ... ... *2.0 *3.1 ... ... 4.7 7.3 30.2 33.4 23.0 22.1 19.2 *5.0 * 5.3 * * * – *6.9 13.7 21.2 24.1 3.9 * 3.2 * – * * * 2.6 4.5 5.7 6.3 5.0 2.6 *2.2 *1.2

Injectable 4 ........ ........ ........ ........

Birth control pill ............ ............ ............ ............

Intrauterine device .............. .............. .............. .............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diaphragm ......... ......... ......... ......... . . . . Condom ....... ....... ....... ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Periodic abstinence-calendar rhythm ........................... ........................... ........................... ...........................

Periodic abstinence-natural family planning 1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982 1988 1995 2002 1982 1988 1995 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Withdrawal ......... ......... ......... ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Other methods 5 ............ ............ ............ ............

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

157

Table 17 (page 4 of 4). Contraceptive use among women 15–44 years of age, by age, race, Hispanic origin, and method of contraception: United States, selected years 1982–2002
[Data are based on household interviews of samples of women of childbearing age]

Click here for spreadsheet version

– Quantity zero. - - - Data not available. . . . Data not applicable. * Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error of 20%–30%. 1 Starting with 1995 data, race-specific estimates are tabulated according to 1997 Revisions to the Standards for Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. Starting with 1995 data, race-specific estimates are for persons who reported only one racial group. Prior to data year 1995, data were tabulated according to the 1977 Standards. Estimates for single race categories prior to 1995 included persons who reported one race or, if they reported more than one race, identified one race as best representing their race. See Appendix II, Race. 2 Includes women of other or unknown race not shown separately. 3 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. 4 Data collected starting with the 1995 survey. 5 In 2002, includes female condom, foam, cervical cap, Today Sponge®, suppository or insert, jelly or cream, and other methods. See Appendix II, Contraception, for the list of other methods reported in previous surveys. NOTES: Survey collects up to four methods of contraception used in the month of interview. Percents may not add to the total because more than one method could have been used in the month of interview. These data replace estimates of most effective method used and may differ from previous editions of Health, United States. Standard errors for selected years are available in the spreadsheet version of this table. Available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Survey of Family Growth.

158

Health, United States, 2006

Table 18. Breastfeeding among mothers 15–44 years of age, by year of baby’s birth, and selected characteristics of mother: United States, average annual 1986–1988 through 1999–2001
[Data are based on household interviews of samples of women of childbearing age]

Click here for spreadsheet version
1999–2001

Selected characteristics of mother

1986–1988

1989–1991

1992–1994 Percent of babies breastfed

1995–1998

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age at baby’s birth Under 20 years 20–24 years . . 25–29 years . . 30–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54.1

53.3

57.6

64.4

66.5

28.4 48.2 58.2 68.6

34.7 44.3 56.4 66.0

41.0 50.0 57.4 70.2

49.5 55.9 68.1 72.8

47.3 59.3 63.5 80.0

Race and Hispanic origin 1 Not Hispanic or Latino: White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education 2 No high school diploma or GED . . . High school diploma or GED . . . . . . Some college, no bachelor’s degree Bachelor’s degree or higher . . . . . . Geographic region 3 ................ ................ ................ ................

59.1 22.3 55.6

58.4 22.4 57.0

61.7 26.1 63.8

66.5 47.9 71.2

68.7 45.3 76.0

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

31.8 47.4 62.2 78.4

36.5 45.5 61.4 80.6

44.6 51.1 64.3 82.5

50.6 55.9 70.1 82.0

46.6 61.6 75.6 81.3

Northeast Midwest . South . . . West. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

51.3 52.3 44.6 71.4

53.5 49.6 43.6 69.5

56.5 51.7 48.6 77.3

61.6 61.7 58.1 78.1

66.9 61.9 60.9 78.9

Percent of babies who were breastfed 3 months or more Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age at baby’s birth Under 20 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 20–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–29 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34.6 31.8 33.6 45.8 48.4

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

18.5 26.1 36.9 50.1

*10.5 24.1 32.3 46.8

*11.7 25.1 35.6 46.7

30.0 36.6 46.3 57.5

30.0 41.8 43.7 62.4

Race and Hispanic origin 1 Not Hispanic or Latino: White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Education 2 No high school diploma or GED . . . High school diploma or GED . . . . . . Some college, no bachelor’s degree Bachelor’s degree or higher . . . . . . Geographic region 3 ................ ................ ................ ................

37.7 11.6 38.2

35.2 11.5 33.9

36.6 13.3 35.0

47.8 29.6 49.7

49.7 33.7 54.3

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

21.8 28.2 38.7 55.0

17.6 28.0 33.1 56.1

25.2 27.4 38.7 59.3

33.9 36.9 49.6 64.5

37.0 43.1 52.8 64.1

Northeast Midwest . South . . . West. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

29.9 30.3 27.7 52.4

37.2 31.5 20.1 42.9

36.4 30.1 26.2 45.3

48.2 42.0 38.9 58.2

48.8 42.8 44.4 59.2

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error of 20%–30%. 1 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. All race-specific estimates are tabulated according to 1997 Revisions to the Standards for Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity and are for persons who reported only one racial group. See Appendix II, Race. 2 Educational attainment is presented only for women 22–44 years of age. Education is as of year of interview. GED stands for General Educational Development high school equivalency diploma. See Appendix II, Education. 3 See Appendix II, Geographic region and division. NOTES: Data are based on single births to mothers 15–44 years of age at interview, including those births that occurred when the mothers were younger than 15 years of age. Data on breastfeeding during 1986–1994 are based on responses to questions in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) Cycle 5, conducted in 1995. Data for 1995–2001 are based on the NSFG Cycle 6 conducted in 2002. See Appendix I, National Survey of Family Growth. Standard errors are available in the spreadsheet version of this table. Available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle 5 (1995), Cycle 6 (2002).

Health, United States, 2006

159

Table 19 (page 1 of 3). Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1983–2003
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]

Click here for spreadsheet version
2002 2 2003 2

Race and Hispanic origin of mother

1983 1

1985 1

1990 1

1995 2

1999 2

2000 2

2001 2

Infant 3 deaths per 1,000 live births All mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: White 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.9 9.3 19.2 15.2 8.3 9.5 *5.6 8.4 11.2 8.1 9.5 9.1 12.9 7.5 8.5 10.6 9.2 19.1 10.4 8.9 18.6 13.1 7.8 5.8 *6.0 7.7 *9.9 8.5 8.8 8.5 11.2 8.5 8.0 9.5 8.6 18.3 8.9 7.3 16.9 13.1 6.6 4.3 *5.5 6.0 *8.0 7.4 7.5 7.2 9.9 7.2 6.8 8.0 7.2 16.9 7.6 6.3 14.6 9.0 5.3 3.8 *5.3 5.6 *6.5 5.5 6.3 6.0 8.9 5.3 5.5 7.4 6.3 14.7 7.0 5.8 14.0 9.3 4.8 2.9 *3.5 5.8 *7.0 5.1 5.7 5.5 8.3 4.6 4.7 7.2 5.8 14.1 6.9 5.7 13.5 8.3 4.9 3.5 *4.5 5.7 9.0 4.8 5.6 5.4 8.2 4.6 4.6 6.9 5.7 13.6 6.8 5.7 13.3 9.7 4.7 3.2 *4.0 5.5 *7.3 4.8 5.4 5.2 8.5 4.2 5.0 6.0 5.7 13.5 7.0 5.8 13.8 8.6 4.8 3.0 *4.9 5.7 9.6 4.7 5.6 5.4 8.2 3.7 5.1 7.1 5.8 13.9 6.8 5.7 13.5 8.7 4.8 ----------5.6 5.5 8.2 4.6 5.0 6.7 5.7 13.6

.. ..

All mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: White 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.1 6.1 12.5 7.5 5.2 5.5 *3.7 5.6 *7.0 5.0 6.2 5.9 8.7 *5.0 5.8 6.4 5.9 12.0

6.8 5.8 12.3 6.1 4.8 3.3 *3.1 5.1 *5.7 5.4 5.7 5.4 7.6 6.2 5.6 5.6 5.6 11.9

Neonatal 3 deaths per 1,000 live births 5.7 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.6 11.1 6.1 3.9 2.3 *3.5 3.5 *4.3 4.4 4.8 4.5 6.9 5.3 4.4 5.0 4.5 11.0 4.1 9.6 4.0 3.4 2.3 *3.3 3.4 *4.0 3.7 4.1 3.9 6.1 *3.6 3.7 4.8 4.0 9.6 3.9 9.5 5.0 3.2 1.8 *2.8 3.9 *4.9 3.3 3.9 3.7 5.9 *3.5 3.3 4.8 3.8 9.6 3.8 9.1 4.4 3.4 2.5 *2.6 4.1 *6.2 3.4 3.8 3.6 5.8 *3.2 3.3 4.6 3.8 9.2

4.5 3.8 8.9 4.2 3.1 1.9 *2.5 4.0 *3.6 3.2 3.6 3.5 6.0 *2.5 3.4 3.9 3.8 9.0

4.7 3.9 9.3 4.6 3.4 2.4 *3.7 4.1 *5.6 3.3 3.8 3.6 5.8 *3.2 3.5 5.1 3.9 9.3

4.6 3.9 9.2 4.5 3.4 ----------3.9 3.8 5.7 3.4 3.6 4.7 3.8 9.3

.. ..

All mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: White 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American 6 . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

3.8 3.2 6.7 7.7 3.1 4.0 * *2.8 *4.2 3.0 3.3 3.2 4.2 *2.5 2.6 4.2 3.2 7.0

3.6 3.1 6.3 7.0 2.9 *2.5 *2.9 2.7 *4.3 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.5 *2.3 2.4 3.9 3.0 6.4

Postneonatal 3 deaths per 1,000 live births 3.2 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.7 5.9 7.0 2.7 *2.0 * 2.5 *3.8 3.0 2.7 2.7 3.0 *1.9 2.4 3.0 2.7 5.9 2.2 5.0 5.1 1.9 *1.5 * 2.2 * 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.8 *1.7 1.9 2.6 2.2 5.0 1.9 4.5 4.3 1.7 *1.2 * 1.9 * 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.4 * 1.4 2.5 1.9 4.6 1.9 4.3 3.9 1.4 *1.0 * 1.6 * 1.4 1.8 1.8 2.4 * 1.4 2.3 1.9 4.4 1.9 4.4 5.4 1.6 *1.3 * *1.5 *3.7 1.6 1.8 1.7 2.5 *1.7 1.6 2.1 1.9 4.5

2.3 1.9 4.5 4.0 1.4 *0.7 * 1.7 *4.0 1.4 1.8 1.8 2.4 * 1.6 2.0 1.9 4.6

2.2 1.9 4.3 4.2 1.4 ----------1.7 1.7 2.5 * 1.4 1.9 1.9 4.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. ..

160

Health, United States, 2006

Table 19 (page 2 of 3). Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1983–2003
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]

Click here for spreadsheet version
2001–2003 2,7

Race and Hispanic origin of mother

1983–1985 1,7

1986–1988 1,7

1989–1991 1,7

1995–1997 2,7

1998–2000 2,7

Infant 3 deaths per 1,000 live births All mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: White 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6 9.0 18.7 13.9 8.3 7.4 6.0 8.2 11.3 8.6 9.2 8.8 12.3 8.0 8.2 9.8 8.8 18.5 9.8 8.2 17.9 13.2 7.3 5.8 6.9 6.9 11.1 7.6 8.3 7.9 11.1 7.3 7.5 9.0 8.1 17.9 9.0 7.4 17.1 12.6 6.6 5.1 5.3 6.4 9.0 7.0 7.5 7.2 10.4 6.2 6.6 8.2 7.3 17.2 7.4 6.1 14.1 9.2 5.1 3.3 4.9 5.7 7.0 5.4 6.1 5.9 8.5 5.3 5.3 7.1 6.1 14.2 7.0 5.8 13.8 9.0 5.1 3.5 3.8 5.9 8.7 5.2 5.7 5.5 8.1 4.3 4.9 6.9 5.8 13.9 6.9 5.7 13.5 9.0 4.8 ----------5.6 5.4 8.3 4.2 5.0 6.6 5.7 13.6

.. ..

All mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: White 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.9 5.9 12.2 6.7 5.2 4.3 3.4 5.3 7.4 5.5 6.0 5.7 8.3 5.9 5.7 6.1 5.7 11.8

6.3 5.2 11.7 5.9 4.5 3.3 4.4 4.5 7.1 4.7 5.3 5.0 7.2 5.3 4.9 5.8 5.1 11.4

Neonatal 3 deaths per 1,000 live births 5.7 4.8 4.7 11.1 5.9 3.9 2.7 3.0 4.0 4.8 4.2 4.8 4.5 7.0 4.6 4.4 5.2 4.6 11.1 4.0 9.4 4.4 3.3 2.1 2.8 3.7 4.5 3.5 4.0 3.8 5.7 3.7 3.7 4.6 4.0 9.4

4.7 3.9 9.3 4.8 3.5 2.4 2.6 4.2 6.1 3.5 3.8 3.7 5.6 3.1 3.4 4.6 3.8 9.4

4.6 3.9 9.1 4.5 3.3 ----------3.8 3.6 5.8 3.1 3.5 4.6 3.8 9.2

.. ..

All mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filipino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hawaiian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: White 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American 6 . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

3.7 3.1 6.4 7.2 3.1 3.1 2.6 2.9 3.9 3.1 3.2 3.2 4.0 2.2 2.5 3.7 3.1 6.7

3.5 3.0 6.2 7.3 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.4 4.0 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.9 2.0 2.6 3.2 3.0 6.5

Postneonatal 3 deaths per 1,000 live births 3.3 2.5 2.7 6.0 6.7 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.3 4.1 2.8 2.7 2.7 3.4 1.6 2.2 3.0 2.7 6.1 2.1 4.7 4.8 1.8 1.2 2.1 2.1 *2.5 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.8 1.5 1.7 2.5 2.2 4.8

2.3 1.9 4.4 4.2 1.6 1.1 *1.2 1.7 *2.6 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.5 *1.1 1.5 2.3 2.0 4.5

2.3 1.9 4.4 4.5 1.5 ----------1.8 1.7 2.5 *1.1 1.5 2.0 1.9 4.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. ..

Health, United States, 2006

161

Table 19 (page 3 of 3). Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates, by detailed race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1983–2003
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]

Click here for spreadsheet version

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Rates preceded by an asterisk are based on fewer than 50 deaths in the numerator. Rates not shown are based on fewer than 20 deaths in the numerator. 1 Rates based on unweighted birth cohort data. 2 Rates based on a period file using weighted data. See Appendix I, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. 3 Infant (under 1 year of age), neonatal (under 28 days), and postneonatal (28 days–11 months). 4 Starting with 2003 data, estimates are not shown for Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups during the transition from single race to multiple race reporting. See Appendix II, Race, Birth file. 5 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 6 Prior to 1995, data shown only for states with an Hispanic-origin item on their birth certificates. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. 7 Average annual mortality rate. NOTES: The race groups white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. National linked files do not exist for 1992–1994. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set.

162

Health, United States, 2006

Table 20 (page 1 of 2). Infant mortality rates among mothers 20 years of age and over, by education, detailed race, and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1983–2003
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]

Updated August 2007
1985 1 1990 1 1995 2 1999 2 2000 2 2001 2

Click here for spreadsheet version
2002 2 2003 2,3

Education, race, and Hispanic origin of mother Less than 12 years of education All mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1983 1

Infant deaths per 1,000 live births 15.0 12.5 23.4 14.5 9.7 10.9 8.7 15.3 *14.5 9.8 9.2 12.8 24.7 14.3 12.2 21.5 17.3 8.0 10.4 10.0 11.8 * 8.7 11.2 12.5 21.6 10.8 9.0 19.5 14.3 6.6 7.3 7.0 10.1 * 7.0 9.9 10.9 19.7 8.9 7.6 17.0 12.7 5.7 6.0 5.8 10.6 * 5.1 7.3 9.9 17.3 8.0 6.9 14.8 11.0 5.4 5.6 5.5 9.4 * 4.4 7.0 8.9 15.1 7.9 6.8 14.7 10.1 5.9 5.4 5.2 9.6 * 4.9 7.6 9.2 15.0 7.6 6.5 14.0 12.9 5.5 5.1 4.9 7.8 * 5.0 5.8 9.0 14.3 7.9 6.7 15.6 8.6 4.5 5.3 5.0 10.1 * 5.7 6.0 9.4 15.9 7.8 6.7 14.8 8.7 6.3 5.5 5.4 8.8 * 5.4 6.0 9.1 15.3

Hispanic or Latino 5,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 6 White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . 12 years of education

.. ..

All mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 6 White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.2 8.7 17.8 15.5 10.0 8.4 6.9 9.5 *6.9 8.7 8.8 8.7 17.8

9.9 8.5 17.6 10.9 8.0 9.1 9.3 11.1 *9.2 7.5 8.3 8.2 18.3

8.8 7.1 16.0 13.4 7.5 7.0 6.8 8.5 *8.0 6.5 7.4 7.1 16.1

7.8 6.4 14.7 7.9 5.5 5.9 5.7 6.5 * 6.1 6.5 6.5 14.8

7.4 6.0 14.0 9.0 5.6 5.3 5.0 8.0 * 4.8 6.7 6.2 14.1

7.3 6.0 13.3 7.8 5.0 5.0 4.9 7.2 * 4.2 5.8 6.3 13.5

7.3 6.0 12.9 9.6 5.9 5.1 4.7 9.2 * 4.8 5.6 6.2 13.1

7.6 6.3 13.6 8.8 5.3 5.4 5.2 8.1 * 4.6 7.2 6.7 13.7

7.4 6.1 13.4 9.3 5.9 5.5 5.3 7.5 *4.6 5.4 5.3 6.3 13.6

.. ..

13 years or more of education All mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 6 White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

8.1 7.2 15.3 12.5 6.6 9.0 *8.3 10.9 * *7.1 11.6 7.0 14.8

7.7 6.6 15.8 *8.5 6.2 6.4 *5.8 *7.1 *6.3 *6.6 *6.2 6.6 15.1

6.4 5.4 13.7 6.8 5.1 5.7 5.5 7.3 *5.3 5.6 5.4 5.4 13.7

5.4 4.7 11.9 5.9 4.4 5.0 5.2 6.3 *5.3 3.7 5.2 4.6 12.0

5.1 4.3 11.4 7.4 4.0 4.7 4.8 6.3 *4.5 3.9 4.5 4.2 11.5

5.0 4.2 11.4 6.7 3.9 4.5 4.5 6.5 *4.9 3.7 4.2 4.2 11.5

5.1 4.3 11.7 6.7 3.7 4.6 4.7 5.9 *4.0 4.1 3.8 4.3 11.8

5.0 4.2 11.1 7.3 4.0 4.5 4.7 5.4 *3.0 4.2 3.9 4.2 11.2

5.0 4.3 11.2 7.0 3.8 4.8 4.8 6.4 *4.6 3.9 5.4 4.2 11.3

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

.. ..

Health, United States, 2006

163

Table 20 (page 2 of 2). Infant mortality rates among mothers 20 years of age and over, by education, detailed race, and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, selected years 1983–2003
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]

Updated August 2007
Average annual mortality rate

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Education, race, and Hispanic origin of mother Less than 12 years of education All mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 6 White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . 12 years of education All mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 6 White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1983–1985 1

1986–1988 1

1989–1991 1

1995–1997 2

1998–2000 2

2001–2003 2,3

Infant deaths per 1,000 live births 14.6 12.4 21.8 15.2 9.5 10.6 9.5 14.1 *10.5 8.6 10.1 12.6 22.6 13.8 11.4 21.1 16.8 8.2 9.9 8.3 12.8 *9.4 9.2 10.6 11.8 21.6 11.1 9.2 20.3 13.8 6.9 7.5 7.1 11.7 *8.2 6.8 10.0 11.0 20.6 8.6 7.3 16.0 11.4 5.8 5.8 5.6 9.5 *6.7 5.4 7.0 9.6 16.3 8.0 6.9 14.8 10.2 5.7 5.5 5.3 8.9 * 5.0 7.4 9.1 15.1 7.7 6.6 14.8 10.1 5.5 5.3 5.1 8.9 * 5.4 6.0 9.2 15.1

.. ..

10.0 8.5 17.7 13.4 9.3 9.1 7.8 10.8 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.3 17.9

9.6 8.0 17.1 11.6 7.9 8.3 8.2 10.1 6.6 7.4 7.7 7.9 17.4

8.9 7.2 16.4 12.3 7.5 6.8 6.5 8.6 7.6 6.3 7.0 7.3 16.5

7.6 6.3 14.1 8.5 5.6 5.8 5.6 7.6 5.4 5.5 6.6 6.4 14.2

7.4 6.0 13.9 8.7 5.5 5.2 5.0 7.5 *3.7 4.8 6.1 6.3 14.0

7.5 6.1 13.3 9.2 5.7 5.3 5.1 8.1 4.1 4.9 6.0 6.4 13.5

.. ..

13 years or more of education All mothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5,6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cuban . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central and South American . . . . . . . Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino: 6 White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.8 6.9 15.3 10.4 6.7 7.4 7.6 8.1 5.5 7.2 7.9 6.8 14.7

7.2 6.2 14.9 8.4 5.9 7.0 6.4 6.9 5.9 7.6 7.5 6.1 14.9

6.4 5.5 13.7 8.1 5.1 5.8 5.7 7.8 4.2 5.4 5.6 5.4 13.8

5.3 4.5 11.6 6.6 4.1 5.0 5.1 6.4 4.3 4.0 5.3 4.5 11.7

5.1 4.4 11.3 7.0 4.1 4.6 4.7 6.2 4.2 3.9 4.1 4.3 11.4

5.1 4.3 11.4 6.9 3.9 4.6 4.7 5.7 3.9 4.1 4.4 4.2 11.5

.. ..

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Rates preceded by an asterisk are based on fewer than 50 deaths in the numerator. Rates not shown are based on fewer than 20 deaths in the numerator. 1 Rates based on unweighted birth cohort data. 2 Rates based on a period file using weighted data. See Appendix I, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. 3 Data for 2003 and 2001–2003 exclude Pennsylvania and Washington, which implemented the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. Maternal education data based on the 2003 revision are not comparable with data based on the 1989 and earlier revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. 4 Asian or Pacific Islander births occurred disproportionately in the states not reporting maternal education on the birth certificate prior to 1992. Starting with 1992 data, maternal education was reported by all 50 states and the District of Columbia. See Appendix II, Education. 5 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. 6 Prior to 1995, data shown only for states with an Hispanic-origin item and education of mother on their birth certificates. See Appendix II, Education; Hispanic origin. NOTES: Infants are under 1 year of age. Prior to 1995, data are shown only for states reporting education of mother on their birth certificates. See Appendix II, Education. The race groups white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. National linked files do not exist for 1992–1994. Some numbers in this table have been revised and differ from previous editions of Health, United States. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set.

164

Health, United States, 2006

Table 21. Infant mortality rates by birthweight: United States, selected years 1983–2003
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]

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2002 2 2003 2

Birthweight

1983 1

1985 1

1990 1

1995 2

2000 2

2001 2

All birthweights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Less than 2,500 grams . . . Less than 1,500 grams . Less than 500 grams . 500–999 grams . . . . . 1,000–1,499 grams . . 1,500–1,999 grams . . . . 2,000–2,499 grams . . . . 2,500 grams or more . . . . 2,500–2,999 grams . . . . 3,000–3,499 grams . . . . 3,500–3,999 grams . . . . 4,000 grams or more. . . 4,000–4,499 grams . . 4,500–4,999 grams . . 5,000 grams or more 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.9 95.9 400.6 890.3 584.2 162.3 58.4 22.5 4.7 8.8 4.4 3.2 3.3 2.9 3.9 14.4

10.4 93.9 387.7 895.9 559.2 145.4 54.0 20.9 4.3 7.9 4.3 3.0 3.2 2.9 3.8 14.7

Infant deaths per 1,000 live births 3 8.9 7.6 6.9 6.8 78.1 317.6 898.2 440.1 97.9 43.8 17.8 3.7 6.7 3.7 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.5 9.8 65.3 270.7 904.9 351.0 69.6 33.5 13.7 3.0 5.5 2.9 2.0 2.0 1.8 2.2 8.5 60.2 246.9 847.9 313.8 60.9 28.7 11.9 2.5 4.6 2.4 1.7 1.6 1.5 2.1 *6.1 59.4 246.9 856.8 313.0 59.4 27.6 11.4 2.5 4.5 2.3 1.7 1.6 1.5 2.0 *6.5

7.0 60.3 253.2 863.6 321.5 57.7 26.9 11.7 2.4 4.5 2.3 1.6 1.5 1.4 2.0 *5.1

6.8 59.4 253.1 866.2 319.0 56.9 28.0 11.0 2.3 4.1 2.2 1.6 1.6 1.3 2.4 *6.4

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Rates preceded by an asterisk are based on fewer than 50 deaths in the numerator. 1 Rates based on unweighted birth cohort data. 2 Rates based on a period file using weighted data; unknown birthweight imputed when period of gestation is known and proportionately distributed when period of gestation is unknown. See Appendix I, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. 3 For calculation of birthweight-specific infant mortality rates, unknown birthweight has been distributed in proportion to known birthweight separately for live births (denominator) and infant deaths (numerator). 4 In 1989, a birthweight-gestational age consistency check instituted for the natality file resulted in a decrease in the number of deaths to infants coded with birthweights of 5,000 grams or more and a discontinuity in the mortality trend for infants weighing 5,000 grams or more at birth. Starting with 1989 data, the rates are believed to be more accurate. NOTES: National linked files do not exist for 1992–1994. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set.

Health, United States, 2006

165

Table 22. Infant mortality rates, fetal mortality rates, and perinatal mortality rates, by race: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates, fetal death records, and birth certificates]

Updated February 2007

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Neonatal 1 Under 28 days Under 7 days Fetal mortality rate 2 Late fetal mortality rate 3 Perinatal mortality rate 4

Race and year All races 1950 5 . 1960 5 . 1970 . 1980 . 1990 . 1995 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Infant

1

Postneonatal

1

Deaths per 1,000 live births 29.2 26.0 20.0 12.6 9.2 7.6 7.2 7.1 6.9 6.8 7.0 6.9 6.8 20.5 18.7 15.1 8.5 5.8 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.6 4.5 17.8 16.7 13.6 7.1 4.8 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.6 8.7 7.3 4.9 4.1 3.4 2.7 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.3 18.4 15.8 14.0 9.1 7.5 7.0 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.2 --14.9 12.1 9.5 6.2 4.3 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.0 --32.5 28.6 23.0 13.2 9.1 7.6 7.2 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.7 ---

Race 1950 5 . . . . 1960 5 . . . . 1970 . . . . 1980 . . . .

of child: 6 ....... ....... ....... .......

White ..... ..... ..... .....

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

26.8 22.9 17.8 11.0

19.4 17.2 13.8 7.5

17.1 15.6 12.5 6.2

7.4 5.7 4.0 3.5

16.6 13.9 12.3 8.1

13.3 10.8 8.6 5.7

30.1 26.2 21.0 11.9

Race of mother: 7 White 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race of child: 6 Black or African American 1950 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1960 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Race of mother: 7 Black or African American 1980 1990 1995 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

10.9 7.6 6.3 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.7 5.7

7.4 4.8 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.8

6.1 3.9 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.0

3.5 2.8 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.9

8.1 6.4 5.9 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.2 ---

5.7 3.8 3.3 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.7 ---

11.8 7.7 6.5 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.8 ---

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

43.9 44.3 32.6 21.4

27.8 27.8 22.8 14.1

23.0 23.7 20.3 11.9

16.1 16.5 9.9 7.3

32.1 --23.2 14.4

------8.9

----34.5 20.7

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

22.2 18.0 15.1 14.3 14.6 14.1 14.0 14.4 14.0 13.8

14.6 11.6 9.8 9.5 9.8 9.4 9.2 9.5 9.4 9.1

12.3 9.7 8.2 7.8 7.9 7.6 7.6 7.8 7.5 7.3

7.6 6.4 5.3 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.6 4.7

14.7 13.3 12.7 12.3 12.6 12.4 12.1 11.9 12.0 ---

9.1 6.7 5.7 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1 ---

21.3 16.4 13.8 13.1 13.2 13.0 12.8 12.8 12.4 ---

- - - Data not available. 1 Infant (under 1 year of age), neonatal (under 28 days), early neonatal (under 7 days), and postneonatal (28 days–11 months). 2 Number of fetal deaths of 20 weeks or more gestation per 1,000 live births plus fetal deaths. 3 Number of fetal deaths of 28 weeks or more gestation (late fetal deaths) per 1,000 live births plus late fetal deaths. 4 Number of late fetal deaths plus infant deaths within 7 days of birth per 1,000 live births plus late fetal deaths. 5 Includes births and deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 6 Infant deaths, live births, and fetal deaths are tabulated by race of child. See Appendix II, Race. 7 Infant deaths are tabulated by race of decedent; fetal deaths and live births are tabulated by race of mother. See Appendix II, Race. NOTES: Infant mortality rates in this table are based on infant deaths from the mortality file (numerator) and live births from the natality file (denominator). Inconsistencies in reporting race for the same infant between the birth and death certificate can result in underestimated infant mortality rates for races other than white or black. Infant mortality rates for minority population groups are available from the Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set and are presented in Tables 19–20 and 23–24. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System: Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006; and unpublished numbers.

166

Health, United States, 2006

Table 23 (page 1 of 3). Infant mortality rates, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1989–1991, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]

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Not Hispanic or Latino All races Geographic division and state White Black or African American

1989–1991 1 1998–2000 2 2001–2003 2 1989–1991 1 1998–2000 2 2001–2003 2 1989–1991 1 1998–2000 2 2001–2003 2 Infant 3 deaths per 1,000 live births 7.3 5.8 5.7 6.2 4.6 4.4 5.9 4.7 4.6 6.2 5.4 5.1 5.9 4.2 4.0 7.2 4.7 4.2 7.5 4.9 5.3 6.3 6.2 5.0 6.6 5.0 5.0 6.1 4.4 3.9 6.3 4.7 4.6 7.2 5.6 6.0 7.7 6.3 6.2 7.6 6.2 5.9 8.4 6.9 7.0 7.7 6.0 6.3 7.7 6.7 6.3 7.4 5.7 5.5 7.4 6.0 5.7 7.8 5.8 5.3 7.8 7.1 6.3 6.4 5.2 4.5 8.0 6.1 6.5 7.2 6.2 5.6 7.3 7.0 6.8 7.5 6.7 5.7 7.6 6.0 6.1 8.2 6.5 7.6 *8.2 * *3.8 7.2 5.8 5.9 8.4 5.9 6.3 6.3 5.2 5.4 8.0 6.7 6.2 8.4 6.3 6.1 7.4 5.6 5.7 8.8 7.6 7.7 8.1 6.7 6.8 8.6 7.1 6.7 8.1 6.9 6.3 7.9 6.6 7.1 7.8 6.4 7.1 7.2 6.2 6.3 8.1 7.4 7.6 7.5 6.2 7.0 7.3 8.2 7.2 6.9 5.5 5.7 7.9 6.1 5.5 8.2 6.6 6.1 8.0 5.9 5.2 8.9 6.8 6.0 8.0 6.0 6.9 7.8 6.1 5.4 8.1 7.0 6.1 6.8 5.2 4.8 8.0 6.8 5.6 7.0 4.9 4.9 7.2 5.0 5.1 6.9 4.8 4.7 5.5 6.4 5.3 7.4 5.3 5.6 7.4 4.8 5.3

United States. . . . . . . New England 4 . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . New Hampshire 4 . . Rhode Island . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . . Middle Atlantic . . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New York . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . East North Central . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . West North Central. . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Missouri . . . . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . . South Dakota . . . . . South Atlantic . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . District of Columbia. Florida . . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . South Carolina . . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . East South Central. . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . . West South Central 4 . Arkansas . . . . . . . . Louisiana 4 . . . . . . . Oklahoma 4 . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Mountain . . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . New Mexico . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . Pacific. . . . . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.0 7.3 7.9 6.6 7.0 7.1 8.7 6.6 9.2 8.4 9.5 9.2 9.8 10.7 9.4 10.5 9.0 8.4 8.5 8.2 8.5 7.3 9.7 8.1 8.0 9.5 10.4 11.2 20.3 9.4 11.9 9.1 10.7 11.8 9.9 9.1 10.4 11.4 8.7 11.5 10.2 8.4 9.8 10.2 8.0 7.9 8.4 8.8 8.7 8.9 9.0 8.6 8.4 7.0 8.4 7.7 9.2 7.6 7.0 8.0 8.0

7.0 5.6 6.5 5.4 5.0 5.4 6.4 6.3 6.6 6.4 6.3 7.2 8.0 8.5 7.8 8.1 7.9 6.9 6.8 6.2 7.0 5.9 7.5 7.0 8.0 7.8 8.1 8.8 13.5 7.2 8.3 8.1 9.0 9.5 7.2 7.6 8.8 9.8 7.4 10.3 8.4 6.9 8.4 9.1 8.5 6.0 6.6 7.0 6.5 7.2 6.8 6.7 6.9 5.3 7.0 5.6 6.3 5.5 7.4 5.6 5.3

6.9 5.3 6.0 5.2 4.9 4.3 6.9 5.1 6.4 5.9 6.0 7.4 7.7 7.6 7.7 8.2 7.8 6.8 6.5 5.6 7.1 5.1 7.9 6.4 7.5 6.9 8.1 9.5 10.9 7.4 8.7 8.0 8.3 8.9 7.5 7.9 8.8 9.0 6.6 10.5 9.1 7.0 8.5 9.8 7.8 6.2 6.1 6.6 6.0 6.2 7.3 5.8 6.1 5.2 6.0 5.4 6.8 5.3 7.0 5.6 5.7

17.2 15.1 17.0 * 14.2 * *13.6 * 18.5 17.8 18.4 19.1 19.1 20.5 17.3 20.7 16.2 17.0 17.5 15.8 15.4 18.5 18.0 18.3 * * 17.2 20.1 23.9 16.2 17.9 15.0 16.9 17.2 18.0 *15.7 16.5 16.8 14.4 15.2 18.2 14.2 15.2 14.3 12.7 14.1 16.9 17.3 16.7 * * 16.9 *17.2 * * 15.4 * 15.4 *13.6 21.3 15.1

13.9 12.2 13.5 * 11.2 * *13.5 * 13.1 13.8 11.8 15.4 16.1 17.1 15.4 16.4 14.4 16.6 14.7 17.3 10.5 13.0 16.0 16.2 * * 13.9 15.8 16.8 12.6 13.5 13.9 15.7 15.5 12.8 *9.8 15.0 15.4 12.7 14.7 15.6 12.2 12.6 13.5 13.5 11.0 13.7 15.0 14.8 * * 12.1 * * * 11.7 * 12.0 * *8.5 10.1

13.6 11.5 13.6 * 10.2 * *11.8 * 12.3 13.1 11.2 14.1 15.7 15.5 13.8 16.7 15.4 17.5 13.8 *12.3 15.8 8.4 15.7 15.2 * * 13.9 16.4 14.8 13.3 13.5 13.2 15.1 14.5 14.2 *12.5 14.7 14.1 10.1 14.7 16.9 12.8 13.1 13.9 14.3 11.9 13.2 13.8 14.2 * * 12.8 * * * 10.9 * 11.1 * *9.3 9.4

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

167

Table 23 (page 2 of 3). Infant mortality rates, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1989–1991, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]

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Hispanic or Latino 5 Geographic division and state

American Indian or Alaska Native 6

Asian or Pacific Islander 6

1989–1991 1 1998–2000 2 2001–2003 2 1989–1991 1 1998–2000 2 2001–2003 2 1989–1991 1 1998–2000 2 2001–2003 2 Infant 3 deaths per 1,000 live births 12.6 9.0 9.0 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *11.6 * *10.9 * * * *15.2 * *11.9 * * * 11.6 8.5 9.6 * * * * * * *10.7 * * * * * *11.9 *8.3 *12.7 17.1 11.4 11.1 * * * * * * 17.3 *10.4 *9.8 * * * *18.2 *15.4 * *13.8 *15.1 *11.4 19.9 13.3 12.6 12.7 8.6 9.0 * * * * * * * * *7.4 * * * * * * 12.2 11.7 11.0 * * * * * * * * * * * *11.3 * * * * * * * * * * * * 8.4 7.9 7.4 * * * * * * 7.8 8.2 7.4 * * * 11.6 8.8 8.7 11.4 8.7 9.7 *16.5 * * * * * 16.7 *11.3 *9.4 * * * 9.8 7.6 6.0 *10.0 * * * * * 14.6 9.4 9.2 15.7 9.7 10.6 11.0 9.3 7.3 * * * *15.7 *10.6 *8.9 19.6 9.2 10.6

United States. . . . . . . New England 7 . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . New Hampshire 7 . . Rhode Island . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . . Middle Atlantic . . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New York . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . East North Central . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . West North Central. . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Missouri . . . . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . . South Dakota . . . . . South Atlantic . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . District of Columbia. Florida . . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . South Carolina . . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . East South Central. . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . . West South Central 7 . Arkansas . . . . . . . . Louisiana 7 . . . . . . . Oklahoma 7 . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Mountain . . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . New Mexico . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . Pacific. . . . . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.5 8.1 7.9 * 8.3 --*7.2 * 9.1 7.5 9.4 10.9 8.7 9.2 *7.2 7.9 8.0 *7.3 9.3 *11.9 8.7 *8.4 *9.1 *8.8 * * 7.4 * *8.8 7.1 9.0 7.2 *7.5 * 7.6 * *5.9 * * * * 7.0 * ----7.0 7.9 8.0 8.5 *7.2 * 7.0 7.8 *7.0 * 7.1 * 7.0 10.7 8.5 7.6

5.7 6.9 8.6 * 5.5 * *6.4 * 6.2 6.2 5.9 8.5 7.2 7.2 6.8 6.6 8.7 7.4 6.4 *6.1 5.2 6.9 *6.5 7.8 * * 5.2 * *9.1 4.9 5.1 5.8 6.2 *5.9 4.7 * 6.1 *7.3 * * *5.4 5.2 *5.7 *4.9 5.4 5.2 6.6 6.7 6.5 8.7 * 6.0 6.6 5.7 * 5.2 * 5.2 7.5 6.4 5.0

5.6 6.5 6.3 * 6.3 * 8.8 * 5.9 6.1 5.5 8.0 6.3 5.9 6.4 7.3 8.2 6.9 6.5 *6.5 7.3 5.7 7.0 6.2 * * 5.6 *6.9 *7.2 5.3 6.4 6.0 6.1 5.3 4.9 * 6.5 7.0 *4.9 * 6.6 5.4 *5.3 *4.5 5.6 5.4 6.0 6.2 6.3 7.0 * 4.4 5.9 6.4 * 5.1 * 5.1 *6.8 4.7 5.2

6.6 5.8 * * 5.7 * * * 6.4 5.6 6.4 7.8 6.1 6.0 * *6.1 *4.8 *6.7 7.4 * * *5.1 *9.1 * * * 6.8 * * *6.2 *8.2 7.5 *6.3 * 6.0 * *7.7 * * * * 6.7 * * * 6.8 8.1 *8.5 *7.8 * * * * *10.7 * 6.5 * 6.4 7.1 *8.4 6.2

5.1 3.9 * * 3.9 * * * 4.2 4.6 4.0 *3.8 6.2 6.7 *6.6 6.7 *4.3 *5.8 6.0 * * 6.8 * * * * 5.2 * * 5.2 *4.5 *4.8 *6.2 * 5.4 * *5.9 * * * *5.9 4.3 * * * 4.2 5.5 *5.1 *4.9 * * *6.0 * *6.2 * 5.2 * 4.8 7.6 *4.2 5.3

4.8 3.8 * * 3.4 * * * 3.6 3.7 3.4 4.0 5.4 5.4 * 5.2 *5.1 *6.6 5.2 * * 5.5 *6.2 * * * 5.2 * * 5.1 6.5 4.3 *4.8 *7.9 5.0 * 6.5 * * * *6.4 4.9 * *9.9 * 4.4 6.1 *6.2 *6.7 * * *4.3 * *7.9 * 4.8 * 4.3 7.3 *4.7 4.7

See footnotes at end of table.

168

Health, United States, 2006

Table 23 (page 3 of 3). Infant mortality rates, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1989–1991, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]

Click here for spreadsheet version

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Rates preceded by an asterisk are based on fewer than 50 deaths in the numerator. Rates not shown are based on fewer than 20 deaths in the numerator. - - - Data not available. 1 Rates based on unweighted birth cohort data. 2 Rates based on period file using weighted data. See Appendix I, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. 3 Under 1 year of age. 4 Rates for white and black are substituted for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black for Louisiana 1989, Oklahoma 1989–1990, and New Hampshire 1989–1991. 5 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. 6 Includes persons of Hispanic origin. 7 Rates for Hispanic origin exclude data from states not reporting Hispanic origin on the birth certificate for 1 or more years in a 3-year period. NOTES: Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. National linked files do not exist for 1992–1994. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set.

Health, United States, 2006

169

Table 24 (page 1 of 3). Neonatal mortality rates, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1989–1991, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Not Hispanic or Latino All races Geographic division and state White Black or African American

1989–1991 1 1998–2000 2 2001–2003 2 1989–1991 1 1998–2000 2 2001–2003 2 1989–1991 1 1998–2000 2 2001–2003 2 Neonatal 3 deaths per 1,000 live births 4.6 3.8 3.8 4.2 3.5 3.3 4.2 3.6 3.5 4.2 3.9 3.9 4.1 3.3 3.0 4.4 3.4 2.9 5.3 3.8 3.7 3.9 4.4 3.8 4.6 3.5 3.6 4.5 3.2 2.8 4.3 3.3 3.3 4.9 4.0 4.4 4.9 4.3 4.3 5.1 4.3 4.3 5.2 4.6 4.6 4.9 4.0 4.4 4.8 4.6 4.3 4.6 3.8 3.8 4.5 3.9 3.8 4.5 3.7 3.2 4.6 4.7 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.1 5.0 3.9 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.5 4.1 3.0 4.9 4.0 4.0 5.8 4.2 5.7 *5.2 * * 4.7 3.8 3.7 5.5 3.8 4.1 3.9 3.6 4.0 5.3 4.8 4.1 5.4 4.1 3.9 4.8 3.8 3.7 5.6 4.6 4.8 5.0 4.2 4.1 5.7 4.3 4.1 4.6 4.5 3.9 4.9 3.8 4.1 4.9 4.1 4.2 4.2 3.8 3.9 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.8 4.0 4.3 4.1 5.2 4.2 4.1 3.3 3.5 4.4 3.8 3.6 4.9 4.2 4.0 4.7 3.8 3.5 5.2 4.5 3.8 4.2 3.2 4.4 3.8 3.2 3.0 4.8 4.3 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.8 4.1 3.7 4.0 3.2 3.2 3.7 2.8 *2.8 4.1 3.2 3.1 3.5 *4.7 *4.3 4.0 3.4 3.7 3.8 2.9 3.5

United States. . . . . . . New England 4 . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . New Hampshire 4 . . Rhode Island . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . . Middle Atlantic . . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New York . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . East North Central . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . West North Central. . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Missouri . . . . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . . South Dakota . . . . . South Atlantic . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . District of Columbia. Florida . . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . South Carolina . . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . East South Central. . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . . West South Central 4 . Arkansas . . . . . . . . Louisiana 4 . . . . . . . Oklahoma 4 . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Mountain . . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . New Mexico . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . Pacific. . . . . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.7 5.1 5.7 4.5 4.9 4.3 6.4 4.1 6.3 5.8 6.5 6.2 6.3 7.0 6.0 6.9 5.5 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.9 4.3 6.0 4.5 5.0 5.1 6.9 7.5 14.1 6.2 7.9 5.9 7.3 7.7 6.8 5.8 6.6 7.5 5.0 7.1 6.5 5.0 5.4 6.3 4.4 4.7 4.8 5.3 5.0 5.3 4.6 4.3 5.0 3.7 3.9 4.6 4.1 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.3

4.7 4.2 4.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.8 4.3 4.7 4.6 4.5 5.0 5.4 5.8 5.2 5.5 5.4 4.6 4.5 4.0 4.7 3.9 4.9 4.7 5.0 4.3 5.6 6.3 9.4 4.7 5.7 5.9 6.5 6.7 5.1 4.6 5.7 6.2 4.8 6.3 5.5 4.2 4.9 5.9 5.2 3.7 4.2 4.5 4.3 4.8 3.7 3.8 4.0 3.5 4.4 3.7 3.2 3.7 5.4 3.6 3.3

4.6 3.9 4.4 4.0 3.7 3.0 5.1 3.7 4.5 4.2 4.2 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.7 5.3 4.7 4.3 3.5 4.7 3.4 5.4 4.4 5.2 3.4 5.5 7.0 7.7 4.9 5.8 5.8 5.8 6.1 5.1 5.1 5.5 5.7 4.0 6.4 5.8 4.4 5.1 6.2 4.6 4.0 4.0 4.3 4.3 3.9 4.4 3.4 3.9 3.5 3.8 3.6 3.0 3.6 4.8 3.7 3.7

11.1 11.0 12.5 * 10.4 * *9.8 * 12.3 11.4 12.6 12.5 12.1 12.7 11.5 14.0 9.8 9.1 10.2 *10.5 8.3 10.7 10.6 *9.8 * * 11.7 12.4 16.7 10.5 12.0 10.2 11.9 11.3 13.0 *9.7 10.6 11.1 8.9 9.5 11.8 8.4 8.5 8.5 6.3 8.5 10.1 11.0 10.9 * * *8.3 * * * 9.2 * 9.2 * *11.6 9.7

9.4 9.1 9.7 * 8.8 * *9.3 * 9.1 9.5 8.4 10.3 10.7 11.1 10.1 11.4 9.8 10.8 9.9 *10.5 7.5 8.8 10.8 *10.7 * * 9.8 12.6 11.9 8.2 9.4 10.3 11.5 11.4 9.3 * 9.9 10.3 8.0 9.3 10.6 7.6 7.7 8.8 8.1 6.8 9.0 9.7 11.1 * * *6.1 * * * 7.2 * 7.4 * * 6.4

9.2 8.4 9.2 * 7.8 * *9.6 * 8.5 8.9 7.7 9.8 10.3 9.9 9.0 11.2 10.4 11.2 9.4 *9.1 11.2 4.5 11.1 *11.2 * * 9.7 12.2 10.3 8.9 9.2 9.5 10.9 10.5 10.1 *9.6 9.6 9.0 5.7 9.2 11.9 8.1 8.3 9.0 8.6 7.5 9.0 9.5 11.0 * * 7.3 * * * 7.0 * 7.2 * * 6.1

See footnotes at end of table.

170

Health, United States, 2006

Table 24 (page 2 of 3). Neonatal mortality rates, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1989–1991, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Hispanic or Latino 5 Geographic division and state

American Indian or Alaska Native 6

Asian or Pacific Islander 6

1989–1991 1 1998–2000 2 2001–2003 2 1989–1991 1 1998–2000 2 2001–2003 2 1989–1991 1 1998–2000 2 2001–2003 2 Neonatal 3 deaths per 1,000 live births 5.9 4.8 4.5 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *5.6 * * * * * * * * * *6.2 *4.5 *5.4 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *6.5 6.1 5.0 5.5 * * * * * * *4.9 * * * * * * * * * * * *8.2 *5.1 *5.5 7.4 6.3 6.1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *7.7 *9.1 *8.0 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 4.3 4.2 3.8 * * * * * * *3.7 4.3 3.8 * * * 5.8 4.8 4.0 5.4 5.0 4.3 * * * * * * *7.6 *6.4 * * * * 4.9 *3.4 *3.4 * * * * * * 6.5 4.7 4.0 *5.7 *4.2 *3.2 6.3 *5.0 *3.7 * * * * * * *8.5 *4.8 *5.0

United States. . . . . . . New England 7 . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . New Hampshire 7 . . Rhode Island . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . . Middle Atlantic . . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New York . . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . East North Central . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . West North Central. . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Missouri . . . . . . . . . Nebraska . . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . . South Dakota . . . . . South Atlantic . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . District of Columbia. Florida . . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . South Carolina . . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . East South Central. . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . . West South Central 7 . Arkansas . . . . . . . . Louisiana 7 . . . . . . . Oklahoma 7 . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Mountain . . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Idaho. . . . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . New Mexico . . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . . Pacific. . . . . . . . . . . . Alaska . . . . . . . . . . California . . . . . . . . Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . Oregon . . . . . . . . . Washington . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.8 5.5 5.3 * 5.8 --*4.9 * 6.2 5.1 6.4 7.3 5.9 6.4 *4.7 5.2 *5.4 *3.9 5.3 * *5.4 * * * * * 5.2 * * 5.1 *5.7 *4.7 *5.5 * *4.8 * * * * * * 4.2 * ----4.2 4.7 5.0 4.4 * * *4.1 4.9 *3.6 * 4.5 * 4.4 *6.6 6.5 4.9

3.8 5.2 6.5 * 4.4 * *4.1 * 4.3 4.3 4.1 5.7 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.2 6.6 5.5 4.6 *4.6 *3.5 *4.8 *4.7 *5.8 * * 3.7 * * 3.5 3.5 4.8 4.5 *4.4 3.5 * 3.7 *4.1 * * *3.8 3.3 *4.2 * *3.3 3.3 4.3 4.5 4.6 *5.7 * 3.9 3.8 3.7 * 3.6 * 3.5 *5.3 4.6 3.3

3.8 4.9 4.9 * 4.7 * *6.4 * 4.2 4.2 3.9 5.4 4.5 4.1 4.3 5.1 6.1 5.0 4.5 *4.6 4.9 3.9 5.1 *3.9 * * 3.9 * * 3.6 4.3 4.2 4.1 *3.8 3.6 * 4.1 *4.3 * * 4.4 3.5 *3.5 * 3.3 3.5 4.2 4.3 4.8 *5.1 * 2.7 3.9 4.3 * 3.5 * 3.5 *4.4 3.3 3.5

3.9 4.4 * * *3.9 * * * 4.1 *3.4 4.1 *5.2 3.6 3.9 * * * * 4.6 * * *3.2 * * * * 4.6 * * *4.4 *5.3 *4.5 * * *4.1 * * * * * * 4.1 * * * 4.0 4.6 * * * * * * * * 3.7 * 3.6 4.2 *5.3 *2.7

3.5 2.7 * * *2.6 * * * 3.0 3.3 2.9 *2.7 4.4 4.9 * *4.3 *2.6 *4.4 4.3 * * *5.0 * * * * 3.8 * * 3.8 *3.3 *3.7 *4.0 * 4.1 * *4.3 * * * * 2.8 * * * 2.8 3.4 * * * * *4.0 * * * 3.5 * 3.1 5.4 *3.1 3.6

3.3 3.0 * * *2.6 * * * 2.6 2.7 2.4 *3.2 4.0 3.9 * 3.9 *4.2 *4.9 3.5 * * *3.4 *4.5 * * * 3.9 * * 3.7 5.3 *3.5 *3.4 * 3.6 * *4.3 * * * * 3.1 * *7.6 * 2.8 3.8 *3.2 *4.7 * * * * *5.1 * 3.2 * 2.9 4.7 *3.1 3.1

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

171

Table 24 (page 3 of 3). Neonatal mortality rates, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1989–1991, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]

Click here for spreadsheet version

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Rates preceded by an asterisk are based on fewer than 50 deaths in the numerator. Rates not shown are based on fewer than 20 deaths in the numerator. - - - Data not available. 1 Rates based on unweighted birth cohort data. 2 Rates based on period file using weighted data. See Appendix I, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. 3 Infants under 28 days of age. 4 Rates for white and black are substituted for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black for Louisiana 1989, Oklahoma 1989–1990, and New Hampshire 1989–1991. 5 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. 6 Includes persons of Hispanic origin. 7 Rates for Hispanic origin exclude data from states not reporting Hispanic origin on the birth certificate for 1 or more years in a 3-year period. NOTES: Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. National linked files do not exist for 1992–1994. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set.

172

Health, United States, 2006

Table 25. Infant mortality rates and international rankings: Selected countries and territories, selected years 1960–2003
[Data are based on reporting by countries]

Click here for spreadsheet version

International rankings 1 Country 2 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 1960 2003

Australia . . . . . . Austria . . . . . . . Belgium . . . . . . Bulgaria . . . . . . Canada . . . . . . Chile . . . . . . . . Costa Rica . . . . Cuba . . . . . . . . Czech Republic . Denmark. . . . . . England and Finland . . . . France . . . . Germany 4 . . Greece . . . . Hong Kong . Hungary . . . Ireland . . . . Israel 5 . . . . Italy . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20.2 37.5 23.9 45.1 27.3 120.3 67.8 37.3 20.0 21.5 22.4 21.0 27.5 35.0 40.1 41.5 47.6 29.3 31.0 43.9 30.7 17.9 22.6 27.2 18.9 54.8 77.5 43.3 75.7 --26.4 34.8 28.6 43.7 16.6 21.1 26.0

17.9 25.9 21.1 27.3 18.8 82.2 65.4 38.7 20.2 14.2 18.5 13.2 18.2 22.5 29.6 19.2 35.9 19.5 18.9 29.6 13.1 12.7 16.7 22.9 12.7 36.7 55.5 27.9 49.4 --19.6 21.4 25.7 28.1 11.0 15.1 20.0

Infant 3 deaths per 1,000 live births 10.7 8.2 5.2 5.3 14.3 7.8 4.8 4.8 12.1 8.0 4.8 4.5 20.2 14.8 13.3 14.4 10.4 6.8 5.3 5.2 33.0 16.0 11.7 8.3 20.3 15.3 10.2 10.8 19.6 10.7 7.2 6.2 16.9 10.8 4.1 4.0 8.4 7.5 5.3 4.9 12.0 7.6 10.0 12.4 17.9 11.2 23.2 11.1 15.6 14.6 7.5 8.6 13.0 13.4 8.1 25.5 24.3 18.5 29.3 22.0 12.1 11.7 20.9 12.3 6.9 9.1 12.6 7.9 5.6 7.3 7.0 9.7 5.9 14.8 8.2 9.9 8.2 4.6 7.1 8.4 7.5 7.0 19.3 11.0 13.4 26.9 17.6 7.7 6.7 12.0 7.6 6.0 6.8 9.2 5.6 3.8 4.4 4.4 5.9 2.9 9.2 6.2 5.4 4.5 3.2 5.1 6.3 5.1 3.8 8.1 5.5 9.9 18.6 15.2 5.7 2.5 8.6 3.9 3.4 4.9 6.9 5.4 3.2 4.5 4.3 5.1 2.7 8.1 5.7 5.1 4.7 3.1 5.4 5.6 6.1 3.9 7.7 5.0 9.2 18.4 14.6 5.5 2.2 6.2 4.4 3.7 5.0 6.8

5.0 4.1 4.4 13.3 5.4 7.8 11.2 6.5 4.2 4.4 5.2 3.0 4.1 4.2 5.1 2.4 7.2 5.0 5.4 4.5 3.0 5.0 6.2 4.7 3.5 7.5 5.0 9.8 17.3 13.2 5.3 2.9 7.6 4.1 3.3 4.5 7.0

4.8 4.5 4.3 12.0 5.3 7.8 10.1 6.3 3.9 4.4 5.3 3.1 3.9 4.2 4.8 2.3 7.3 5.1 4.9 4.3 3.0 4.8 5.2 5.2 3.4 7.0 4.1 9.8 16.7 12.4 5.1 2.5 7.9 4.1 3.1 4.3 6.9

5 24 11 30 15 36 33 23 4 8 9 6 16 22 25 26 31 18 20 29 19 2 10 14 3 32 35 27 34 --13 21 17 28 1 7 12

17 16 12 35 25 31 34 27 7 15 25 4 7 11 17 1 30 21 20 12 3 17 23 23 6 29 9 33 37 36 21 2 32 9 4 12 28

Wales ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....

Japan . . . . . . . . . . . Netherlands . . . . . . New Zealand. . . . . . Northern Ireland . . . Norway. . . . . . . . . . Poland . . . . . . . . . . Portugal . . . . . . . . . Puerto Rico. . . . . . . Romania. . . . . . . . . Russian Federation 6 Scotland . . . . . . . . . Singapore . . . . . . . . Slovakia . . . . . . . . . Spain . . . . . . . . . . . Sweden . . . . . . . . . Switzerland . . . . . . . United States . . . . .

- - - Data not available. 1 Rankings are from lowest to highest infant mortality rates (IMR). Countries with the same IMR receive the same rank. The country with the next highest IMR is assigned the rank it would have received had the lower-ranked countries not been tied, i.e., skip a rank. Some of the variation in IMRs is due to differences among countries in distinguishing between fetal and infant deaths. 2 Refers to countries, territories, cities, or geographic areas with at least 1 million population and with complete counts of live births and infant deaths according to the United Nations Demographic Yearbook. 3 Under 1 year of age. 4 Rates for 1990 and earlier years were calculated by combining information from the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. 5 Includes data for East Jerusalem and Israeli residents in certain other territories under occupation by Israeli military forces since June 1967. 6 Excludes infants born alive after less than 28 weeks gestation, of less than 1,000 grams in weight and 35 centimeters in length, who die within 7 days of birth. NOTE: Some rates for selected countries and selected years were revised and differ from previous editions of Health, United States. SOURCES: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD): OECD Health Data 2005, A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, www.oecd.org/els/health/; United Nations: 2000 Demographic Yearbook, United Nations Publication, Sales No. E/F.02.XIII.1, New York, 2002; World Health Organization Statistical Information System (WHOSIS), www3.who.int/whosis/; United States and Puerto Rico: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Statistics of the United States, vol. II, mortality part A (selected years). Public Health Service. Washington, DC; Sweden: Statistics Sweden; Costa Rica: Dirección General de Estadísticas y Censos. Elaboracón y estimación, Centro Centroamericano de Población, Universidad de Costa Rica, http://ccp.ucr.ac.cr/observa/index1.htm; Russian Federation: Goskomstat, www.gks.ru/eng/; Israel: Central Bureau Statistics of Israel, www.cbs.gov.il/engindex.htm.

Health, United States, 2006

173

Table 26 (page 1 of 2). Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, by sex: Selected countries and territories, selected years 1980–2002
[Data are based on reporting by countries]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Male Country At birth Australia . . . . . . . Austria . . . . . . . . Belgium . . . . . . . Bulgaria . . . . . . . Canada . . . . . . . Chile . . . . . . . . . Costa Rica . . . . . Cuba . . . . . . . . . Czech Republic 1 . Denmark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.0 69.0 70.0 68.5 71.7 --71.9 72.2 66.8 71.2 70.8 69.2 70.2 69.6 72.2 71.6 65.5 70.1 72.2 70.6 73.4 72.5 70.0 68.3 72.3 66.0 67.7 70.8 66.6 61.4 69.0 69.8 66.8 72.5 72.8 72.8 70.0 1980 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2002 Rank 77.4 75.8 75.1 68.9 77.2 72.9 76.2 74.7 72.1 74.8 76.2 74.9 75.8 75.4 75.4 78.6 68.4 75.2 77.5 76.8 78.3 76.0 76.3 75.6 76.4 70.4 73.8 71.6 67.4 58.9 73.5 76.5 69.9 75.8 77.7 77.8 74.5 6 15 22 34 7 29 12 25 30 24 12 23 15 19 19 1 35 21 5 8 2 14 11 18 10 32 27 31 36 37 28 9 33 15 4 3 26 78.1 76.1 76.8 73.9 78.9 --77.0 --73.9 77.3 76.8 77.6 78.4 76.1 76.8 77.9 72.7 75.6 75.8 77.4 78.8 79.2 76.3 75.0 79.2 74.4 75.2 76.9 71.9 73.0 75.2 74.7 74.3 78.6 78.8 79.6 77.4 1980 1990 1995

Female 2000 2001 2002 2002 Rank 82.6 81.7 81.1 75.6 82.1 78.9 81.0 79.2 78.7 79.5 80.7 81.5 83.0 81.2 80.7 84.5 76.7 80.3 81.4 82.9 85.2 80.7 81.1 80.4 81.5 78.8 80.5 80.5 74.8 72.0 78.9 81.1 77.8 83.5 82.1 83.0 79.9 7 10 15 35 8 29 18 28 32 27 19 11 4 14 19 2 34 25 13 6 1 19 15 24 11 31 22 22 36 37 29 15 33 3 8 4 26

Life expectancy in years 73.9 72.2 72.7 68.3 74.4 71.1 74.7 74.6 67.6 72.0 73.1 70.9 72.8 72.0 74.6 74.6 65.1 72.1 75.1 73.6 75.9 73.8 72.4 72.1 73.4 66.7 70.4 69.1 66.6 63.8 71.1 73.1 66.6 73.3 74.8 74.0 71.8 75.0 73.3 73.4 67.4 75.1 71.8 74.0 75.4 69.7 72.7 74.3 72.8 73.9 73.3 75.0 76.0 65.3 72.9 75.5 74.9 76.4 74.6 74.4 73.5 74.8 67.6 71.6 69.6 65.5 58.3 72.1 74.2 68.4 74.3 76.2 75.3 72.5 76.6 75.1 74.6 68.5 76.7 72.6 75.4 74.7 71.7 74.5 75.6 74.2 75.3 75.0 75.5 78.0 67.4 73.4 76.7 76.6 77.7 75.5 76.3 74.8 76.0 69.7 73.2 71.1 67.8 59.2 73.1 76.1 69.2 75.7 77.4 76.9 74.1 77.0 75.6 74.9 68.6 77.0 72.7 75.6 74.7 72.1 74.7 76.0 74.6 75.5 75.6 75.4 78.4 68.1 74.7 77.1 76.7 78.1 75.8 76.3 75.2 76.2 70.2 73.5 71.4 67.7 59.1 73.3 76.4 69.6 75.6 77.6 77.4 74.4

Life expectancy in years 80.1 78.8 79.4 75.0 80.8 76.9 79.1 76.9 75.4 77.7 78.6 78.9 80.9 78.4 79.5 80.3 73.7 77.6 78.5 80.1 81.9 80.9 78.3 78.0 79.8 76.3 77.4 77.2 73.1 74.4 76.7 77.6 75.4 80.3 80.4 80.7 78.8 80.8 79.9 80.2 74.9 81.1 77.8 78.6 77.7 76.6 77.8 79.5 80.2 81.8 79.7 80.3 81.5 74.5 78.4 79.5 81.3 82.9 80.4 79.7 78.9 80.8 76.4 78.7 78.9 73.5 71.7 77.7 78.6 76.3 81.5 81.4 81.7 78.9 82.0 81.1 80.8 75.1 81.9 78.6 80.2 79.0 78.4 79.3 80.3 81.0 82.7 81.0 80.6 83.9 75.9 79.1 81.1 82.5 84.6 80.5 81.1 79.8 81.4 77.9 80.0 80.1 74.8 72.4 78.6 80.1 77.4 82.5 82.0 82.6 79.5 82.4 81.5 81.1 75.4 82.1 78.7 79.9 79.2 78.5 79.3 80.6 81.5 82.9 81.3 80.7 84.6 76.4 79.7 81.6 82.8 84.9 80.7 81.1 80.1 81.5 78.3 80.3 80.3 75.0 72.3 78.8 80.3 77.7 82.9 82.1 83.0 79.8

England and Wales Finland . . . . . . . . . France . . . . . . . . . Germany 2 . . . . . . . Greece . . . . . . . . . Hong Kong . . . . . . Hungary . . . . . . . . Ireland . . . . . . . . . Israel . . . . . . . . . . Italy . . . . . . . . . . . Japan . . . . . . . . . . Netherlands . . . . . New Zealand. . . . . Northern Ireland . . Norway. . . . . . . . . Poland . . . . . . . . . Portugal . . . . . . . . Puerto Rico. . . . . . Romania. . . . . . . . Russian Federation Scotland . . . . . . . . Singapore . . . . . . . Slovakia 1 . . . . . . . Spain . . . . . . . . . . Sweden . . . . . . . . Switzerland . . . . . . United States . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

174

Health, United States, 2006

Table 26 (page 2 of 2). Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, by sex: Selected countries and territories, selected years 1980–2002
[Data are based on reporting by countries]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Male Country At 65 years Australia . . . . . . . Austria . . . . . . . . Belgium . . . . . . . Bulgaria . . . . . . . Canada . . . . . . . Chile . . . . . . . . . Costa Rica . . . . . Cuba . . . . . . . . . Czech Republic 1 . Denmark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7 12.9 13.0 12.7 14.5 --16.1 --11.2 13.6 12.9 12.5 13.6 13.0 14.6 13.9 11.6 12.6 14.4 13.3 14.6 13.7 13.2 11.9 14.3 12.0 12.9 --12.6 11.6 12.3 12.6 12.3 14.8 14.3 14.4 14.1 1980 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2002 Rank 17.4 16.3 15.8 13.1 17.2 15.4 17.8 16.8 14.0 15.4 16.3 15.8 17.0 16.2 16.7 17.8 13.1 15.3 17.3 16.6 18.0 15.6 16.7 15.9 16.2 14.0 15.0 --13.0 10.9 15.1 16.0 13.3 16.5 16.9 17.4 16.6 4 16 22 33 7 25 2 10 30 25 16 22 8 18 11 2 33 27 6 13 1 24 11 21 18 30 29 35 36 28 20 32 15 9 4 13 17.9 16.3 16.9 14.7 18.9 --18.1 --14.3 17.6 16.9 16.5 18.2 16.7 16.8 13.9 14.6 15.7 15.8 17.1 17.7 18.0 17.0 15.8 18.0 15.5 16.5 --14.2 15.6 16.2 15.4 15.4 17.9 17.9 17.9 18.3 1980 1990 1995

Female 2000 2001 2002 2002 Rank 20.8 19.7 19.7 15.8 20.6 18.8 20.5 19.3 17.4 18.3 19.2 19.6 21.3 19.7 18.8 22.0 17.0 18.6 19.7 20.6 23.0 19.3 20.0 18.9 19.7 17.9 19.0 --15.8 15.1 18.1 19.2 17.0 20.5 20.0 21.0 19.5 5 12 12 34 6 25 8 19 31 28 21 17 3 12 25 2 32 27 12 6 1 19 10 24 12 30 23 34 36 29 21 32 8 10 4 18

Life expectancy in years 15.2 14.3 14.3 12.9 15.7 14.6 17.1 --11.6 14.0 14.1 13.7 15.5 14.0 15.7 15.3 12.0 13.3 15.9 15.1 16.2 14.4 14.7 13.7 14.6 12.7 13.9 --13.3 12.1 13.1 14.5 12.2 15.4 15.3 15.3 15.1 15.7 14.9 14.8 12.8 16.0 14.9 16.7 --12.7 14.1 14.8 14.5 16.1 14.7 16.1 16.2 12.1 13.6 16.0 15.8 16.5 14.7 15.6 14.4 15.1 12.9 14.6 --12.9 10.9 13.8 14.6 12.7 16.0 16.0 16.1 15.6 16.9 16.0 15.5 12.8 16.8 15.3 17.2 16.7 13.7 15.2 15.8 15.5 16.7 15.7 16.2 17.3 12.7 14.6 16.9 16.5 17.5 15.3 16.7 15.3 16.0 13.6 15.3 --13.5 11.1 14.7 15.8 12.9 16.5 16.7 16.9 16.3 17.2 16.3 15.8 13.1 17.1 15.4 17.1 16.8 14.0 15.2 16.1 15.7 16.9 16.0 16.6 17.7 13.0 15.0 17.2 16.5 17.8 15.5 16.7 15.7 16.1 13.9 15.6 --13.5 11.1 14.9 16.0 13.0 16.5 16.9 17.2 16.4

Life expectancy in years 19.0 17.8 18.5 15.4 19.9 17.6 19.3 --15.2 17.8 17.9 17.7 19.8 17.6 18.0 18.8 15.3 16.9 17.8 18.8 20.0 18.9 18.3 17.5 18.5 16.9 17.0 --15.3 15.9 16.7 16.9 15.7 19.0 19.0 19.4 18.9 19.5 18.6 19.1 15.4 20.0 18.1 18.6 --16.0 17.5 18.3 18.6 20.6 18.5 18.4 19.5 15.8 17.3 18.0 19.6 20.9 19.0 19.1 18.0 19.1 16.6 17.8 --15.4 15.1 17.3 17.3 16.1 19.8 19.6 20.2 18.9 20.4 19.4 19.5 15.4 20.4 18.6 19.6 19.0 17.1 18.3 19.0 19.3 21.2 19.4 18.3 21.5 16.4 17.8 19.3 20.4 22.4 19.2 20.0 18.5 19.7 17.3 18.7 --15.9 15.2 17.8 19.0 16.5 20.4 20.0 20.7 19.2 20.7 19.8 19.7 15.8 20.6 18.7 19.4 19.3 17.2 18.4 19.2 19.6 21.3 19.6 18.7 22.1 16.7 18.3 19.8 20.4 22.7 19.3 20.0 18.7 19.8 17.6 18.9 --16.1 15.3 18.0 19.2 16.8 20.4 20.1 21.0 19.4

England and Wales Finland . . . . . . . . . France . . . . . . . . . Germany 2 . . . . . . . Greece . . . . . . . . . Hong Kong . . . . . . Hungary . . . . . . . . Ireland . . . . . . . . . Israel . . . . . . . . . . Italy . . . . . . . . . . . Japan . . . . . . . . . . Netherlands . . . . . New Zealand. . . . . Northern Ireland . . Norway. . . . . . . . . Poland . . . . . . . . . Portugal . . . . . . . . Puerto Rico. . . . . . Romania. . . . . . . . Russian Federation Scotland . . . . . . . . Singapore . . . . . . . Slovakia 1 . . . . . . . Spain . . . . . . . . . . Sweden . . . . . . . . Switzerland . . . . . . United States . . . .

- - - Data not available. 1 In 1993, Czechoslovakia was divided into two nations, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Data for years prior to 1993 are from the Czech and Slovak regions of Czechoslovakia. 2 Until 1990, estimates refer to the Federal Republic of Germany; from 1995 onwards, data refer to Germany after reunification. NOTES: Rankings are from highest to lowest life expectancy (LE) for the most recent year available. Since calculation of LE estimates varies among countries, comparisons among them and their interpretation should be made with caution. See Appendix II, Life expectancy. Countries with the same LE receive the same rank. The country with the next lower LE is assigned the rank it would have received had the higher-ranked countries not been tied, i.e., skip a rank. Some estimates for selected countries and selected years were revised and differ from the previous editions of Health, United States. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Health Data 2005, A Comparative Analysis of 30 Countries, www.oecd.org/els/health/; European health for all database, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, www.who.dk/hfadb; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Vital statistics of the United States (selected years). Public Health Service. Washington, DC. www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/lifexpec.htm; Puerto Rico: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Department of Health, Auxiliary Secretariat for Planning, Evaluation, Statistics, and Information Systems: Unpublished data; Singapore: Singapore Department of Statistics, Population Statistics Section, www.singstat.gov.sg/stats/singstat/internet.html; England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland: Government Actuary’s Department, London www.gad.gov.uk; Hong Kong: Government of Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, Department of Health, http://info.gov.hk/dh/index.htm; Costa Rica: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC) y Centro Centroamericano de Población (CCP) http://ccp.ucr.ac.cr/observa/series/serie3.htm; Chile: Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas, Departamento de Demografía. Gobierno de Chile. Ministerio de Salud Departamento de Estadísticas e Información de Salud; Puerto Rico (1999–2001): Pan American Health Organization, Special Program for Health Analysis. Regional Initiative for Health Basic Data, Technical Information Health System, Washington, DC 2005. Cuba and Singapore (2000–2001): WHO Statistical Information System (WHOSIS) www3.who.int/whosis/core/core_select.cfm.

Health, United States, 2006

175

Table 27. Life expectancy at birth, at 65 years of age, and at 75 years of age, by race and sex: United States, selected years 1900–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
All races White Female Both sexes Male Female

Click here for spreadsheet version

Black or African American 1 Both sexes Male Female

Specified age and year At birth ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Both sexes

Male

1900 2,3 . 1950 3 . . 1960 3 . . 1970 . . 1980 . . 1990 . . 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47.3 68.2 69.7 70.8 73.7 75.4 75.8 76.1 76.5 76.7 76.7 77.0 77.2 77.3 77.5 77.8

46.3 65.6 66.6 67.1 70.0 71.8 72.5 73.1 73.6 73.8 73.9 74.3 74.4 74.5 74.8 75.2

48.3 71.1 73.1 74.7 77.4 78.8 78.9 79.1 79.4 79.5 79.4 79.7 79.8 79.9 80.1 80.4

Remaining life expectancy in years 47.6 46.6 48.7 33.0 69.1 66.5 72.2 60.8 70.6 67.4 74.1 63.6 71.7 68.0 75.6 64.1 74.4 70.7 78.1 68.1 76.1 72.7 79.4 69.1 76.5 76.8 77.1 77.3 77.3 77.6 77.7 77.7 78.0 78.3 73.4 73.9 74.3 74.5 74.6 74.9 75.0 75.1 75.3 75.7 79.6 79.7 79.9 80.0 79.9 80.1 80.2 80.3 80.5 80.8 69.6 70.2 71.1 71.3 71.4 71.9 72.2 72.3 72.7 73.1

32.5 59.1 61.1 60.0 63.8 64.5 65.2 66.1 67.2 67.6 67.8 68.3 68.6 68.8 69.0 69.5

33.5 62.9 66.3 68.3 72.5 73.6 73.9 74.2 74.7 74.8 74.7 75.2 75.5 75.6 76.1 76.3

1950 3 . 1960 3 . 1970 . 1980 . 1990 . 1995 . 1996 . 1997 . 1998 . 1999 . 2000 . 2001 . 2002 . 2003 . 2004 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

At 65 years .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... At 75 years

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13.9 14.3 15.2 16.4 17.2 17.4 17.5 17.7 17.8 17.7 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.4 18.7

12.8 12.8 13.1 14.1 15.1 15.6 15.7 15.9 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.4 16.6 16.8 17.1

15.0 15.8 17.0 18.3 18.9 18.9 19.0 19.2 19.2 19.1 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.8 20.0

--14.4 15.2 16.5 17.3 17.6 17.6 17.8 17.8 17.8 18.0 18.2 18.2 18.5 18.7

12.8 12.9 13.1 14.2 15.2 15.7 15.8 16.0 16.1 16.1 16.3 16.5 16.6 16.9 17.2

15.1 15.9 17.1 18.4 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.3 19.3 19.2 19.4 19.5 19.5 19.8 20.0

13.9 13.9 14.2 15.1 15.4 15.6 15.8 16.1 16.1 16.0 16.2 16.4 16.6 17.0 17.1

12.9 12.7 12.5 13.0 13.2 13.6 13.9 14.2 14.3 14.3 14.2 14.4 14.6 14.9 15.2

14.9 15.1 15.7 16.8 17.2 17.1 17.2 17.6 17.4 17.3 17.7 17.9 18.0 18.5 18.6

1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.4 10.9 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.2 11.4 11.5 11.5 11.8 11.9

8.8 9.4 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.5 10.7

11.5 12.0 11.9 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.1 12.3 12.4 12.4 12.6 12.8

10.4 11.0 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.2 11.4 11.5 11.5 11.7 11.9

8.8 9.4 9.7 9.8 9.9 10.0 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.5 10.7

11.5 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.1 12.3 12.3 12.3 12.6 12.8

9.7 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.7 10.5 10.4 10.7 10.8 10.9 11.4 11.4

8.3 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.8 9.9

10.7 11.2 11.1 11.2 11.5 11.3 11.1 11.6 11.7 11.7 12.4 12.2

- - - Data not available. 1 Data shown for 1900–1960 are for the nonwhite population. 2 Death registration area only. The death registration area increased from 10 states and the District of Columbia in 1900 to the coterminous United States in 1933. See Appendix II, Registration area. 3 Includes deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. NOTES: Populations for computing life expectancy for 1991–1999 are 1990-based postcensal estimates of U.S. resident population. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. In 1997, life table methodology was revised to construct complete life tables by single years of age that extend to age 100 (Anderson RN. Method for constructing complete annual U.S. life tables. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 2(129). 1999). Previously, abridged life tables were constructed for 5-year age groups ending with 85 years and over. Life table values for 2000 and later years were computed using a slight modification of the new life table method due to a change in the age detail of populations received from the U.S. Census Bureau. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; Grove RD, Hetzel AM. Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940–1960. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968; Arias, E. United States life tables, 2004. National vital statistics reports; Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006, forthcoming.

176

Health, United States, 2006

Table 28 (page 1 of 2). Age-adjusted death rates, by race, Hispanic origin, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1979–1981, 1989–1991, and 2002–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
Black or African American American Indian or Alaska Native Asian or Pacific Islander

Click here for spreadsheet version

All persons Geographic division and state

White

White, Hispanic not Hispanic 1 or Latino or Latino

1979–1981 1989–1991 2002–2004 2002–2004 2002–2004 2002–2004 2002–2004 2002–2004 2002–2004 Age-adjusted death 826.5 811.0 767.9 769.4 736.6 731.2 824.2 823.5 773.2 777.6 765.3 769.3 784.4 784.4 756.9 760.5 793.7 787.2 787.6 771.7 758.6 763.2 845.8 825.9 848.7 824.2 830.9 798.9 882.2 868.0 849.0 816.2 884.1 863.7 774.2 760.9 797.9 783.8 757.1 755.2 821.0 811.3 715.3 709.3 895.8 874.9 782.6 773.5 737.3 718.3 770.1 728.7 844.5 806.1 838.6 807.9 991.6 610.7 775.0 754.8 938.2 892.7 841.2 787.1 895.3 855.1 925.4 874.1 837.2 804.5 982.8 983.7 981.8 951.3 992.8 954.1 968.3 962.4 1,010.6 949.6 969.5 942.2 894.9 870.6 939.9 915.2 994.5 925.4 961.0 957.5 853.5 837.4 796.9 794.2 782.2 776.5 770.9 774.4 777.1 777.8 816.4 797.3 909.1 910.5 805.3 802.3 775.2 779.3 835.8 829.4 rate per 100,000 population 2 1,059.7 671.2 460.9 843.2 * 364.2 845.1 * 304.3 790.9 * 509.4 842.9 * 375.7 677.1 * 269.9 902.6 * 465.9 * * * 918.0 * 380.5 1,012.7 * 365.5 812.1 * 388.9 1,106.8 * 363.0 1,114.6 * 373.5 1,126.1 * 372.8 1,120.7 * 338.9 1,104.9 * 373.0 1,116.2 * 330.2 1,044.0 * 480.9 1,096.4 * 433.6 1,006.8 * 405.0 1,114.2 * 342.8 879.4 1,169.1 491.9 1,144.1 * 431.4 1,063.6 1,114.8 390.2 * 1,409.8 * * 1,542.0 * 1,073.1 * 367.5 1,062.5 * 339.0 1,234.7 * 413.5 1,002.0 * 333.3 1,123.9 * 335.5 1,067.4 * 363.9 1,092.4 869.4 355.2 1,093.9 * 397.2 1,060.7 * 433.1 1,112.3 * * 1,163.9 * 406.6 1,156.6 * 342.5 1,128.5 * 397.5 1,166.3 * 465.0 1,185.2 * 425.4 1,151.7 * 418.2 1,160.1 * 500.7 1,201.5 * 463.5 1,153.9 * 443.1 1,122.7 * 408.6 956.4 867.9 472.3 951.4 885.7 421.4 876.3 474.6 429.2 745.1 979.4 427.3 * 1,260.4 469.8 1,130.3 713.2 600.4 823.7 849.6 315.8 840.1 800.7 465.7 774.4 1,258.3 *

United States . . . . . . New England . . . . . . Connecticut . . . . . . Maine . . . . . . . . . . Massachusetts . . . . New Hampshire . . . Rhode Island . . . . . Vermont . . . . . . . . Middle Atlantic. . . . . . New Jersey . . . . . . New York. . . . . . . . Pennsylvania . . . . . East North Central . . . Illinois . . . . . . . . . . Indiana . . . . . . . . . Michigan . . . . . . . . Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . Wisconsin . . . . . . . West North Central . . Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . Kansas . . . . . . . . . Minnesota . . . . . . . Missouri. . . . . . . . . Nebraska. . . . . . . . North Dakota . . . . . South Dakota . . . . . South Atlantic . . . . . . Delaware . . . . . . . . District of Columbia Florida. . . . . . . . . . Georgia . . . . . . . . . Maryland . . . . . . . . North Carolina . . . . South Carolina . . . . Virginia . . . . . . . . . West Virginia . . . . . East South Central . . Alabama . . . . . . . . Kentucky . . . . . . . . Mississippi . . . . . . . Tennessee . . . . . . . West South Central . . Arkansas . . . . . . . . Louisiana. . . . . . . . Oklahoma . . . . . . . Texas . . . . . . . . . . Mountain . . . . . . . . . Arizona . . . . . . . . . Colorado . . . . . . . . Idaho . . . . . . . . . . Montana . . . . . . . . Nevada . . . . . . . . . New Mexico. . . . . . Utah . . . . . . . . . . . Wyoming . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,022.8 979.9 961.5 1,002.9 982.6 982.3 990.8 990.2 1,059.1 1,047.5 1,051.8 1,076.4 1,048.0 1,063.7 1,048.3 1,050.2 1,070.6 956.4 951.6 919.9 940.1 892.9 1,033.7 930.6 922.4 941.9 1,033.1 1,069.7 1,243.1 960.8 1,094.3 1,063.3 1,050.4 1,104.6 1,054.0 1,100.3 1,079.3 1,091.2 1,088.9 1,108.7 1,045.5 1,036.8 1,017.0 1,132.6 1,025.6 1,014.9 961.8 951.5 941.1 936.7 1,013.6 1,077.4 967.1 924.9 1,016.1

942.2 882.4 857.5 918.7 884.8 891.7 889.6 908.6 967.8 956.0 973.7 963.4 957.9 973.8 962.0 966.0 967.4 879.1 876.6 848.2 867.2 825.2 952.4 867.9 818.4 846.4 951.3 1,001.9 1,255.3 870.9 1,037.4 985.2 986.0 1,030.0 963.1 1,031.5 1,031.6 1,037.9 1,024.5 1,071.4 1,011.8 974.9 996.3 1,074.6 961.4 947.6 878.2 873.5 856.1 856.6 890.2 1,017.4 891.9 823.2 897.4

613.9 516.7 562.4 * 514.8 427.7 452.0 * 565.9 503.5 578.8 656.2 521.9 476.9 515.6 689.3 620.2 402.1 561.4 530.4 552.4 461.6 687.3 576.3 * 455.7 573.4 680.8 137.0 609.4 355.9 301.9 294.2 357.3 451.9 349.1 380.7 332.6 687.3 242.5 309.4 691.5 237.1 437.6 666.4 701.6 731.6 742.9 761.0 593.5 697.9 527.5 788.3 604.1 787.2

820.3 768.5 728.2 822.5 777.8 760.7 786.8 762.4 790.0 785.8 760.6 825.0 826.9 809.9 871.7 811.9 862.3 763.8 780.7 756.2 805.8 702.8 875.1 772.2 697.5 729.4 820.3 807.7 656.0 779.0 900.8 797.6 860.5 877.2 808.3 986.4 954.3 958.3 962.7 953.6 946.0 897.9 923.9 934.8 961.7 868.0 795.2 776.9 768.8 780.0 797.0 939.2 792.5 783.2 829.4

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

177

Table 28 (page 2 of 2). Age-adjusted death rates, by race, Hispanic origin, geographic division, and state: United States, average annual 1979–1981, 1989–1991, and 2002–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
Black or African American American Indian or Alaska Native Asian or Pacific Islander

Click here for spreadsheet version

All persons Geographic division and state

White

White, Hispanic not Hispanic 1 or Latino or Latino

1979–1981 1989–1991 2002–2004 2002–2004 2002–2004 2002–2004 2002–2004 2002–2004 2002–2004 Age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 population 2 748.4 765.8 1,007.3 * 511.6 789.2 739.6 764.4 1,154.5 506.2 742.2 759.5 1,023.7 * 480.7 646.8 694.6 474.0 * 632.3 805.3 809.9 939.2 * 470.2 765.9 772.5 883.3 909.3 504.8

Pacific . . . . . Alaska. . . . California . . Hawaii. . . . Oregon . . . Washington

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

966.5 1,087.4 975.5 801.2 953.9 947.7

900.1 944.6 911.0 752.2 893.0 869.4

592.9 583.8 592.8 1,304.6 434.5 515.3

788.4 743.1 788.5 700.3 817.5 776.7

* Data for states with population under 10,000 in the middle year of a 3-year period or fewer than 50 deaths for the 3-year period are considered unreliable and are not shown. Data for American Indian or Alaska Native category in states with more than 10% misclassification of American Indian or Alaska Native deaths on death certificates or without information on misclassification are also not shown (Support Services International, Inc. Methodology for adjusting IHS mortality data for miscoding race-ethnicity of American Indian or Alaska Native on state death certificates. Report submitted to Indian Health Service. 1996). Division death rates for American Indians or Alaska Natives are not shown when any state within the division does not meet reliability criteria. 1 Caution should be used when comparing death rates by Hispanic origin and race among states. Estimates of death rates may be affected by several factors including possible misreporting of race and Hispanic origin on the death certificate, migration patterns between United States and country of origin for persons who were born outside the United States, and possible biases in population estimates. See Appendix I, National Vital Statistics System, Mortality File and Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race. 2 Average annual death rates, age-adjusted using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2001, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2001 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. Denominators for rates are resident population estimates for the middle year of each 3-year period, multiplied by 3. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. NOTES: The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; numerator data from annual mortality files; denominator data from state population estimates prepared by the U.S. Census Bureau 1980 from April 1, 1980 MARS Census File; 1990 from April 1, 1990 MARS Census File; 2003 from bridged-race Vintage 2003 file. Estimates of the July 1, 2003, resident populations of the United States by state and county, race, age, sex, and Hispanic origin, prepared under a collaborative arrangement with the U.S. Census Bureau. Available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/dvs/popbridge/popbridge.htm. 2005.

178

Health, United States, 2006

Table 29 (page 1 of 4). Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 2,3 1960 2,3 1970 3 1980 3 1990 2000 4

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and cause of death 1 All persons All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . . . . . . . . . Colon, rectum, and anus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases . . . . . . . . Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis . . . . . . . . Diabetes mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries . . . . . . . . . . . Suicide 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . . . . . . . . . Colon, rectum, and anus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases . . . . . . . . Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis . . . . . . . . Diabetes mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries . . . . . . . . . . . Suicide 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . . . . . . . . . Colon, rectum, and anus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases . . . . . . . . Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis . . . . . . . . Diabetes mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries . . . . . . . . . . . Suicide 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

2002

1,446.0 586.8 --180.7 193.9 15.0 --28.6 31.9 --48.1 11.3 23.1 --78.0 24.6 13.2 5.1

1,339.2 559.0 --177.9 193.9 24.1 30.3 28.7 31.7 --53.7 13.3 22.5 --62.3 23.1 12.5 5.0

Age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 population 5 1,222.6 1,039.1 938.7 869.0 845.3 492.7 --147.7 198.6 37.1 28.9 28.8 32.1 --41.7 17.8 24.3 --60.1 27.6 13.1 8.8 412.1 345.2 96.2 207.9 49.9 27.4 32.8 31.9 28.3 31.4 15.1 18.1 --46.4 22.3 12.2 10.4 321.8 249.6 65.3 216.0 59.3 24.5 38.4 33.3 37.2 36.8 11.1 20.7 10.2 36.3 18.5 12.5 9.4 257.6 186.8 60.9 199.6 56.1 20.8 30.4 26.8 44.2 23.7 9.5 25.0 5.2 34.9 15.4 10.4 5.9 240.8 170.8 56.2 193.5 54.9 19.7 27.9 25.6 43.5 22.6 9.4 25.4 4.9 36.9 15.7 10.9 6.1

832.7 232.3 162.9 53.5 190.1 54.1 19.1 26.5 25.3 43.3 22.0 9.3 25.3 4.7 37.3 15.3 10.8 6.0

800.8 217.0 150.2 50.0 185.8 53.2 18.0 25.4 24.4 41.1 19.8 9.0 24.5 4.5 37.7 15.2 10.9 5.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,674.2 697.0 --186.4 208.1 24.6 --28.6 --55.0 15.0 18.8 --101.8 38.5 21.2 7.9

1,609.0 687.6 --186.1 225.1 43.6 31.8 28.7 --65.8 18.5 19.9 --85.5 35.4 20.0 7.5

1,542.1 634.0 --157.4 247.6 67.5 32.3 28.8 --54.0 24.8 23.0 --87.4 41.5 19.8 14.3

1,348.1 538.9 459.7 102.2 271.2 85.2 32.8 32.8 49.9 42.1 21.3 18.1 --69.0 33.6 19.9 16.6

1,202.8 412.4 328.2 68.5 280.4 91.1 30.4 38.4 55.4 47.8 15.9 21.7 18.5 52.9 26.5 21.5 14.8

1,053.8 320.0 241.4 62.4 248.9 76.7 25.1 30.4 55.8 28.9 13.4 27.8 7.9 49.3 21.7 17.7 9.0

1,013.7 297.4 220.4 56.5 238.9 73.2 23.7 27.9 53.5 27.0 12.9 28.6 7.4 51.5 22.1 18.4 9.4

994.3 286.6 209.9 54.1 233.3 71.7 22.9 26.5 52.3 26.1 13.0 28.9 7.1 51.8 21.6 18.0 9.4

955.7 267.9 194.1 50.4 227.7 70.1 21.5 25.4 49.5 23.7 12.5 28.2 6.6 52.1 21.4 18.0 9.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,236.0 484.7 --175.8 182.3 5.8 --31.9 --41.9 7.8 27.0 --54.0 11.5 5.6 2.4

1,105.3 447.0 --170.7 168.7 7.5 29.1 31.7 --43.8 8.7 24.7 --40.0 11.7 5.6 2.6

971.4 381.6 --140.0 163.2 13.1 26.5 32.1 --32.7 11.9 25.1 --35.1 14.9 7.4 3.7

817.9 320.8 263.1 91.7 166.7 24.4 23.8 31.9 14.9 25.1 9.9 18.0 --26.1 11.8 5.7 4.4

750.9 257.0 193.9 62.6 175.7 37.1 20.6 33.3 26.6 30.5 7.1 19.9 2.2 21.5 11.0 4.8 4.0

731.4 210.9 146.5 59.1 167.6 41.3 17.7 26.8 37.4 20.7 6.2 23.0 2.5 22.0 9.5 4.0 2.8

715.2 197.2 133.6 55.2 163.1 41.6 16.7 25.6 37.4 19.9 6.3 23.0 2.5 23.5 9.6 4.2 2.8

706.2 190.3 127.2 52.3 160.9 41.3 16.2 25.3 37.8 19.4 6.0 22.5 2.4 24.1 9.3 4.2 2.6

679.2 177.3 116.7 48.9 157.4 40.9 15.3 24.4 36.0 17.3 5.8 21.7 2.4 24.5 9.3 4.5 2.5

Health, United States, 2006

179

Table 29 (page 2 of 4). Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 2,3 1960 2,3 1970 3 1980 3 1990 2000 4 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and cause of death 1 White 9 All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . . . . . . . . . Colon, rectum, and anus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases . . . . . . . . Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis . . . . . . . . Diabetes mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries . . . . . . . . . . . Suicide 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American 9 All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . . . . . . . . . Colon, rectum, and anus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases . . . . . . . . Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis . . . . . . . . Diabetes mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries . . . . . . . . . . . Suicide 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native 9 All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . . . . . . . . . Colon, rectum, and anus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases . . . . . . . . Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis . . . . . . . . Diabetes mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries . . . . . . . . . . . Suicide 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

1,410.8 584.8 --175.5 194.6 15.2 --28.4 32.4 --44.8 11.5 22.9 --77.0 24.4 13.9 2.6

1,311.3 559.0 --172.7 193.1 24.0 30.9 27.7 32.0 --50.4 13.2 21.7 --60.4 22.9 13.1 2.7

Age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 population 5 1,193.3 1,012.7 909.8 849.8 829.0 492.2 --143.5 196.7 36.7 29.2 27.4 32.5 --39.8 16.6 22.9 --57.8 27.1 13.8 4.7 409.4 347.6 93.2 204.2 49.2 27.4 30.5 32.1 29.3 30.9 13.9 16.7 --45.3 22.6 13.0 6.7 317.0 249.7 62.8 211.6 58.6 24.1 35.5 33.2 38.3 36.4 10.5 18.8 8.3 35.5 18.5 13.4 5.5 253.4 185.6 58.8 197.2 56.2 20.3 27.8 26.3 46.0 23.5 9.6 22.8 2.8 35.1 15.6 11.3 3.6 236.7 169.8 54.2 191.7 55.3 19.2 25.7 25.0 45.4 22.6 9.6 23.1 2.6 37.5 16.0 12.0 3.7

817.0 228.2 161.7 51.4 188.5 54.5 18.6 24.4 24.7 45.4 21.9 9.5 23.0 2.5 38.2 15.7 11.8 3.7

786.3 213.3 149.2 48.0 184.4 53.6 17.6 23.4 23.9 43.2 19.6 9.2 22.3 2.3 38.8 15.6 12.0 3.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,722.1 586.7 --233.6 176.4 11.1 --30.9 25.3 --76.7 9.0 23.5 --79.9 26.0 4.5 28.3

1,577.5 548.3 --235.2 199.1 23.7 22.8 41.2 27.9 --81.1 13.6 30.9 --74.0 24.2 5.0 26.0

1,518.1 512.0 --197.1 225.3 41.3 26.1 48.5 28.9 --57.2 28.1 38.8 --78.3 31.1 6.2 44.0

1,314.8 455.3 334.5 129.1 256.4 59.7 28.3 61.1 31.7 19.2 34.4 25.0 32.7 --57.6 20.2 6.5 39.0

1,250.3 391.5 267.0 91.6 279.5 72.4 30.6 77.0 38.1 28.1 39.4 16.5 40.5 26.7 43.8 18.8 7.1 36.3

1,121.4 324.8 218.3 81.9 248.5 64.0 28.2 68.1 34.5 31.6 25.6 9.4 49.5 23.3 37.7 15.7 5.5 20.5

1,083.3 308.4 203.0 76.3 238.8 61.9 26.8 62.0 34.0 31.2 24.0 8.5 49.5 22.5 36.9 15.0 5.3 21.0

1,065.9 300.2 195.0 74.3 233.3 60.8 26.4 57.4 34.0 30.1 23.3 8.4 49.2 21.3 36.1 14.9 5.2 21.0

1,027.3 280.6 179.8 69.9 227.2 59.8 24.7 55.5 32.2 28.2 22.3 7.9 48.0 20.4 36.3 14.8 5.3 20.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------------------------------

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-------------------------------------

867.0 240.6 173.6 57.8 113.7 20.7 9.5 20.7 10.8 14.2 44.4 45.3 29.6 --99.0 54.5 11.9 15.5

716.3 200.6 139.1 40.7 121.8 30.9 12.0 17.8 13.7 25.4 36.1 24.1 34.1 1.8 62.6 32.5 11.7 10.4

709.3 178.2 129.1 45.0 127.8 32.3 13.4 19.6 13.6 32.8 22.3 24.3 41.5 2.2 51.3 27.3 9.8 6.8

677.4 157.4 114.0 37.5 125.4 33.1 14.2 15.2 13.8 30.1 20.4 22.8 43.2 2.2 53.8 28.8 10.2 8.4

685.0 160.2 114.1 34.6 119.3 31.3 11.8 17.8 14.0 31.7 24.1 22.6 43.7 2.5 56.4 28.1 10.0 7.3

650.0 148.0 106.5 35.3 124.9 36.0 12.1 16.0 14.8 28.5 17.6 22.7 39.2 2.9 53.1 26.0 12.2 7.0

180

Health, United States, 2006

Table 29 (page 3 of 4). Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 2,3 1960 2,3 1970 3 1980 3 1990 2000 4 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and cause of death 1 Asian or Pacific Islander 9 All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . . . . . . . . . Colon, rectum, and anus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases . . . . . . . . Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis . . . . . . . . Diabetes mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries . . . . . . . . . . . Suicide 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 9,10 All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . . . . . . . . . Colon, rectum, and anus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases . . . . . . . . Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis . . . . . . . . Diabetes mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries . . . . . . . . . . . Suicide 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

-------------------------------------

-------------------------------------

Age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 population 5 --589.9 582.0 506.4 474.4 ----------------------------------202.1 168.2 66.1 126.1 28.4 16.4 10.2 11.9 12.9 24.0 6.1 12.6 --27.0 13.9 7.8 5.9 181.7 139.6 56.9 134.2 30.2 14.4 16.8 13.7 19.4 31.4 5.2 14.6 2.2 23.9 14.0 6.7 5.0 146.0 109.6 52.9 121.9 28.1 12.7 12.5 12.3 18.6 19.7 3.5 16.4 0.6 17.9 8.6 5.5 3.0 134.6 98.6 47.7 113.6 25.6 12.5 10.2 12.8 15.8 17.5 3.2 17.4 0.8 17.9 8.4 5.4 2.9

465.7 127.6 92.8 45.2 113.5 26.9 12.1 10.9 12.6 16.2 17.3 3.0 17.3 0.7 18.0 8.4 5.6 2.9

443.9 117.8 84.1 41.3 110.5 26.2 11.3 11.4 12.7 14.7 16.0 3.2 16.6 0.7 16.7 7.8 5.8 2.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------------------------------

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692.0 217.1 173.3 45.2 136.8 26.5 14.7 23.3 19.5 19.3 29.7 18.3 28.2 16.3 34.6 19.5 7.8 16.2

665.7 196.0 153.2 46.4 134.9 24.8 14.1 21.6 16.9 21.1 20.6 16.5 36.9 6.7 30.1 14.7 5.9 7.5

629.3 180.5 138.3 41.3 128.4 23.7 13.7 21.6 15.5 20.6 19.2 15.4 35.6 5.8 30.7 15.2 5.7 7.3

621.2 173.2 130.0 40.5 126.6 23.2 13.4 20.2 16.1 20.2 18.4 14.7 35.0 5.9 30.6 15.1 5.6 7.7

586.7 158.4 119.2 38.2 121.9 22.4 12.6 19.1 15.6 18.4 17.1 14.0 32.1 5.3 29.8 14.4 5.9 7.2

Health, United States, 2006

181

Table 29 (page 4 of 4). Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 2,3 1960 2,3 1970 3 1980 3 1990 2000 4 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and cause of death 1 White, not Hispanic or Latino10 All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . . . . . . . . . Colon, rectum, and anus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases . . . . . . . . Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis . . . . . . . . Diabetes mellitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries . . . . . . . . . . . Suicide 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------------------------------

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Age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 population 5 ----914.5 855.5 837.5 --------------------------------------------------------------------319.7 251.9 63.5 215.4 60.3 24.6 36.1 33.9 39.2 36.5 9.9 18.3 7.4 35.0 18.2 13.8 4.0 255.5 186.6 59.0 200.6 58.2 20.5 28.0 26.8 47.2 23.5 9.0 21.8 2.2 35.3 15.6 12.0 2.8 239.2 171.0 54.6 195.6 57.5 19.5 25.8 25.6 46.9 22.6 9.0 22.2 2.1 38.0 16.0 12.9 2.8

826.1 230.9 163.3 51.7 192.4 56.7 18.8 24.6 25.2 47.0 22.0 9.0 22.1 2.0 38.8 15.5 12.7 2.7

797.1 216.3 150.9 48.3 188.6 56.0 17.9 23.6 24.5 44.9 19.6 8.7 21.5 1.9 39.7 15.6 12.9 2.7

- - - Data not available. 1 Underlying cause of death code numbers are based on the applicable revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) for data years shown. For the period 1980–1998, causes were coded using ICD–9 codes that are most nearly comparable with the 113 cause list for ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 2 Includes deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 3 Underlying cause of death was coded according to the Sixth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1950, Seventh Revision in 1960, Eighth Revision in 1970, and Ninth Revision in 1980–1998. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 4 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 5 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 6 Rate for male population only. 7 Rate for female population only. 8 Figures for 2001 include September 11-related deaths for which death certificates were filed as of October 24, 2002. See Appendix II, Cause of death; table V for terrorism-related ICD–10 codes. 9 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 10 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and later years were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; Grove RD, Hetzel AM. Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940–1960. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1968; numerator data from National Vital Statistics System, annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1985–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

182

Health, United States, 2006

Table 30 (page 1 of 4). Years of potential life lost before age 75 for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1980–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
Crude Age-adjusted 1 1980 1990 2000 3 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and cause of death 2 All persons All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms. . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . Colorectal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Diabetes mellitus. . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries. . . Suicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms. . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . Colorectal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Diabetes mellitus. . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries. . . Suicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms. . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . Colorectal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Diabetes mellitus. . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries. . . Suicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

2004

2003

2004

Years lost before age 75 per 100,000 population under 75 years of age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,411.4 1,165.4 748.0 203.1 1,601.2 421.9 132.2 54.6 319.4 179.4 80.5 158.2 184.5 141.5 1,098.7 569.7 353.9 265.3 10,448.4 2,238.7 1,729.3 357.5 2,108.8 548.5 190.0 84.9 463.2 169.1 160.2 300.3 134.4 --1,543.5 912.9 392.0 425.5 9,085.5 1,617.7 1,153.6 259.6 2,003.8 561.4 164.7 96.8 451.6 187.4 141.5 196.9 155.9 383.8 1,162.1 716.4 393.1 417.4 7,578.1 1,253.0 841.8 223.3 1,674.1 443.1 141.9 63.6 332.6 188.1 87.1 164.1 178.4 174.6 1,026.5 574.3 334.5 266.5 7,499.6 1,212.7 792.0 208.1 1,622.7 423.4 141.0 60.1 316.8 184.5 82.7 160.5 184.3 161.8 1,079.2 585.8 346.7 274.4 7,466.9 1,187.9 765.1 203.6 1,586.9 412.2 133.8 58.6 313.7 183.9 90.8 159.6 184.6 153.3 1,084.6 569.6 343.3 274.3 7,270.6 1,128.9 720.6 198.1 1,543.4 402.8 127.3 55.8 302.1 173.7 79.1 153.9 178.4 143.4 1,098.0 567.6 353.0 264.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9,208.4 1,590.1 1,075.8 218.8 1,673.6 493.0 150.5 54.6 186.1 93.5 221.0 213.4 201.6 1,563.4 802.4 557.5 422.7

13,777.2 3,352.1 2,715.1 396.7 2,360.8 821.1 214.9 84.9 235.1 202.5 415.0 140.4 --2,342.7 1,359.7 605.6 675.0

11,973.5 2,356.0 1,766.3 286.6 2,214.6 764.8 194.3 96.8 224.8 180.0 283.9 170.4 686.2 1,715.1 1,018.4 634.8 658.0

9,572.2 1,766.0 1,255.4 244.6 1,810.8 554.9 167.3 63.6 206.0 102.8 236.9 203.8 258.9 1,475.6 796.4 539.1 410.5

9,470.0 1,706.9 1,179.6 227.6 1,754.2 520.5 168.2 60.1 200.7 97.3 226.6 217.2 237.0 1,542.2 817.2 555.7 425.0

9,416.4 1,664.2 1,138.8 225.9 1,711.4 504.6 157.7 58.6 199.5 106.4 229.4 218.2 223.7 1,537.7 795.0 548.2 430.5

9,143.1 1,583.4 1,070.5 219.6 1,663.3 490.3 149.7 55.8 188.4 93.6 219.0 212.6 205.1 1,547.4 789.1 553.0 414.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5,617.0 741.4 420.7 187.4 1,528.8 350.9 114.1 319.4 172.7 67.5 95.6 155.6 81.4 634.7 337.3 150.5 108.1

7,350.3 1,246.0 852.1 324.0 1,896.8 310.4 168.7 463.2 114.0 122.0 194.5 128.5 --755.3 470.4 184.2 181.3

6,333.1 948.5 600.3 235.9 1,826.6 382.2 138.7 451.6 155.9 106.2 115.1 142.3 87.8 607.4 411.6 153.3 174.3

5,644.6 774.6 457.6 203.9 1,555.3 342.1 118.7 332.6 172.3 72.3 94.5 154.4 92.0 573.2 348.5 129.1 118.9

5,580.0 748.8 430.2 190.3 1,507.7 335.4 115.9 316.8 170.0 69.1 97.4 153.1 88.1 610.3 349.8 136.6 119.6

5,560.5 739.5 415.0 183.0 1,477.3 328.1 111.9 313.7 169.9 76.0 92.6 152.9 84.1 624.6 339.2 136.6 112.9

5,435.8 699.9 391.8 178.1 1,437.6 323.2 106.8 302.1 160.4 65.3 91.3 146.0 82.7 641.1 341.1 150.9 110.2

Health, United States, 2006

183

Table 30 (page 2 of 4). Years of potential life lost before age 75 for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1980–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
Crude Age-adjusted 1 1980 1990 2000 3 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and cause of death 2 White 7 All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms. . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . Colorectal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Diabetes mellitus. . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries. . . Suicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American 7 All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms. . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . Colorectal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Diabetes mellitus. . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries. . . Suicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native 7 All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms. . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . Colorectal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Diabetes mellitus. . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries. . . Suicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

2004

2003

2004

Years lost before age 75 per 100,000 population under 75 years of age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,994.5 1,104.2 746.5 175.4 1,617.6 437.2 130.2 50.2 308.3 189.2 74.5 166.3 166.6 73.9 1,125.9 582.3 385.9 154.7 9,554.1 2,100.8 1,682.7 300.7 2,035.9 529.9 186.8 74.8 460.2 165.4 130.8 257.3 115.7 --1,520.4 939.9 414.5 271.7 8,159.5 1,490.3 1,113.4 213.1 1,929.3 544.2 157.8 86.6 441.7 182.3 116.9 175.8 133.7 309.0 1,139.7 726.7 417.7 234.9 6,949.5 1,149.4 805.3 187.1 1,627.8 436.3 134.1 54.3 315.6 185.3 77.7 162.7 155.6 94.7 1,031.8 586.1 362.0 156.6 6,936.6 1,111.8 759.5 173.5 1,582.8 418.5 134.0 51.3 297.5 183.5 75.1 162.9 160.3 84.7 1,101.6 604.0 380.1 159.7 6,910.6 1,081.3 731.5 166.7 1,546.5 407.9 125.5 50.5 295.0 184.2 82.2 162.3 160.3 82.1 1,117.7 588.5 375.0 159.3 6,743.7 1,031.0 690.4 165.4 1,502.0 398.3 120.5 48.4 282.1 174.3 71.5 157.2 155.2 74.5 1,134.9 587.6 386.0 157.0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11,305.3 1,816.1 944.4 391.3 1,814.1 441.9 166.5 100.4 438.9 178.1 130.7 131.1 324.6 591.6 1,116.2 564.2 205.8 977.3

17,873.4 3,619.9 2,305.1 883.2 2,946.1 776.0 232.3 200.3 524.2 203.7 384.9 644.0 305.3 --1,751.5 750.2 238.0 1,580.8

16,593.0 2,891.8 1,676.1 656.4 2,894.8 811.3 241.8 223.5 592.9 240.6 330.8 371.8 361.5 1,014.7 1,392.7 699.5 261.4 1,612.9

12,897.1 2,275.2 1,300.1 507.0 2,294.7 593.0 222.4 171.0 500.0 232.7 161.2 185.6 383.4 763.3 1,152.8 580.8 208.7 941.6

12,401.0 2,212.8 1,218.7 474.1 2,196.6 561.9 213.7 160.3 495.9 222.8 146.7 161.3 396.7 720.6 1,129.3 558.5 196.5 962.2

12,304.0 2,205.7 1,182.6 479.6 2,163.9 542.1 214.4 154.3 490.6 212.3 157.5 158.9 396.0 670.1 1,082.1 536.2 199.5 965.0

11,922.4 2,090.5 1,119.0 452.0 2,107.3 529.3 196.6 143.0 477.7 201.8 141.2 148.4 378.8 637.8 1,095.5 543.8 200.6 918.7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7,832.0 818.8 511.1 138.5 880.4 202.6 74.8 25.0 163.5 117.9 104.3 421.8 263.2 84.8 1,809.6 1,043.5 551.0 328.3

13,390.9 1,819.9 1,208.2 269.3 1,101.3 181.1 78.8 66.7 205.5 89.3 307.9 1,190.3 305.5 --3,541.0 2,102.4 515.0 628.9

9,506.2 1,391.0 901.8 223.3 1,141.1 268.1 82.4 42.0 213.4 129.0 206.3 535.1 292.3 70.1 2,183.9 1,301.5 495.9 434.2

7,758.2 1,030.1 709.3 198.1 995.7 227.8 93.8 44.5 174.1 151.8 124.0 519.4 305.6 68.4 1,700.1 1,032.2 403.1 278.5

8,278.0 959.9 648.4 201.7 1,066.0 226.3 115.7 36.3 187.1 137.0 100.9 495.8 344.7 79.9 1,764.6 1,089.3 420.8 366.5

8,541.6 1,099.3 708.1 190.7 997.2 223.9 85.5 34.7 146.8 163.6 171.8 504.6 355.2 80.7 1,818.4 1,081.8 418.2 323.1

8,405.4 975.8 628.3 171.4 1,068.4 264.1 92.1 37.1 186.0 148.6 116.1 480.5 323.5 93.8 1,732.9 968.3 511.6 304.7

184

Health, United States, 2006

Table 30 (page 3 of 4). Years of potential life lost before age 75 for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1980–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
Crude Age-adjusted 1 1980 1990 2000 3 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and cause of death 2 Asian or Pacific Islander 7 All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms. . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . Colorectal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Diabetes mellitus. . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries. . . Suicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 7,8 All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms. . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . Colorectal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Diabetes mellitus. . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries. . . Suicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

2004

2003

2004

Years lost before age 75 per 100,000 population under 75 years of age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,340.2 440.8 274.5 154.5 890.6 158.4 82.8 11.6 193.0 32.0 32.8 37.6 70.8 22.5 425.0 263.1 186.9 103.9 5,378.4 952.8 697.7 266.9 1,218.6 238.2 115.9 17.0 222.2 56.4 79.3 85.6 83.1 --742.7 472.6 217.1 201.1 4,705.2 702.2 486.6 233.5 1,166.4 204.7 105.1 32.4 216.5 72.8 74.0 72.4 74.0 77.0 636.6 445.5 200.6 205.8 3,811.1 567.9 381.1 199.4 1,033.8 185.8 91.6 18.8 200.8 56.5 48.6 44.8 77.0 19.9 425.7 263.4 168.6 113.1 3,635.5 539.4 352.0 186.5 990.3 173.8 92.8 20.8 188.4 44.8 38.0 40.0 76.4 24.8 431.1 269.7 162.7 127.5 3,657.5 534.3 354.7 192.9 959.1 173.9 94.4 14.6 192.3 45.1 47.7 36.8 79.9 22.3 429.6 269.6 172.1 120.6 3,452.1 474.9 303.4 167.5 949.9 176.0 87.7 15.1 193.4 36.5 36.1 38.3 78.3 21.9 415.0 254.4 175.5 98.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5,146.5 499.9 302.6 131.7 721.6 82.9 60.5 18.5 150.0 44.2 56.5 151.0 122.2 131.5 978.5 604.3 209.5 376.3

-------------------------------------

7,963.3 1,082.0 756.6 238.0 1,232.2 193.7 100.2 47.7 299.3 78.8 130.1 329.1 177.8 600.1 1,190.6 740.8 256.2 720.8

6,037.6 821.3 564.6 207.8 1,098.2 152.1 101.4 42.9 230.7 68.5 76.0 252.1 215.6 209.4 920.1 540.2 188.5 335.1

5,865.9 796.9 540.1 193.4 1,052.9 150.5 96.7 44.1 205.1 69.0 65.5 237.9 207.1 179.1 958.1 569.6 185.6 330.2

5,910.0 767.7 501.3 187.3 1,056.5 144.9 100.1 43.4 218.4 67.1 76.4 221.8 214.0 175.4 961.5 563.6 188.3 345.0

5,654.0 733.1 483.3 187.9 1,013.7 136.3 91.2 38.8 203.4 64.1 67.8 212.5 192.3 154.9 917.6 547.7 200.3 328.8

Health, United States, 2006

185

Table 30 (page 4 of 4). Years of potential life lost before age 75 for selected causes of death, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1980–2004
[Data are based on death certificates] Crude Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and cause of death 2 White, not Hispanic or Latino 8 All causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diseases of heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ischemic heart disease . . . . . . . . Cerebrovascular diseases . . . . . . . Malignant neoplasms. . . . . . . . . . . Trachea, bronchus, and lung . . . . Colorectal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prostate 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breast 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic lower respiratory diseases . Influenza and pneumonia . . . . . . . . Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis . Diabetes mellitus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unintentional injuries . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle-related injuries. . . . Suicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicide 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 1980 1990

Updated February 2007
Age-adjusted 1 2000 3 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version

2003

2004

Years lost before age 75 per 100,000 population under 75 years of age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,304.9 1,219.5 831.7 182.4 1,790.5 508.0 143.7 56.7 337.3 217.8 77.5 166.8 174.1 60.5 1,143.3 570.5 418.4 105.9 ------------------------------------8,022.5 1,504.0 1,127.2 210.1 1,974.1 566.8 162.1 89.2 451.5 188.1 112.3 162.4 131.2 271.2 1,114.7 715.7 433.0 162.0 6,960.5 1,175.1 824.7 183.0 1,668.4 460.3 136.2 54.9 322.3 193.8 76.4 150.9 150.2 76.0 1,041.4 588.8 389.2 113.2 6,997.9 1,143.8 781.3 169.4 1,629.7 443.7 137.6 51.7 305.9 193.3 75.8 152.1 155.8 67.8 1,117.4 603.3 413.9 114.8 6,961.6 1,114.7 755.8 162.8 1,590.6 433.5 127.7 51.0 301.8 194.2 82.1 153.2 154.9 65.4 1,135.8 585.3 408.1 109.6 6,832.9 1,064.9 713.8 161.1 1,549.7 425.1 123.4 49.2 290.0 184.1 71.3 148.3 152.0 59.7 1,170.6 588.6 419.8 110.3

- - - Data not available. * Rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable and are not shown. 1 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 2 Underlying cause of death code numbers are based on the applicable revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) for data years shown. For the period 1980–1998, causes were coded using ICD–9 codes that are most nearly comparable with the 113 cause list for ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 3 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 4 Rate for male population only. 5 Rate for female population only. 6 Figures for 2001 include September 11-related deaths for which death certificates were filed as of October 24, 2002. See Appendix II, Cause of death; table V for terrorism-related ICD–10 codes. 7 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 8 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and later years were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. See Appendix II, Years of potential life lost (YPLL) for definition and method of calculation. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National vital statistics system; numerator data from annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1990–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau.

186

Health, United States, 2006

Table 31 (page 1 of 4). Leading causes of death and numbers of deaths, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 1980 and 2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1980 Cause of death Deaths 2004 Cause of death

Click here for spreadsheet version

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and rank order All persons ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes

Deaths

1,989,841 761,085 416,509 170,225 105,718 56,050 54,619 34,851 30,583 29,449 26,869

All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic lower respiratory diseases Unintentional injuries Diabetes mellitus Alzheimer’s disease Influenza and pneumonia Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Septicemia

2,397,615 652,486 553,888 150,074 121,987 112,012 73,138 65,965 59,664 42,480 33,373

Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Unintentional injuries Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Pneumonia and influenza Diabetes mellitus Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Atherosclerosis Suicide

Male ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Pneumonia and influenza Suicide Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Homicide Diabetes mellitus 1,075,078 405,661 225,948 74,180 69,973 38,625 27,574 20,505 19,768 18,779 14,325 All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic lower respiratory diseases Diabetes mellitus Influenza and pneumonia Suicide Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Alzheimer’s disease 1,181,668 321,973 286,830 72,050 58,800 58,646 35,267 26,861 25,566 20,370 18,974

Female ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Unintentional injuries Pneumonia and influenza Diabetes mellitus Atherosclerosis Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period 914,763 355,424 190,561 100,252 31,538 27,045 20,526 17,848 17,425 10,815 9,815 All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic lower respiratory diseases Alzheimer’s disease Unintentional injuries Diabetes mellitus Influenza and pneumonia Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Septicemia 1,215,947 330,513 267,058 91,274 63,341 46,991 39,962 37,871 32,803 22,110 18,362

White ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Unintentional injuries Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Pneumonia and influenza Diabetes mellitus Atherosclerosis Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Suicide 1,738,607 683,347 368,162 148,734 90,122 52,375 48,369 28,868 27,069 25,240 24,829 All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic lower respiratory diseases Unintentional injuries Alzheimer’s disease Diabetes mellitus Influenza and pneumonia Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Suicide 2,056,643 565,703 478,134 127,868 112,914 95,890 61,087 58,087 52,430 33,691 29,251

Black or African American ... 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Unintentional injuries Homicide Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Pneumonia and influenza Diabetes mellitus Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis

233,135 72,956 45,037 20,135 13,480 10,172 6,961 5,648 5,544 4,790 3,416

All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Diabetes mellitus Unintentional injuries Homicide Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Chronic lower respiratory diseases Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease Septicemia

287,315 74,225 62,499 18,118 12,834 12,670 8,135 7,834 7,400 7,271 6,010

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

187

Table 31 (page 2 of 4). Leading causes of death and numbers of deaths, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 1980 and 2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1980 Cause of death Deaths 2004 Cause of death

Click here for spreadsheet version

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and rank order American Indian or Alaska Native ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes

Deaths

6,923 1,494 1,290 770 410 322 257 217 210 199 181

All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Diabetes mellitus Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Chronic lower respiratory diseases Suicide Influenza and pneumonia Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis

13,124 2,598 2,392 1,520 746 581 577 486 404 291 247

Diseases of heart Unintentional injuries Malignant neoplasms Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Cerebrovascular diseases Pneumonia and influenza Homicide Diabetes mellitus Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Suicide

Asian or Pacific Islander ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Unintentional injuries Pneumonia and influenza Suicide Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Diabetes mellitus Homicide Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases 11,071 3,265 2,522 1,028 810 342 249 246 227 211 207 All causes Malignant neoplasms Diseases of heart Cerebrovascular diseases Unintentional injuries Diabetes mellitus Influenza and pneumonia Chronic lower respiratory diseases Suicide Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Alzheimer’s disease 40,533 10,863 9,960 3,507 1,932 1,471 1,243 1,187 765 708 534

Hispanic or Latino ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --------------------------------------------All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Cerebrovascular diseases Diabetes mellitus Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Homicide Chronic lower respiratory diseases Influenza and pneumonia Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period 122,416 27,788 24,522 10,408 6,781 5,999 3,383 3,271 3,107 2,912 2,681

White male ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Pneumonia and influenza Suicide Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Diabetes mellitus Atherosclerosis 933,878 364,679 198,188 62,963 60,095 35,977 23,810 18,901 16,407 12,125 10,543 All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Chronic lower respiratory diseases Cerebrovascular diseases Diabetes mellitus Influenza and pneumonia Suicide Alzheimer’s disease Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis 1,007,266 278,914 247,450 61,267 53,622 49,296 28,629 23,348 23,081 17,605 16,349

Black or African American male ... 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Cerebrovascular diseases Homicide Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Pneumonia and influenza Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Diabetes mellitus

130,138 37,877 25,861 9,701 9,194 8,274 3,869 3,386 3,02 2,429 2,010

All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Cerebrovascular diseases Homicide Diabetes mellitus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease 0Chronic lower respiratory diseases Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Influenza and pneumonia

145,970 36,222 32,443 8,603 7,644 6,839 5,565 4,769 4,046 3,537 2,775

See footnotes at end of table.

188

Health, United States, 2006

Table 31 (page 3 of 4). Leading causes of death and numbers of deaths, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 1980 and 2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1980 Cause of death Deaths 2004 Cause of death

Click here for spreadsheet version

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and rank order American Indian or Alaska Native male ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes

Deaths

4,193 946 917 408 239 163 162 148 147 107 86

All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Diabetes mellitus Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Suicide Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic lower respiratory diseases Homicide Influenza and pneumonia

7,134 1,437 1,241 1,010 365 323 306 246 235 181 142

Unintentional injuries Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Cerebrovascular diseases Homicide Pneumonia and influenza Suicide Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Diabetes mellitus

Asian or Pacific Islander male ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Cerebrovascular diseases Pneumonia and influenza Suicide Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Homicide Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Diabetes mellitus 6,809 2,174 1,485 556 521 227 159 158 151 128 103 All causes Malignant neoplasms Diseases of heart Cerebrovascular diseases Unintentional injuries Chronic lower respiratory diseases Diabetes mellitus Influenza and pneumonia Suicide Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Homicide 21,298 5,696 5,400 1,614 1,170 743 708 596 524 372 256

Hispanic or Latino male ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --------------------------------------------All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Cerebrovascular diseases Diabetes mellitus Homicide Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Suicide Chronic lower respiratory diseases Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period 68,544 14,983 13,002 7,796 3,207 2,855 2,782 2,376 1,840 1,631 1,538

White female ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Unintentional injuries Pneumonia and influenza Diabetes mellitus Atherosclerosis Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period 804,729 318,668 169,974 88,639 27,159 24,559 16,743 16,526 16,398 8,833 6,512 All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic lower respiratory diseases Alzheimer’s disease Unintentional injuries Diabetes mellitus Influenza and pneumonia Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Septicemia 1,049,377 286,789 230,684 78,572 59,292 43,482 34,623 29,458 29,082 17,342 14,692

Black or African American female ... 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Unintentional injuries Diabetes mellitus Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Pneumonia and influenza Homicide Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis

102,997 35,079 19,176 10,941 3,779 3,534 3,092 2,262 1,898 1,770 1,722

All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Diabetes mellitus Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Unintentional injuries Chronic lower respiratory diseases Septicemia Alzheimer’s disease Influenza and pneumonia

141,345 38,003 30,056 10,474 7,269 4,297 4,067 3,354 3,320 3,085 2,925

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

189

Table 31 (page 4 of 4). Leading causes of death and numbers of deaths, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, 1980 and 2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1980 Cause of death Deaths 2004 Cause of death

Click here for spreadsheet version

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and rank order American Indian or Alaska Native female ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes

Deaths

2,730 577 362 344 171 159 124 109 92 56 55

All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Diabetes mellitus Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Chronic lower respiratory diseases Influenza and pneumonia Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Septicemia

5,990 1,161 1,151 510 381 335 254 251 149 135 98

Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Unintentional injuries Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Cerebrovascular diseases Diabetes mellitus Pneumonia and influenza Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis Homicide

Asian or Pacific Islander female ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Unintentional injuries Diabetes mellitus Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Pneumonia and influenza Congenital anomalies Suicide Homicide 4,262 1,091 1,037 507 254 124 118 115 104 90 60 All causes Malignant neoplasms Diseases of heart Cerebrovascular diseases Diabetes mellitus Unintentional injuries Influenza and pneumonia Chronic lower respiratory diseases Alzheimer’s disease Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Essential (primary) hypertension and hypertensive renal disease 19,235 5,167 4,560 1,893 763 762 647 444 344 336 312

Hispanic or Latino female ... 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . Category not applicable. - - - Data not available.

-----------------------

-----------------------

All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Diabetes mellitus Unintentional injuries Influenza and pneumonia Chronic lower respiratory diseases Alzheimer’s disease Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis

53,872 12,805 11,520 3,574 3,144 2,612 1,509 1,476 1,291 1,143 1,095

NOTES: For cause of death codes based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD–9) in 1980 and ICD–10 in 2002, see Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; Vital statistics of the United States, Vol II, mortality, part A, 1980. Washington, DC: Public Health Service. 1985; 2004 annual mortality file.

190

Health, United States, 2006

Table 32 (page 1 of 2). Leading causes of death and numbers of deaths, by age: United States, 1980 and 2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1980 2004 Deaths Cause of death

Click here for spreadsheet version

Age and rank order Under 1 year ... 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cause of death

Deaths

All causes Congenital anomalies Sudden infant death syndrome Respiratory distress syndrome Disorders relating to short gestation and unspecified low birthweight Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy Intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia Unintentional injuries Birth trauma Pneumonia and influenza Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord, and membranes

45,526 9,220 5,510 4,989 3,648 1,572 1,497 1,166 1,058 1,012 985

All causes Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified Sudden infant death syndrome Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy Unintentional injuries Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes Respiratory distress of newborn Bacterial sepsis of newborn Neonatal hemorrhage Diseases of circulatory system

27,936 5,622 4,642 2,246 1,715 1,052 1,042 875 827 616 593

1–4 years ... 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

All causes Unintentional injuries Congenital anomalies Malignant neoplasms Diseases of heart Homicide Pneumonia and influenza Meningitis Meningococcal infection Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period Septicemia

8,187 3,313 1,026 573 338 319 267 223 110 84 71

10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–14 years ... 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

All causes Unintentional injuries Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities Malignant neoplasms Homicide Diseases of heart Influenza and pneumonia Septicemia Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period In situ neoplasms, benign neoplasms and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior Chronic lower respiratory diseases

4,785 1,641 569 399 377 187 119 84 61 53 48

All causes Unintentional injuries Malignant neoplasms Congenital anomalies Homicide Diseases of heart Pneumonia and influenza Suicide Benign neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

10,689 5,224 1,497 561 415 330 194 142 104 95 85

9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

All causes Unintentional injuries Malignant neoplasms Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities Homicide Suicide Diseases of heart Chronic lower respiratory diseases In situ neoplasms, benign neoplasms and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior Influenza and pneumonia Cerebrovascular diseases

6,834 2,666 1,019 389 329 285 245 120 84 82 77

All causes Unintentional injuries Homicide Suicide Malignant neoplasms Diseases of heart Congenital anomalies Cerebrovascular diseases Pneumonia and influenza Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Anemias

49,027 26,206 6,537 5,239 2,683 1,223 600 418 348 141 133

All causes Unintentional injuries Homicide Suicide Malignant neoplasms Diseases of heart Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities Cerebrovascular diseases Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease Influenza and pneumonia Chronic lower respiratory diseases

33,421 15,449 5,085 4,316 1,709 1,038 483 211 191 185 179

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

191

Table 32 (page 2 of 2). Leading causes of death and numbers of deaths, by age: United States, 1980 and 2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1980 2004 Deaths Cause of death

Click here for spreadsheet version

Age and rank order 25–44 years ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cause of death

Deaths

All causes Unintentional injuries Malignant neoplasms Diseases of heart Homicide Suicide Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Cerebrovascular diseases Diabetes mellitus Pneumonia and influenza Congenital anomalies

108,658 26,722 17,551 14,513 10,983 9,855 4,782 3,154 1,472 1,467 817

All causes Unintentional injuries Malignant neoplasms Diseases of heart Suicide Homicide Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Cerebrovascular diseases Diabetes mellitus Influenza and pneumonia

126,230 29,503 18,356 16,088 11,712 7,479 6,294 3,108 2,928 2,625 1,194

45–64 years ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Unintentional injuries Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Diabetes mellitus Suicide Pneumonia and influenza Homicide 425,338 148,322 135,675 19,909 18,140 16,089 11,514 7,977 7,079 5,804 4,019 All causes Malignant neoplasms Diseases of heart Unintentional injuries Diabetes mellitus Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic lower respiratory diseases Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis Suicide Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Septicemia 442,394 146,476 101,169 26,593 16,347 16,147 15,265 14,065 10,917 6,030 5,996

65 years and over ... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Pneumonia and influenza Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases Atherosclerosis Diabetes mellitus Unintentional injuries Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis 1,341,848 595,406 258,389 146,417 45,512 43,587 28,081 25,216 24,844 12,968 9,519 All causes Diseases of heart Malignant neoplasms Cerebrovascular diseases Chronic lower respiratory diseases Alzheimer’s disease Diabetes mellitus Influenza and pneumonia Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis Unintentional injuries Septicemia 1,755,669 533,302 385,847 130,538 105,197 65,313 53,956 52,760 35,105 35,020 25,644

. . . Category not applicable. NOTES: For cause of death codes based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD–9) in 1980 and ICD–10 in 2002, see Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; Vital statistics of the United States, Vol II, mortality, part A, 1980. Washington, DC: Public Health Service. 1985; 2004 annual mortality file.

192

Health, United States, 2006

Table 33 (page 1 of 3). Age-adjusted death rates, by race, sex, region, and urbanization level: United States, average annual 1996–1998, 1999–2001, and 2002–2004
[Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System]

Updated August 2007
All races White

Click here for spreadsheet version

Black or African American

Sex, region, and urbanization level 1 Both sexes All regions: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . . Northeast: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . . Midwest: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . . South: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . . West: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 Age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 standard population 2

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

894.5 839.3 865.6 887.8 913.0 933.0

869.0 833.0 859.0 887.9 907.1 923.2

809.5 789.1 821.7 852.5 880.0 901.1

858.8 828.0 846.5 866.5 892.1 909.6

836.7 823.7 842.2 868.8 890.0 902.8

783.4 782.7 807.2 834.4 863.3 880.8

1,164.2 1,059.6 1,152.4 1,173.1 1,208.2 1,191.6

1,133.6 1,040.8 1,137.3 1,164.3 1,174.9 1,162.8

1,060.9 975.7 1,077.7 1,116.9 1,139.6 1,133.3

... ...

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

909.6 827.8 851.9 852.0 878.4 893.6

861.7 814.0 836.2 849.5 854.4 877.4

788.4 760.2 787.4 800.1 816.5 832.4

881.4 823.3 842.2 847.8 877.9 892.0

838.6 810.8 828.6 846.5 855.7 876.3

772.1 760.5 781.4 796.6 817.3 831.7

1,052.4 1,000.0 1,076.6 1,106.9 * *

1,001.1 986.6 1,040.8 1,072.4 * *

916.1 905.8 955.0 1,030.0 * *

... ...

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

951.7 856.4 876.1 860.8 868.8 867.6

939.6 856.1 873.5 861.5 865.2 852.7

875.1 809.5 829.7 817.3 826.8 823.8

880.7 845.9 857.0 847.4 863.9 858.2

868.9 846.3 856.1 850.8 863.0 845.9

808.2 801.2 813.8 804.8 824.4 815.7

1,213.7 1,121.2 1,168.9 1,178.9 1,222.0 1,388.1

1,205.9 1,123.1 1,151.6 1,146.9 1,103.5 1,058.9

1,126.4 1,070.3 1,080.5 1,123.4 1,059.7 1,118.8

... ...

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

938.1 845.3 891.8 943.6 974.1 1,005.3

926.8 845.6 892.4 950.5 973.3 1,003.0

881.0 808.9 863.1 925.1 958.6 991.6

864.9 821.9 852.1 907.5 933.5 975.9

859.1 826.2 855.8 917.9 939.3 978.5

819.3 794.5 830.2 896.5 928.5 970.3

1,241.9 1,071.4 1,172.6 1,183.2 1,218.9 1,188.4

1,212.8 1,048.4 1,164.4 1,180.0 1,194.3 1,171.2

1,152.3 979.7 1,110.6 1,128.5 1,159.3 1,139.7

... ...

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

819.2 818.6 814.7 827.6 861.0 867.1

792.4 803.6 800.5 815.7 851.8 847.4

737.9 767.8 769.5 785.9 827.7 821.1

829.4 823.2 826.9 826.6 860.4 845.9

804.1 810.1 815.8 815.7 854.7 828.6

755.1 775.9 787.3 787.8 829.0 801.7

1,107.9 1,060.8 1,045.4 973.5 * *

1,077.7 1,006.2 996.3 990.7 * *

1,019.0 1,007.2 950.9 899.7 * *

... ...

Health, United States, 2006

193

Table 33 (page 2 of 3). Age-adjusted death rates, by race, sex, region, and urbanization level: United States, average annual 1996–1998, 1999–2001, and 2002–2004
[Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System]

Updated August 2007
All races White

Click here for spreadsheet version

Black or African American

Sex, region, and urbanization level 1 Male All regions: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . . Northeast: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . . Midwest: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . . South: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . . West: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 Age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 standard population 2

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

1,108.6 1,025.2 1,069.9 1,104.6 1,139.9 1,172.3

1,057.6 998.7 1,038.5 1,079.2 1,108.6 1,132.9

975.1 928.4 982.3 1,023.3 1,057.0 1,087.4

1,060.6 1,010.9 1,045.4 1,077.4 1,113.5 1,143.3

1,015.2 987.3 1,017.7 1,056.1 1,087.5 1,108.3

941.4 920.9 963.1 1,001.3 1,036.0 1,063.1

1,503.8 1,329.0 1,469.0 1,497.6 1,547.8 1,529.0

1,436.1 1,281.1 1,409.2 1,449.1 1,475.9 1,457.3

1,329.6 1,174.3 1,324.1 1,373.8 1,411.2 1,410.0

... ...

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

1,142.0 1,018.1 1,061.6 1,062.7 1,093.5 1,096.9

1,065.3 985.3 1,018.1 1,034.1 1,042.5 1,056.9

961.2 899.3 946.0 958.1 981.0 988.9

1,102.8 1,012.6 1,049.9 1,057.9 1,093.7 1,096.1

1,034.5 982.3 1,009.7 1,032.3 1,045.6 1,056.6

939.2 900.8 939.3 955.0 983.5 989.7

1,374.4 1,263.0 1,351.2 1,376.8 * *

1,280.7 1,219.0 1,262.4 1,280.7 * *

1,156.2 1,088.4 1,157.2 1,212.9 * *

... ...

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

1,192.6 1,051.7 1,089.0 1,076.0 1,092.0 1,094.7

1,155.5 1,030.0 1,063.2 1,057.3 1,063.4 1,050.5

1,063.3 949.9 989.5 990.5 1,001.2 1,000.3

1,101.0 1,038.7 1,065.3 1,059.7 1,086.0 1,083.0

1,064.6 1,018.7 1,043.8 1,045.0 1,062.0 1,043.3

978.1 940.9 972.4 976.7 1,000.0 991.8

1,559.8 1,399.4 1,470.0 1,463.9 1,551.8 1,788.2

1,525.5 1,372.7 1,394.4 1,401.9 1,315.8 1,225.3

1,414.9 1,266.9 1,285.1 1,342.0 1,181.8 1,344.1

... ...

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

1,172.0 1,030.8 1,106.6 1,185.9 1,228.0 1,275.7

1,130.9 1,009.7 1,081.2 1,160.8 1,198.9 1,240.6

1,061.9 950.9 1,032.8 1,114.5 1,154.0 1,203.8

1,074.6 1,000.5 1,053.0 1,138.6 1,175.1 1,239.3

1,042.9 984.8 1,033.8 1,118.6 1,154.7 1,210.2

983.1 932.5 990.4 1,077.5 1,113.2 1,176.7

1,616.0 1,351.1 1,517.1 1,526.9 1,577.6 1,530.4

1,542.6 1,297.8 1,466.2 1,487.0 1,519.8 1,478.0

1,446.9 1,190.4 1,388.1 1,405.5 1,458.1 1,425.9

... ...

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

996.3 981.1 987.4 1,003.7 1,037.8 1,048.7

949.8 947.0 952.8 970.5 1,012.6 1,010.9

880.4 899.5 916.8 927.3 975.9 966.4

1,006.7 988.0 1,003.1 1,001.7 1,036.0 1,023.0

962.4 954.5 969.3 971.6 1,013.6 986.8

899.9 909.1 930.4 928.7 973.3 940.0

1,383.8 1,228.8 1,230.6 1,178.9 * *

1,323.2 1,171.2 1,165.1 1,088.1 * *

1,244.7 1,155.7 1,118.8 1,057.5 * *

... ...

194

Health, United States, 2006

Table 33 (page 3 of 3). Age-adjusted death rates, by race, sex, region, and urbanization level: United States, average annual 1996–1998, 1999–2001, and 2002–2004
[Data are based on the National Vital Statistics System]

Updated August 2007
All races White

Click here for spreadsheet version

Black or African American

Sex, region, and urbanization level 1 Female All regions: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . . Northeast: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . . Midwest: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . . South: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . . West: Metropolitan counties: Large: Central . . . . . . . . . . . Fringe . . . . . . . . . . . . Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . Small . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonmetropolitan counties: Micropolitan . . . . . . . . . Nonmicropolitan . . . . . .

1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 1996–1998 1999–2001 2002–2004 Age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 standard population 2

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

738.9 705.7 716.8 731.2 745.9 750.6

730.1 711.1 724.6 745.7 754.8 759.5

683.2 680.8 696.3 720.3 739.2 748.2

711.3 696.3 701.9 713.7 728.8 731.4

703.8 702.7 710.6 729.1 740.2 741.9

661.5 674.7 684.6 704.5 725.1 730.6

934.4 875.9 932.0 951.9 975.6 951.5

929.3 876.4 945.4 966.5 968.3 953.0

874.1 832.2 899.2 933.1 945.9 934.6

... ...

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

748.4 696.3 709.1 706.7 725.0 741.8

719.6 692.6 707.5 717.3 717.5 738.5

662.9 655.0 668.6 679.6 689.8 702.5

725.6 692.4 701.4 703.2 724.3 740.1

699.1 689.3 700.9 713.8 718.1 737.4

648.0 654.1 663.3 676.2 689.6 700.9

848.3 827.2 883.4 919.9 * *

823.6 828.1 877.0 930.0 * *

758.9 774.9 800.9 894.5 * *

... ...

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

784.1 722.9 728.9 710.8 711.2 696.1

786.2 733.8 739.6 721.4 721.2 700.0

736.5 703.0 709.1 689.3 694.2 680.6

729.7 714.5 713.6 700.0 707.3 688.9

730.9 725.1 724.3 712.2 718.6 693.9

683.6 695.4 694.7 678.2 691.3 673.2

974.4 924.6 955.1 963.1 998.7 1,123.8

984.5 948.2 972.7 952.5 948.8 955.4

922.5 922.9 920.8 952.1 954.0 947.4

... ...

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

768.6 705.7 731.2 771.0 788.4 803.4

776.3 719.6 746.6 795.0 803.8 821.3

743.5 695.3 727.3 778.8 802.9 821.7

712.1 686.1 700.1 740.9 754.8 778.3

721.7 702.4 716.0 767.1 774.5 799.5

692.4 682.3 699.5 754.2 778.1 802.7

988.2 882.4 938.9 956.5 977.3 946.7

989.8 881.0 958.2 974.2 975.7 955.0

949.3 830.9 918.5 937.8 952.0 935.9

... ...

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

682.6 696.3 680.5 687.3 712.6 710.4

670.1 693.8 681.3 691.3 715.1 704.0

624.1 664.4 652.4 668.5 697.6 688.5

691.8 699.2 691.6 687.2 713.8 694.2

679.9 699.1 696.1 690.7 720.0 690.7

638.5 670.9 672.2 670.7 701.3 675.6

906.0 920.1 890.3 789.8 * *

899.3 876.5 855.7 886.6 * *

846.1 881.3 806.9 740.9 * *

... ...

* Estimates of death rates for the black population in nonmetropolitan counties in the Northeast and West may be unreliable, possibly due to anomalies in population estimates for the black population in nonmetropolitan counties in these regions. 1 Urbanization levels are for county of residence of decedent. The levels were developed by NCHS using information from the Office of Management and Budget, Department of Agriculture, and Census Bureau. More information on this six-level urban-rural classification scheme is available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/r&d/rdc_urbanrural.htm. See Appendix II, Urbanization. 2 Average annual death rates are age-adjusted using the year 2000 standard population. In earlier editions of Health, United States, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with Health, United States 2006, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. Denominators for rates are population estimates for the middle year of each 3-year period multiplied by 3. The 1997 population estimates used to compute rates for 1996–1998 are intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. The 2000 population estimates used to compute rates for 1999–2001 are based on the 2000 census. The 2003 population estimates used to compute rates for 2002–2004 are postcensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. NOTE: The race groups, white and black, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data have been revised and differ from previous editions of Health, United States. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Compressed Mortality File.

Health, United States, 2006

195

Table 34 (page 1 of 2). Age-adjusted death rates among persons 25–64 years of age for selected causes of death, by sex and educational attainment: Selected states, 1994–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated August 2007
Years of educational attainment 1 Both sexes Less than 12 13 or more Less than 12 Male 13 or more Less than 12

Click here for spreadsheet version

Female 13 or more

Cause of death and year All causes 1994 . 1995 . 1996 . 1997 . 1998 . 1999 . 2000 . 2001 . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

12

12

12

Age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 population 3 594.6 604.7 579.6 554.1 561.6 585.3 591.0 576.6 575.1 669.9 667.2 506.4 512.5 492.5 473.4 465.8 474.5 484.5 480.9 490.9 490.9 477.1 254.8 251.9 241.8 232.7 223.9 219.1 216.7 214.6 211.3 211.7 208.3 793.6 801.1 763.9 719.7 727.6 763.7 780.2 745.8 726.1 826.8 838.7 707.1 713.2 669.6 634.4 627.1 636.7 641.8 631.2 650.2 650.9 618.8 323.5 316.8 300.7 283.4 271.9 264.2 260.8 257.3 253.5 252.5 250.7 397.3 408.6 396.6 387.2 395.6 409.9 409.0 407.1 416.6 496.8 486.2 342.9 348.1 344.2 337.5 330.9 337.3 347.7 348.6 350.7 349.4 344.9 182.1 183.5 180.3 180.2 174.3 172.6 171.9 171.5 168.8 171.0 166.7

2003 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronic and noncommunicable diseases 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 comparability-modified 5. . . . 1999 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

440.5 445.1 432.7 419.0 425.2 429.5 447.0 446.2 436.5 432.0 502.7 498.4 95.8 96.6 92.3 92.7 93.9 95.4 95.5 100.4 97.9 99.6 116.6 120.5

380.7 384.0 375.3 368.8 362.9 366.5 369.8 377.6 370.7 374.4 373.4 358.6 73.4 74.3 73.0 73.5 73.8 75.0 75.5 76.7 80.7 85.2 88.3 90.1

193.7 192.1 189.0 187.4 180.9 182.7 177.2 175.7 171.1 168.6 167.6 162.9 31.9 31.6 32.0 31.9 31.2 31.7 30.6 30.3 33.2 32.2 33.5 35.0

561.9 563.4 550.6 527.0 534.4 539.7 563.0 567.2 545.1 528.9 603.6 611.0 149.4 149.4 139.8 138.8 139.4 141.6 145.1 155.1 147.0 143.3 162.9 170.5

504.4 507.3 486.9 474.1 470.2 474.9 477.6 481.5 468.2 478.2 478.5 449.3 119.2 120.3 116.2 116.4 116.6 118.4 118.9 119.2 122.7 129.6 133.7 132.4

228.4 224.4 222.1 219.0 211.3 213.4 205.5 202.9 195.7 193.9 191.8 188.0 45.7 45.3 45.7 45.5 44.4 45.1 43.3 43.1 47.6 45.5 46.8 48.9

325.0 332.1 321.2 316.0 321.3 324.5 337.2 334.3 331.7 334.9 396.7 385.7 38.9 40.0 40.6 41.1 43.8 44.5 42.6 43.7 44.8 49.2 60.5 61.5

286.8 290.0 287.7 284.6 277.9 280.7 283.6 292.3 290.3 288.5 286.4 279.1 31.7 32.1 32.7 33.4 33.7 34.2 34.4 35.3 38.6 41.0 42.6 45.7

155.5 156.3 153.4 153.8 148.6 150.1 147.4 147.2 145.5 142.6 142.7 137.6 17.9 17.8 18.4 18.4 18.3 18.6 18.1 17.9 19.3 19.2 20.6 22.0

2003 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Injuries 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 comparability-modified 5. 1999 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communicable diseases 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 comparability-modified 5. . 1999 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

57.5 62.1 53.7 41.6 41.5 35.6 42.1 43.5 41.4 42.7 49.6 47.4

51.6 53.4 43.3 30.1 28.2 24.2 28.5 29.4 28.7 30.5 28.3 27.6

28.9 27.9 20.2 12.9 11.4 9.8 10.8 10.3 9.9 10.2 10.2 10.0

81.5 87.3 72.5 53.1 52.8 45.3 54.8 56.9 52.9 53.0 59.3 56.2

82.8 84.7 65.6 42.9 39.4 33.8 39.5 40.4 39.4 41.6 37.8 36.4

49.1 46.7 32.6 18.4 15.7 13.5 15.1 14.3 13.6 13.8 13.5 13.3

32.5 35.8 33.8 29.3 29.6 25.4 29.4 30.3 29.7 31.8 38.7 38.0

23.7 25.2 23.0 18.7 18.4 15.8 18.8 19.5 19.0 20.4 19.8 19.3

8.4 8.9 8.0 7.6 7.0 6.0 6.6 6.4 6.3 6.7 7.2 6.8

2003 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

196

Health, United States, 2006

Table 34 (page 2 of 2). Age-adjusted death rates among persons 25–64 years of age for selected causes of death, by sex and educational attainment: Selected states, 1994–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated August 2007
Years of educational attainment 1 Both sexes Less than 12 13 or more Less than 12 Male 13 or more Less than 12

Click here for spreadsheet version

Female 13 or more

Cause of death and year HIV disease: 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 comparability-modified 5 . 1999 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other communicable diseases: 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1998 comparability-modified 5 . 1999 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

12

12

12

Age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 population 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36.2 39.7 31.9 19.4 17.3 18.7 19.0 19.8 18.4 18.2 19.6 17.9 21.2 22.4 21.8 22.2 24.2 19.4 23.1 23.7 22.9 24.5 30.1 29.4 36.5 38.0 27.7 14.3 11.7 12.7 13.1 13.2 12.5 12.6 10.6 10.0 15.1 15.5 15.7 15.9 16.5 13.2 15.4 16.2 16.2 17.9 17.8 17.6 21.4 20.6 13.1 5.8 4.3 4.7 4.6 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.4 3.3 7.5 7.2 7.2 7.1 7.1 5.7 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.4 6.8 6.7 54.7 59.0 45.4 26.3 23.4 25.3 26.1 26.9 25.0 23.4 23.9 21.6 26.8 28.2 27.2 26.8 29.4 23.5 28.8 30.0 27.9 29.6 35.4 34.6 63.0 64.4 45.4 23.0 18.3 19.8 20.1 19.8 18.6 18.6 15.5 14.6 19.7 20.3 20.2 19.9 21.1 16.9 19.4 20.6 20.8 23.0 22.3 21.8 39.7 37.8 23.8 10.1 7.5 8.1 7.9 7.1 6.4 6.3 5.8 5.5 9.4 8.8 8.8 8.2 8.2 6.6 7.2 7.2 7.1 7.5 7.7 7.8 16.8 19.0 17.2 11.8 10.6 11.5 11.7 12.6 11.6 12.6 14.5 13.9 15.7 16.8 16.7 17.6 19.0 15.2 17.6 17.7 18.1 19.1 24.2 24.1 12.3 13.7 11.2 6.2 5.6 6.1 6.6 7.1 6.8 6.9 5.8 5.5 11.4 11.5 11.9 12.5 12.8 10.2 12.2 12.4 12.2 13.5 13.9 13.8 2.9 3.5 2.4 1.6 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 5.5 5.5 5.6 6.0 5.9 4.7 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.4 6.0 5.6

... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2004 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

Educational attainment for the numerator is based on the death certificate item highest grade completed. Educational attainment for the denominator is based on answers to the Current Population Survey question, What is the highest level of school completed or highest degree received? (Kominski R, Adams A. Educational Attainment in the United States: March 1993 and 1992, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20–476, Washington, DC. 1994.) 2 Underlying cause of death was coded according to the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1994–1998 and the Tenth Revision starting in 1999. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Tables IV and V. 3 Age-adjusted to the 2000 standard population using four age groups: 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64 years. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment, Table I. Death records that are missing information about decedent’s education are not included. Percent with no stated education averages 2–9% for causes of death in this table. Age-adjusted death rates for 1994–2000 were calculated using 1990-based postcensal population estimates in the denominator. Starting with 2001 data, rates were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. 4 Reporting areas that have adopted the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death are excluded because educational attainment data based on the 2003 revision are not comparable with data based on the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Death. Starting with 2003 data, data from California, Idaho, Montana, and New York are excluded. In addition to these four states, starting with 2004 data, Connecticut, Georgia, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming have adopted the 2003 revision and therefore are excluded. Because of different education profiles of the excluded states compared with the remaining reporting areas, 2003 and subsequent years are not directly comparable to earlier years. See Appendix II, Education. 5 Calculated by multiplying the 1998 rate by its comparability ratio to adjust for differences between ICD–9 and ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio, Table VI. 6 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. To estimate change between 1998 and 1999, compare the 1999 rate with the comparability-modified rate for 1998. See Appendix II, Cause of death, Table V; Comparability ratio, Table VI. 7 Figures include September 11, 2001-related deaths for which death certificates were filed as of October 24, 2002. See Appendix II, Cause of death, Table V for terrorism-related ICD–10 codes. NOTES: Based on data from 36–47 states and the District of Columbia. Death rates for age groups 65 years and over are not shown because reporting quality of educational attainment on the death certificate is poorer among older decedents. See Appendix II, Education, for information about reporting states and sources of bias in death rates by educational attainment. Injury data for 1999–2003 were revised and may differ from previous editions of Health, United States. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; numerator data from annual mortality files; denominator data from unpublished population estimates prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau.

Health, United States, 2006

197

Table 35 (page 1 of 4). Death rates for all causes, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1 1960 1 1970 1980 1990 2000

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age All persons All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,446.0 963.8 3,299.2 139.4 60.1 128.1 178.7 358.7 853.9 1,901.0 4,104.3 9,331.1 20,196.9

1,339.2 954.7 2,696.4 109.1 46.6 106.3 146.4 299.4 756.0 1,735.1 3,822.1 8,745.2 19,857.5

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 1,222.6 1,039.1 938.7 869.0 945.3 878.3 863.8 854.0 2,142.4 84.5 41.3 127.7 157.4 314.5 730.0 1,658.8 3,582.7 8,004.4 16,344.9 1,288.3 63.9 30.6 115.4 135.5 227.9 584.0 1,346.3 2,994.9 6,692.6 15,980.3 971.9 46.8 24.0 99.2 139.2 223.2 473.4 1,196.9 2,648.6 6,007.2 15,327.4 736.7 32.4 18.0 79.9 101.4 198.9 425.6 992.2 2,399.1 5,666.5 15,524.4

832.7 841.9 700.0 31.5 17.0 81.5 103.6 201.6 433.2 940.9 2,255.0 5,463.1 14,593.3

800.8 816.5 685.2 29.9 16.8 80.1 102.1 193.5 427.0 910.3 2,164.6 5,275.1 13,823.5

Male All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,674.2 1,106.1 3,728.0 151.7 70.9 167.9 216.5 428.8 1,067.1 2,395.3 4,931.4 10,426.0 21,636.0

1,609.0 1,104.5 3,059.3 119.5 55.7 152.1 187.9 372.8 992.2 2,309.5 4,914.4 10,178.4 21,186.3

1,542.1 1,090.3 2,410.0 93.2 50.5 188.5 215.3 402.6 958.5 2,282.7 4,873.8 10,010.2 17,821.5

1,348.1 976.9 1,428.5 72.6 36.7 172.3 196.1 299.2 767.3 1,815.1 4,105.2 8,816.7 18,801.1

1,202.8 918.4 1,082.8 52.4 28.5 147.4 204.3 310.4 610.3 1,553.4 3,491.5 7,888.6 18,056.6

1,053.8 853.0 806.5 35.9 20.9 114.9 138.6 255.2 542.8 1,230.7 2,979.6 6,972.6 17,501.4

994.3 840.3 777.4 35.1 19.8 116.5 141.4 255.0 552.2 1,165.5 2,771.7 6,641.8 15,794.0

955.7 817.6 753.7 32.4 19.2 114.7 139.5 243.6 543.5 1,128.8 2,644.8 6,394.3 15,031.1

Female All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,236.0 823.5 2,854.6 126.7 48.9 89.1 142.7 290.3 641.5 1,404.8 3,333.2 8,399.6 19,194.7

1,105.3 809.2 2,321.3 98.4 37.3 61.3 106.6 229.4 526.7 1,196.4 2,871.8 7,633.1 19,008.4

971.4 807.8 1,863.7 75.4 31.8 68.1 101.6 231.1 517.2 1,098.9 2,579.7 6,677.6 15,518.0

817.9 785.3 1,141.7 54.7 24.2 57.5 75.9 159.3 412.9 934.3 2,144.7 5,440.1 14,746.9

750.9 812.0 855.7 41.0 19.3 49.0 74.2 137.9 342.7 878.8 1,991.2 4,883.1 14,274.3

731.4 855.0 663.4 28.7 15.0 43.1 63.5 143.2 312.5 772.2 1,921.2 4,814.7 14,719.2

706.2 843.4 619.1 27.8 14.0 44.4 64.6 148.5 318.4 732.7 1,823.0 4,675.5 14,062.5

679.2 815.4 613.4 27.3 14.3 43.6 63.5 143.5 314.3 707.4 1,761.4 4,521.8 13,280.3

White male 3 All ages, age-adjusted 2 All ages, crude . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,642.5 1,089.5 3,400.5 135.5 67.2 152.4 185.3 380.9 984.5 2,304.4 4,864.9 10,526.3 22,116.3

1,586.0 1,098.5 2,694.1 104.9 52.7 143.7 163.2 332.6 932.2 2,225.2 4,848.4 10,299.6 21,750.0

1,513.7 1,086.7 2,113.2 83.6 48.0 170.8 176.6 343.5 882.9 2,202.6 4,810.1 10,098.8 18,551.7

1,317.6 983.3 1,230.3 66.1 35.0 167.0 171.3 257.4 698.9 1,728.5 4,035.7 8,829.8 19,097.3

1,165.9 930.9 896.1 45.9 26.4 131.3 176.1 268.2 548.7 1,467.2 3,397.7 7,844.9 18,268.3

1,029.4 887.8 667.6 32.6 19.8 105.8 124.1 233.6 496.9 1,163.3 2,905.7 6,933.1 17,716.4

973.9 877.6 658.7 31.5 18.4 108.9 128.8 237.6 509.2 1,102.3 2,707.3 6,620.6 16,037.9

936.9 854.2 631.6 29.4 17.9 108.3 127.0 229.1 504.0 1,065.9 2,584.0 6,384.8 15,250.7

See footnotes at end of table.

198

Health, United States, 2006

Table 35 (page 2 of 4). Death rates for all causes, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1 1960 1 1970 1980 1990 2000

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Black or African American male 3 All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years 4 . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years 5 . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,909.1 1,257.7 --1,412.6 95.1 289.7 503.5 878.1 1,905.0 3,773.2 5,310.3 10,101.9 ---

1,811.1 1,181.7 5,306.8 208.5 75.1 212.0 402.5 762.0 1,624.8 3,316.4 5,798.7 8,605.1 14,844.8

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 1,873.9 1,697.8 1,644.5 1,403.5 1,186.6 1,034.1 1,008.0 834.1 4,298.9 150.5 67.1 320.6 559.5 956.6 1,777.5 3,256.9 5,803.2 9,454.9 12,222.3 2,586.7 110.5 47.4 209.1 407.3 689.8 1,479.9 2,873.0 5,131.1 9,231.6 16,098.8 2,112.4 85.8 41.2 252.2 430.8 699.6 1,261.0 2,618.4 4,946.1 9,129.5 16,954.9 1,567.6 54.5 28.2 181.4 261.0 453.0 1,017.7 2,080.1 4,253.5 8,486.0 16,791.0

1,319.1 813.7 1,410.0 53.7 26.8 171.3 256.2 426.7 991.4 2,011.2 3,981.3 8,067.0 14,903.4

1,269.4 792.6 1,414.2 48.6 26.0 164.3 252.3 397.0 954.9 1,960.8 3,818.3 7,710.3 14,452.5

American Indian or Alaska Native male 3 All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

1,111.5 597.1 1,598.1 82.7 43.7 311.1 360.6 556.8 871.3 1,547.5 2,968.4 5,607.0 12,635.2

916.2 476.4 1,056.6 77.4 33.4 219.8 256.1 365.4 619.9 1,211.3 2,461.7 5,389.2 11,243.9

841.5 415.6 700.2 44.9 20.2 136.2 179.1 295.2 520.0 1,090.4 2,478.3 5,351.2 10,725.8

797.0 457.6 911.5 57.3 29.3 153.1 185.3 338.1 583.6 1,058.3 2,237.3 4,644.0 9,583.8

758.1 453.8 1,076.0 55.3 24.1 136.5 188.8 321.2 543.5 1,067.3 2,196.8 4,584.2 7,923.8

Asian or Pacific Islander male 3 All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

786.5 375.3 816.5 50.9 23.4 80.8 83.5 128.3 342.3 881.1 2,236.1 5,389.5 13,753.6

716.4 334.3 605.3 45.0 20.7 76.0 79.6 130.8 287.1 789.1 2,041.4 5,008.6 12,446.3

624.2 332.9 529.4 23.3 12.9 55.2 55.0 104.9 249.7 642.4 1,661.0 4,328.2 12,125.3

562.7 330.0 496.9 24.8 14.6 56.3 53.8 95.9 242.6 565.5 1,472.8 4,041.0 10,391.7

534.7 321.1 443.1 20.7 14.7 53.9 50.9 91.3 241.9 545.3 1,363.4 3,766.3 10,118.2

Hispanic or Latino male 3,6 All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

886.4 411.6 921.8 53.8 26.0 159.3 234.0 341.8 533.9 1,123.7 2,368.2 5,369.1 12,272.1

818.1 331.3 637.1 31.5 17.9 107.7 120.2 211.0 439.0 965.7 2,287.9 5,395.3 13,086.2

748.1 330.7 665.5 33.8 18.4 112.9 118.1 189.8 436.4 920.8 2,115.7 4,948.5 11,029.2

706.8 321.1 636.5 30.2 16.7 115.3 109.2 184.2 417.8 874.0 1,994.3 4,791.6 9,932.8

Health, United States, 2006

199

Table 35 (page 3 of 4). Death rates for all causes, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1 1960 1 1970 1980 1990 2000

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age White, not Hispanic or Latino male 6 All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------------------

---------------------------

Deaths per 100,000 resident population ----1,170.9 1,035.4 ----985.9 978.5 --------------------------------------------865.4 43.8 25.7 123.4 165.3 257.1 544.5 1,479.7 3,434.5 7,920.4 18,505.4 658.7 32.4 20.0 103.5 123.0 233.9 497.7 1,170.9 2,930.5 6,977.8 17,853.2

984.0 979.1 647.2 30.2 18.1 105.9 129.9 243.8 513.2 1,110.5 2,738.5 6,692.2 16,234.4

949.0 957.4 625.2 29.0 17.9 104.8 130.9 235.7 510.5 1,076.4 2,617.9 6,461.5 15,489.2

White female 3 All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,198.0 803.3 2,566.8 112.2 45.1 71.5 112.8 235.8 546.4 1,293.8 3,242.8 8,481.5 19,679.5

1,074.4 800.9 2,007.7 85.2 34.7 54.9 85.0 191.1 458.8 1,078.9 2,779.3 7,696.6 19,477.7

944.0 812.6 1,614.6 66.1 29.9 61.6 84.1 193.3 462.9 1,014.9 2,470.7 6,698.7 15,980.2

796.1 806.1 962.5 49.3 22.9 55.5 65.4 138.2 372.7 876.2 2,066.6 5,401.7 14,979.6

728.8 846.9 690.0 36.1 17.9 45.9 61.5 117.4 309.3 822.7 1,923.5 4,839.1 14,400.6

715.3 912.3 550.5 25.5 14.1 41.1 55.1 125.7 281.4 730.9 1,868.3 4,785.3 14,890.7

693.1 902.3 520.7 25.5 13.1 43.2 58.0 132.9 287.2 693.7 1,780.6 4,671.6 14,240.6

666.9 871.9 513.6 24.4 13.0 42.4 56.8 129.5 285.4 671.8 1,723.6 4,514.4 13,450.9

Black or African American female 3 All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years 4 . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years 5 . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1,545.5 1,002.0 --1,139.3 72.8 213.1 393.3 758.1 1,576.4 3,089.4 4,000.2 8,347.0 ---

1,369.7 905.0 4,162.2 173.3 53.8 107.5 273.2 568.5 1,177.0 2,510.9 4,064.2 6,730.0 13,052.6

1,228.7 829.2 3,368.8 129.4 43.8 111.9 231.0 533.0 1,043.9 1,986.2 3,860.9 6,691.5 10,706.6

1,033.3 733.3 2,123.7 84.4 30.5 70.5 150.0 323.9 768.2 1,561.0 3,057.4 6,212.1 12,367.2

975.1 747.9 1,735.5 67.6 27.5 68.7 159.5 298.6 639.4 1,452.6 2,865.7 5,688.3 13,309.5

927.6 733.0 1,279.8 45.3 20.0 58.3 121.8 271.9 588.3 1,227.2 2,689.6 5,696.5 13,941.3

885.6 717.9 1,132.2 39.7 18.9 54.0 113.5 270.0 582.3 1,178.8 2,487.2 5,385.5 13,616.7

855.3 700.3 1,149.9 40.9 21.1 53.7 112.3 256.0 564.1 1,128.6 2,386.1 5,300.0 12,896.9

American Indian or Alaska Native female 3 All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

662.4 380.1 1,352.6 87.5 33.5 90.3 178.5 286.0 491.4 837.1 1,765.5 3,612.9 8,567.4

561.8 330.4 688.7 37.8 25.5 69.0 102.3 156.4 380.9 805.9 1,679.4 3,073.2 8,201.1

604.5 346.1 492.2 39.8 17.7 58.9 84.8 171.9 284.9 772.1 1,899.8 3,850.0 9,118.2

592.1 387.7 676.2 43.0 17.9 61.5 88.7 196.0 364.4 785.0 1,710.7 3,834.3 7,920.2

557.9 380.0 715.4 53.4 20.2 64.6 102.9 191.6 340.0 704.0 1,700.9 3,533.4 7,093.7

200

Health, United States, 2006

Table 35 (page 4 of 4). Death rates for all causes, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1 1960 1 1970 1980 1990 2000

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Asian or Pacific Islander female 3 All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 425.9 469.3 416.8 222.5 234.3 262.3 755.8 35.4 21.5 32.3 45.4 89.7 214.1 440.8 1,027.7 2,833.6 7,923.3 518.2 32.0 13.0 28.8 37.5 69.9 182.7 483.4 1,089.2 3,127.9 10,254.0 434.3 20.0 11.7 22.4 27.6 65.6 155.5 390.9 996.4 2,882.4 9,052.2

392.7 279.2 427.5 20.1 11.5 28.8 29.9 58.2 150.8 359.2 989.9 2,681.8 8,329.2

375.5 274.6 392.2 22.0 9.7 24.1 26.8 54.2 145.8 339.9 933.2 2,558.2 8,125.8

Hispanic or Latino female 3,6 All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

537.1 285.4 746.6 42.1 17.3 40.6 62.9 109.3 253.3 607.5 1,453.8 3,351.3 10,098.7

546.0 274.6 553.6 27.5 13.4 31.7 43.4 100.5 223.8 548.4 1,423.2 3,624.5 11,202.8

515.8 279.3 552.4 26.3 12.8 35.5 43.0 95.5 219.1 527.9 1,342.9 3,506.4 10,128.1

485.9 269.7 535.1 24.3 12.0 31.8 40.9 88.2 208.3 511.3 1,297.2 3,329.6 9,253.0

White, not Hispanic or Latino female 6 All ages, age-adjusted 2 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

---------------------------

734.6 903.6 655.3 34.0 17.6 46.0 60.6 116.8 312.1 834.5 1,940.2 4,887.3 14,533.1

721.5 1,007.3 530.9 24.4 13.9 42.6 56.8 128.1 285.0 742.1 1,891.0 4,819.3 14,971.7

702.1 1,007.6 502.5 24.9 12.9 44.3 61.2 138.0 293.1 705.0 1,807.9 4,720.5 14,377.2

677.5 977.7 500.7 24.4 13.0 44.3 60.3 136.0 292.9 683.8 1,752.0 4,571.1 13,609.6

- - - Data not available. 1 Includes deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 2 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 3 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 4 In 1950, rate is for the age group under 5 years. 5 In 1950, rate is for the age group 75 years and over. 6 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and later years were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; Grove RD, Hetzel AM. Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940–1960. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968; numerator data from National Vital Statistics System, annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1985–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

Health, United States, 2006

201

Table 36 (page 1 of 3). Death rates for diseases of heart, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age All persons All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

586.8 355.5 3.5 1.3 2.1 6.8 19.4 86.4 308.6 808.1 1,839.8 4,310.1 9,150.6

559.0 369.0 6.6 1.3 1.3 4.0 15.6 74.6 271.8 737.9 1,740.5 4,089.4 9,317.8

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 492.7 412.1 321.8 257.6 362.0 336.0 289.5 252.6 13.1 1.7 0.8 3.0 11.4 66.7 238.4 652.3 1,558.2 3,683.8 7,891.3 22.8 2.6 0.9 2.9 8.3 44.6 180.2 494.1 1,218.6 2,993.1 7,777.1 20.1 1.9 0.9 2.5 7.6 31.4 120.5 367.3 894.3 2,295.7 6,739.9 13.0 1.2 0.7 2.6 7.4 29.2 94.2 261.2 665.6 1,780.3 5,926.1

232.3 235.6 11.0 1.2 0.6 2.7 8.2 30.7 92.5 233.2 585.0 1,611.1 5,278.4

217.0 222.2 10.3 1.2 0.6 2.5 7.9 29.3 90.2 218.8 541.6 1,506.3 4,895.9

Male All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

697.0 423.4 4.0 1.4 2.0 6.8 22.9 118.4 440.5 1,104.5 2,292.3 4,825.0 9,659.8

687.6 439.5 7.8 1.4 1.4 4.2 20.1 112.7 420.4 1,066.9 2,291.3 4,742.4 9,788.9

634.0 422.5 15.1 1.9 0.9 3.7 15.2 103.2 376.4 987.2 2,170.3 4,534.8 8,426.2

538.9 368.6 25.5 2.8 1.0 3.7 11.4 68.7 282.6 746.8 1,728.0 3,834.3 8,752.7

412.4 297.6 21.9 1.9 0.9 3.1 10.3 48.1 183.0 537.3 1,250.0 2,968.2 7,418.4

320.0 249.8 13.3 1.4 0.8 3.2 9.6 41.4 140.2 371.7 898.3 2,248.1 6,430.0

286.6 235.0 12.1 1.1 0.7 3.4 10.5 42.8 136.2 331.7 785.3 2,030.3 5,621.5

267.9 222.8 10.9 1.1 0.6 3.2 10.5 40.9 132.3 312.8 723.8 1,893.6 5,239.3

Female All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

484.7 288.4 2.9 1.2 2.2 6.7 16.2 55.1 177.2 510.0 1,419.3 3,872.0 8,796.1

447.0 300.6 5.4 1.1 1.2 3.7 11.3 38.2 127.5 429.4 1,261.3 3,582.7 9,016.8

381.6 304.5 10.9 1.6 0.8 2.3 7.7 32.2 109.9 351.6 1,082.7 3,120.8 7,591.8

320.8 305.1 20.0 2.5 0.9 2.1 5.3 21.4 84.5 272.1 828.6 2,497.0 7,350.5

257.0 281.8 18.3 1.9 0.8 1.8 5.0 15.1 61.0 215.7 616.8 1,893.8 6,478.1

210.9 255.3 12.5 1.0 0.5 2.1 5.2 17.2 49.8 159.3 474.0 1,475.1 5,720.9

190.3 236.2 9.8 1.3 0.5 2.1 5.7 18.6 50.2 141.9 417.5 1,331.1 5,126.7

177.3 221.6 9.7 1.2 0.6 1.7 5.2 17.7 49.6 131.5 388.6 1,245.6 4,741.5

White male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 All ages, crude . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

700.2 433.0 423.6 1,081.7 2,308.3 4,907.3 9,950.5

694.5 454.6 413.2 1,056.0 2,297.9 4,839.9 10,135.8

640.2 438.3 365.7 979.3 2,177.2 4,617.6 8,818.0

539.6 384.0 269.8 730.6 1,729.7 3,883.2 8,958.0

409.2 312.7 170.6 516.7 1,230.5 2,983.4 7,558.7

316.7 265.8 130.7 351.8 877.8 2,247.0 6,560.8

282.9 249.5 125.3 313.2 761.1 2,030.1 5,747.2

264.6 236.5 122.2 294.4 703.2 1,897.1 5,348.4

Black or African American male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years 6 . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

639.4 346.2 622.5 1,433.1 2,139.1 4,106.1 ---

615.2 330.6 514.0 1,236.8 2,281.4 3,533.6 6,037.9

607.3 330.3 512.8 1,135.4 2,237.8 3,783.4 5,367.6

561.4 301.0 433.4 987.2 1,847.2 3,578.8 6,819.5

485.4 256.8 328.9 824.0 1,632.9 3,107.1 6,479.6

392.5 211.1 247.2 631.2 1,268.8 2,597.6 5,633.5

364.3 206.0 248.1 580.9 1,195.5 2,426.6 4,850.3

342.1 196.7 240.0 560.2 1,096.6 2,235.5 4,637.3

202

Health, United States, 2006

Table 36 (page 2 of 3). Death rates for diseases of heart, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age American Indian or Alaska Native male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

---------------

---------------

Deaths per 100,000 resident population --320.5 264.1 222.2 --130.6 108.0 90.1 ----------238.1 496.3 1,009.4 2,062.2 4,413.7 173.8 411.0 839.1 1,788.8 3,860.3 108.5 285.0 748.2 1,655.7 3,318.3

203.2 98.5 116.7 293.5 655.6 1,309.9 3,266.5

182.7 91.4 94.1 260.7 590.0 1,252.1 2,812.6

Asian or Pacific Islander male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

286.9 119.8 112.0 306.7 852.4 2,010.9 5,923.0

220.7 88.7 70.4 226.1 623.5 1,642.2 4,617.8

185.5 90.6 61.1 182.6 482.5 1,354.7 4,154.2

158.3 86.3 62.7 152.9 398.3 1,145.1 3,524.6

146.5 81.4 56.6 138.9 347.7 1,047.0 3,416.7

Hispanic or Latino male 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

---------------

270.0 91.0 116.4 363.0 829.9 1,971.3 4,711.9

238.2 74.7 84.3 264.8 684.8 1,733.2 4,897.5

206.8 72.2 79.6 235.6 625.0 1,543.5 3,874.5

193.9 70.2 77.6 224.6 572.2 1,489.0 3,496.8

White, not Hispanic or Latino male 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

---------------

413.6 336.5 172.8 521.3 1,243.4 3,007.7 7,663.4

319.9 297.5 134.3 356.3 885.1 2,261.9 6,606.6

286.9 282.9 129.8 317.7 767.3 2,049.9 5,821.0

268.7 269.1 126.9 298.8 709.5 1,915.1 5,430.9

White female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

478.0 289.4 141.9 460.2 1,400.9 3,925.2 9,084.7

441.7 306.5 103.4 383.0 1,229.8 3,629.7 9,280.8

376.7 313.8 91.4 317.7 1,044.0 3,143.5 7,839.9

315.9 319.2 71.2 248.1 796.7 2,493.6 7,501.6

250.9 298.4 50.2 192.4 583.6 1,874.3 6,563.4

205.6 274.5 40.9 141.3 445.2 1,452.4 5,801.4

185.4 253.8 41.1 125.2 392.0 1,315.2 5,193.6

172.9 238.3 40.7 117.2 365.4 1,229.1 4,810.4

Black or African American female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

536.9 287.6 525.3 1,210.2 1,659.4 3,499.3 ---

488.9 268.5 360.7 952.3 1,680.5 2,926.9 5,650.0

435.6 261.0 290.9 710.5 1,553.2 2,964.1 5,003.8

378.6 249.7 202.4 530.1 1,210.3 2,707.2 5,796.5

327.5 237.0 155.3 442.0 1,017.5 2,250.9 5,766.1

277.6 212.6 125.0 332.8 815.2 1,913.1 5,298.7

253.8 200.0 124.1 304.7 712.0 1,699.6 4,976.5

236.5 188.3 121.2 276.0 656.5 1,622.9 4,534.7

Health, United States, 2006

203

Table 36 (page 3 of 3). Death rates for diseases of heart, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age American Indian or Alaska Native female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

---------------

---------------

Deaths per 100,000 resident population --175.4 153.1 143.6 --80.3 77.5 71.9 ----------65.2 193.5 577.2 1,364.3 2,893.3 62.0 197.0 492.8 1,050.3 2,868.7 40.2 149.4 391.8 1,044.1 3,146.3

127.5 75.9 45.4 153.4 390.3 950.3 2,284.1

119.9 73.6 49.5 116.9 317.4 894.1 2,449.1

Asian or Pacific Islander female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

132.3 57.0 28.6 92.9 313.3 1,053.2 3,211.0

149.2 62.0 17.5 99.0 323.9 1,130.9 4,161.2

115.7 65.0 15.9 68.8 229.6 866.2 3,367.2

104.2 68.2 14.8 60.3 207.2 769.7 3,020.0

96.1 65.1 13.7 50.7 205.6 697.4 2,817.1

Hispanic or Latino female 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

---------------

177.2 79.4 43.5 153.2 460.4 1,259.7 4,440.3

163.7 71.5 28.2 111.2 366.3 1,169.4 4,605.8

145.8 69.6 27.0 102.1 330.6 1,067.0 3,962.5

130.0 64.1 27.0 93.1 305.5 962.7 3,421.2

White, not Hispanic or Latino female 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

---------------

252.6 320.0 50.2 193.6 584.7 1,890.2 6,615.2

206.8 304.9 41.9 142.9 448.5 1,458.9 5,822.7

187.1 285.1 42.4 126.6 394.8 1,324.0 5,232.2

175.1 269.1 42.2 118.9 368.6 1,241.2 4,862.4

- - - Data not available. 1 Includes deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 2 Underlying cause of death was coded according to the Sixth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1950, Seventh Revision in 1960, Eighth Revision in 1970, and Ninth Revision in 1980–1998. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 3 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 4 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 5 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 6 In 1950, rate is for the age group 75 years and over. 7 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and later years were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. For the period 1980–1998, diseases of heart was coded using ICD–9 codes that are most nearly comparable with diseases of heart codes in the 113 cause list for ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; table V. Age groups were selected to minimize the presentation of unstable age-specific death rates based on small numbers of deaths and for consistency among comparison groups. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; numerator data from annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1985–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

204

Health, United States, 2006

Table 37 (page 1 of 3). Death rates for cerebrovascular diseases, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age All persons All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

180.7 104.0 5.1 0.9 0.5 1.6 4.2 18.7 70.4 194.2 554.7 1,499.6 2,990.1

177.9 108.0 4.1 0.8 0.7 1.8 4.7 14.7 49.2 147.3 469.2 1,491.3 3,680.5

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 147.7 96.2 65.3 60.9 101.9 75.0 57.8 59.6 5.0 1.0 0.7 1.6 4.5 15.6 41.6 115.8 384.1 1,254.2 3,014.3 4.4 0.5 0.3 1.0 2.6 8.5 25.2 65.1 219.0 786.9 2,283.7 3.8 0.3 0.2 0.6 2.2 6.4 18.7 47.9 144.2 498.0 1,628.9 3.3 0.3 0.2 0.5 1.5 5.8 16.0 41.0 128.6 461.3 1,589.2

53.5 54.2 2.5 0.3 0.2 0.5 1.5 5.5 15.0 35.6 112.9 410.7 1,370.1

50.0 51.1 3.1 0.3 0.2 0.5 1.4 5.4 14.9 34.3 107.8 386.2 1,245.9

Male All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

186.4 102.5 6.4 1.1 0.5 1.8 4.2 17.5 67.9 205.2 589.6 1,543.6 3,048.6

186.1 104.5 5.0 0.9 0.7 1.9 4.5 14.6 52.2 163.8 530.7 1,555.9 3,643.1

157.4 94.5 5.8 1.2 0.8 1.8 4.4 15.7 44.4 138.7 449.5 1,361.6 2,895.2

102.2 63.4 5.0 0.4 0.3 1.1 2.6 8.7 27.2 74.6 258.6 866.3 2,193.6

68.5 46.7 4.4 0.3 0.2 0.7 2.1 6.8 20.5 54.3 166.6 551.1 1,528.5

62.4 46.9 3.8 * 0.2 0.5 1.5 5.8 17.5 47.2 145.0 490.8 1,484.3

54.1 42.9 2.8 0.3 0.2 0.5 1.6 5.8 16.7 40.8 127.8 431.4 1,236.0

50.4 40.7 3.4 0.3 0.2 0.5 1.4 5.6 16.7 39.5 121.1 402.9 1,118.1

Female All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

175.8 105.6 3.7 0.7 0.4 1.5 4.3 19.9 72.9 183.1 522.1 1,462.2 2,949.4

170.7 111.4 3.2 0.7 0.6 1.6 4.9 14.8 46.3 131.8 415.7 1,441.1 3,704.4

140.0 109.0 4.0 0.7 0.6 1.4 4.7 15.6 39.0 95.3 333.3 1,183.1 3,081.0

91.7 85.9 3.8 0.5 0.3 0.8 2.6 8.4 23.3 56.8 188.7 740.1 2,323.1

62.6 68.4 3.1 0.3 0.2 0.6 2.2 6.1 17.0 42.2 126.7 466.2 1,667.6

59.1 71.8 2.7 0.4 0.2 0.5 1.5 5.7 14.5 35.3 115.1 442.1 1,632.0

52.3 65.1 2.2 0.3 0.1 0.5 1.4 5.3 13.4 30.9 100.5 396.8 1,429.4

48.9 61.2 2.8 * 0.2 0.5 1.4 5.1 13.1 29.5 96.6 374.9 1,303.4

White male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 All ages, crude . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

182.1 100.5 53.7 182.2 569.7 1,556.3 3,127.1

181.6 102.7 40.9 139.0 501.0 1,564.8 3,734.8

153.7 93.5 35.6 119.9 420.0 1,361.6 3,018.1

98.7 63.1 21.7 64.0 239.8 852.7 2,230.8

65.5 46.9 15.4 45.7 152.9 539.2 1,545.4

59.8 48.4 13.6 39.7 133.8 480.0 1,490.7

51.7 44.2 12.9 33.3 117.3 422.4 1,247.0

48.1 41.8 12.8 32.4 110.8 393.7 1,129.3

Black or African American male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years 6 . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

228.8 122.0 211.9 522.8 783.6 1,504.9 ---

238.5 122.9 166.1 439.9 899.2 1,475.2 2,700.0

206.4 108.8 136.1 343.4 780.1 1,445.7 1,963.1

142.0 73.0 82.1 189.7 472.3 1,066.3 1,873.2

102.2 53.0 68.4 141.7 326.9 721.5 1,421.5

89.6 46.1 49.5 115.4 268.5 659.2 1,458.8

79.5 43.2 46.9 112.1 237.4 588.9 1,180.3

74.9 41.5 44.8 107.4 235.2 551.0 1,061.0

Health, United States, 2006

205

Table 37 (page 2 of 3). Death rates for cerebrovascular diseases, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age American Indian or Alaska Native male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

---------------

---------------

Deaths per 100,000 resident population --66.4 44.3 46.1 --23.1 16.0 16.8 ----------* 72.0 170.5 523.9 1,384.7 * 39.8 120.3 325.9 949.8 13.3 48.6 144.7 373.3 834.9

34.9 15.6 15.5 30.7 101.4 280.7 596.9

35.0 15.6 14.0 29.9 109.4 312.0 559.5

Asian or Pacific Islander male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

71.4 28.7 17.0 59.9 197.9 619.5 1,399.0

59.1 23.3 15.6 51.8 167.9 483.9 1,196.6

58.0 27.2 15.0 49.3 135.6 438.7 1,415.6

48.5 26.0 14.7 42.2 128.3 355.7 1,093.0

44.2 24.3 19.2 36.8 102.6 350.8 969.0

Hispanic or Latino male 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

---------------

46.5 15.6 20.0 49.2 126.4 356.6 866.3

50.5 15.8 18.1 48.8 136.1 392.9 1,029.9

43.0 14.9 18.1 43.5 113.9 337.1 837.4

41.5 15.0 17.5 42.9 114.4 323.3 778.9

White, not Hispanic or Latino male 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

---------------

66.3 50.6 14.9 45.1 154.5 547.3 1,578.7

59.9 53.9 13.0 38.7 133.1 482.3 1,505.9

51.9 49.7 12.1 32.1 116.9 426.0 1,264.2

48.2 47.0 12.1 31.1 110.0 396.9 1,145.3

White female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

169.7 103.3 55.0 156.9 498.1 1,471.3 3,017.9

165.0 110.1 33.8 103.0 383.3 1,444.7 3,795.7

135.5 109.8 30.5 78.1 303.2 1,176.8 3,167.6

89.0 88.6 18.6 48.6 172.5 728.8 2,362.7

60.3 71.6 13.5 35.8 116.1 456.5 1,685.9

57.3 76.9 11.2 30.2 107.3 434.2 1,646.7

50.5 69.5 10.0 25.8 92.1 389.9 1,442.1

47.2 65.3 10.1 25.1 89.0 366.8 1,315.7

Black or African American female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

238.4 128.3 248.9 567.7 754.4 1,496.7 ---

232.5 127.7 166.2 452.0 830.5 1,413.1 2,578.9

189.3 112.2 119.4 272.4 673.5 1,338.3 2,210.5

119.6 77.8 61.8 138.4 361.7 917.5 1,891.6

84.0 60.7 44.1 96.9 236.7 595.0 1,495.2

76.2 58.3 38.1 76.4 190.9 549.2 1,556.5

69.8 54.8 36.0 71.8 175.3 498.3 1,414.2

65.5 51.9 33.9 65.0 166.8 489.5 1,270.7

206

Health, United States, 2006

Table 37 (page 3 of 3). Death rates for cerebrovascular diseases, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age American Indian or Alaska Native female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

---------------

---------------

Deaths per 100,000 resident population --51.2 38.4 43.7 --22.0 19.3 21.5 ----------* * 128.3 404.2 1,095.5 * 40.7 100.5 282.0 776.2 14.4 37.9 79.5 391.1 931.5

34.2 19.9 14.6 26.0 94.8 304.7 569.1

35.1 21.3 10.8 24.5 110.9 258.8 710.1

Asian or Pacific Islander female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

60.8 26.4 20.3 43.7 136.1 446.6 1,545.2

54.9 24.3 19.7 42.1 124.0 396.6 1,395.0

49.1 28.7 13.3 33.3 102.8 386.0 1,246.6

42.6 28.8 12.6 30.8 95.6 330.2 1,042.4

38.9 27.0 10.5 28.1 78.1 312.5 979.9

Hispanic or Latino female 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

---------------

43.7 20.1 15.2 38.5 102.6 308.5 1,055.3

43.0 19.4 12.4 31.9 95.2 311.3 1,108.9

38.1 18.6 11.7 27.8 86.0 302.8 902.3

35.4 17.9 11.8 27.7 83.0 272.2 830.4

White, not Hispanic or Latino female 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

---------------

61.0 77.2 13.2 35.7 116.9 461.9 1,714.7

57.6 85.5 10.9 29.9 107.6 438.3 1,661.6

50.8 78.2 9.7 25.5 92.1 393.6 1,461.3

47.7 73.7 9.8 24.7 89.0 371.6 1,335.1

- - - Data not available. * Rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable and are not shown. 1 Includes deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 2 Underlying cause of death was coded according to the Sixth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1950, Seventh Revision in 1960, Eighth Revision in 1970, and Ninth Revision in 1980–1998. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 3 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 4 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 5 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 6 In 1950, rate is for the age group 75 years and over. 7 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and later years were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. For the period 1980–1998, cerebrovascular diseases was coded using ICD–9 codes that are most nearly comparable with cerebrovascular diseases codes in the 113 cause list for ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; table V. Age groups were selected to minimize the presentation of unstable age-specific death rates based on small numbers of deaths and for consistency among comparison groups. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; Grove RD, Hetzel AM. Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940–1960. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1968; numerator data from National Vital Statistics System, annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1985–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

Health, United States, 2006

207

Table 38 (page 1 of 4). Death rates for malignant neoplasms, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age All persons All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

193.9 139.8 8.7 11.7 6.7 8.6 20.0 62.7 175.1 390.7 698.8 1,153.3 1,451.0

193.9 149.2 7.2 10.9 6.8 8.3 19.5 59.7 177.0 396.8 713.9 1,127.4 1,450.0

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 198.6 207.9 216.0 199.6 162.8 183.9 203.2 196.5 4.7 7.5 6.0 8.3 16.5 59.5 182.5 423.0 754.2 1,169.2 1,320.7 3.2 4.5 4.3 6.3 13.7 48.6 180.0 436.1 817.9 1,232.3 1,594.6 2.3 3.5 3.1 4.9 12.6 43.3 158.9 449.6 872.3 1,348.5 1,752.9 2.4 2.7 2.5 4.4 9.8 36.6 127.5 366.7 816.3 1,335.6 1,819.4

190.1 191.5 1.9 2.5 2.6 4.0 9.4 35.0 122.2 343.0 770.3 1,302.5 1,698.2

185.8 188.6 1.8 2.5 2.5 4.1 9.1 33.4 119.0 333.4 755.1 1,280.4 1,653.3

Male All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

208.1 142.9 9.7 12.5 7.4 9.7 17.7 45.6 156.2 413.1 791.5 1,332.6 1,668.3

225.1 162.5 7.7 12.4 7.6 10.2 18.8 48.9 170.8 459.9 890.5 1,389.4 1,741.2

247.6 182.1 4.4 8.3 6.7 10.4 16.3 53.0 183.5 511.8 1,006.8 1,588.3 1,720.8

271.2 205.3 3.7 5.2 4.9 7.8 13.4 44.0 188.7 520.8 1,093.2 1,790.5 2,369.5

280.4 221.3 2.4 3.7 3.5 5.7 12.6 38.5 162.5 532.9 1,122.2 1,914.4 2,739.9

248.9 207.2 2.6 3.0 2.7 5.1 9.2 32.7 130.9 415.8 1,001.9 1,760.6 2,710.7

233.3 201.3 1.7 2.8 2.8 4.6 8.9 30.8 127.4 386.8 931.7 1,695.4 2,413.8

227.7 198.4 1.8 2.6 2.7 4.8 8.6 29.1 124.3 376.7 907.6 1,662.1 2,349.5

Female All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

182.3 136.8 7.6 10.8 6.0 7.6 22.2 79.3 194.0 368.2 612.3 1,000.7 1,299.7

168.7 136.4 6.8 9.3 6.0 6.5 20.1 70.0 183.0 337.7 560.2 924.1 1,263.9

163.2 144.4 5.0 6.7 5.2 6.2 16.7 65.6 181.5 343.2 557.9 891.9 1,096.7

166.7 163.6 2.7 3.7 3.6 4.8 14.0 53.1 171.8 361.7 607.1 903.1 1,255.7

175.7 186.0 2.2 3.2 2.8 4.1 12.6 48.1 155.5 375.2 677.4 1,010.3 1,372.1

167.6 186.2 2.3 2.5 2.2 3.6 10.4 40.4 124.2 321.3 663.6 1,058.5 1,456.4

160.9 182.0 2.1 2.1 2.4 3.4 9.9 39.1 117.1 302.3 635.3 1,040.1 1,381.9

157.4 179.1 1.9 2.4 2.2 3.4 9.6 37.7 113.8 293.2 627.1 1,023.5 1,340.1

White male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 All ages, crude . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

210.0 147.2 17.7 44.5 150.8 409.4 798.7 1,367.6 1,732.7

224.7 166.1 18.8 46.3 164.1 450.9 887.3 1,413.7 1,791.4

244.8 185.1 16.2 50.1 172.0 498.1 997.0 1,592.7 1,772.2

265.1 208.7 13.6 41.1 175.4 497.4 1,070.7 1,779.7 2,375.6

272.2 227.7 12.3 35.8 149.9 508.2 1,090.7 1,883.2 2,715.1

243.9 218.1 9.2 30.9 123.5 401.9 984.3 1,736.0 2,693.7

230.1 213.1 8.9 29.9 119.9 375.6 922.7 1,683.6 2,412.1

224.4 209.9 8.6 28.2 117.5 364.9 896.3 1,652.7 2,348.9

Black or African American male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years 6 . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

178.9 106.6 18.0 55.7 211.7 490.8 636.5 853.5 ---

227.6 136.7 18.4 72.9 244.7 579.7 938.5 1,053.3 1,155.2

291.9 171.6 18.8 81.3 311.2 689.2 1,168.9 1,624.8 1,387.0

353.4 205.5 14.1 73.8 333.0 812.5 1,417.2 2,029.6 2,393.9

397.9 221.9 15.7 64.3 302.6 859.2 1,613.9 2,478.3 3,238.3

340.3 188.5 10.1 48.4 214.2 626.4 1,363.8 2,351.8 3,264.8

308.8 178.3 10.3 41.7 207.0 583.8 1,221.5 2,144.2 2,825.5

301.2 176.2 10.0 38.4 197.0 569.2 1,209.7 2,087.2 2,748.8

208

Health, United States, 2006

Table 38 (page 2 of 4). Death rates for malignant neoplasms, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age American Indian or Alaska Native male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

-------------------

-------------------

Deaths per 100,000 resident population --140.5 145.8 155.8 --58.1 61.4 67.0 --------------* * 86.9 213.4 613.0 936.4 1,471.2 * 22.8 86.9 246.2 530.6 1,038.4 1,654.4 * 21.4 70.3 255.6 648.0 1,152.5 1,584.2

139.9 70.3 * 19.0 81.9 222.7 565.4 995.2 1,459.1

147.1 78.9 * 18.1 86.3 268.6 642.0 1,060.0 1,134.1

Asian or Pacific Islander male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------------

-------------------

-------------------

165.2 81.9 6.3 29.4 108.2 298.5 581.2 1,147.6 1,798.7

172.5 82.7 9.2 27.7 92.6 274.6 687.2 1,229.9 1,837.0

150.8 85.2 7.4 26.1 78.5 229.2 559.4 1,086.1 1,823.2

137.2 84.2 7.6 21.7 77.0 196.1 498.1 1,056.9 1,545.6

136.3 85.9 5.9 23.6 77.2 198.7 496.8 1,021.6 1,552.4

Hispanic or Latino male 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------------

-------------------

-------------------

-------------------

174.7 65.5 8.0 22.5 96.6 294.0 655.5 1,233.4 2,019.4

171.7 61.3 6.9 20.1 79.4 253.1 651.2 1,306.4 2,049.7

156.5 61.5 6.8 18.2 81.1 246.5 617.6 1,163.9 1,668.6

151.2 60.9 6.4 18.6 77.4 239.0 585.8 1,174.2 1,508.8

White, not Hispanic or Latino male 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------------

-------------------

-------------------

-------------------

276.7 246.2 12.8 36.8 153.9 520.6 1,109.0 1,906.6 2,744.4

247.7 244.4 9.7 32.3 127.2 412.0 1,002.1 1,750.2 2,714.1

234.6 241.8 9.4 31.9 123.8 384.8 942.0 1,707.8 2,441.7

229.2 239.2 9.3 29.9 121.9 374.6 917.5 1,677.3 2,387.1

White female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . All ages, crude . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

182.0 139.9 20.9 74.5 185.8 362.5 616.5 1,026.6 1,348.3

167.7 139.8 18.8 66.6 175.7 329.0 562.1 939.3 1,304.9

162.5 149.4 16.3 62.4 177.3 338.6 554.7 903.5 1,126.6

165.2 170.3 13.5 50.9 166.4 355.5 605.2 905.4 1,266.8

174.0 196.1 11.9 46.2 150.9 368.5 675.1 1,011.8 1,372.3

166.9 199.4 10.1 38.2 120.1 319.7 665.6 1,063.4 1,459.1

160.2 194.6 9.4 37.3 112.1 299.8 638.9 1,046.3 1,386.5

157.0 191.7 9.0 35.8 109.2 290.8 630.8 1,033.1 1,348.9

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

209

Table 38 (page 3 of 4). Death rates for malignant neoplasms, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Black or African American female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years 6 . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

174.1 111.8 34.3 119.8 277.0 484.6 477.3 605.3 ---

174.3 113.8 31.0 102.4 254.8 442.7 541.6 696.3 728.9

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 173.4 189.5 205.9 193.8 117.3 136.5 156.1 151.8 20.9 94.6 228.6 404.8 615.8 763.3 791.5 18.3 73.5 230.2 450.4 662.4 923.9 1,159.9 18.7 67.4 209.9 482.4 773.2 1,059.9 1,431.3 13.5 58.9 173.9 391.0 753.1 1,124.0 1,527.7

187.7 151.4 13.9 55.4 167.2 380.4 714.6 1,116.9 1,475.3

182.5 148.9 13.9 54.2 160.9 369.4 706.2 1,083.6 1,387.7

American Indian or Alaska Native female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------------

-------------------

-------------------

94.0 50.4 * 36.9 96.9 198.4 350.8 446.4 786.5

106.9 62.1 * 31.0 104.5 213.3 438.9 554.3 843.7

108.3 61.3 * 23.7 59.7 200.9 458.3 714.0 983.2

105.6 68.2 * 24.3 75.7 195.8 411.2 784.4 686.0

108.6 73.0 * 27.4 72.0 211.8 480.7 707.3 724.6

Asian or Pacific Islander female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------------

-------------------

-------------------

93.0 54.1 9.5 38.7 99.8 174.7 301.9 522.1 800.0

103.0 60.5 7.3 29.8 93.9 196.2 346.2 641.4 971.7

100.7 72.1 8.1 28.9 78.2 176.5 357.4 650.1 988.5

96.7 75.6 7.2 25.8 77.6 166.7 361.5 616.9 907.9

92.0 73.8 6.6 24.2 77.0 159.1 344.2 578.4 872.9

Hispanic or Latino female 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------------

-------------------

-------------------

-------------------

111.9 60.7 9.7 34.8 100.5 205.4 404.8 663.0 1,022.7

110.8 58.5 7.8 30.7 84.7 192.5 410.0 716.5 1,056.5

105.9 59.1 7.4 28.0 80.2 185.9 379.7 702.1 1,014.8

101.4 57.7 7.5 25.4 73.5 183.0 380.7 663.6 937.0

See footnotes at end of table.

210

Health, United States, 2006

Table 38 (page 4 of 4). Death rates for malignant neoplasms, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age White, not Hispanic or Latino female 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

-------------------

-------------------

Deaths per 100,000 resident population ----177.5 170.0 ----210.6 220.6 ----------------------------11.9 47.0 154.9 379.5 688.5 1,027.2 1,385.7 10.5 38.9 123.0 328.9 681.0 1,075.3 1,468.7

163.8 217.6 9.8 38.6 115.1 308.9 657.6 1,062.4 1,399.1

160.9 215.3 9.3 37.5 112.9 299.8 649.8 1,052.0 1,364.5

- - - Data not available. * Rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable and are not shown. 1 Includes deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 2 Underlying cause of death was coded according to the Sixth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1950, Seventh Revision in 1960, Eighth Revision in 1970, and Ninth Revision in 1980–1998. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 3 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 4 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 5 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 6 In 1950, rate is for the age group 75 years and over. 7 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and later years were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. Age groups were selected to minimize the presentation of unstable age-specific death rates based on small numbers of deaths and for consistency among comparison groups. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; Grove RD, Hetzel AM. Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940–1960. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1968; numerator data from National Vital Statistics System, annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1985–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

Health, United States, 2006

211

Table 39 (page 1 of 3). Death rates for malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lung, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age All persons All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 25 years . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

15.0 12.2 0.1 0.8 4.5 20.4 48.7 59.7 55.8 42.3 24.6 19.9 0.0 1.1 7.1 35.0 83.8 98.7 82.6 62.5 5.8 4.5 0.1 0.5 1.9 5.8 13.6 23.3 32.9 28.2 25.1 20.8 35.1 85.4 101.5 85.5 67.4

24.1 20.3 0.0 1.0 6.8 29.6 75.3 108.1 91.5 65.6 43.6 35.4 0.0 1.4 10.5 50.6 139.3 204.3 167.1 107.7 7.5 6.4 0.0 0.5 3.2 9.2 15.4 24.4 32.8 38.8 43.6 36.4 49.2 139.2 207.5 170.4 109.4

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 37.1 49.9 59.3 56.1 32.1 45.8 56.8 55.3 0.1 0.9 11.0 43.4 109.1 164.5 163.2 101.7 67.5 53.4 0.1 1.3 16.1 67.5 189.7 320.8 330.8 194.0 13.1 11.9 0.0 0.5 6.1 21.0 36.8 43.1 52.4 50.0 67.1 54.6 63.3 186.8 325.0 336.7 199.6 0.0 0.6 9.2 54.1 138.2 233.3 240.5 176.0 85.2 68.6 0.1 0.8 11.9 76.0 213.6 403.9 488.8 368.1 24.4 24.3 * 0.5 6.5 33.7 72.0 102.7 94.1 91.9 83.8 70.2 70.9 205.6 401.0 493.5 374.1 0.0 0.7 6.8 46.8 160.6 288.4 333.3 242.5 91.1 75.1 0.0 0.9 8.5 59.7 222.9 430.4 572.9 513.2 37.1 39.4 * 0.5 5.2 34.5 105.0 177.6 190.1 138.1 89.0 77.8 55.2 213.7 422.1 572.2 516.3 0.0 0.5 6.1 31.6 122.4 284.2 370.8 302.1 76.7 65.5 * 0.5 6.9 38.5 154.0 377.9 532.2 521.2 41.3 45.4 * 0.5 5.3 25.0 93.3 206.9 265.6 212.8 75.7 69.4 35.7 150.8 374.9 529.9 522.4

54.1 54.4 0.0 0.4 5.6 30.3 111.0 269.3 377.8 298.9 71.7 62.9 * 0.4 6.1 36.5 136.7 346.6 525.1 475.1 41.3 46.1 * 0.4 5.1 24.4 87.1 204.8 279.4 221.0 71.1 66.9 34.1 133.1 347.1 524.6 478.5

53.2 53.8 0.0 0.4 5.5 29.9 106.9 265.5 373.6 297.5 70.1 62.0 * 0.4 5.8 35.8 131.7 337.6 517.3 466.8 40.9 45.9 * 0.3 5.2 24.2 83.9 205.0 277.0 221.3 69.4 65.9 33.3 127.6 338.1 517.5 472.2

Male All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 25 years . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Female All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 25 years . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

White male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Black or African American male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years 6 . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

17.8 12.1 34.4 68.3 53.8 36.2 ---

42.6 28.1 68.4 146.8 168.3 107.3 82.8

75.4 47.7 115.4 234.3 300.5 271.6 137.0

107.6 66.6 133.8 321.1 472.3 472.9 311.3

125.4 73.7 114.9 358.6 585.4 645.4 499.5

101.1 58.3 70.7 223.5 488.8 642.5 562.8

92.4 54.9 63.6 210.0 427.1 622.2 502.5

90.0 54.3 62.5 206.9 410.4 611.1 481.8

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

31.7 14.2 * 72.0 202.8 * *

47.5 20.0 26.6 97.8 194.3 356.2 *

42.9 18.1 14.5 86.0 184.8 367.9 *

37.6 19.4 17.1 79.2 186.0 284.9 *

44.1 23.7 19.8 88.1 236.7 320.0 *

212

Health, United States, 2006

Table 39 (page 2 of 3). Death rates for malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lung, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Asian or Pacific Islander male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

-----------------------------

-----------------------------

Deaths per 100,000 resident population --43.3 44.2 40.9 --22.1 20.7 22.7 ------------------------33.3 94.4 174.3 301.3 * --------------18.8 74.4 215.8 307.5 421.3 44.1 16.2 21.5 80.7 195.5 313.4 420.7 17.2 61.4 183.2 323.2 378.0 39.0 13.3 14.8 58.6 167.3 327.5 368.8

37.9 22.7 17.5 50.4 157.5 333.3 328.4 34.5 12.8 12.6 55.4 161.8 277.3 290.9

37.1 23.1 17.3 51.1 166.2 313.1 289.2 33.4 12.7 12.6 50.0 151.7 279.7 287.2

Hispanic or Latino male 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

White, not Hispanic or Latino male 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

--------------5.9 4.7 5.7 13.7 23.7 34.0 29.3

--------------6.8 5.9 9.0 15.1 24.8 32.7 39.1

--------------13.1 12.3 20.9 37.2 42.9 52.6 50.6

--------------24.5 25.6 33.0 71.9 104.6 95.2 92.4

91.1 84.7 57.8 221.0 431.4 580.4 520.9 37.6 42.4 34.6 105.7 181.3 194.6 138.3

77.9 78.9 37.7 157.7 387.3 537.7 527.3 42.3 49.9 24.8 96.1 213.2 272.7 215.9

73.6 77.3 36.5 139.4 359.6 537.0 486.8 42.3 50.7 23.8 89.8 212.2 286.6 224.4

72.1 76.5 35.8 134.2 351.4 530.6 480.3 41.9 50.4 24.1 86.1 212.5 283.8 225.3

White female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Black or African American female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years 6 . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.5 2.8 7.5 12.9 14.0 * ---

6.8 4.3 11.3 17.9 18.1 31.3 34.2

13.7 9.4 23.9 33.5 46.1 49.1 44.8

24.8 18.3 43.4 79.9 88.0 79.4 85.8

36.8 28.1 41.3 117.9 164.3 148.1 134.9

39.8 30.8 32.9 95.3 194.1 224.3 185.9

40.2 32.0 33.4 91.0 190.0 248.0 194.8

39.9 32.1 30.7 89.0 186.2 256.3 196.5

American Indian or Alaska Native female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

11.7 6.0 * * * * *

19.3 11.2 22.9 53.7 78.5 111.8 *

24.8 14.0 12.1 52.6 151.5 136.3 *

26.4 16.4 15.1 42.5 147.8 190.1 *

29.7 19.3 13.2 54.8 186.4 181.1 144.9

Health, United States, 2006

213

Table 39 (page 3 of 3). Death rates for malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lung, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Asian or Pacific Islander female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

-----------------------------

-----------------------------

Deaths per 100,000 resident population --15.4 18.9 18.4 --8.4 10.5 12.6 ------------------------13.5 24.6 62.4 117.7 * --------------11.3 38.3 71.6 137.9 172.9 14.1 7.2 8.7 25.1 66.8 94.3 118.2 9.9 30.4 77.0 135.0 175.3 14.7 7.2 7.1 22.2 66.0 112.3 137.5

18.7 14.1 11.4 28.0 76.3 142.6 180.6 14.8 7.8 7.9 22.4 61.2 119.6 137.5

18.0 14.1 11.1 29.2 84.7 130.1 145.7 14.3 7.6 6.2 22.1 63.1 108.9 144.8

Hispanic or Latino female 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

White, not Hispanic or Latino female 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

---------------

---------------

---------------

39.0 46.2 36.6 111.3 186.4 199.1 139.0

44.1 56.4 26.4 102.2 222.9 279.2 218.0

44.3 58.1 25.6 95.7 223.9 295.1 227.4

44.1 58.1 26.2 92.0 224.6 293.5 228.4

0.0 Quantity more than zero but less than 0.05. * Rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable and are not shown. - - - Data not available. 1 Includes deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 2 Underlying cause of death was coded according to the Sixth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1950, Seventh Revision in 1960, Eighth Revision in 1970, and Ninth Revision in 1980–1998. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 3 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 4 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 5 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 6 In 1950, rate is for the age group 75 years and over. 7 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and later years were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. For the period 1980–1998, lung cancer was coded using ICD–9 codes that are most comparable with lung cancer codes in the 113 cause list for ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; table V. Age groups were selected to minimize the presentation of unstable age-specific death rates based on small numbers of deaths and for consistency among comparison groups. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; Grove RD, Hetzel AM. Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940–1960. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1968; numerator data from National Vital Statistics System, annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1985–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

214

Health, United States, 2006

Table 40 (page 1 of 2). Death rates for malignant neoplasm of breast among females, by race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Race, Hispanic origin, and age All females All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 25 years . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31.9 24.7 * 3.8 20.8 46.9 69.9 95.0 139.8 195.5

31.7 26.1 * 3.8 20.2 51.4 70.8 90.0 129.9 191.9

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 32.1 31.9 33.3 26.8 28.4 30.6 34.0 29.2 * 3.9 20.4 52.6 77.6 93.8 127.4 157.1 * 3.3 17.9 48.1 80.5 101.1 126.4 169.3 * 2.9 17.8 45.4 78.6 111.7 146.3 196.8 * 2.3 12.4 33.0 59.3 88.3 128.9 205.7

25.3 28.2 * 2.1 12.2 30.4 56.6 82.6 123.7 189.4

24.4 27.5 * 2.0 11.3 29.3 55.8 81.6 119.5 178.6

White 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32.4 25.7 20.8 47.1 70.9 96.3 143.6 204.2

32.0 27.2 19.7 51.2 71.8 91.6 132.8 199.7

32.5 29.9 20.2 53.0 79.3 95.9 129.6 161.9

32.1 32.3 17.3 48.1 81.3 103.7 128.4 171.7

33.2 35.9 17.1 44.3 78.5 113.3 148.2 198.0

26.3 30.7 11.3 31.2 57.9 89.3 130.2 205.5

24.7 29.3 11.1 28.4 54.9 82.6 124.6 189.4

23.9 28.6 10.1 27.0 54.3 82.2 121.3 179.7

Black or African American 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years 6 . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.3 16.4 21.0 46.5 64.3 67.0 81.0 ---

27.9 18.7 24.8 54.4 63.2 72.3 87.5 92.1

28.9 19.7 24.4 52.0 64.7 77.3 101.8 112.1

31.7 22.9 24.1 52.7 79.9 84.3 114.1 149.9

38.1 29.0 25.8 60.5 93.1 112.2 140.5 201.5

34.5 27.9 20.9 51.5 80.9 98.6 139.8 238.7

34.0 28.5 20.8 48.9 81.1 100.1 141.0 222.4

32.2 27.5 20.5 48.0 78.2 95.1 127.4 196.9

American Indian or Alaska Native 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

10.8 6.1 * * * * * *

13.7 8.6 * 23.9 * * * *

13.6 8.7 * 14.4 40.0 42.5 71.8 *

14.0 9.4 * 14.1 31.2 38.5 96.5 *

14.8 10.7 * 20.6 31.9 43.1 83.4 *

Asian or Pacific Islander 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . All ages, crude . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

11.9 8.2 10.4 23.4 35.7 * * *

13.7 9.3 8.4 26.4 33.8 38.5 48.0 *

12.3 10.2 8.1 22.3 31.3 34.7 37.5 68.2

12.6 11.0 7.6 20.1 33.8 40.7 41.4 64.7

12.7 11.2 7.4 21.4 32.7 38.4 41.8 74.4

Hispanic or Latino 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

19.5 11.5 11.7 32.8 45.8 64.8 67.2 102.8

16.9 9.7 8.7 23.9 39.1 54.9 74.9 105.8

16.1 9.8 9.1 21.0 38.8 48.4 70.8 114.8

15.6 9.6 7.7 19.5 38.2 52.1 69.1 108.8

Health, United States, 2006

215

Table 40 (page 2 of 2). Death rates for malignant neoplasm of breast among females, by race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Race, Hispanic origin, and age White, not Hispanic or Latino 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Deaths per 100,000 resident population ----------------------------------------------------------------33.9 38.5 17.5 45.2 80.6 115.7 151.4 201.5 26.8 33.8 11.6 31.7 59.2 91.4 132.2 208.3 25.2 32.6 11.3 29.1 56.0 85.1 127.1 192.3 24.5 32.0 10.4 27.7 55.6 84.4 124.2 182.4

* Rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable and are not shown. 0.0 Quantity more than zero but less than 0.05. - - - Data not available. 1 Includes deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 2 Underlying cause of death was coded according to the Sixth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1950, Seventh Revision in 1960, Eighth Revision in 1970, and Ninth Revision in 1980–1998. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 3 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 4 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 5 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 6 In 1950, rate is for the age group 75 years and over. 7 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and 2002 were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. Age groups were selected to minimize the presentation of unstable age-specific death rates based on small numbers of deaths and for consistency among comparison groups. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; numerator data from annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1985–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

216

Health, United States, 2006

Table 41 (page 1 of 3). Death rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1980–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1980 1 1990 1995 2000 2 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age All persons All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28.3 24.7 1.6 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.5 1.6 9.8 42.7 129.1 224.4 274.0

37.2 34.9 1.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.6 9.1 48.9 152.5 321.1 433.3

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 40.1 44.2 43.5 38.6 43.4 43.3 1.1 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.9 1.9 8.7 46.8 159.6 349.3 520.1 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.7 2.1 8.6 44.2 169.4 386.1 648.6 1.0 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.8 2.2 8.7 42.4 163.0 386.7 637.6

43.3 43.5 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.7 2.1 8.7 43.3 163.2 383.0 635.1

41.1 41.5 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 2.0 8.4 40.4 153.8 366.7 601.7

Male All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49.9 35.1 1.9 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.6 1.7 12.1 59.9 210.0 437.4 583.4

55.5 40.8 1.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.7 1.7 9.4 58.6 204.0 500.0 815.1

54.8 41.4 1.4 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.7 8.8 52.3 195.6 483.8 889.8

55.8 43.5 1.2 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.9 9.0 47.8 195.2 488.5 967.9

53.5 42.9 1.1 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.8 2.2 9.1 45.2 184.8 480.8 894.8

52.3 42.4 1.1 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.8 1.9 9.1 46.5 183.6 464.9 865.9

49.5 40.6 1.2 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.7 2.0 8.8 43.1 172.1 445.6 811.1

Female All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14.9 15.0 1.3 * 0.3 0.3 0.5 1.5 7.7 27.6 67.1 98.7 138.7

26.6 29.2 1.2 * 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.5 8.8 40.3 112.3 214.2 286.0

31.8 36.0 * * 0.2 0.6 0.9 2.2 8.7 41.9 130.8 265.3 377.7

37.4 43.2 * 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.7 2.2 8.3 41.0 148.2 319.2 518.5

37.4 43.7 * 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.7 2.3 8.2 39.8 144.9 324.1 526.0

37.8 44.4 * * 0.2 0.4 0.6 2.3 8.2 40.3 146.0 328.3 533.0

36.0 42.5 * * 0.2 0.3 0.5 2.1 8.1 38.0 138.4 313.6 507.4

White male 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 All ages, crude . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

51.6 37.9 1.2 11.4 60.0 218.4 459.8 611.2

56.6 44.3 1.3 8.6 58.7 208.1 513.5 847.0

55.9 45.5 1.4 8.1 52.7 200.0 497.9 918.3

57.2 48.3 1.6 8.4 48.6 201.4 503.6 997.4

54.9 47.8 1.8 8.8 46.0 192.3 495.2 923.4

53.8 47.4 1.7 8.9 47.6 191.6 478.5 894.4

51.1 45.5 1.7 8.5 43.8 180.6 462.4 837.7

Black or African American male 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

34.0 19.3 5.8 19.7 66.6 142.0 229.8 271.6

47.6 25.2 5.3 18.8 67.4 184.5 390.9 498.0

47.4 24.4 4.3 16.9 60.5 178.7 370.0 624.1

47.5 24.3 4.8 15.0 54.6 176.9 370.3 693.1

46.3 24.1 5.7 14.4 52.3 158.0 392.2 645.4

44.4 23.3 4.0 13.3 50.5 155.1 382.2 601.6

40.9 22.0 4.0 13.9 50.1 140.4 336.3 566.3

Health, United States, 2006

217

Table 41 (page 2 of 3). Death rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1980–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1980 1 1990 1995 2000 2 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age American Indian or Alaska Native male 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23.0 8.4 * * * * * *

38.3 13.8 * * * 135.7 363.8 *

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 35.6 43.7 35.9 12.3 15.3 14.3 * * 36.5 132.1 307.3 * * * 46.4 111.3 416.6 770.7 * * 34.5 126.1 348.9 500.3

40.3 17.3 * * 43.8 125.9 387.0 563.8

32.2 14.9 * * 40.5 121.9 300.0 362.9

Asian or Pacific Islander male 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.5 8.7 * * * 70.6 155.7 472.4

29.8 11.3 * * 22.1 91.4 258.6 615.2

28.9 11.8 * * 15.7 87.9 240.6 650.4

28.3 12.6 * 4.8 8.8 71.3 254.3 670.7

25.0 12.0 * 2.6 11.5 58.5 235.9 582.5

25.2 12.5 * * 12.7 58.4 234.9 590.7

22.6 11.2 * * 9.6 46.8 199.8 596.1

Hispanic or Latino male 4,5 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

28.6 8.4 * 4.1 17.2 81.0 252.4 613.9

31.8 8.9 1.1 3.9 19.1 82.4 292.0 689.0

28.8 8.0 0.9 3.4 18.2 72.4 250.3 671.1

27.2 8.1 1.0 3.8 17.5 69.2 243.3 602.4

27.1 8.2 1.0 3.2 16.6 68.1 231.2 646.5

23.8 7.6 1.4 2.8 13.7 68.4 206.4 518.4

White, not Hispanic or Latino male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

57.9 48.5 1.4 9.0 61.3 213.4 523.7 860.6

56.6 50.2 1.4 8.4 54.6 204.3 501.7 922.6

58.5 55.1 1.7 8.9 50.8 208.8 513.6 1,008.6

56.5 55.1 2.0 9.3 48.3 200.4 506.7 935.4

55.4 54.9 1.8 9.5 50.0 200.2 491.0 903.6

52.8 53.0 1.8 9.2 46.3 188.5 476.6 852.5

White female 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . All ages, crude . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

15.5 16.4 1.3 7.6 28.7 71.0 104.0 144.2

27.8 32.8 1.2 8.3 41.9 118.8 226.3 298.4

33.3 40.8 1.7 8.4 44.0 139.0 279.5 395.5

39.5 49.7 1.8 7.9 43.2 159.6 339.1 544.8

39.7 50.5 2.0 8.1 42.4 157.0 345.4 554.5

40.3 51.5 2.1 8.1 42.9 158.6 352.0 562.8

38.4 49.3 1.9 7.9 40.8 151.1 335.5 536.5

Black or African American female 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65–74 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75–84 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

9.1 6.8 3.4 9.3 20.8 32.7 41.1 63.2

16.6 12.6 3.8 14.0 33.4 64.7 96.0 133.0

20.2 15.5 5.4 12.8 34.7 78.7 132.7 185.8

22.7 17.6 4.7 13.4 35.3 82.9 158.4 255.0

22.6 17.7 4.6 11.6 31.5 82.0 167.4 262.0

22.0 17.3 4.6 11.9 32.4 83.3 153.2 256.4

20.9 16.6 3.9 11.5 28.5 74.9 158.6 241.8

218

Health, United States, 2006

Table 41 (page 3 of 3). Death rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1980–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1980 1 1990 1995 2000 2 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age American Indian or Alaska Native female 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.7 3.8 * * * * * *

16.8 8.7 * * * 56.4 116.7 *

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 22.8 26.2 26.4 11.5 13.4 15.1 * * 38.8 79.5 191.3 * * * 31.6 136.8 175.8 362.2 * * 34.1 119.1 194.8 353.4

26.1 15.6 * * 39.0 101.2 217.2 296.2

26.1 15.9 * * 35.2 104.8 247.3 224.6

Asian or Pacific Islander female 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.8 2.6 * * * * * *

11.0 5.2 * * 15.2 26.5 80.6 232.5

12.1 6.3 * 3.6 9.6 29.2 113.2 227.8

11.7 6.8 * * 6.2 29.2 88.9 299.5

9.3 6.0 * * 4.9 24.6 77.0 219.1

9.9 6.5 * * 6.0 24.8 77.2 253.8

9.3 6.3 * * 4.1 20.3 75.8 252.7

Hispanic or Latino female 4,5 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

13.4 6.3 * 4.9 14.4 36.6 101.1 269.0

16.9 7.7 1.4 4.6 12.9 43.1 125.0 402.6

16.3 7.2 1.3 3.3 10.8 38.0 136.0 387.8

16.2 7.6 1.4 3.1 10.6 41.5 129.8 385.5

15.8 7.7 1.0 3.8 9.3 41.5 129.6 365.6

14.9 7.4 0.7 3.4 10.9 38.3 125.7 326.3

White, not Hispanic or Latino female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

28.5 35.7 1.2 8.5 43.7 122.8 231.9 302.1

34.0 44.7 1.7 8.5 46.2 143.0 284.5 393.7

40.7 56.2 1.9 8.3 45.8 167.6 347.2 548.7

41.2 57.7 2.1 8.6 45.1 165.5 355.7 559.8

41.8 59.0 2.2 8.5 45.7 167.6 363.5 569.5

40.0 56.7 2.1 8.4 43.5 160.1 347.2 544.8

* Rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable and are not shown. - - - Data not available. 1 For the period 1980–1998, underlying cause of death was coded according to the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), using ICD–9 codes for chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRD) that are most nearly comparable with CLRD codes in the 113 cause list for ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 2 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 3 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 4 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 5 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and later years were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. Age groups were selected to minimize the presentation of unstable age-specific death rates based on small numbers of deaths and for consistency among comparison groups. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; numerator data from annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1985–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

Health, United States, 2006

219

Table 42 (page 1 of 2). Death rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1987–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1987 2 1990 1995 2000 3 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age 1 All persons All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year 1–4 years . . 5–14 years . 15–24 years. 25–34 years. 35–44 years. 45–54 years. 55–64 years. 65–74 years. 75–84 years. 85 years and .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

5.6 5.6 2.3 0.7 0.1 1.3 11.7 14.0 8.0 3.5 1.3 0.8 *

10.2 10.1 2.7 0.8 0.2 1.5 19.7 27.4 15.2 6.2 2.0 0.7 *

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 16.2 5.2 4.9 16.2 5.1 4.9 1.5 1.3 0.5 1.7 28.3 44.2 26.0 10.9 3.6 0.7 * * * 0.1 0.5 6.1 13.1 11.0 5.1 2.2 0.7 * * * 0.1 0.4 4.6 12.7 11.2 5.1 2.2 0.8 *

4.7 4.7 * * 0.1 0.4 4.0 12.0 10.9 5.4 2.4 0.7 *

4.5 4.4 * * 0.1 0.5 3.7 10.9 10.6 5.4 2.4 0.8 *

Male All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year 1–4 years . . 5–14 years . 15–24 years. 25–34 years. 35–44 years. 45–54 years. 55–64 years. 65–74 years. 75–84 years. 85 years and .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.4 10.2 2.2 0.7 0.2 2.2 20.7 26.3 15.5 6.8 2.4 1.2 *

18.5 18.5 2.4 0.8 0.3 2.2 34.5 50.2 29.1 12.0 3.7 1.1 *

27.3 27.6 1.7 1.2 0.5 2.0 45.5 75.5 46.2 19.7 6.4 1.3 *

7.9 7.9 * * 0.1 0.5 8.0 19.8 17.8 8.7 3.8 1.3 *

7.4 7.4 * * * 0.4 5.9 18.8 17.7 8.5 3.9 1.4 *

7.1 7.1 * * * 0.4 5.1 17.5 17.2 9.1 4.0 1.5 *

6.6 6.6 * * * 0.5 4.5 15.7 16.3 9.0 4.0 1.4 *

Female All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year 1–4 years . . 5–14 years . 15–24 years. 25–34 years. 35–44 years. 45–54 years. 55–64 years. 65–74 years. 75–84 years. 85 years and .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1 1.1 2.5 0.7 * 0.3 2.8 2.1 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.5 *

2.2 2.2 3.0 0.8 0.2 0.7 4.9 5.2 1.9 1.1 0.8 0.4 *

5.3 5.3 1.2 1.5 0.5 1.4 10.9 13.3 6.6 2.8 1.4 0.3 *

2.5 2.5 * * 0.1 0.4 4.2 6.5 4.4 1.8 0.8 0.3 *

2.5 2.5 * * * 0.4 3.3 6.7 4.8 1.9 0.8 0.3 *

2.4 2.4 * * * 0.4 2.8 6.5 4.8 2.1 1.0 0.3 *

2.4 2.4 * * * 0.4 2.8 6.2 5.2 2.0 1.0 0.5 *

All ages, age-adjusted 4 White male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American male . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander male . . Hispanic or Latino male 5 . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino male 5 . . . . . . . . . . . White female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American female . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native female . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander female . Hispanic or Latino female 5 . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino female 5 . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

8.7 26.2 * 2.5 18.8 10.7 0.6 4.6 * * 2.1 0.5

15.7 46.3 3.3 4.3 28.8 14.1 1.1 10.1 * * 3.8 0.7

20.4 89.0 10.5 6.0 40.8 17.9 2.5 24.4 2.5 0.6 8.8 1.7

4.6 35.1 3.5 1.2 10.6 3.8 1.0 13.2 1.0 0.2 2.9 0.7

4.3 33.3 3.4 1.5 9.1 3.5 0.9 13.4 * * 2.6 0.6

4.2 31.3 3.5 1.1 9.2 3.4 0.9 12.8 1.5 * 2.7 0.6

3.8 29.2 4.3 1.2 8.2 3.1 0.9 13.0 1.5 * 2.4 0.6

220

Health, United States, 2006

Table 42 (page 2 of 2). Death rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1987–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1987 2 1990 1995 2000 3 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age 1 Age 25–44 years All persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . White male . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American male . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native male . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander male Hispanic or Latino male 5 . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino male 5 . . . . . . . . . ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

2003

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 12.7 19.2 60.2 * 4.1 36.8 23.3 1.2 11.6 * * 4.9 1.0 5.8 9.9 27.3 * * 25.8 12.6 0.5 2.6 * * * 0.5 23.2 35.0 102.0 7.7 8.1 59.3 31.6 2.3 23.6 * * 8.9 1.5 11.1 18.6 53.0 * 6.5 37.9 16.9 0.9 7.5 * * 3.1 0.7 36.3 46.1 179.4 28.5 12.1 73.9 41.2 5.9 53.6 * 1.2 17.2 4.2 19.9 26.0 133.2 * 9.1 67.1 22.4 2.4 27.0 * * 12.6 1.5 9.8 8.8 55.4 5.5 1.9 14.3 7.4 2.1 26.7 * * 4.6 1.6 8.7 8.1 71.6 * 2.1 23.3 6.5 1.3 19.6 * * 5.8 0.9 8.9 7.7 49.9 8.3 1.8 11.5 6.6 1.8 25.9 * * 3.8 1.3 8.7 7.8 70.7 * 3.4 20.3 6.4 1.4 21.4 * * 5.7 0.9 8.2 7.2 44.8 6.4 1.9 10.3 6.2 1.8 23.6 * * 3.8 1.3 8.7 7.9 68.1 * 2.1 22.5 6.2 1.4 21.8 * * 5.3 0.9 7.5 6.3 39.9 8.6 1.7 9.3 5.5 1.6 23.1 * * 3.1 1.3 8.5 7.5 66.0 7.2 2.4 19.4 6.0 1.4 22.7 * * 5.0 0.9

White female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American female . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native female . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander female . Hispanic or Latino female 5 . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino female 5 . . . . . . . . . . Age 45–64 years All persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American male . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander male . . Hispanic or Latino male 5 . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino male 5 . . . . . . . . . . . White female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American female . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native female . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander female . Hispanic or Latino female 5 . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino female 5 . . . . . . . . . .

* Rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable and are not shown. 1 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 2 Categories for the coding and classification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease were introduced in the United States in 1987. For the period 1987–1998, underlying cause of death was coded according to the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). See Appendix II, Cause of death; Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease; tables IV and V. 3 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. To estimate change between 1998 and 1999, compare the 1999 rate with the comparability-modified rate for 1998. Additional years of data available in spreadsheet version of this table. Available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm; See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 4 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 5 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and 2002 were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; numerator data from annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1987–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

Health, United States, 2006

221

Table 43. Maternal mortality for complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium, by race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2 2000 3 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 4 2004 4

Race, Hispanic origin, and age

Number of deaths All persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,960 1,873 1,041 --------1,579 936 624 --------803 445 342 --------334 193 127 3 11 ----343 177 153 4 9 47 125 396 240 137 6 13 81 160 357 190 148 – 19 62 128 495 280 183 7 25 92 188 540 300 214 4 22 80 225

All persons All ages, age-adjusted 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 20 years . . . . 20–24 years . . . . . . 25–29 years . . . . . . 30–34 years . . . . . . 35 years and over 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73.7 83.3 70.7 47.6 63.5 107.7 222.0

32.1 37.1 22.7 20.7 29.8 50.3 104.3

21.5 21.5 18.9 13.0 17.0 31.6 81.9

Deaths per 100,000 live births 9.4 7.6 8.2 9.2 8.2 9.8 7.6 5.8 7.7 13.6 36.3 7.5 6.1 6.0 9.5 20.7 * 7.4 7.9 10.0 22.7

7.6 8.9 6.7 5.8 7.5 9.3 18.4

9.7 12.1 6.2 7.7 8.7 10.9 33.1

11.3 13.1 6.6 10.8 11.0 11.8 28.2

White All ages, age-adjusted 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 20 years . . . . 20–24 years . . . . . . 25–29 years . . . . . . 30–34 years . . . . . . 35 years and over 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53.1 61.1 44.9 35.7 45.0 75.9 174.1

22.4 26.0 14.8 15.3 20.3 34.3 73.9

14.4 14.3 13.8 8.4 11.1 18.7 59.3

6.7 6.6 5.8 4.2 5.4 9.3 25.5

5.1 5.4 * 3.9 4.8 5.0 12.6

6.2 7.5 * 5.6 5.9 7.1 18.0

4.8 6.0 * 3.4 4.6 6.7 13.3

6.9 8.7 * 5.3 6.9 6.8 23.8

7.5 9.3 * 6.5 6.9 9.0 22.0

Black or African American All ages, age-adjusted 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 20 years . . . . 20–24 years . . . . . . 25–29 years . . . . . . 30–34 years . . . . . . 35 years and over 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

---------------

92.0 103.6 54.8 56.9 92.8 150.6 299.5

65.5 60.9 32.3 41.9 65.2 117.8 207.5

24.9 22.4 13.1 13.9 22.4 44.0 100.6

21.7 22.4 * 14.7 14.9 44.2 79.7

20.1 22.0 * 15.3 21.8 34.8 62.8

22.9 24.9 * 14.9 27.1 28.4 62.9

25.5 30.5 * 15.8 20.7 46.1 104.1

32.3 34.7 * 27.9 38.6 40.4 79.2

Hispanic or Latino 5,8 All ages, age-adjusted 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 All ages, age-adjusted 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----

-----

-----

-----

7.4 7.9

9.0 9.9

6.0 7.1

8.6 10.1

7.3 8.5

-----

-----

-----

-----

4.4 4.8

5.5 6.8

4.4 5.6

6.3 8.1

7.8 9.8

- - - Data not available. – Quantity zero. * Rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable and are not shown. 1 Includes deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 2 Underlying cause of death was coded according to the Sixth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1950, Seventh Revision in 1960, Eighth Revision in 1970, and Ninth Revision in 1980–1998. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 3 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. Major changes in the classification and coding of maternal deaths account for an increase in the number of maternal deaths under ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables V and VI; Comparability ratio; International Classification of Diseases (ICD); Maternal death. 4 Increases are due to methodological changes in reporting and data processing. See Appendix II, Maternal death. 5 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. 6 Rates are age-adjusted to the 1970 distribution of live births by mother’s age in the United States. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 7 Rates computed by relating deaths of women 35 years and over to live births to women 35–49 years. See Appendix II, Rate: Death and related rates. 8 Age-specific maternal mortality rates are not calculated because rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable. NOTES: The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. For 1950 and 1960, rates were based on live births by race of child; for all other years, rates are based on live births by race of mother. See Appendix II, Race. Rates are not calculated for American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander mothers because rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; numerator data from annual mortality files; denominator data from annual natality files; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

222

Health, United States, 2006

Table 44 (page 1 of 4). Death rates for motor vehicle-related injuries, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age All persons All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 15–19 years. . . . . 20–24 years. . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years. . . . . 55–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years. . . . . 75–84 years. . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.6 23.1 8.4 9.8 11.5 8.8 34.4 29.6 38.8 24.6 20.3 25.2 22.2 29.0 43.1 39.1 52.7 45.1

23.1 21.3 8.1 8.6 10.0 7.9 38.0 33.9 42.9 24.3 19.3 23.0 21.4 25.1 34.7 31.4 41.8 37.9

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 27.6 22.3 18.5 15.4 26.9 23.5 18.8 15.4 9.8 10.5 11.5 10.2 47.2 43.6 51.3 30.9 24.9 26.5 25.5 27.9 36.2 32.8 43.5 34.2 7.0 8.2 9.2 7.9 44.8 43.0 46.6 29.1 20.9 18.0 18.6 17.4 22.5 19.2 28.1 27.6 4.9 6.0 6.3 5.9 34.1 33.1 35.0 23.6 16.9 15.7 15.6 15.9 23.1 18.6 29.1 31.2 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.3 26.9 26.0 28.0 17.3 15.3 14.3 14.2 14.4 21.4 16.5 25.7 30.4

15.3 15.4 3.6 4.0 3.9 4.0 26.6 25.7 27.5 17.1 15.7 14.6 14.9 14.2 21.0 16.2 24.9 28.8

15.2 15.3 3.5 4.0 4.0 4.1 26.3 25.2 27.5 17.6 15.1 14.7 15.1 14.1 20.4 16.1 24.5 26.1

Male All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 15–19 years. . . . . 20–24 years. . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years. . . . . 55–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years. . . . . 75–84 years. . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38.5 35.4 9.1 12.3 13.0 11.9 56.7 46.3 66.7 40.8 32.5 37.7 33.6 43.1 66.6 59.1 85.0 78.1

35.4 31.8 8.6 10.7 11.5 10.4 61.2 51.7 73.2 40.1 29.9 33.3 31.6 35.6 52.1 45.8 66.0 62.7

41.5 39.7 9.3 13.0 12.9 13.1 73.2 64.1 84.4 49.4 37.7 38.9 37.2 40.9 54.4 47.3 68.2 63.1

33.6 35.3 7.3 10.0 10.2 9.9 68.4 62.6 74.3 46.3 31.7 26.5 27.6 25.4 33.9 27.3 44.3 56.1

26.5 26.7 5.0 7.0 6.9 7.0 49.5 45.5 53.3 35.7 24.7 21.9 22.0 21.7 32.1 24.2 41.2 64.5

21.7 21.3 4.6 4.9 4.7 5.0 37.4 33.9 41.2 25.5 22.0 20.2 20.4 19.8 29.5 21.7 35.6 57.5

21.6 21.4 3.9 4.7 4.4 4.8 36.9 33.3 40.4 25.5 22.5 20.9 21.5 20.0 28.5 21.3 34.3 50.0

21.4 21.3 3.8 4.5 4.2 4.7 36.4 32.5 40.4 25.8 21.9 21.1 21.9 19.8 28.2 21.3 34.7 44.2

Female All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 15–19 years. . . . . 20–24 years. . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years. . . . . 55–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years. . . . . 75–84 years. . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11.5 10.9 7.6 7.2 10.0 5.7 12.6 12.9 12.2 9.3 8.5 12.6 10.9 14.9 21.9 20.6 25.2 22.1

11.7 11.0 7.5 6.3 8.4 5.4 15.1 16.0 14.0 9.2 9.1 13.1 11.6 15.2 20.3 19.0 23.0 22.0

14.9 14.7 10.4 7.9 10.0 7.2 21.6 22.7 20.4 13.0 12.9 15.3 14.5 16.2 23.1 21.6 27.2 18.0

11.8 12.3 6.7 6.3 8.1 5.7 20.8 22.8 18.9 12.2 10.4 10.3 10.2 10.5 15.0 13.0 18.5 15.2

11.0 11.3 4.9 4.9 5.6 4.7 17.9 20.0 16.0 11.5 9.2 10.1 9.6 10.8 17.2 14.1 21.9 18.3

9.5 9.7 4.2 3.7 3.8 3.6 15.9 17.5 14.2 8.8 8.8 8.7 8.2 9.5 15.8 12.3 19.2 19.3

9.3 9.5 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.2 15.8 17.8 13.9 8.5 8.9 8.6 8.5 8.8 15.6 11.9 18.7 19.5

9.3 9.5 3.2 3.5 3.7 3.4 15.7 17.5 13.8 9.1 8.3 8.6 8.5 8.8 14.9 11.7 17.7 17.9

White male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 All ages, crude . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

37.9 35.1 9.1 12.4 58.3 39.1 30.9 36.2 67.1

34.8 31.5 8.8 10.6 62.7 38.6 28.4 31.7 52.1

40.4 39.1 9.1 12.5 75.2 47.0 35.2 36.5 54.2

33.8 35.9 7.0 9.8 73.8 46.6 30.7 25.2 32.7

26.3 26.7 4.8 6.6 52.5 35.4 23.7 20.6 31.4

21.8 21.6 4.2 4.8 39.6 25.1 21.8 19.7 29.4

21.9 22.0 3.9 4.7 39.2 25.9 22.6 20.6 28.8

21.8 21.9 3.3 4.6 39.4 25.8 22.2 20.7 28.5

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

223

Table 44 (page 2 of 4). Death rates for motor vehicle-related injuries, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Black or African American male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–14 years 6 . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34.8 37.2 --10.4 42.5 54.4 46.7 54.6 52.6

39.6 33.1 * 11.2 46.4 51.0 43.6 47.8 48.2

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 51.0 34.2 29.9 24.4 44.3 31.1 28.1 22.5 10.6 16.3 58.1 70.4 59.5 61.7 53.4 7.8 11.4 34.9 44.9 41.2 39.5 42.4 * 8.9 36.1 39.5 33.5 33.3 36.3 6.7 5.5 30.2 32.6 27.2 27.1 32.1

22.7 21.1 * 4.8 27.9 29.0 26.4 26.1 28.9

22.7 21.2 * 4.8 26.4 31.8 24.7 26.9 28.6

American Indian or Alaska Native male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

78.9 74.6 15.1 126.1 107.0 82.8 77.4 97.0

48.3 47.6 11.6 75.2 78.2 57.0 45.9 43.0

35.8 33.6 7.8 56.8 49.8 36.3 32.0 48.5

35.2 35.9 9.8 60.2 45.5 43.6 36.0 25.4

34.5 33.7 6.8 47.4 46.7 37.8 38.3 42.3

Asian or Pacific Islander male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

19.0 17.1 8.2 27.2 18.8 13.1 13.7 37.3

17.9 15.8 6.3 25.7 17.0 12.2 15.1 33.6

10.6 9.8 2.5 17.0 10.4 6.9 10.1 21.1

10.3 9.4 2.4 18.3 8.2 6.8 9.7 20.1

9.3 8.8 2.6 15.3 8.4 7.4 9.0 17.0

Hispanic or Latino male 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

29.5 29.2 7.2 48.2 41.0 28.0 28.9 35.3

21.3 20.1 4.4 34.7 24.9 21.6 21.7 28.9

22.0 21.1 4.9 37.2 27.6 22.1 20.4 29.2

20.9 20.2 4.7 38.3 25.4 20.8 19.6 26.1

White, not Hispanic or Latino male 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . White female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . All ages, crude . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

25.7 26.0 6.4 52.3 34.0 23.1 19.8 31.1

21.7 21.5 4.9 40.3 24.7 21.6 19.3 29.3

21.6 21.8 4.6 39.1 24.9 22.4 20.4 28.6

21.7 22.0 4.5 39.1 25.5 22.2 20.7 28.5

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

11.4 10.9 7.8 7.2 12.6 9.0 8.1 12.7 22.2

11.7 11.2 7.5 6.2 15.6 9.0 8.9 13.1 20.8

14.9 14.8 10.2 7.5 22.7 12.7 12.3 15.1 23.7

12.2 12.8 7.1 6.2 23.0 12.2 10.6 10.4 15.3

11.2 11.6 4.7 4.8 19.5 11.6 9.2 9.9 17.4

9.8 10.0 3.5 3.7 17.1 8.9 8.9 8.7 16.2

9.5 9.8 3.0 3.2 17.2 8.6 9.0 8.5 15.8

9.5 9.8 3.2 3.4 16.8 9.4 8.4 8.7 15.3

See footnotes at end of table.

224

Health, United States, 2006

Table 44 (page 3 of 4). Death rates for motor vehicle-related injuries, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Black or African American female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . 1–14 years 6 . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.3 10.2 --7.2 11.6 10.8 11.1 11.8 14.3

10.4 9.7 8.1 6.9 9.9 9.8 11.0 12.7 13.2

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 14.1 8.5 9.6 13.4 8.3 9.4 11.9 10.2 13.4 13.3 16.1 16.7 15.7 * 6.3 8.0 10.6 8.3 9.2 9.5 7.0 5.3 9.9 11.1 9.4 10.7 13.5

8.4 8.2 * 3.9 11.7 9.4 8.2 9.0 10.4

8.3 8.0 * 3.5 9.6 8.7 8.9 8.9 12.4

8.1 7.9 * 4.0 10.9 8.7 8.3 8.8 9.6

American Indian or Alaska Native female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

32.0 32.0 15.0 42.3 52.5 38.1 32.6 *

17.5 17.3 8.1 31.4 18.8 18.2 17.6 *

19.5 18.6 6.5 30.3 22.3 22.0 17.8 24.0

20.8 19.8 6.3 27.7 24.5 18.7 22.6 32.3

17.8 17.3 7.3 27.0 21.6 21.4 10.4 30.0

Asian or Pacific Islander female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

9.3 8.2 7.4 7.4 7.3 8.6 8.5 18.6

10.4 9.0 3.6 11.4 7.3 7.5 11.8 24.3

6.7 5.9 2.3 6.0 4.5 4.9 6.4 18.5

6.8 6.4 1.7 9.7 4.5 4.5 7.5 16.2

6.3 6.0 * 9.0 4.5 5.0 6.3 14.9

Hispanic or Latino female 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

9.6 8.9 4.8 11.6 9.4 8.0 11.4 14.9

7.9 7.2 3.9 10.6 6.5 7.3 8.3 13.4

8.0 7.3 3.0 11.9 6.6 8.0 8.4 13.1

7.7 7.1 3.4 11.1 7.3 6.4 8.1 12.3

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

225

Table 44 (page 4 of 4). Death rates for motor vehicle-related injuries, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age White, not Hispanic or Latino female 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

-----------------

Deaths per 100,000 resident population ----11.3 10.0 ----11.7 10.3 ------------------------4.7 20.4 11.7 9.3 9.7 17.5 3.5 18.4 9.3 9.0 8.7 16.3

9.7 10.2 3.2 18.3 9.0 9.1 8.5 15.9

9.8 10.2 3.4 18.0 9.8 8.7 8.6 15.5

- - - Data not available. * Rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable and are not shown. 1 Includes deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 2 Underlying cause of death was coded according to the Sixth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1950, Seventh Revision in 1960, Eighth Revision in 1970, and Ninth Revision in 1980–1998. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 3 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 4 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 5 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 6 In 1950, rate is for the age group under 15 years. 7 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and later years were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. Age groups were selected to minimize the presentation of unstable age-specific death rates based on small numbers of deaths and for consistency among comparison groups. For additional injury-related statistics, see Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, available from: www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; Grove RD, Hetzel AM. Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940–1960. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1968; numerator data from National Vital Statistics System, annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1985–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

226

Health, United States, 2006

Table 45 (page 1 of 3). Death rates for homicide, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age All persons All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 15–19 years . . . . 20–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.1 5.0 4.4 0.6 0.6 0.5 5.8 3.9 8.5 8.9 9.3 8.4 5.0 5.9 3.9 3.0 3.2 2.5 2.3

5.0 4.6 4.8 0.6 0.7 0.5 5.6 3.9 7.7 8.5 9.2 7.8 5.3 6.1 4.1 2.7 2.8 2.3 2.4

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 8.8 10.4 9.4 5.9 8.1 10.6 9.9 6.0 4.3 1.1 1.9 0.9 11.3 7.7 15.6 14.9 16.2 13.5 8.7 10.0 7.1 4.6 4.9 4.0 4.2 5.9 1.5 2.5 1.2 15.4 10.5 20.2 17.5 19.3 14.9 9.0 11.0 7.0 5.5 5.7 5.2 5.3 8.4 1.8 2.5 1.5 19.7 16.9 22.2 14.7 17.4 11.6 6.3 7.5 5.0 4.0 3.8 4.3 4.6 9.2 1.3 2.3 0.9 12.6 9.5 16.0 8.7 10.4 7.1 4.0 4.7 3.0 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4

6.0 6.1 8.5 1.2 2.4 0.8 13.0 9.5 16.5 9.1 11.3 7.0 4.1 4.9 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.2

5.9 5.9 8.0 1.2 2.4 0.8 12.2 9.3 15.0 8.9 11.2 6.8 4.1 4.8 3.0 2.3 2.4 2.2 2.1

Male All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 15–19 years . . . . 20–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.9 7.7 4.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 8.6 5.5 13.5 13.8 14.4 13.2 8.1 9.5 6.3 4.8 5.2 3.9 2.5

7.5 6.8 4.7 0.6 0.7 0.5 8.4 5.7 11.8 12.8 13.9 11.7 8.1 9.4 6.4 4.3 4.6 3.7 3.6

14.3 13.1 4.5 1.2 1.9 1.0 18.2 12.1 25.6 24.4 26.8 21.7 14.8 16.8 12.1 7.7 8.5 5.9 7.4

16.6 17.1 6.3 1.6 2.7 1.2 24.0 15.9 32.2 28.9 31.9 24.5 15.2 18.4 11.8 8.8 9.2 8.1 7.5

14.8 15.9 8.8 2.0 2.7 1.7 32.5 27.8 36.9 23.5 27.7 18.6 10.2 11.9 8.0 5.8 5.8 5.7 6.7

9.0 9.3 10.4 1.5 2.5 1.1 20.9 15.5 26.7 13.3 16.7 10.3 6.0 6.9 4.6 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.3

9.4 9.7 10.0 1.4 2.5 1.0 21.8 15.9 27.6 14.3 18.5 10.4 6.1 7.4 4.2 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.2

9.2 9.4 8.0 1.4 2.5 1.0 20.4 15.3 25.4 14.1 18.5 10.1 6.2 7.3 4.6 3.2 3.6 2.6 2.7

Female All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 15–19 years . . . . 20–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . 35–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . 55–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years . . . . 75–84 years . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4 2.4 4.2 0.6 0.7 0.5 3.0 2.4 3.7 4.2 4.5 3.8 1.9 2.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 2.1

2.6 2.4 4.9 0.5 0.7 0.4 2.8 1.9 3.8 4.3 4.6 4.0 2.5 2.9 2.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.6

3.7 3.4 4.1 1.0 1.9 0.7 4.6 3.2 6.2 5.8 6.0 5.7 3.1 3.7 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.7 2.5

4.4 4.5 5.6 1.4 2.2 1.1 6.6 4.9 8.2 6.4 6.9 5.7 3.4 4.1 2.8 3.3 3.0 3.5 4.3

4.0 4.2 8.0 1.6 2.3 1.2 6.2 5.4 7.0 6.0 7.1 4.8 2.8 3.2 2.3 2.8 2.2 3.4 3.8

2.8 2.8 7.9 1.1 2.1 0.7 3.9 3.1 4.7 4.0 4.1 4.0 2.1 2.5 1.6 1.8 1.6 2.0 2.0

2.6 2.6 6.9 1.0 2.3 0.5 3.7 2.6 4.8 3.8 3.9 3.6 2.1 2.5 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.9 1.8

2.5 2.5 7.9 1.1 2.2 0.6 3.5 3.0 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.4 2.1 2.4 1.6 1.7 1.4 1.9 1.9

White male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year . . . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

3.8 3.6 4.3 0.4 3.2 5.4 4.9 6.1 4.8 3.8

3.9 3.6 3.8 0.5 5.0 5.5 5.7 5.2 4.6 3.1

7.2 6.6 2.9 0.7 7.6 11.6 12.5 10.8 8.3 5.4

10.4 10.7 4.3 1.2 15.1 17.2 18.5 15.2 9.8 6.7

8.3 8.8 6.4 1.3 15.2 13.0 14.7 11.1 6.9 4.1

5.2 5.2 8.2 1.2 9.9 7.4 8.4 6.5 4.1 2.5

5.3 5.4 8.1 0.9 10.6 7.7 9.2 6.3 4.2 2.7

5.3 5.3 6.9 1.0 10.2 7.7 9.3 6.3 4.3 2.5

Health, United States, 2006

227

Table 45 (page 2 of 3). Death rates for homicide, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Black or African American male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year . . . . 1–14 years 6 . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . 35–44 years . . . 45–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 47.0 44.7 --1.8 53.8 92.8 104.3 80.0 46.0 16.5 42.3 35.0 10.3 1.5 43.2 80.5 86.4 74.4 44.6 17.3 78.2 66.0 14.3 4.4 98.3 140.2 154.5 124.0 82.3 33.3 69.4 65.7 18.6 4.1 82.6 130.0 142.9 109.3 70.6 30.9 63.1 68.5 21.4 5.8 137.1 105.4 123.7 81.2 41.4 25.7 35.4 37.2 23.3 3.1 85.3 55.8 73.9 38.5 21.9 12.8 36.7 38.9 17.8 4.1 84.6 61.0 82.5 40.2 22.2 10.9 35.1 37.1 14.2 3.5 77.6 59.6 81.6 37.9 22.0 11.0

American Indian or Alaska Native male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino male 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . 35–44 years . . . 45–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------

-----------

-----------

23.3 23.1 35.4 39.2 22.1

16.7 16.6 25.1 25.7 14.8

10.7 10.7 17.0 17.0 *

10.5 11.3 19.7 14.8 9.5

11.0 11.5 17.7 17.8 7.5

-------------------------------

-------------------------------

-------------------------------

9.1 8.3 9.3 11.3 10.4 ---------------------

7.3 7.9 14.9 9.6 7.0 27.4 31.0 8.7 3.1 55.4 46.4 50.9 39.3 20.5 9.4

4.3 4.4 7.8 4.6 6.1 11.8 13.4 6.6 1.7 28.5 17.2 19.9 13.5 9.1 4.4

4.2 4.5 9.8 4.5 4.3 12.1 13.6 7.9 1.3 30.3 17.6 21.2 12.9 8.7 6.0

3.7 3.9 7.8 3.7 5.1 11.5 13.0 9.1 1.5 29.6 16.6 20.3 11.8 8.5 3.7

White, not Hispanic or Latino male 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . 35–44 years . . . 45–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

--------------------1.4 1.4 3.9 0.4 1.3 2.0 1.5 1.2

--------------------1.5 1.4 3.5 0.4 1.5 2.1 1.7 1.2

--------------------2.3 2.1 2.9 0.7 2.7 3.3 2.1 1.9

--------------------3.2 3.2 4.3 1.1 4.7 4.2 2.6 2.9

5.6 5.8 5.4 0.9 7.5 8.7 9.3 8.0 5.7 3.7 2.7 2.8 5.1 1.0 4.0 3.8 2.3 2.2

3.6 3.6 8.3 1.0 4.7 5.2 5.2 5.2 3.6 2.3 2.1 2.1 5.0 0.8 2.7 2.9 1.8 1.6

3.6 3.6 8.0 0.8 5.0 5.1 5.2 4.9 3.7 2.4 2.0 2.0 5.7 0.7 2.5 2.8 1.8 1.5

3.6 3.6 6.1 0.8 4.7 5.2 5.5 5.0 3.8 2.4 1.9 1.9 6.2 0.8 2.5 2.7 1.7 1.6

White female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–14 years 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

11.1 11.5 --1.8 16.5 22.5 6.8 3.6

11.4 10.4 13.8 1.2 11.9 22.7 10.3 3.0

14.7 13.2 10.7 3.1 17.7 25.3 13.4 7.4

13.2 13.5 12.8 3.3 18.4 22.6 10.8 8.0

12.5 13.4 22.8 4.7 18.9 21.0 6.5 9.4

7.1 7.2 22.2 2.7 10.7 11.0 4.5 3.5

6.4 6.6 14.2 2.4 10.1 9.8 4.8 3.3

6.3 6.4 17.0 2.8 8.8 9.4 5.1 2.9

228

Health, United States, 2006

Table 45 (page 3 of 3). Death rates for homicide, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age American Indian or Alaska Native female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino female 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Deaths per 100,000 resident population ------------------------------8.1 7.7 * 13.7 * 4.6 4.8 * 6.9 * 3.0 2.9 * 5.9 * 3.9 4.0 7.2 5.4 * 3.0 3.0 * * *

-----------

-----------

-----------

3.1 3.1 * 4.6 *

2.8 2.8 * 3.8 *

1.7 1.7 * 2.2 2.0

1.6 1.6 * 1.9 1.5

1.3 1.4 * 1.5 1.8

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

4.3 4.7 * 1.9 8.1 6.1 3.3 *

2.8 2.8 7.4 1.0 3.7 3.7 2.9 2.4

2.7 2.8 5.9 1.2 4.5 3.6 2.3 1.9

2.3 2.4 7.0 1.1 3.3 3.3 1.9 *

White, not Hispanic or Latino female 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

-----------------

2.5 2.5 4.4 0.8 3.3 3.5 2.2 2.2

1.9 1.9 4.1 0.8 2.3 2.7 1.6 1.6

1.8 1.8 5.5 0.6 1.9 2.6 1.7 1.4

1.8 1.8 5.8 0.7 2.3 2.5 1.6 1.6

- - - Data not available. * Rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable and are not shown. 1 Includes deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 2 Underlying cause of death was coded according to the Sixth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1950, Seventh Revision in 1960, Eighth Revision in 1970, and Ninth Revision in 1980–1998. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 3 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 4 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 5 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 6 In 1950, rate is for the age group under 15 years. 7 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and later years were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. Figures for 2001 include September 11-related deaths for which death certificates were filed as of October 24, 2002. For the period 1980–1998, homicide was coded using ICD–9 codes that are most nearly comparable with homicide codes in the 113 cause list for ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; table V for terrorism-related ICD–10 codes. Age groups were selected to minimize the presentation of unstable age-specific death rates based on small numbers of deaths and for consistency among comparison groups. For additional injury-related statistics, see Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, available from: www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; Grove RD, Hetzel AM. Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940–1960. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1968; numerator data from National Vital Statistics System, annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1985–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

Health, United States, 2006

229

Table 46 (page 1 of 3). Death rates for suicide, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age All persons All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 15–19 years. . . . . 20–24 years. . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . 25–34 years. . . . . 35–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years. . . . . 55–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years. . . . . 75–84 years. . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

13.2 11.4 ... ... 0.2 4.5 2.7 6.2 11.6 9.1 14.3 23.5 20.9 26.8 30.0 29.6 31.1 28.8

12.5 10.6 ... ... 0.3 5.2 3.6 7.1 12.2 10.0 14.2 22.0 20.7 23.7 24.5 23.0 27.9 26.0

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 13.1 12.2 12.5 10.4 11.6 11.9 12.4 10.4 ... ... 0.3 8.8 5.9 12.2 15.4 14.1 16.9 20.6 20.0 21.4 20.8 20.8 21.2 19.0 ... ... 0.4 12.3 8.5 16.1 15.6 16.0 15.4 15.9 15.9 15.9 17.6 16.9 19.1 19.2 ... ... 0.8 13.2 11.1 15.1 15.2 15.2 15.3 15.3 14.8 16.0 20.5 17.9 24.9 22.2 ... ... 0.7 10.2 8.0 12.5 13.4 12.0 14.5 13.5 14.4 12.1 15.2 12.5 17.6 19.6

10.8 10.8 * * 0.6 9.7 7.3 12.1 13.8 12.7 14.9 15.0 15.9 13.8 14.6 12.7 16.4 16.9

10.9 11.0 * * 0.7 10.3 8.2 12.5 13.9 12.7 15.0 15.4 16.6 13.8 14.3 12.3 16.3 16.4

Male All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 15–19 years. . . . . 20–24 years. . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . 25–34 years. . . . . 35–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years. . . . . 55–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years. . . . . 75–84 years. . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21.2 17.8 ... ... 0.3 6.5 3.5 9.3 17.2 13.4 21.3 37.1 32.0 43.6 52.8 50.5 58.3 58.3

20.0 16.5 ... ... 0.4 8.2 5.6 11.5 17.9 14.7 21.0 34.4 31.6 38.1 44.0 39.6 52.5 57.4

19.8 16.8 ... ... 0.5 13.5 8.8 19.3 20.9 19.8 22.1 30.0 27.9 32.7 38.4 36.0 42.8 42.4

19.9 18.6 ... ... 0.6 20.2 13.8 26.8 24.0 25.0 22.5 23.7 22.9 24.5 35.0 30.4 42.3 50.6

21.5 20.4 ... ... 1.1 22.0 18.1 25.7 24.4 24.8 23.9 24.3 23.2 25.7 41.6 32.2 56.1 65.9

17.7 17.1 ... ... 1.2 17.1 13.0 21.4 21.3 19.6 22.8 21.3 22.4 19.4 31.1 22.7 38.6 57.5

18.0 17.6 * * 0.9 16.0 11.6 20.2 21.9 20.6 23.2 23.5 24.4 22.3 29.8 23.4 35.1 47.8

18.0 17.7 * * 0.9 16.8 12.6 20.8 21.7 20.4 23.0 23.7 24.8 22.1 29.0 22.6 34.8 45.0

Female All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 15–19 years. . . . . 20–24 years. . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . 25–34 years. . . . . 35–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years. . . . . 55–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years. . . . . 75–84 years. . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.6 5.1 ... ... 0.1 2.6 1.8 3.3 6.2 4.9 7.5 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.4 10.1 8.1 8.2

5.6 4.9 ... ... 0.1 2.2 1.6 2.9 6.6 5.5 7.7 10.2 10.2 10.2 8.4 8.4 8.9 6.0

7.4 6.6 ... ... 0.2 4.2 2.9 5.7 10.2 8.6 11.9 12.0 12.6 11.4 8.1 9.0 7.0 5.9

5.7 5.5 ... ... 0.2 4.3 3.0 5.5 7.7 7.1 8.5 8.9 9.4 8.4 6.1 6.5 5.5 5.5

4.8 4.8 ... ... 0.4 3.9 3.7 4.1 6.2 5.6 6.8 7.1 6.9 7.3 6.4 6.7 6.3 5.4

4.0 4.0 ... ... 0.3 3.0 2.7 3.2 5.4 4.3 6.4 6.2 6.7 5.4 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.2

4.2 4.3 * * 0.3 3.0 2.7 3.4 5.7 4.6 6.6 7.0 7.7 5.9 3.8 3.8 4.0 3.3

4.5 4.6 * * 0.5 3.6 3.5 3.6 6.0 4.7 7.1 7.6 8.6 6.1 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.6

White male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 All ages, crude . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . 65–74 years. . . . . . . 75–84 years. . . . . . . 85 years and over . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

22.3 19.0 6.6 17.9 39.3 55.8 53.2 61.9 61.9

21.1 17.6 8.6 18.5 36.5 46.7 42.0 55.7 61.3

20.8 18.0 13.9 21.5 31.9 41.1 38.7 45.5 45.8

20.9 19.9 21.4 24.6 25.0 37.2 32.5 45.5 52.8

22.8 22.0 23.2 25.4 26.0 44.2 34.2 60.2 70.3

19.1 18.8 17.9 22.9 23.2 33.3 24.3 41.1 61.6

19.6 19.5 16.9 23.9 26.1 32.1 25.2 37.5 51.4

19.6 19.6 17.9 23.8 26.1 31.2 24.2 37.1 48.4

See footnotes at end of table.

230

Health, United States, 2006

Table 46 (page 2 of 3). Death rates for suicide, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Black or African American male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years. . . . . 75–84 years 6 . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.5 6.3 4.9 9.8 12.7 9.0 10.0 * ---

8.4 6.4 4.1 12.6 13.0 9.9 11.3 * *

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 10.0 11.4 12.8 10.0 8.0 10.3 12.0 9.4 10.5 16.1 12.4 8.7 8.7 * * 12.3 19.2 11.8 11.4 11.1 10.5 * 15.1 19.6 13.1 14.9 14.7 14.4 * 14.2 14.3 9.9 11.5 11.1 12.1 *

9.2 8.8 12.1 14.3 9.0 9.2 8.3 11.3 *

9.6 9.0 12.2 13.7 10.1 11.3 9.8 15.0 *

American Indian or Alaska Native male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

-------------

-------------

19.3 20.9 45.3 31.2 * *

20.1 20.9 49.1 27.8 * *

16.0 15.9 26.2 24.5 15.4 *

16.6 17.1 27.2 30.1 9.5 *

18.7 19.5 30.7 30.8 16.0 *

Asian or Pacific Islander male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

-------------

-------------

10.7 8.8 10.8 11.0 13.0 18.6

9.6 8.7 13.5 10.6 9.7 16.8

8.6 7.9 9.1 9.9 9.7 15.4

8.5 8.0 9.0 9.2 10.0 17.5

8.4 7.9 9.3 8.4 11.1 15.1

Hispanic or Latino male 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

-------------

-------------

-------------

13.7 11.4 14.7 16.2 16.1 23.4

10.3 8.4 10.9 11.2 12.0 19.5

9.7 8.3 11.2 10.9 12.0 15.6

9.8 8.6 12.8 11.0 11.8 15.9

White, not Hispanic or Latino male 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

-------------

-------------

-------------

23.5 23.1 24.4 26.4 26.8 45.4

20.2 20.4 19.5 25.1 24.0 33.9

21.0 21.6 18.2 26.8 27.4 33.1

21.0 21.6 19.0 26.8 27.4 32.1

White female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . Black or African American female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

6.0 5.5 2.7 6.6 10.6 9.9

5.9 5.3 2.3 7.0 10.9 8.8

7.9 7.1 4.2 11.0 13.0 8.5

6.1 5.9 4.6 8.1 9.6 6.4

5.2 5.3 4.2 6.6 7.7 6.8

4.3 4.4 3.1 6.0 6.9 4.3

4.6 4.7 3.1 6.4 7.8 4.0

5.0 5.1 3.8 6.6 8.5 4.0

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

1.8 1.5 1.8 2.3 2.7 *

2.0 1.6 * 3.0 3.1 *

2.9 2.6 3.8 4.8 2.9 2.6

2.4 2.2 2.3 4.3 2.5 *

2.4 2.3 2.3 3.8 2.9 1.9

1.8 1.7 2.2 2.6 2.1 1.3

1.9 1.8 2.0 2.8 2.4 1.4

1.8 1.8 2.2 2.9 2.2 *

Health, United States, 2006

231

Table 46 (page 3 of 3). Death rates for suicide, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1950 1,2 1960 1,2 1970 2 1980 2 1990 2000 3

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age American Indian or Alaska Native female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

-------------

Deaths per 100,000 resident population --4.7 3.6 3.8 --4.7 3.7 4.0 --------* 10.7 * * * * * * * 7.2 * *

3.5 3.7 8.3 4.6 * *

5.9 6.2 10.5 9.8 * *

Asian or Pacific Islander female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

-------------

-------------

5.5 4.7 * 5.4 7.9 *

4.1 3.4 3.9 3.8 5.0 8.5

2.8 2.7 2.7 3.3 3.2 5.2

3.1 3.1 3.4 3.4 4.3 4.6

3.5 3.4 2.8 4.1 4.5 6.4

Hispanic or Latino female 5,7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

-------------

-------------

-------------

2.3 2.2 3.1 3.1 2.5 *

1.7 1.5 2.0 2.1 2.5 *

1.7 1.5 2.2 2.0 2.4 *

2.0 1.8 2.5 2.3 3.1 1.8

White, not Hispanic or Latino female 7 All ages, age-adjusted 4 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

-------------

-------------

-------------

5.4 5.6 4.3 7.0 8.0 7.0

4.7 4.9 3.3 6.7 7.3 4.4

5.0 5.3 3.3 7.2 8.3 4.2

5.4 5.7 4.0 7.5 9.1 4.1

. . . Category not applicable. * Rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable and are not shown. - - - Data not available. 1 Includes deaths of persons who were not residents of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. 2 Underlying cause of death was coded according to the Sixth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1950, Seventh Revision in 1960, Eighth Revision in 1970, and Ninth Revision in 1980–1998. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 3 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 4 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 5 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 6 In 1950, rate is for the age group 75 years and over. 7 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and later years were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. Figures for 2001 include September 11-related deaths for which death certificates were filed as of October 24, 2002. See Appendix II, Cause of death; table V for terrorism-related ICD–10 codes. Age groups were selected to minimize the presentation of unstable age-specific death rates based on small numbers of deaths and for consistency among comparison groups. For additional injury-related statistics, see Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, available from:www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; Grove RD, Hetzel AM. Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940–1960. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1968; numerator data from National Vital Statistics System, annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1985–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

232

Health, United States, 2006

Table 47 (page 1 of 3). Death rates for firearm-related injuries, by sex, race, Hispanic origin and age: United States, selected years 1970–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1970 1 1980 1 1990 1995 2000 2 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age All persons All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 15–19 years. . . . . 20–24 years. . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . 25–34 years. . . . . 35–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years. . . . . 55–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years. . . . . 75–84 years. . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

14.3 13.1 * 1.6 1.0 1.7 15.5 11.4 20.3 20.9 22.2 19.6 17.6 18.1 17.0 13.8 14.5 13.4 10.2

14.8 14.9 * 1.4 0.7 1.6 20.6 14.7 26.4 22.5 24.3 20.0 15.2 16.4 13.9 13.5 13.8 13.4 11.6

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 14.6 13.4 10.2 10.4 14.9 13.5 10.2 10.5 * 1.5 0.6 1.9 25.8 23.3 28.1 19.3 21.8 16.3 13.6 13.9 13.3 16.0 14.4 19.4 14.7 * 1.6 0.6 1.9 26.7 24.1 29.2 16.9 19.6 14.3 11.7 12.0 11.3 14.1 12.8 16.3 14.4 * 0.7 0.3 0.9 16.8 12.9 20.9 13.1 14.5 11.9 10.0 10.5 9.4 12.2 10.6 13.9 14.2 * 0.7 0.4 0.8 16.7 12.1 21.3 13.7 15.4 12.1 10.6 10.8 10.2 12.4 10.9 14.4 12.5

10.3 10.4 * 0.7 0.3 0.8 16.6 12.1 21.1 13.4 15.5 11.5 10.7 11.2 10.1 11.8 10.4 13.5 12.5

10.0 10.1 * 0.6 0.3 0.7 15.7 12.0 19.3 13.1 15.0 11.3 10.5 11.0 9.8 11.5 10.2 13.3 11.9

Male All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 15–19 years. . . . . 20–24 years. . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . 25–34 years. . . . . 35–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years. . . . . 55–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years. . . . . 75–84 years. . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24.8 22.2 * 2.3 1.2 2.7 26.4 19.2 35.1 34.1 36.5 31.6 31.0 30.7 31.3 29.7 29.5 31.0 26.2

25.9 25.7 * 2.0 0.9 2.5 34.8 24.5 45.2 38.1 41.4 33.2 25.9 27.3 24.5 29.7 27.8 33.0 34.9

26.1 26.2 * 2.2 0.7 2.9 44.7 40.1 49.1 32.6 37.0 27.4 23.4 23.2 23.7 35.3 28.2 46.9 49.3

23.8 23.6 * 2.3 0.8 2.9 46.5 41.6 51.5 28.4 33.2 23.6 20.0 20.1 19.8 30.7 25.1 37.8 47.1

18.1 17.8 * 1.1 0.4 1.4 29.4 22.4 37.0 22.0 24.9 19.4 17.1 17.6 16.3 26.4 20.3 32.2 44.7

18.6 18.4 * 1.0 0.5 1.2 29.3 21.1 37.6 23.1 26.5 20.1 18.1 18.2 18.0 26.9 21.3 32.9 38.9

18.4 18.3 * 1 0.3 1.2 29.2 21.2 37.1 22.9 27.1 19.1 18.3 18.8 17.7 25.4 20.3 30.2 37.8

17.7 17.6 * 0.9 0.4 1.1 27.5 20.7 34.2 22.3 26.1 18.7 17.8 18.3 17.1 24.8 19.7 29.8 35.9

Female All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 1 year. . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . 1–4 years . . . . . . 5–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . 15–19 years. . . . . 20–24 years. . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . 25–34 years. . . . . 35–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years. . . . . 55–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years. . . . . 75–84 years. . . . . 85 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.8 4.4 * 0.8 0.9 0.8 4.8 3.5 6.4 8.3 8.4 8.2 5.4 6.4 4.2 2.4 2.8 1.7 *

4.7 4.7 * 0.7 0.5 0.7 6.1 4.6 7.7 7.4 7.5 7.2 5.4 6.2 4.6 2.5 3.1 1.7 1.3

4.2 4.3 * 0.8 0.5 1.0 6.0 5.7 6.3 6.1 6.7 5.4 4.5 4.9 4.0 3.1 3.6 2.9 1.3

3.8 3.8 * 0.8 0.5 0.9 5.9 5.6 6.1 5.5 5.8 5.2 3.9 4.2 3.5 2.8 3.0 2.8 1.8

2.8 2.8 * 0.3 * 0.4 3.5 2.9 4.2 4.2 4.0 4.4 3.4 3.6 3.0 2.2 2.5 2.0 1.7

2.8 2.8 * 0.5 0.3 0.5 3.5 2.7 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.2 3.4 3.6 3.1 2.0 2.3 2.1 1.1

2.7 2.7 * 0.3 0.3 0.3 3.3 2.4 4.2 3.8 3.6 4.0 3.4 3.8 2.9 2.1 2.2 2.2 1.3

2.7 2.7 * 0.3 0.3 0.3 3.2 2.9 3.5 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.7 4.0 3.1 2.0 2.2 2.3 1.0

White male 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 All ages, crude . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . 25–34 years. . . . . . . 35–44 years. . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

19.7 17.6 1.8 16.9 24.2 24.3 24.1 27.4 29.9

22.1 21.8 1.9 28.4 29.5 31.1 27.1 23.3 30.1

22.0 21.8 1.9 29.5 25.7 27.8 23.3 22.8 36.8

20.1 19.9 1.9 30.8 23.2 25.2 21.2 19.5 32.2

15.9 15.6 1.0 19.6 18.0 18.1 17.9 17.4 28.2

16.2 16.1 0.8 19.4 18.5 18.5 18.5 18.7 28.9

16.0 16.0 0.7 19.2 18.1 18.8 17.5 19.0 27.4

15.4 15.5 0.7 18.4 17.6 18.2 17.1 18.4 26.5

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

233

Table 47 (page 2 of 3). Death rates for firearm-related injuries, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1970–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1970 1 1980 1 1990 1995 2000 2 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Black or African American male 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 25–34 years. . . 35–44 years. . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

70.8 60.8 5.3 97.3 126.2 145.6 104.2 71.1 30.6

60.1 57.7 3.0 77.9 114.1 128.4 92.3 55.6 29.7

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 56.3 49.2 34.2 36.0 61.9 52.9 36.1 37.8 4.4 138.0 90.3 108.6 66.1 34.5 23.9 4.4 138.7 70.2 92.3 46.3 28.3 21.8 1.8 89.3 54.1 74.8 34.3 18.4 13.8 1.8 87.1 60.6 85.6 36.9 18.6 14.2

35.6 37.8 2.1 87.6 60.5 87.2 34.8 18.1 12.1

34.5 36.4 2.0 80.7 59.2 83.6 35.1 18.3 14.6

American Indian or Alaska Native male 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

24.0 27.5 55.3 43.9 * *

19.4 20.5 49.1 25.4 * *

19.4 20.9 40.9 31.2 14.2 *

13.1 13.2 26.9 16.6 12.2 *

14.8 15.3 30.0 21.7 12.4 *

14.1 14.7 27.6 21.8 10.5 *

14.2 15.0 25.7 23.5 9.5 *

Asian or Pacific Islander male 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

7.8 8.2 10.8 12.8 10.4 *

8.8 9.4 21.0 10.9 8.1 *

9.2 10.0 24.3 10.6 8.2 *

6.0 6.2 9.3 8.1 7.4 *

5.5 5.7 11.7 6.3 5.8 *

5.4 5.7 10.5 6.9 5.7 *

4.8 5.0 8.8 5.7 6.1 4.2

Hispanic or Latino male 4,5 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . 25–34 years. . . . 35–44 years. . . . 45–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------------

-------------------

27.6 29.9 2.6 55.5 42.7 47.3 35.4 21.4 19.1

23.8 26.2 2.8 61.7 31.4 36.4 24.2 17.2 16.5

13.6 14.2 1.0 30.8 17.3 20.3 13.2 12.0 12.2

13.4 14.2 0.9 32.1 17.6 21.2 12.9 9.9 12.3

13.6 14.6 0.8 32.8 18.6 22.8 13.3 10.3 10.6

13.1 13.9 0.7 32.4 17.6 21.3 12.9 9.9 10.0

White, not Hispanic or Latino male 5 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . 1–14 years . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . . . 25–34 years. . . . . . . . . 35–44 years. . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . White female 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . All ages, crude . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . . . . . 25–44 years . . . . . . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .

-------------------

-------------------

20.6 20.4 1.6 24.1 23.3 24.7 21.6 22.7 37.4

18.6 18.5 1.6 23.5 21.4 22.5 20.4 19.5 32.5

15.5 15.7 1.0 16.2 17.9 17.2 18.4 17.8 29.0

16.0 16.3 0.7 15.6 18.4 17.4 19.3 19.4 29.8

15.6 16.0 0.7 15.2 17.7 17.3 18.1 19.8 28.4

15.1 15.6 0.7 14.3 17.4 16.9 17.8 19.2 27.6

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

4.0 3.7 3.4 6.9 5.0 2.2

4.2 4.1 5.1 6.2 5.1 2.5

3.8 3.8 4.8 5.3 4.5 3.1

3.5 3.5 4.5 4.9 4.0 2.8

2.7 2.7 2.8 3.9 3.5 2.4

2.7 2.7 2.6 3.8 3.6 2.2

2.6 2.6 2.5 3.6 3.7 2.1

2.7 2.7 2.6 3.6 3.9 2.2

See footnotes at end of table.

234

Health, United States, 2006

Table 47 (page 3 of 3). Death rates for firearm-related injuries, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1970–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1970 1 1980 1 1990 1995 2000 2 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age Black or African American female 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2003

11.1 10.0 15.2 19.4 10.2 4.3

8.7 8.8 12.3 16.1 8.2 3.1

Deaths per 100,000 resident population 7.3 6.2 3.9 4.1 7.8 6.5 4.0 4.2 13.3 12.4 4.8 3.1 13.2 9.8 4.1 2.6 7.6 6.5 3.1 1.3 8.1 6.7 3.0 1.2

3.8 3.9 7.4 6.1 2.7 1.8

3.6 3.7 6.9 5.7 3.0 *

American Indian or Alaska Native female 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

5.8 5.8 * 10.2 * *

3.3 3.4 * * * *

3.8 4.1 * 7.0 * *

2.9 2.9 * 5.5 * *

3.1 3.4 * * * *

2.4 2.6 * * * *

2.7 2.9 * * * *

Asian or Pacific Islander female 4 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

2.0 2.1 * 3.2 * *

1.9 2.1 * 2.7 * *

2.0 2.1 3.9 2.7 * *

1.1 1.2 * 1.5 * *

1.1 1.2 * 1.7 * *

1.1 1.2 2.1 1.3 1.5 *

0.9 1.0 * 1.4 1.3 *

Hispanic or Latino female 4,5 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

-------------

3.3 3.6 6.9 5.1 2.4 *

3.1 3.3 6.1 4.7 2.4 *

1.8 1.8 2.9 2.5 2.2 *

1.6 1.6 2.8 2.4 1.6 *

1.6 1.7 3.5 2.2 1.5 *

1.5 1.5 2.6 2.2 1.5 *

White, not Hispanic or Latino female 5 All ages, age-adjusted 3 . . . . . . . All ages, crude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . 25–44 years . . . . 45–64 years . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

-------------

-------------

3.7 3.7 4.3 5.1 4.6 3.2

3.4 3.5 4.1 4.8 4.1 2.8

2.8 2.9 2.7 4.2 3.6 2.4

2.8 2.8 2.5 4.1 3.8 2.3

2.7 2.7 2.2 3.9 3.9 2.2

2.8 2.9 2.5 3.9 4.1 2.3

* Rates based on fewer than 20 deaths are considered unreliable and are not shown. - - - Data not available. 1 Underlying cause of death was coded according to the Eighth Revision in 1970 and Ninth Revision in 1980–1998. See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. 2 Starting with 1999 data, cause of death is coded according to ICD–10. See Appendix II, Cause of death; Comparability ratio; tables V and VI. 3 Age-adjusted rates are calculated using the year 2000 standard population. Prior to 2003, age-adjusted rates were calculated using standard million proportions based on rounded population numbers. Starting with 2003 data, unrounded population numbers are used to calculate age-adjusted rates. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 4 The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Death rates for the American Indian or Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. See Appendix II, Race, for a discussion of sources of bias in death rates by race and Hispanic origin. 5 Prior to 1997, excludes data from states lacking an Hispanic-origin item on the death certificate. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. NOTES: Starting with Health, United States, 2003, rates for 1991–1999 were revised using intercensal population estimates based on the 2000 census. Rates for 2000 were revised based on 2000 census counts. Rates for 2001 and later years were computed using 2000-based postcensal estimates. See Appendix I, Population Census and Population Estimates. Age groups were selected to minimize the presentation of unstable age-specific death rates based on small numbers of deaths and for consistency among comparison groups. For additional injury-related statistics, see Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, available from: www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single-race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. In 2003, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin reported multiple-race data. In 2004, 15 states reported multiple-race data. In addition to the seven states listed above, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming reported multiple-race data. See Appendix II, Race. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; numerator data from annual mortality files; denominator data from national population estimates for race groups from Table 1 and unpublished Hispanic population estimates for 1985–1996 prepared by the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, U.S. Census Bureau; additional mortality tables are available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs.htm; Miniño AM, Heron M, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2004. Health E-Stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2006.

Health, United States, 2006

235

Table 48. Deaths from selected occupational diseases among persons 15 years of age and over: United States, selected years 1980–2004
[Data are based on death certificates]

Updated February 2007
1980 2 1985 1990 1995 2000 3 2002

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Cause of death 1 Underlying and nonunderlying cause of death Angiosarcoma of liver 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Malignant mesothelioma 5 . . . . . . . . . Pneumoconiosis 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis . . . . Asbestosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silicosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other (including unspecified) . . . . . Underlying cause of death Angiosarcoma of liver 4 . . . . . . . . . Malignant mesothelioma 5 . . . . . . . Pneumoconiosis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis . . Asbestosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silicosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other (including unspecified) . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

--699 4,151 2,576 339 448 814

Number of death certificates with cause of death code(s) mentioned ------16 23 24 715 874 897 2,531 2,573 2,625 3,783 3,644 3,151 2,859 2,715 2,635 2,615 1,990 1,413 949 858 772 534 948 1,169 1,486 1,467 1,464 334 308 242 151 146 177 321 413 343 290 263 236 Number of deaths --15 780 2,384 1,117 1,142 533 389 355 558 114 71 115 124

21 2,657 2,524 703 1,460 165 214

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

--531 1,581 982 101 207 291

--573 1,355 958 139 143 115

--725 1,335 734 302 150 149

20 2,429 1,094 354 529 89 122

20 2,476 1,101 318 583 102 98

21 2,504 1,013 292 542 76 103

- - - Data not available. 1 Cause-of-death titles for selected occupational diseases and corresponding code numbers according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth and Tenth Revisions. See Appendix II, Cause of death; table IV. Cause of death Angiosarcoma of liver . . . . . . Malignant mesothelioma . . . . Pneumoconiosis . . . . . . . . . Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis Asbestosis. . . . . . . . . . . . . Silicosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other (including unspecified) .
2 3

ICD–9 code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --. 158.8,158.9,163 . 500–505 . 500 . 501 . 502 . 503–505

ICD–10 code C22.3 C45 J60-J66 J60 J61 J62 J63-J66

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

For the period 1980–1998, underlying cause of death was coded according to the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). See Appendix II, Cause of death; tables IV and V. Starting with 1999 data, ICD–10 was introduced for coding cause of death. Discontinuities exist between 1998 and 1999 due to ICD–10 coding and classification changes. Caution should be exercised in interpreting trends for the causes of death in this table, especially for those with major ICD–10 changes (e.g., malignant mesothelioma). See Appendix II, International Classification of Diseases (ICD). 4 Prior to 1999, there was no discrete code for this condition. 5 Prior to 1999, the combined ICD–9 categories of malignant neoplasm of peritoneum and malignant neoplasm of pleura served as a crude surrogate for malignant mesothelioma category under ICD–10. 6 For underlying and nonunderlying cause of death, counts for pneumoconiosis subgroups may sum to slightly more than total pneumoconiosis due to the reporting of more than one type of pneumoconiosis on some death certificates. NOTES: See Appendix I, National Vital Statistics System, Multiple Cause of Death File, for information about tabulating cause-of-death data in this table. Selection of occupational diseases is based on definitions in Mullan RJ, Murthy LI. Occupational sentinel health events: An updated list for physician recognition and public health surveillance. 1991; Am J Ind Med 19(6):775–99. For more detailed information about pneumoconiosis deaths, see Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report 2002, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2003–111 available from: www.cdc.gov/niosh/publistd.html. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System; annual mortality files for underlying and multiple cause of death.

236

Health, United States, 2006

Table 49 (page 1 of 2). Occupational injury deaths and rates, by industry, sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1992–2004
[Data are compiled from various federal, state, and local administrative sources]

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Characteristic

1992 1

1995

1998

1999

2000

2001 2

2002

Total work force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age 16–17 years . . . . . 18–19 years . . . . . 20–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.2

4.9

Deaths per 100,000 employed workers 3 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.3

4.0

4.0

4.1

-----

8.3 0.9

7.7 0.8

7.7 0.7

7.4 0.7

7.4 0.7

6.9 0.7

7.0 0.7

7.2 0.6

-----------------

1.6 3.3 3.8 4.3 4.6 5.2 7.2 14.0

1.2 3.1 3.3 3.9 4.2 4.6 6.5 14.5

1.6 2.7 3.4 3.8 4.1 4.6 6.1 14.6

1.6 2.7 3.3 3.8 4.0 4.4 6.1 12.0

1.3 2.8 3.2 3.8 4.1 4.5 5.5 12.7

1.1 2.2 3.2 3.3 4.0 4.0 5.0 11.5

1.2 2.3 3.4 3.4 3.8 4.1 4.8 11.3

1.1 2.8 3.1 3.3 3.9 4.3 5.2 11.8

Race and Hispanic origin 4 White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American. . . . . . . . . . . Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Industry Private sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Goods producing . . . . . . . . . . . Natural resources and mining Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . .
5

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .

---------------

4.7 5.1 5.5 4.9 -------

4.5 4.0 5.2 4.5 -------

4.4 4.1 5.2 4.4 -------

----5.6 4.2 4.2 3.9 ---

----6.0 4.1 4.2 3.8 ---

----5.0 3.9 3.9 3.5 ---

----4.5 4.0 4.0 3.8 2.8

----5.0 4.0 4.1 3.8 3.0

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

4.7 9.1 55.7 14.3 2.5 3.2 5.6 1.9 1.5 3.9 0.8 2.6 3.4 2.7

4.8 9.6 47.9 14.6 2.9 3.3 6.0 1.8 1.3 3.8 0.9 2.3 3.5 2.7

Service providing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trade, transportation, and utilities. . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial activities . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional and business services Educational and health services. . . Leisure and hospitality . . . . . . . . . Other services, except public administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..... .....

Total work force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

6,217

6,275

6,055

Number of deaths 7 6,054 5,920 5,915

5,534

5,575

5,764

5,774 443

5,736 539

5,569 486

5,612 442

5,471 449

5,442 473

5,092 442

5,129 446

5,349 415

Under 16 years. . . 16–17 years . . . . . 18–19 years . . . . . 20–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over. Unspecified . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

27 41 107 544 1,556 1,538 1,167 767 467 3

26 42 130 486 1,409 1,571 1,256 827 515 13

33 32 137 421 1,238 1,525 1,279 836 541 13

26 46 122 451 1,175 1,510 1,333 816 565 10

29 44 127 446 1,163 1,473 1,313 831 488 6

20 33 122 441 1,142 1,478 1,368 775 530 6

16 25 92 436 1,023 1,403 1,253 784 495 7

25 28 84 462 1,018 1,329 1,301 802 523 3

13 25 103 421 996 1,342 1,384 907 569 4

See footnotes at end of table.

Health, United States, 2006

237

Table 49 (page 2 of 2). Occupational injury deaths and rates, by industry, sex, age, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1992–2004
[Data are compiled from various federal, state, and local administrative sources]

Click here for spreadsheet version
2003 2004

Characteristic Race and Hispanic origin White. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American. . . . . . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native . . . . . . Asian 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Multiple races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other races or not reported . . . . . . . . . .

1992 1

1995

1998

1999

2000

2001 2

2002

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

5,173 624 533 5,684 4,712 618 36 192 ----126 -----------------------------

5,120 697 619 5,656 4,599 684 27 188 ----158 -----------------------------

5,041 594 707 5,348 4,478 583 28 164 ----95 -----------------------------

Number of deaths 8 4,990 ----626 ----730 815 895 5,324 5,105 5,020 4,410 4,244 4,175 616 575 565 54 33 48 180 171 173 --14 9 ----6 64 68 44 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----841 4,693 3,926 491 40 131 9 4 92 -----------------------------

----794 4,781 3,988 543 42 147 11 3 47 5,043 2,401 850 1,131 420 2,642 1,375 64 129 453 143 275 194 532

----902 4,862 4,066 546 28 168 12 4 38 5,229 2,518 821 1,234 463 2,711 1,473 55 116 452 157 247 207 535

Industry 5 Private sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Goods producing . . . . . . . . . . . Natural resources and mining Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Service providing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trade, transportation, and utilities. . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial activities . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional and business services Educational and health services. . . Leisure and hospitality . . . . . . . . . Other services, except public administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Government 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..... .....

- - - Data not available. . . . Data not applicable. 1 1992 and 1993 employment data by demographic characteristics are not available from the Current Population Survey (CPS) for calculation of rates. 2 2,871 fatalities due to the September 11 terrorist attacks are not included. 3 Numerator excludes deaths to workers under the age of 16 years. Starting with 2003 data, employment data in denominators are average annual estimates of employed civilians 16 years of age and over from the CPS; in prior years, it also included resident armed forces figures from the U.S. Census Bureau (1992–1998) and Department of Defense (1999–2002). 4 Employment data for American Indian or Alaska Native workers and, prior to 2003, Asian or Pacific Islander workers, were not available for the calculation of rates. Employment data for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black workers were not available before the year 2000. In 1999 and earlier years, the race groups white and black included persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. 5 Totals for major categories may include subcategories not shown separately. Starting with 2003 data, establishments were classified by industry according to the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Prior to 2003, the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system was used. Because of substantial differences between these systems, industry data classified by these two systems are not comparable. Industry data for 1992–2002 classified by SIC are available in Health, United States, 2004, Table 49 available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm. See Appendix II, Industry of employment. 6 Includes fatalities to workers employed by governmental organizations, regardless of industry. 7 Includes fatalities to all workers, regardless of age. 8 In 1999 and earlier years, category also included Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. NOTES: Fatalities and rates are based on revised data and may differ from originally published data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI). See Appendix I, CFOI. CFOI began collecting fatality data in 1992. For data for prior years, see Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fatal Occupational Injuries—United States, 1980–1997. MMWR 2001;50(16):317–20, which reports trend data from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system. NTOF was established at the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to monitor occupational injury deaths through death certificates. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCE: Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Revised annual data.

238

Health, United States, 2006

Table 50. Occupational injuries and illnesses with days away from work, job transfer, or restriction, by industry: United States, 2003–2004
[Data are based on employer records from a sample of business establishments]

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Injuries and illnesses with days away from work, job transfer, or restriction Cases per 100 full-time workers 1 Industry Total private industry 3 . . . . . . . . . . Goods producing . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural resources and mining 4 . Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Mining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... .......... .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003 2.6 3.7 2.8 3.3 2.0 3.6 3.8 2.3 3.2 2.8 2.7 5.4 2.2 1.1 0.8 0.4 2.1 1.4 0.6 1.6 2.4 2.9 1.2 3.1 2.1 2.9 2.0 1.7 2004 2.5 3.5 3.1 3.7 2.3 3.4 3.6 2.2 3.1 2.7 2.7 4.9 2.5 1.1 0.7 0.3 1.9 1.3 0.5 1.5 2.2 2.7 1.0 2.9 1.9 3.1 1.7 1.6 Number of cases in thousands 2 2003 2,301.9 796.5 40.5 29.3 11.2 218.0 538.0 1,505.4 683.2 147.4 319.6 204.0 12.2 30.8 56.9 21.3 35.6 157.7 36.0 25.1 96.7 355.8 17.9 337.9 169.3 34.1 135.2 51.7 2004 2,225.0 776.5 44.5 31.5 12.9 212.2 519.9 1,448.5 673.1 146.2 322.8 190.0 14.1 31.1 51.8 18.4 33.4 150.5 32.2 23.4 94.9 337.3 14.5 322.8 157.7 35.2 122.5 47.0

Service providing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trade, transportation, and utilities . . . . . . . Wholesale trade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation and warehousing . . . . . . Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Financial activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finance and insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real estate and rental and leasing. . . . . Professional and business services. . . . . . Professional, scientific, and technical services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Management of companies and enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services. Education and health services . . . . . . . . . Educational services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Health care and social assistance . . . . Leisure and hospitality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arts, entertainment, and recreation . . . . Accommodation and food services. . . . . Other services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 Incidence rate calculated as (N/EH) x 200,000, where N = total number of injuries and illnesses, EH = total hours worked by all employees during the calendar year, and 200,000 = base for 100 full-time equivalent employees working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year. 2 Because of rounding, components may not add to totals. 3 Totals include data for industries not shown separately. Excludes self-employed, private households, and employees in federal, state, and local government agencies. 4 Excludes farms with fewer than 11 employees.

NOTES: Starting with 2003 data, the Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses began using the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) to classify establishments by industry. Prior to 2003, the survey used the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. Because of substantial differences between these systems, the data measured by these surveys are not directly comparable. See Appendix II, Industry of employment. Data for previous years are presented in Health, United States, 2004, Table 50. Available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm. See Appendix I, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses: Workplace injuries and illnesses, 2004 edition. Summary News Release. 2005. Available from: www.bls.gov/iif/home.htm.

Health, United States, 2006

239

Table 51 (page 1 of 2). Selected notifiable disease rates: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on reporting by state health departments]

Click here for spreadsheet version
2004

Disease

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2002

2003

Cases per 100,000 population Diphtheria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Haemophilus influenzae, invasive. Hepatitis A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hepatitis B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lyme disease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meningococcal disease . . . . . . . . Mumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pertussis (whooping cough). . . . . Poliomyelitis, total. . . . . . . . . . . . Paralytic 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rocky Mountain spotted fever . . . Rubella (German measles) . . . . . Rubeola (measles) . . . . . . . . . . . Salmonellosis, excluding typhoid fever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shigellosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tuberculosis 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sexually transmitted diseases: 3 Syphilis 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary and secondary. . . . . Early latent . . . . . . . . . . . . . Late and late latent 5. . . . . . . Congenital 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chlamydia 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gonorrhea 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chancroid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.83 ------------79.82 22.02 ------211.01 --15.45 --146.02 16.73 39.71 70.22 8.97 --192.50 3.34 0.51 ------------8.23 1.77 1.40 ----245.42 3.85 6.94 30.83 68.78 9.06 10.11 45.91 2.48 --145.40 0.94 0.21 --27.87 4.08 --1.23 55.55 2.08 0.02 0.02 0.19 27.75 23.23 10.84 6.79 18.28 45.26 10.89 8.08 24.94 0.97 --297.22 0.70 0.00 --12.84 8.39 --1.25 3.86 0.76 0.00 0.00 0.52 1.72 5.96 14.88 8.41 12.25 30.51 12.06 9.00 9.30 0.12 --445.10 0.30 0.00 --12.64 8.48 --0.99 2.17 1.84 0.00 0.00 0.26 0.45 11.17 19.54 10.89 10.33 54.32 20.26 22.19 10.32 1.55 160.19 276.43 1.69 0.00 0.51 4.91 2.95 6.53 0.83 0.13 2.88 – – 0.18 0.06 0.03 14.51 8.41 6.01 11.20 2.12 3.35 5.53 0.21 251.38 128.67 0.03 0.00 0.62 3.13 2.84 8.44 0.64 0.10 3.47 – – 0.39 0.01 0.02 15.73 8.37 5.36 11.41 2.38 2.92 5.95 0.16 289.41 122.01 0.02 0.00 0.70 2.66 2.61 7.39 0.61 0.08 4.04 – – 0.38 0.00 0.02 15.16 8.19 5.17 11.79 2.47 2.88 6.30 0.15 301.74 115.23 0.02 – 0.72 1.95 2.14 6.81 0.47 0.09 8.88 – – 0.59 0.00 0.01 14.51 4.88 5.03 11.49 2.74 2.67 5.95 0.12 319.61 113.52 0.01

... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Diphtheria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Haemophilus influenzae, invasive. Hepatitis A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hepatitis B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lyme disease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meningococcal disease . . . . . . . . Mumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pertussis (whooping cough). . . . . Poliomyelitis, total. . . . . . . . . . . . Paralytic 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rocky Mountain spotted fever . . . Rubella (German measles) . . . . . Rubeola (measles) . . . . . . . . . . . Salmonellosis, excluding typhoid fever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shigellosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tuberculosis 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sexually transmitted diseases: 3 Syphilis 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary and secondary. . . . . Early latent . . . . . . . . . . . . . Late and late latent 5. . . . . . . Congenital 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chlamydia 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gonorrhea 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chancroid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

5,796 ------------120,718 33,300 ------319,124 --23,367 --217,558 23,939 59,256 113,569 13,377 --286,746 4,977

918 ------------14,809 3,190 2,525 ----441,703 6,929 12,487 55,494 122,538 16,145 18,017 81,798 4,416 --258,933 1,680

435 --56,797 8,310 --2,505 104,953 4,249 33 31 380 56,552 47,351 22,096 13,845 37,137 91,382 21,982 16,311 50,348 1,953 --600,072 1,416

Number of cases 3 4 --29,087 19,015 --2,840 8,576 1,730 9 9 1,163 3,904 13,506 33,715 19,041 27,749 68,832 27,204 20,297 20,979 277 --1,004,029 788 --31,441 21,102 --2,451 5,292 4,570 6 6 651 1,125 27,786 48,603 27,077 25,701 135,590 50,578 55,397 25,750 3,865 323,663 690,042 4,212

1 1,398 13,397 8,036 17,730 2,256 338 7,867 – – 495 176 86 39,574 22,922 16,377 31,616 5,979 9,465 15,594 578 709,452 363,136 78

1 1,743 8,795 7,996 23,763 1,814 270 9,771 – – 1,104 18 44 44,264 23,541 15,075 32,916 6,862 8,429 17,168 457 834,555 351,852 48

1 2,013 7,653 7,526 21,273 1,756 231 11,647 – – 1,091 7 56 43,657 23,581 14,874 34,289 7,177 8,361 18,319 432 877,478 335,104 54

– 2,085 5,683 6,212 19,804 1,361 258 25,827 – – 1,713 10 37 42,197 14,627 14,517 33,401 7,980 7,768 17,300 353 929,462 330,132 30

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

240

Health, United States, 2006

Table 51 (page 2 of 2). Selected notifiable disease rates: United States, selected years 1950–2004
[Data are based on reporting by state health departments]

Click here for spreadsheet version

0.00 Rate greater than zero but less than 0.005. – Quantity zero. - - - Data not available. 1 Data for 1986 and later years may be updated due to retrospective case evaluations or late reports. 2 Case reporting for tuberculosis began in 1953. Data prior to 1975 are not comparable with subsequent years’ data because of changes in reporting criteria effective in 1975. 2004 data were updated through the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, NCHSTP, as of April 15, 2005. 3 Reported civilian cases include military cases starting in 1991. Adjustments to the number of cases from state health departments were made for hardcopy forms and for electronic data submissions through April 29, 2005. For 1950, data for Alaska and Hawaii were not included. 4 Includes stage of syphilis not stated. 5 Includes cases of unknown duration. 6 Data reported for 1989 and later years reflect change in case definition introduced in 1988. All cases of congenitally acquired syphilis were reported through 1994; as of 1995, only congenital syphilis for cases less than one year of age were reported. See STD Surveillance Report for congenital syphilis rates per 100,000 live births. In 2004, the rate was 8.8 congenital syphilis cases per 100,000 live births. 7 Prior to 1994, Chlamydia was not notifiable. In 1994–1999, cases for New York were exclusively reported by New York City. Starting with 2000 data, NY includes both NYC and the entire state. 8 Data for 1994 do not include cases from Georgia. NOTES: The total resident population was used to calculate all rates except sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), which used the civilian resident population prior to 1991. For STDs, rates for the period 1990–2002 have been revised and may differ from previous editions of Health, United States. Revised rates are due to population estimates revised to incorporate bridged single race estimates. See Appendix I, Population census and Population estimates. Population data from those states where diseases were not notifiable or not available were excluded from the rate calculation. See Appendix I for information on underreporting of notifiable diseases. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Summary of notifiable diseases, United States, 2004. MMWR 2006;53(53):1–79. National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of STD Prevention. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance, 2004. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, September 2005.

Health, United States, 2006

241

Table 52 (page 1 of 2). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases, by year of diagnosis and selected characteristics: United States and outlying U.S. areas, 1999–2004
[Data are based on reporting by state and outlying U.S. area health departments]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Year of diagnosis Sex, race and Hispanic origin, age at diagnosis, and region of residence All years 1 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

All persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex Male, 13 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . Female, 13 years and over . . . . . . . . . Children, under 13 years . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . Age at diagnosis Under 13 years . . . 13–14 years . . . . . 15–24 years . . . . . 25–34 years . . . . . 35–44 years . . . . . 45–54 years . . . . . 55–64 years . . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

944,306

39,551

Estimated number of cases 2 39,513 39,206 40,267

41,831

42,514

756,399 178,463 9,443 375,155 379,278 3,084 7,317 177,164

29,642 9,718 190 11,901 19,182 158 349 7,827

28,974 10,415 124 11,378 19,510 175 350 7,957

28,743 10,348 115 11,052 19,473 169 381 7,974

29,730 10,429 109 11,604 19,934 186 440 7,907

30,578 11,184 69 11,657 20,685 189 478 8,632

31,024 11,442 48 12,013 20,965 193 488 8,672

9,443 959 39,100 310,046 370,163 154,513 45,672 14,410 289,792 93,701 343,449 187,730 29,634

190 57 1,510 10,850 16,285 7,760 2,170 729 11,419 3,926 16,307 6,663 1,236

124 60 1,620 9,929 16,460 8,207 2,361 752 12,105 3,968 15,841 6,443 1,156

115 79 1,617 9,497 16,151 8,601 2,387 759 11,212 3,949 16,598 6,258 1,190 Percent distribution
6

109 71 1,779 9,290 16,541 9,093 2,648 738 10,395 4,303 17,751 6,745 1,073

69 58 1,965 9,279 17,054 9,774 2,783 848 11,149 4,495 18,612 6,474 1,100

48 60 2,114 9,361 16,778 10,178 3,075 901 11,158 4,498 19,792 6,083 982

Region of residence Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Midwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. dependencies, possessions, and associated nations 5 . . . . . .

. . . . . ..

All persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex Male, 13 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . Female, 13 years and over . . . . . . . . . Children, under 13 years . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 4 . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

3

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

80.1 18.9 1.0 39.7 40.2 0.3 0.8 18.8

74.9 24.6 0.5 30.1 48.5 0.4 0.9 19.8

73.3 26.4 0.3 28.8 49.4 0.4 0.9 20.1

73.3 26.4 0.3 28.2 49.7 0.4 1.0 20.3

73.8 25.9 0.3 28.8 49.5 0.5 1.1 19.6

73.1 26.7 0.2 27.9 49.4 0.5 1.1 20.6

73.0 26.9 0.1 28.3 49.3 0.5 1.1 20.4

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

242

Health, United States, 2006

Table 52 (page 2 of 2). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases, by year of diagnosis and selected characteristics: United States and outlying U.S. areas, 1999–2004
[Data are based on reporting by State and outlying U.S. area health departments]

Click here for spreadsheet version

Year of diagnosis Sex, race and Hispanic origin, age at diagnosis, and region of residence Age at diagnosis Under 13 years . . 13–14 years. . . . . 15–24 years. . . . . 25–34 years. . . . . 35–44 years. . . . . 45–54 years. . . . . 55–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 0.1 4.1 32.8 39.2 16.4 4.8 1.5 0.5 0.1 3.8 27.4 41.2 19.6 5.5 1.8 0.3 0.2 4.1 25.1 41.7 20.8 6.0 1.9 All years 1 1999 2000 2001 Percent distribution 5 0.3 0.2 4.1 24.2 41.2 21.9 6.1 1.9 0.3 0.2 4.4 23.1 41.1 22.6 6.6 1.8 0.2 0.1 4.7 22.2 40.8 23.4 6.7 2.0 0.1 0.1 5.0 22.0 39.5 23.9 7.2 2.1 2002 2003 2004

Region of residence Northeast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Midwest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U.S. dependencies, possessions, and associated nations 5 . . . . . .
1 2

. . . .

. . . .

30.7 9.9 36.4 19.9 3.1

28.9 9.9 41.2 16.8 3.1

30.6 10.0 40.1 16.3 2.9

28.6 10.1 42.3 16.0 3.0

25.8 10.7 44.1 16.8 2.7

26.7 10.7 44.5 15.5 2.6

26.2 10.6 46.6 14.3 2.3

..

Based on cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from the beginning of the epidemic (1981) through June 30, 2005. Numbers are point estimates that result from adjustments for reporting delays to AIDS case counts. The estimates do not include adjustments for incomplete reporting. Data are provisional. See Appendix I, AIDS Surveillance. 3 Total for all years includes 2,308 persons of unknown race or multiple races and two persons of unknown sex. All persons totals were calculated independent of values for subpopulations. Consequently sums of subpopulations may not equal totals for all persons. 4 Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. 5 Outlying areas include Guam, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Pacific Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. 6 Percents may not sum to 100% due to rounding and because 0.2% unknown race and Hispanic origin are included in totals. NOTES: See Appendix II, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), for discussion of AIDS case reporting definitions and other issues affecting interpretation of trends. This table replaces surveillance data by year of report in previous editions of Health, United States. SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention—Surveillance and Epidemiology, AIDS Surveillance; CDC HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2004 (vol. 16). Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. Available from: www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats/hasrlink.htm.

Health, United States, 2006

243

Table 53 (page 1 of 3). Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for selected cancer sites, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: Selected geographic areas, selected years 1990–2003
[Data are based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program’s 13 population-based cancer registries]

Click here for spreadsheet version
1990–2003 APC 1

Site, sex, race, and Hispanic origin All sites All persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native 4 Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native 4 Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native 4 Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . Lung and bronchus Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Colon and rectum Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Number of new cases per 100,000 population 2 475.2 482.6 512.1 327.9 335.4 353.5 490.9 583.4 590.1 685.3 377.9 387.3 415.9 598.5 410.8 420.9 403.2 293.9 294.7 320.0 429.9 469.8 476.0 532.1 348.9 335.5 354.5 489.8 562.6 561.5 730.3 401.8 393.4 436.0 577.9 409.4 422.2 399.6 315.1 293.1 304.4 434.5 471.2 478.2 529.9 335.4 331.4 356.1 491.7 561.2 562.9 710.8 361.4 382.6 429.8 577.6 412.7 424.5 411.0 319.5 294.7 312.1 437.2 476.5 483.9 532.3 362.1 343.2 351.0 499.7 563.0 563.0 715.8 421.8 394.7 424.4 581.2 420.1 433.8 411.4 320.7 306.9 306.4 448.0 477.5 486.6 524.0 336.9 333.9 365.4 499.7 559.8 561.8 704.1 359.8 378.4 435.9 575.5 424.4 439.6 407.0 321.8 303.9 322.0 452.5 478.3 487.6 528.2 365.3 336.0 362.4 500.5 564.6 566.5 704.5 424.2 389.0 433.0 579.1 421.2 436.6 411.8 327.2 300.0 319.8 449.7 470.6 482.0 513.2 315.6 329.7 349.7 497.7 559.6 564.0 690.4 328.3 385.9 421.6 581.7 410.4 427.7 393.7 312.9 291.0 307.1 441.4 471.8 484.1 501.4 329.7 334.4 348.8 501.3 557.4 563.7 668.3 373.6 380.1 419.1 582.3 413.1 430.5 387.2 302.9 304.2 305.3 446.3 464.6 474.4 509.4 298.5 331.1 350.8 489.3 546.4 550.0 668.7 321.0 373.1 417.8 566.1 409.0 423.7 402.2 281.5 305.4 309.4 437.3 447.1 456.0 489.0 --314.7 323.5 471.2 525.7 527.9 634.6 --364.0 384.7 543.9 393.3 407.5 390.5 --283.3 285.3 421.8 –0.5 3 –0.4 3 –0.6 3 –0.6 –0.5 3 –0.5 3 –0.3 –1.1 3 –1.1 3 –1.2 3 –1.3 –0.8 3 –0.8 3 –1.1 3 0.0 0.1 –0.2 0.1 0.1 –0.4 0.2 –2.0 3 –2.0 3 –2.1 3 –1.1 3 –2.2 3 –2.0 3 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 –1.6 3 0.4 3 –1.5 3 –1.6 3 –0.4 –0.9 3 –0.4 –1.6 3 –0.9 3 –0.9 3 –0.4 –0.5 –0.7 3 –0.8 3 –1.5 3 –1.7 3 –0.9 –4.4 3 –0.9 –0.5 –1.7 3

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. 95.0 . 94.2 . 133.5 . 64.5 . 59.5 . 96.6 . . . . . . 47.2 48.4 52.8 28.3 25.7 49.7

86.8 85.0 136.5 59.9 52.2 88.8 49.3 51.7 49.8 27.5 24.5 53.8

84.3 82.8 129.2 60.6 48.1 86.4 50.0 52.3 53.8 27.8 25.5 54.6

82.5 80.9 124.9 61.8 47.9 84.4 50.3 52.9 50.6 29.6 24.8 55.6

83.2 82.1 123.4 61.0 50.4 84.6 50.9 53.1 56.9 28.4 25.7 55.3

80.2 78.8 119.9 62.1 43.0 81.2 50.3 52.3 57.9 28.6 24.5 54.4

77.4 76.1 109.6 62.6 43.7 79.3 48.5 50.7 54.1 27.0 22.1 53.1

76.5 75.7 111.9 56.1 42.0 79.9 48.4 50.6 53.9 29.0 22.4 53.1

74.7 74.1 107.9 56.2 46.3 76.5 48.7 50.9 55.0 28.5 22.5 53.8

73.0 72.0 107.8 56.0 41.3 74.6 48.0 50.7 52.6 27.2 20.8 53.6

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

72.2 72.8 72.6 61.4 46.9 75.8 50.2 49.7 60.9 38.2 34.4 51.0

63.1 62.5 74.1 58.1 44.9 64.7 45.8 45.5 54.7 38.5 31.3 47.0

64.4 64.9 67.7 55.9 49.5 66.5 46.0 45.6 53.9 38.9 32.8 47.5

66.2 66.0 74.1 59.0 50.0 67.8 47.2 47.0 57.7 35.6 31.4 48.8

65.7 65.5 77.2 57.4 51.5 67.6 48.5 48.2 55.8 40.1 33.7 50.5

63.9 64.0 73.2 53.8 48.7 66.3 46.9 46.1 58.0 39.7 34.1 47.8

62.4 62.1 72.1 56.3 48.6 64.3 45.8 45.4 57.0 36.5 32.8 47.2

61.1 60.6 70.5 55.4 48.4 62.4 45.0 44.2 55.3 40.2 30.7 46.3

59.2 58.0 70.9 56.9 43.7 60.5 44.5 43.6 54.5 40.0 30.6 45.6

56.8 55.7 73.2 50.7 43.8 57.7 42.4 41.9 53.0 34.8 29.8 43.4

Prostate Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native 4 Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . Breast Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native 4 Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

166.6 168.1 217.8 98.7 88.5 118.0 163.1

165.6 160.5 272.1 83.0 102.5 138.5 164.6

165.6 161.1 271.2 102.5 93.7 137.6 164.3

170.7 166.1 271.9 98.2 96.6 140.5 170.6

168.2 162.7 277.4 72.7 91.7 145.7 164.1

178.7 173.6 280.5 86.7 103.7 146.4 174.8

176.6 172.1 282.6 55.9 103.2 144.2 175.4

177.2 174.4 261.1 71.7 104.2 141.2 179.1

174.3 169.9 269.9 69.9 97.8 142.7 173.5

160.4 154.9 237.5 --97.9 127.3 156.7

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

129.2 134.2 116.4 62.1 87.0 87.9 139.2

130.5 136.1 122.0 86.2 85.9 86.0 141.8

131.7 136.8 122.3 102.4 89.5 90.9 142.5

135.4 141.2 123.6 72.2 98.2 86.4 146.9

138.4 144.7 123.0 76.1 98.0 90.6 150.8

137.7 144.5 122.7 77.9 95.9 91.1 150.5

133.3 140.4 119.2 80.9 91.0 91.7 145.9

134.2 141.5 114.2 76.1 97.4 86.9 148.3

130.6 136.8 119.5 63.7 96.6 87.7 141.8

121.1 125.7 119.2 --87.4 79.6 131.1

0.1 0.2 0.1 –0.6 1.0 3 –0.2 0.2

244

Health, United States, 2006

Table 53 (page 2 of 3). Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for selected cancer sites, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: Selected geographic areas, selected years 1990–2003
[Data are based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program’s 13 population-based cancer registries]

Click here for spreadsheet version
1990–2003 APC 1

Site, sex, race, and Hispanic origin Cervix uteri Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Corpus uteri 6 Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Ovary Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Oral cavity and pharynx Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Stomach Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Pancreas Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 .
See footnotes at end of table.

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Number of new cases per 100,000 population 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.9 11.2 16.4 12.1 21.6 9.8 9.9 9.1 14.6 10.9 17.9 7.8 10.7 9.9 13.9 12.9 18.8 8.6 9.8 9.2 13.2 11.1 16.5 8.1 9.8 9.3 12.4 10.7 15.8 8.3 9.3 9.1 12.9 7.9 17.2 7.8 8.8 8.8 10.5 7.9 17.1 7.2 8.7 8.4 10.4 9.5 15.0 7.0 8.2 8.2 9.7 7.9 14.4 6.9 8.0 7.7 10.2 7.7 13.8 6.3 –2.7 3 –2.3 3 –3.7 3 –3.9 3 –3.3 3 –2.5 3

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

24.3 26.0 16.2 12.9 17.3 26.5

24.4 26.0 16.9 17.0 16.2 27.2

24.0 25.5 18.3 16.0 16.2 26.5

24.8 26.5 17.3 16.8 16.8 27.8

24.4 26.0 17.8 16.7 17.6 26.8

24.1 25.8 17.5 17.1 16.0 27.0

23.3 25.1 16.3 15.9 14.9 26.8

24.0 25.6 18.8 16.9 16.3 26.7

23.3 24.2 20.8 18.2 16.5 25.3

22.5 23.9 18.1 15.8 15.7 24.8

–0.3 –0.4 1.4 3 1.4 3 –0.4 –0.2 –1.1 3 –1.0 3 –0.7 –0.4 –0.4 –1.0 3 –1.7 3 –1.4 3 –2.7 3 –1.7 3 –2.4 3 –1.2 3 –1.4 3 –1.5 3 –0.8 –1.2 –1.2 –1.2 3 –1.9 3 –2.0 3 –2.4 3 –3.0 3 –2.2 3 –2.3 3 –1.0 3 –1.3 3 –0.7 –2.8 3 –0.8 –2.0 3 –0.3 3 0.0 –1.6 3 –1.6 3 –0.8 0.0 –0.1 –0.1 –0.8 0.2 –0.8 0.2

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

15.5 16.4 11.2 11.2 12.4 16.9

14.5 15.4 10.8 10.4 11.6 15.9

13.9 15.1 9.1 9.3 11.9 15.1

14.2 14.9 10.3 11.3 11.2 15.4

14.1 15.0 10.5 9.9 12.1 15.0

14.2 15.1 10.3 10.8 10.8 15.4

14.0 15.0 10.5 9.7 10.5 15.4

14.0 15.2 9.2 9.4 12.7 15.5

13.5 14.3 9.7 11.5 13.0 14.1

13.0 13.7 10.8 9.5 10.3 14.1

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

18.5 17.9 25.4 14.9 10.7 19.0 7.3 7.4 6.4 6.1 3.8 7.8

16.4 16.3 22.0 11.8 12.1 16.8 7.0 7.1 6.7 5.2 3.7 7.3

17.1 16.7 22.5 14.0 11.0 17.4 6.9 6.8 7.2 5.8 3.6 7.3

16.7 16.6 19.3 14.7 10.5 17.3 6.9 6.9 7.1 6.5 3.9 7.2

16.4 16.1 21.5 12.8 9.9 17.0 6.6 6.7 6.6 4.4 3.4 6.9

15.3 15.2 19.0 11.1 9.6 16.1 6.3 6.2 5.9 6.3 4.5 6.5

15.7 15.7 19.1 13.0 8.7 16.8 6.1 6.2 5.3 6.1 3.6 6.5

14.9 15.1 18.1 9.7 9.1 15.9 6.6 6.6 6.4 5.6 4.1 7.0

15.4 15.5 17.8 12.4 9.4 16.1 6.4 6.5 6.2 5.7 3.5 6.9

14.7 14.8 16.8 11.3 8.0 16.0 5.7 5.6 6.8 4.8 3.4 5.9

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

14.6 12.8 21.5 26.9 20.6 12.2 6.7 5.7 9.9 15.4 11.1 5.2

13.5 11.9 18.4 24.0 19.1 11.2 6.2 5.1 9.8 13.0 11.3 4.5

13.7 11.9 22.3 23.5 17.3 11.2 6.1 5.0 9.1 13.6 10.2 4.5

13.4 11.3 21.9 24.7 18.9 10.7 6.1 4.9 10.8 12.1 9.9 4.4

12.8 11.1 20.4 21.1 19.8 10.1 6.4 5.2 10.9 12.7 10.7 4.6

12.8 11.2 17.0 22.5 20.4 10.1 6.6 5.5 10.4 12.0 9.6 5.0

12.5 10.6 18.4 22.2 16.3 10.0 6.1 5.0 8.6 12.8 10.9 4.3

11.8 10.2 17.2 19.0 15.7 9.4 5.7 4.6 8.9 11.9 9.8 3.8

11.9 10.3 15.8 20.0 15.8 9.6 6.1 5.0 9.6 10.8 10.2 4.2

11.4 9.9 17.7 18.0 15.5 9.0 5.8 4.7 9.0 10.7 9.6 4.0

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

13.0 12.7 19.3 11.2 10.8 13.0 10.0 9.8 12.9 9.7 10.1 9.3

12.7 12.4 19.1 10.4 12.4 12.3 9.9 9.6 15.5 8.0 8.9 9.8

12.5 12.2 19.0 10.5 11.6 12.3 10.1 9.7 15.2 7.9 9.1 9.7

12.9 12.5 18.1 12.0 11.9 12.6 10.1 9.7 16.7 8.3 10.0 9.6

12.9 12.8 17.3 10.5 9.9 13.2 10.1 9.9 13.7 8.5 9.8 9.7

12.5 12.4 18.2 9.2 9.1 12.6 9.6 9.3 13.4 8.6 9.8 9.1

12.8 12.6 18.1 10.5 12.0 12.6 9.8 9.6 12.7 9.0 9.0 9.5

12.7 12.8 15.0 9.7 9.6 13.0 9.8 9.5 13.4 8.9 9.6 9.4

12.6 12.8 13.7 9.7 10.4 13.2 10.2 9.9 15.5 8.6 10.3 9.7

12.1 11.9 16.5 9.7 8.9 12.4 9.9 9.8 13.6 7.5 7.5 10.2

Health, United States, 2006

245

Table 53 (page 3 of 3). Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for selected cancer sites, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: Selected geographic areas, selected years 1990–2003
[Data are based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program’s 13 population-based cancer registries]

Click here for spreadsheet version
1990–2003 APC 1

Site, sex, race, and Hispanic origin Urinary bladder Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Leukemia Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American . . . . Asian or Pacific Islander . . . . . Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . White, not Hispanic or Latino 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Number of new cases per 100,000 population 2 37.2 40.7 19.7 15.6 22.4 42.0 9.5 9.9 8.6 5.3 5.7 10.4 35.3 38.8 19.4 16.4 17.5 40.9 9.3 10.1 7.2 4.4 5.0 10.6 35.7 39.3 19.0 15.4 17.6 41.4 9.0 9.8 7.0 3.7 5.6 10.4 35.8 39.5 21.3 15.1 18.1 41.9 9.3 9.9 8.1 5.2 5.1 10.6 36.6 40.5 20.3 15.7 17.8 42.4 9.0 9.8 6.5 4.7 4.8 10.4 36.3 39.9 22.0 16.9 18.9 41.9 9.3 10.0 8.6 3.9 4.4 10.8 36.6 40.6 19.7 16.3 19.6 42.8 9.0 9.8 7.8 4.1 5.8 10.4 36.3 40.5 18.7 16.4 20.1 42.6 9.0 9.9 7.1 4.5 5.1 10.5 35.1 38.6 20.3 18.9 19.2 40.3 9.1 10.0 8.2 3.1 5.7 10.4 35.6 39.3 22.1 16.8 18.1 41.6 8.8 9.6 7.2 4.6 4.0 10.3 –0.3 3 –0.2 0.2 1.2 3 –0.8 –0.1 –0.4 3 –0.1 –0.4 –0.8 –1.1 0.0

22.6 23.7 17.4 16.5 17.8 24.7 14.5 15.4 10.2 9.1 13.6 15.7

24.9 26.1 21.2 16.2 20.8 26.7 15.1 15.8 10.0 11.6 12.9 16.2

24.5 25.8 18.7 16.7 21.0 26.4 15.1 15.9 11.4 9.4 13.2 16.4

23.8 24.7 22.5 16.2 18.3 25.5 15.9 16.7 11.8 10.9 14.4 16.9

22.8 24.0 17.1 15.3 19.6 24.7 16.1 17.0 12.7 10.8 14.0 17.2

24.1 25.1 18.0 18.9 17.9 26.2 16.0 17.0 10.9 11.1 14.1 17.4

23.3 24.7 17.4 15.7 19.7 25.2 15.7 16.6 11.8 11.1 13.4 16.9

23.7 24.8 17.7 17.4 18.0 25.4 15.8 16.6 12.0 12.5 14.0 16.9

23.2 24.4 17.7 15.8 19.4 24.3 16.0 17.0 11.4 11.6 12.6 17.6

23.1 24.3 18.3 15.3 17.9 24.4 16.5 17.2 12.9 12.1 13.7 17.5

0.0 0.0 –0.3 –0.2 –0.2 –0.2 1.0 3 1.0 3 2.1 3 1.6 3 0.5 1.0 3 –0.7 3 –0.6 3 –1.3 3 –0.2 –0.6 –0.7 3 –0.6 3 –0.5 –1.2 –1.0 –1.3 –0.3

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

17.0 17.8 16.0 8.5 11.9 18.2 9.8 10.2 8.4 6.0 8.4 10.4

17.4 18.7 13.0 10.0 14.6 19.0 10.0 10.7 8.0 6.3 8.2 10.5

16.6 17.4 14.1 10.9 12.1 17.4 10.0 10.4 8.5 6.3 7.1 10.4

16.8 18.0 13.8 8.8 12.5 17.8 9.8 10.4 8.1 5.7 8.9 10.4

16.8 17.9 13.1 10.1 12.1 18.5 9.8 10.4 7.4 6.5 8.9 10.4

16.3 17.2 13.3 10.5 11.5 17.2 9.2 9.7 7.5 6.2 7.8 9.8

16.1 17.1 13.2 9.9 12.4 17.5 9.8 10.4 9.0 6.1 7.5 10.3

16.6 17.8 12.0 10.0 10.9 18.2 9.8 10.5 8.4 4.9 7.0 10.7

15.6 16.8 11.3 8.9 11.3 16.9 9.2 9.8 7.1 5.9 7.7 9.9

15.2 16.0 12.5 9.4 10.4 16.5 8.8 9.2 7.6 5.8 5.9 9.4

- - - Data not available. 0.0 Annual percent change (APC) is greater than –0.05 but less than 0.05. 1 Annual percent change (APC) has been calculated by fitting a linear regression model to the natural logarithm of the yearly rates from 1990–2003. 2 Age adjusted by 5-year age groups to the year 2000 U.S. standard population. Age-adjusted rates are based on at least 25 cases. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 3 APC is significantly different from 0 (p < 0.05). 4 Estimates for American Indian or Alaska Native population include data from Alaska, Atlanta, Connecticut, Detroit, Iowa, New Mexico, Seattle, and Utah. Estimates for American Indian or Alaska Native are not shown for some sites because of the small number of annual cases. Rates for American Indian or Alaska Native are suppressed for diagnosis year 2003 because of on-going research to ensure proper identification of cases among this population. American Indian or Alaska Native APC estimates are based on the time period 1990–2002 rather than 1990–2003. 5 Hispanic data exclude data from Alaska, Hawaii, and Seattle. The race groups, white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. The NAACCR Hispanic Identification Algorithm was used on a combination of variables to classify cases as Hispanic for analytic purposes. See the report, NAACCR Guideline for Enhancing Hispanic-Latino Identification, for more information; available from: seer.cancer.gov/seerstat/variables/seer/yr1973_2003/race_ethnicity/. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin. 6 Includes corpus uteri only cases and not uterus, not elsewhere specified cases. NOTES: See Appendix II, Incidence. Estimates are based on 13 SEER areas November 2005 submission and differ from published estimates based on 9 SEER areas or other submission dates. See Appendix I, SEER. The site variable distinguishes Kaposi Sarcoma and Mesothelioma as individual cancer sites. As a result, Kaposi Sarcoma and Mesothelioma cases do not contribute to other cancer sites. Numbers have been revised and differ from previous editions of Health, United States. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Available from: www.seer.cancer.gov.

246

Health, United States, 2006

Table 54. Five-year relative cancer survival rates for selected cancer sites, by race and sex: Selected geographic areas, selected years 1975–1977 through 1996–2002
[Data are based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program’s 9 population-based cancer registries]

Click here for spreadsheet version

White Sex and site Both sexes All sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oral cavity and pharynx. . Esophagus. . . . . . . . . . . Stomach . . . . . . . . . . . . Colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectum . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pancreas . . . . . . . . . . . . Lung and bronchus . . . . . Urinary bladder. . . . . . . . Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Leukemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50.9 54.5 5.7 14.7 51.6 49.2 2.5 12.8 74.3 48.3 35.8 52.7 55.0 7.5 16.9 56.7 53.7 2.8 13.9 79.2 52.7 40.1 57.7 56.6 11.0 19.1 61.7 59.5 3.4 13.8 81.4 52.7 45.3 62.4 58.8 13.5 19.4 64.0 61.3 4.6 14.6 82.0 52.9 47.8 64.0 61.4 14.6 20.9 62.1 62.4 4.3 15.3 83.4 54.8 49.6 1975– 1977 1981– 1983 1987– 1989 1990– 1992 1993– 1995 1996– 2002 1975– 1977

Black or African American 1981– 1983 1987– 1989 1990– 1992 1993– 1995 1996– 2002

Percent of patients 67.5 62.2 17.1 21.9 66.1 66.4 4.9 15.8 82.9 64.0 50.3 39.8 36.4 3.1 16.3 46.3 45.0 2.3 11.5 50.4 48.4 33.4 39.5 31.6 4.3 17.2 49.7 40.9 3.7 11.7 60.2 50.4 34.2 43.7 34.6 6.4 19.9 53.2 53.6 5.7 11.2 63.4 47.5 37.0 48.3 33.5 9.4 24.5 54.4 52.0 3.6 10.8 64.8 42.2 37.2 53.4 38.7 7.6 20.0 52.5 55.4 3.7 13.2 62.7 42.1 42.2 57.2 39.9 11.9 23.3 54.3 58.6 4.7 12.8 64.5 56.3 38.7

Male All sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oral cavity and pharynx. . Esophagus. . . . . . . . . . . Stomach . . . . . . . . . . . . Colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectum . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pancreas . . . . . . . . . . . . Lung and bronchus . . . . . Prostate gland . . . . . . . . Urinary bladder. . . . . . . . Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Leukemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43.2 53.9 5.1 13.7 51.1 48.3 2.7 11.5 69.6 75.5 47.7 34.8

47.5 53.8 6.8 16.0 57.5 52.3 2.3 12.3 75.0 80.3 52.4 40.0

53.3 54.3 11.4 16.0 62.5 59.8 3.2 12.5 85.4 83.5 49.2 47.4

61.5 57.2 12.8 16.4 64.5 60.6 4.4 13.0 95.8 84.4 48.4 48.0

63.5 60.8 14.8 19.7 62.5 61.6 4.0 13.3 98.3 85.2 51.0 50.5

67.8 62.0 16.9 20.5 67.6 66.0 5.3 13.7 99.9 84.2 62.5 50.5

32.7 30.2 1.6 16.4 45.3 41.6 2.7 10.7 61.3 56.4 41.4 30.4

34.2 26.3 3.6 17.1 46.0 38.2 4.0 10.5 63.7 65.5 49.5 33.7

38.8 30.4 5.0 17.2 51.6 49.0 5.1 11.1 72.2 68.0 42.6 35.0

47.5 28.6 9.8 23.7 56.2 54.2 3.2 9.6 85.9 67.9 38.2 31.3

54.7 33.4 8.1 18.0 52.2 53.7 3.5 11.7 93.7 70.4 35.6 42.0

60.3 35.1 10.8 21.2 56.3 57.9 3.2 11.3 98.0 68.9 52.9 39.4

Female All sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectum . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pancreas . . . . . . . . . . . . Lung and bronchus . . . . . Melanoma of skin . . . . . . Breast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cervix uteri . . . . . . . . . . Corpus uteri 1 . . . . . . . . . Ovary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57.7 52.0 50.3 2.2 16.0 86.5 75.8 70.6 89.0 36.4 48.9

57.5 56.0 55.3 3.3 17.0 87.7 77.7 68.9 83.9 40.2 53.0

62.0 60.9 59.2 3.5 15.8 91.3 85.3 73.6 85.7 39.9 57.1

63.5 63.6 62.2 4.8 16.7 92.1 86.7 71.9 87.2 42.5 58.6

64.4 61.7 63.3 4.5 17.8 92.8 88.0 74.7 86.6 42.6 59.6

67.1 64.8 66.9 4.5 18.0 93.9 90.1 74.6 87.0 44.6 65.8

47.2 46.7 47.8 2.0 14.0 * 62.5 64.8 61.8 43.4 56.1

45.5 52.4 43.5 3.2 14.9 * 64.0 61.6 54.4 39.3 51.5

48.9 54.5 58.0 6.1 11.5 90.5 71.2 58.4 59.3 35.5 53.5

49.2 53.0 49.4 4.0 12.9 * 71.6 58.6 57.1 36.8 47.8

51.8 52.6 57.2 3.8 15.8 * 72.9 64.3 62.3 42.6 54.5

53.9 52.7 59.2 5.8 14.9 75.0 77.3 66.3 62.2 38.9 60.7

* Data for population groups with fewer than 25 cases are not shown because estimates are considered unreliable. 1 Includes corpus uteri only cases and not uterus, not elsewhere specified cases. NOTES: Rates are based on followup of patients through 2003. The rate is the ratio of the observed survival rate for the patient group to the expected survival rate for persons in the general population similar to the patient group with respect to age, sex, race, and calendar year of observation. It estimates the chance of surviving the effects of cancer. The site variable distinguishes Kaposi Sarcoma and Mesothelioma as individual cancer sites. As a result, Kaposi Sarcoma and Mesothelioma cases are excluded from each of the sites shown except all sites combined. The race groups, white and black, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Due to death certificate race-ethnicity classification and other methodological issues related to developing life tables, survival rates for race-ethnicity groups other than white and black are not calculated. Numbers have been revised and differ from previous editions of Health, United States. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Available from: www.seer.cancer.gov.

Health, United States, 2006

247

Table 55. Diabetes among adults 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin: United States, 1988–1994 and 2001–2004
[Data are based on interviews and physical examinations of a sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population]

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Physician-diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes 1,2 Sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin 3 20 years and over, age adjusted 4 All persons 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 years and All persons 5 . . . . . . Male . . . . . . . . . . . Female. . . . . . . . . . over, crude .............. .............. .............. 1988–1994 2001–2004

Physician-diagnosed diabetes 1 1988–1994 2001–2004

Undiagnosed diabetes 2 1988–1994 2001–2004

Percent of population 8.4 8.8 8.0 7.5 12.6 14.1 10.3 11.8 8.9 8.9 14.3 14.9 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.0 8.6 9.7 7.3 7.6 7.1 6.2 11.4 11.8 3.0 3.5 2.6 2.6 4.2 4.7 3.0 4.3 1.8 2.8 *3.1 3.3

7.8 7.9 7.8 7.5 10.4 9.0

10.0 11.2 8.9 9.4 12.7 9.2

5.1 4.8 5.4 5.0 6.9 5.6

7.2 7.2 7.2 6.5 10.1 7.0

2.7 3.0 2.4 2.5 3.4 3.4

2.9 4.0 1.8 2.9 *2.6 *2.1

Not Hispanic or Latino: White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only . . . . . Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age 20–39 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–59 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6 8.9 18.9

2.3 11.0 22.5

1.1 5.5 12.8

1.6 7.9 16.2

0.6 3.4 6.1

* 3.0 6.3

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error (RSE) of 20%–30%. Data not shown have an RSE of greater than 30%. 1 Physician-diagnosed diabetes was obtained by self-report and excludes women who reported having diabetes only during pregnancy. 2 Undiagnosed diabetes is defined as a fasting blood glucose of at least 126 mg/dL and no reported physician diagnosis. 3 Persons of Mexican origin may be of any race. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are tabulated according to the 1997 Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. The two non-Hispanic race categories shown in the table conform to the 1997 Standards. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are for persons who reported only one racial group. Prior to data year 1999, estimates were tabulated according to the 1977 Standards. Estimates for single-race categories prior to 1999 included persons who reported one race or, if they reported more than one race, identified one race as best representing their race. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race. 4 Estimates are age adjusted to the year 2000 standard population using three age groups: 20–39 years, 40–59 years, and 60 years and over. Age-adjusted estimates in this table may differ from other age-adjusted estimates based on the same data and presented elsewhere if different age groups are used in the adjustment procedure. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 5 Includes all other races and Hispanic origins not shown separately. NOTES: Standard errors are available in the spreadsheet version of this table. Available from: www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm. Data have been revised and differ from previous editions of Health, United States. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III. SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

248

Health, United States, 2006

Table 56 (page 1 of 2). Severe headache or migraine, low back pain, and neck pain among adults 18 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1997–2004
[Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population]

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Neck pain 1

Severe headache or migraine 1 Characteristic 1997 2003 2004

Low back pain 1 1997 2003 2004 1997

2003

2004

Total, age-adjusted 2,3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total, crude 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age 18–44 years . . . . . . 18–24 years. . . . . 25–44 years. . . . . 45–64 years . . . . . . 45–54 years. . . . . 55–64 years. . . . . 65 years and over . . 65–74 years. . . . . 75 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15.8 16.0

15.1 15.2

Percent of adults with pain during past 3 months 15.3 28.2 27.4 27.1 14.7 15.3 28.1 27.5 27.2 14.6

14.7 14.8

14.6 14.8

18.7 18.7 18.7 15.8 17.8 12.7 7.0 8.2 5.4

17.8 16.8 18.1 15.1 16.5 13.1 6.9 7.9 5.7

18.4 18.4 18.4 15.0 16.9 12.4 6.2 7.1 5.1

26.1 21.9 27.3 31.3 31.3 31.2 29.5 30.2 28.6

24.2 19.6 25.8 31.5 30.2 33.4 29.9 30.8 28.9

23.9 19.2 25.5 30.8 29.5 32.6 30.4 28.5 32.5

13.3 9.8 14.3 17.0 17.3 16.6 15.0 15.0 15.0

12.5 9.1 13.7 18.2 17.9 18.5 15.1 15.6 14.5

12.4 8.9 13.6 18.7 18.1 19.5 14.4 13.9 15.0

Sex 2 Male. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex and age Male: 18–44 years. 45–54 years. 55–64 years. 65–74 years. 75 years and Female: 18–44 years. 45–54 years. 55–64 years. 65–74 years. 75 years and .... .... .... .... over .... .... .... .... over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.9 21.4

9.2 20.7

9.7 20.7

26.5 29.6

25.1 29.4

25.0 29.0

12.6 16.6

12.0 17.1

12.1 17.0

11.9 10.3 8.8 5.0 *2.4 25.4 24.9 16.3 10.7 7.4

10.8 9.7 8.5 5.8 3.2 24.6 22.9 17.5 9.6 7.4

11.0 11.2 8.8 5.6 3.8 25.6 22.3 15.7 8.2 6.0

24.8 29.4 30.7 29.0 22.5 27.3 33.1 31.7 31.1 32.4

22.4 29.3 30.5 25.6 25.1 26.0 31.1 36.1 35.0 31.4

22.0 27.4 31.2 25.7 29.1 25.8 31.6 33.9 30.9 34.6

11.6 13.9 14.6 13.6 12.6 14.9 20.6 18.4 16.1 16.5

10.3 14.7 15.2 12.5 12.6 14.7 21.0 21.6 18.2 15.8

10.0 14.6 17.0 11.8 13.0 14.9 21.4 21.7 15.6 16.3

Race 2,4 White only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only . . . . . . American Indian or Alaska Native only . Asian only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 or more races. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hispanic origin and race 2,4 Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mexican. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino . . . . . . . . . . . . White only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only. . . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

15.9 16.7 18.9 11.7 -----

15.1 15.2 28.6 11.9 * 23.2

15.5 15.0 19.1 10.1 * 24.8

28.7 26.9 33.3 21.0 -----

27.9 25.0 32.2 19.7 * 34.9

27.8 24.0 35.3 18.3 * 34.4

15.1 13.3 16.2 9.2 -----

15.2 12.1 17.4 9.1 * 20.5

15.4 10.8 18.8 9.0 * 19.0

........ ........

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

15.5 14.6 15.9 16.1 16.8

15.9 15.3 15.2 15.3 15.2

15.7 15.8 15.5 15.8 15.0

26.4 25.2 28.4 29.1 26.9

26.5 24.6 27.6 28.4 24.9

23.6 22.1 27.6 28.7 23.8

13.9 12.9 14.9 15.4 13.3

14.6 12.5 14.9 15.6 12.0

13.4 12.7 15.0 16.0 10.7

Education 5,6 25 years of age and over: No high school diploma or GED. . . . . . . . . . . . High school diploma or GED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some college or more. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
See footnotes at end of table.

19.2 16.0 13.8

17.7 15.3 13.8

18.7 14.6 14.1

33.6 30.2 26.9

31.6 29.6 27.3

33.3 29.7 26.2

16.5 15.5 14.6

17.0 14.8 15.3

18.1 15.5 14.7

Health, United States, 2006

249

Table 56 (page 2 of 2). Severe headache or migraine, low back pain, and neck pain among adults 18 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1997–2004
[Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population]

Click here for spreadsheet version
Neck pain 1

Severe headache or migraine 1 Characteristic Percent of Below 100% . . . . . . . 100%-less than 200% 200% or more . . . . . . poverty level 2,7 .................... .................... .................... 1997 2003 2004

Low back pain 1 1997 2003 2004 1997

2003

2004

Percent of adults with pain during the past 3 months 23.3 18.9 13.8 21.0 18.7 13.3 20.8 18.8 13.6 35.4 30.8 26.3 33.2 30.6 25.8 32.9 29.8 25.7 18.6 16.1 13.8 17.9 16.3 13.8 18.6 16.0 13.8

Hispanic origin and race and percent of poverty level 2,4,7 Hispanic or Latino: Below 100% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%-less than 200% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200% or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not Hispanic or Latino: White only: Below 100% . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%-less than 200% . . . . . 200% or more. . . . . . . . . . . Black or African American only: Below 100% . . . . . . . . . . . . 100%-less than 200% . . . . . 200% or more. . . . . . . . . . .

18.9 15.7 13.4

19.8 16.4 13.8

19.6 16.8 13.3

29.5 26.8 24.3

29.7 26.6 25.3

27.3 24.1 21.9

16.4 12.9 13.3

16.1 16.9 12.9

16.6 13.2 12.1

............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............

26.2 20.1 14.1 22.7 17.6 13.4

21.7 21.0 13.6 21.0 15.9 12.5

22.8 21.3 14.1 19.4 16.5 12.6

38.9 33.3 27.1 34.5 27.7 23.1

35.9 33.0 26.8 31.2 27.6 22.0

37.2 33.9 27.0 30.9 26.3 20.6

20.5 18.0 14.4 17.9 14.0 10.9

19.7 18.0 14.7 16.0 12.7 10.3

22.3 19.0 14.9 14.3 10.7 9.6

Northeast Midwest . South . . . West . . .

. . . .

. . . .
8

. . . .

Geographic region 2 ............... ............... ............... ...............

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

14.5 15.6 17.1 15.3

14.1 14.9 15.6 15.6

13.3 15.9 15.8 15.7

27.1 28.7 27.5 30.0

27.3 29.0 25.1 29.5

27.7 28.5 26.0 27.0

14.0 15.3 13.9 16.1

14.3 15.2 13.5 16.5

14.9 14.9 13.6 15.9

Location of residence 2 Within MSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Outside MSA 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15.2 18.1

14.6 17.4

14.6 18.3

27.0 32.5

26.5 30.7

26.2 30.4

14.2 16.4

14.5 15.2

14.1 16.7

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error (RSE) of 20%–30%. Data not shown have an RSE greater than 30%. - - - Data not available. 1 In three separate questions, respondents were asked, ‘‘During the past 3 months, did you have a severe headache or migraine? ...low back pain? ...neck pain?’’ Respondents were instructed to report pain that had lasted a whole day or more and, conversely, not to report fleeting or minor aches or pains. Persons may be represented in more than one column. 2 Estimates are age adjusted to the year 2000 standard population using five age groups: 18–44 years, 45–54 years, 55–64 years, 65–74 years, and 75 years and over. Age-adjusted estimates in this table may differ from other age-adjusted estimates based on the same data and presented elsewhere if different age groups are used in the adjustment procedure. See Appendix II, Age adjustment. 3 Includes all other races not shown separately and unknown education level. 4 The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and 2 or more races, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are tabulated according to the 1997 Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. The five single race categories plus multiple race categories shown in the table conform to the 1997 Standards. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are for persons who reported only one racial group; the category 2 or more races inc