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1. Cipher Activity

2. Introduction

3. Encryption

4. Decryption

5. Discussion

6. Exercise

**The railfence cipher is an easy to apply transposition cipher that jumbles up the order of the letters of
**

a message in a quick convenient way. It also has the security of a key to make it a little bit harder to

break.

The Rail Fence cipher works by writing your message on alternate lines across the page, and then

reading off each line in turn. For example, the plaintext "defend the east wall" is written as shown

below, with all spaces removed.

The simplest Rail Fence Cipher, where each letter is written in a zigzag pattern across the page.

The ciphertext is then read off by writing the top row first, followed by the bottom row, to get

"DFNTEATALEEDHESWL".

Encryption

To encrypt a message using the Rail Fence Cipher, you have to write your message in zigzag lines

across the page, and then read off each row. Firstly, you need to have a key, which for this cipher is

the number of rows you are going to have. You then start writing the letters of the plaintext diagonally

down to the right until you reach the number of rows specified by the key. You then bounce back up

diagonally until you hit the first row again. This continues until the end of the plaintext.

For the plaintext we used above, "defend the east wall", with a key of 3, we get the encryption process

shown below.

From this we can now read the plaintext off following the diagonals to get "they are attacking from the north". The Rail Fence Cipher with a key of 3. The third stage in the decryption process. These are called nulls. You then dash the diagonal down spaces until you get back to the top row. and dashes diagonally downwards where the letters will be. it makes the decryption process a lot easier if the message has this layout. if you receive the ciphertext "TEKOOHRACIRMNREATANFTETYTGHH". We start by making a grid with as many rows as the key is. and even more quickly with a computer. we get the successive stages shown below. Notice the nulls added at the end of the message to make it the right length. This can be . The fourth and final stage in the decryption process. Although not necessary. we place the next letter in the ciphertext. and as many columns as the length of the ciphertext. but leaving a dash in place of the spaces yet to be occupied. the length of the message needs to be at lease twice the key. The first row of the decryption process for the Rail Fence Cipher. Note that at the end of the message we have inserted two "X"s. The ciphertext is read off row by row to get "DNETLEEDHESWLXFTAAX". Discussion The Rail Fence Cipher is a very easy to apply transposition cipher. you start by placing the "T" in the first square. and 28 columns as the ciphertext has length 28. you can replace all the dashes with the corresponding letters. and start the next row when you reach the end. We do this to make the message fit neatly in to the grid (so that there are the same number of letters on the top row. Continue like this across the row. For example. encrypted with a key of 4. and place the "E" here. since there are a limited number of usable keys. The second stage in the decryption process. Gradually. When we get back to the top row. and read off the plaintext from the table. However. Decryption The decryption process for the Rail Fence Cipher involves reconstructing the diagonal grid used to encrypt the message. especially for short messages (for there to be enough movement of letters. You could process these quite quickly by hand. Continuing to fill the top row you get the pattern below. as an interceptor can use them to identify where the end of the line is. Continuing this row-by-row. We start writing the message. it is not particularly secure. We have a table with 4 rows because the key is 4. We then place the first letter in the top left square. and so have a sensible guess at the key. as on the bottom row. but preferably 3 times the key). and act as placeholders. The use of nulls can also have a detrimental effect on the security of the cipher.

Encryption 3. is to keep the spaces as characters. lets encrypt the plaintext "abort the mission. The plaintext is written in a grid. . you use the Route assigned.averted by using a more common letter. to fill the null spaces. Once the plaintext is written out in the grid. The Rail Fence Cipher can also be utilised without the use of nulls. lets say 5. using the plaintext "defend the east wall" with a key of 3 again. For example. This could be spiralling inwards from the top right corner in a clockwise direction. One way to also make the encryption a little bit more secure. They are treated in exactly the same way as any other letter. As an example. and then read off following the route chosen Encryption First we write the plaintext in a block of reasonable size for the plaintext. as it will still be clear to the recipient that these are not part of the message as they will appear at the end of the plaintext. Colour is used to emphasise where spaces are. but this time including spaces we get the table below. Part of your key is the size of this grid. The Rail Fence Cipher with spaces left in the message. you have been spotted". against the blank squares of the table. or zigzagging up and down. so you need to decide on either a number of columns or number of rows in the grid before starting. First we need to decide on the number of columns we are going to use. such as "E". Discussion The Route Cipher is a transposition cipher where the key is which route to follow when reading the ciphertext from the block created with the plaintext. Route Cipher 1. Introduction 2. Decryption 4. and include them in the encryption table. So the ciphertext would read "DNHAWXEEDTEES ALF TL".

the cipher clerks would even add whole null words to the ciphertext. with a grid width of 4. for a suitably lengthy message. reading off the plaintext we get "We are discovered". Rather than transposing letters by the given route. Discussion The Route Cipher is easy to use to jumble up a message very quickly. The plaintext written in a grid with 5 columns. and then place the ciphertext letters in the grid following the route specified. of vital importance were not protected in this way. direction. there are potentially infinitely many different routes that could be taken through the grid. We at the top right square. Some words. An historical use of the Route Cipher was the Union Route Cipher used by the Union forces during the American Civil War. Sometimes. With a route of spiralling inwards counter-clockwise from the bottom right we get: "XTEAN ITROB ATSYV NTEDX OEHOM EHSOE SPBUI". We then choose which route we want to use to encrypt the message. characters in the ciphertext. we need to know the route used and the width or height of the grid. to decrypt the ciphertext "RAEWE CREDX ESIDO V" with the route spiral inwards counter-clockwise from the top right. Decryption To decrypt a message received that has been encoded with the Route Cipher. we follow the process shown below We start by drawing a grid that is 4x4. Notice how we have used nulls at the end of the message to make a nice rectangle. often making the message humorous. it moved whole words around. It has some problems depending on what route you pick as you can end up with large chunks of plaintext in the right order within the ciphertext (or simply reversed) which gives away alot about the width of the grid and the route used. For example. However. Now. Careful selection of the route is important. With a route of reading down the columns we get the ciphertext: "ATSYV NTBHS OESEO EIUBP DRMOH EOXTI NAETX". and begin to Continue in the spiralling direction until since the width is 4. Columnar Transposition . so they were first encoded using a codeword. It is limited only by imagination and ease of communication of the route. We then start by constructing a blank grid of the right size. and there are 16 spiral inwards in a counter-clockwise the whole ciphertext is placed in the grid.

it is the Route Cipher where the route is to read down each column in order.Columnar Transposition involves writing the plaintext out in rows. we do the one that appears first. Firstly. The final ciphertext is thus "TINES AXEOA HTFXH TLTHE YMAII AIXTA PNGDL OSTNH MX". The plaintext is written in a grid beneath the keyword. So far this is no different to a specific route cipher. If a letter is repeated. We write the plaintext out in a grid where the number of columns is the number of letters in the keyword. then the next and so on. We now move to the column headed by "M". For example. and read down the columns in this order. the plaintext "a simple transposition" with 5 columns looks like the grid below If we now read down each column we get the ciphertext "ALNISESTITPIMROOPASN". The numbers represent the alphabetical order of the keyword. Notice that the first "O" is 3 and the second "O" is 4. We have written the keyword above the grid of the plaintext. as well as to ascertain how many columns to use. Starting with the column headed by "A". and so the order in which the columns will be read. We take the letters in the keyword in alphabetical order. Encryption We first pick a keyword for our encryption. Plaintext written across 5 columns. and so on through the letters of the keyword in alphabetical order to get the ciphertext "TINESAX / EOAHTFX / HTLTHEY / MAIIAIX / TAPNGDL / OSTNHMX" (where the / tells you where a new column starts). Decryption The decryption process is significantly easier if nulls have been used to pad out the message in the encryption process. let's encrypt the message "The tomato is a plant in the nightshade family" using the keyword tomato. and the same thing for the two "T"s. Below we shall talk about how to go about decrypting a message in both scenarios. The answer to this is the number of rows you need to add to the grid. We then title each column with the respective letter from the keyword. . if nulls have been used. Columnar Transposition builds in a keyword to order the way we read the columns. You must then divide the length of the ciphertext by the length of the keyword. and also the numbers telling us which order to read the columns in. then you start by writing out the keyword and the alphabetical order of the letters of the keyword. and then reading the ciphertext off in columns. As an example. We get the grid given below. In its simplest form. our ciphertext begins "TINESAX" from this column.

The next letter becomes the first letter in the second column (by the alphabetical order of the keyword). After inserting the third column. After inserting the second column. we shall decrypt the ciphertext "ARESA SXOST HEYLO IIAIE XPENG DLLTA HTFAX TENHM WX" given the keyword potato. We then multiply this number by the length of the keyword. Now we start by filling in the columns in the order given by the alphabetical order of the keyword. We divide the length of the ciphertext by the length of the keyword. to find out how many boxes there are in total in the grid. then we round the answer up to the next whole number. There are 42 letters in the ciphertext. We have the keyword and the order of the letters in the keyword. but this is likely to not be a whole number. Finally. We also know there are 7 rows.You then write the ciphertext down the first column until you reach the last row. and so on. starting with the column headed by "A". As an example. We start by writing out the keyword and the order of the letters. If this is the case. Now we read off the plaintext row at a time to get "potatoes are in the nightshade family as well". and the keyword has six letters. When no nulls have been used we have to do a slightly different calculation. we take the length of the ciphertext away from this answer. After the first column is entered we have the grid shown to the right. so we need 42 ÷ 6 = 7 rows. We continue to add columns in the order specified by the keyword. The completely reconstructed grid. Thie number (which should be less than the length of the key) is how many nulls there would have .

One of the key benefits of a transposition cipher over a substitution cipher is that they can be applied more than once. To decrypt the ciphertext "ARESA SOSTH EYLOI IAIEP ENGDL LTAHT FATEN HMW". and provides a better mixing effect than the railfence cipher. This time. Whe we multiply 6 x 7 we get 42. but then to use the same (or a different) keyword and to plug this ciphertext into the grid and read off the rows again.been if used. which is 7. so we need to black out these last few boxes. so we don't put letters in them whilst decrypting. we start similarly to above. Finally. Discussion Columnar Transposition has the security of a transposition cipher with the extra befefit of utilizing a keyword. We round this up to the next number. the Columnar Transposition cipher could be applied twice on the plaintext. by heading the columns with the keyword potato. but block out the last 4 After inserting the ciphertext column by column we get this grid. we read off the plaintext in rows. . until the invention of the VIC Cipher. in the same way as above. we do 38 ÷ 6 = 6. This is easier to remember than some complex route. to reveal the same plaintext as the other example. Double Transposition was seen as the most secure cipher for a field agent to use reliably under difficult circumstances.3333.38 = 4. In fact. We write the keyword and order as above. This is done by following the process above to produce some ciphertext. This double transposition increases the security of the cipher significantly. "potatoes are in the nightshade family as well". Hence we need 4 placeholders in the last row. to find how many rows we need. Our example above would give us We put the plaintext into the grid below the keyword tomato to get We now write the ciphertext retrieved from the grid to the left in the ciphertext "TINES AXEOA HTFXH TLTHE YMAII AIXTA the grid in rows as if it was the plaintext. so we need 7 rows. we get the grid on the right. We get the grid below to the left. PNGDL OSTNH MX" After this double transposition. For example. After pluggin the ciphertext letters in. we get the ciphertext "EATMX DHNOH YIGNI EXEAN TATTI AOXTX FHIPS SHLAT LM". It could also be implemented with a different keyword for the second iteration of the cipher. and 42 . spaces as we know these are not needed from the calculations done above.

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