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Camera Geometry Alignment Final

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You are on page 1of 118

Josef Sivic

http://www.di.ens.fr/~josef

INRIA, WILLOW, ENS/INRIA/CNRS UMR 8548

Laboratoire dInformatique, Ecole Normale Suprieure, Paris

Philbin, J. Ponce, D. Nister, C. Schmid, N. Snavely, A. Zisserman

Outline

Perspective projection

Affine projection

Projection of planes

Correspondence

Semi-local and global geometric relations

Robust estimation RANSAC and Hough Transform

Motivation: Stitching panoramas

Feature-based alignment outline

Feature-based alignment outline

Extract features

Feature-based alignment outline

Extract features

Compute putative matches

Feature-based alignment outline

Extract features

Compute putative matches

Loop:

Hypothesize transformation T (small group of putative

matches that are related by T)

Feature-based alignment outline

Extract features

Compute putative matches

Loop:

Hypothesize transformation T (small group of putative

matches that are related by T)

Verify transformation (search for other matches

consistent with T)

Feature-based alignment outline

Extract features

Compute putative matches

Loop:

Hypothesize transformation T (small group of putative

matches that are related by T)

Verify transformation (search for other matches

consistent with T)

2D transformation models

Similarity

(translation,

scale, rotation)

Affine

Projective

(homography)

Camera geometry

They are formed by the projection of 3D objects.

Animal eye: a looonnng time ago. Photographic camera:

Niepce, 1816.

Camera obscura: XVIth Century.

Pompei painting, 2000 years ago.

Brunelleschi, 1415

Pinhole Perspective Equation

(retina) ordinate system

World point

Principal axis

Camera center

Imaged

point

T y' O z

P = (x, y,z)

f' y

T

P'= (x', y')

NOTE: z is always negative..

Affine projection models: Weak perspective projection

is the magnification.

When the scene relief is small compared its distance from the

Camera, m can be taken constant: weak perspective projection.

Affine projection models: Orthographic projection

(roughly constant) distance

from the scene, take m=1.

Strong perspective:

Angles are not preserved

The projections of parallel lines intersect at one point

From Zisserman & Hartley

Strong perspective:

Angles are not preserved

The projections of parallel

lines intersect at one point

Weak perspective:

Angles are better preserved

The projections of parallel lines

are (almost) parallel

Beyond pinhole camera model: Geometric Distortion

Rectification

Radial Distortion Model

Perspective x,y: World coordinates

Projection x,y: Image coordinates

f: pinhole-to-retina distance

Projection (Affine) x,y: Image coordinates

m: magnification

Orthographic x,y: World coordinates

Projection (Affine) x,y: Image coordinates

Common distortion x,y: Ideal image

model coordinates

x,y: Actual image

coordinates

Cameras and their parameters

The Intrinsic Parameters of a Camera

Units:

k,l : pixel/m

f :m

,
: pixel

Normalized Image

Coordinates

The Intrinsic Parameters of a Camera

Calibration Matrix

The Perspective

Projection Equation

Notation

Euclidean Geometry

Recall:

Coordinate Changes and Rigid Transformations

The Extrinsic Parameters of a Camera

W x

W x W W

u m12 m12 m13 m14 W P = y

1 y

v =

z m 21 m 22 m 23 m 24 W z W z

1 m31 m32 m33 m34

1

Explicit Form of the Projection Matrix

Note:

Weak perspective (affine) camera zr = mT3 P = const.

1 T T T

v = z m2 P = m2 P /m3 P

r T mT P /mT P

1 m

3 3 3

u 1 m1T

= T P

v zr m2

W x

W

u a11 a12 a13

b1 y W

= W =A P + b

v a21 a22 a23 b2 z

1

A23 b21

Re-cap: imaging and camera geometry

(with a slight change of notation)

point

X

camera centre, image point and x

scene point are collinear

image

point

an image point back projects to a C

ray in 3-space

unknown camera

centre image plane

Slide credit: A. Zisserman

How a scene plane projects into an image?

Plane projective transformations

Projective transformations continued

and image plane under imaging by a perspective camera.

It is often only the 3 x 3 form of the matrix that is important in

establishing properties of this transformation.

A projective transformation is also called a ``homography''

and a ``collineation''.

H has 8 degrees of freedom.

Slide credit: A. Zisserman

Planes under affine projection

x

x1 a11 a12 a13 b1 y a11 a12 x b1

= = + = A2 2 P + b21

x 2 a21 a22 a23 b2 0 a21 a22 y b2

1

transformation (6 parameters)

Summary

transformations from planes

onto their images.

Perspective projections

induce projective

transformations from planes

onto their images.

2D transformation models

Similarity

(translation,

scale, rotation)

Affine

Projective

(homography)

When is homography a valid transformation

model?

Case I: Plane projective transformations

Case II: Cameras rotating about their centre

image plane 2

image plane 1

P = K [ I | 0 ] P = K [ R | 0 ]

H = K R K^(-1)

H depends only on the relation between the image

planes and camera centre, C, not on the 3D structure Slide credit: A. Zisserman

Case II: Cameras rotating about their centre

image plane 2

image plane 1

X

x = K[I | 0] = KX X = K 1 x

1

X

x'= K'[R | 0] = K' RX

1

1

x'= K'

x

RK

H Slide credit: A. Zisserman

Outline the rest of the lecture

Correspondence

Semi-local and global geometric relations

Robust estimation RANSAC and Hough Transform

Image matching and recognition with local features

images

P

X P/

x x'

Image points x and x are

projections X.

of the same 3D scene point

Images courtesy A. Zisserman

Example I: Wide baseline matching

Establish correspondence between two (or more) images.

reconstruction, Structure and motion estimation,

Example II: Object recognition

(multiple) images in the model database.

Model

database

Target

image

Example III: Visual search

Given a query image, find images depicting the same place /

object in a large unordered image collection.

Establish correspondence between the query image and all

images from the database depicting the same object / scene.

Query image

Database image(s)

Why is it difficult?

Want to establish correspondence despite possibly large

changes in scale, viewpoint, lighting and partial occlusion

Scale Viewpoint

Lighting Occlusion

Approach

Detect local features.

Extract descriptor for each feature.

Matching:

1. Establish tentative (putative) correspondences based on

local appearance of individual features (their descriptors).

relations.

Example I: Two images -Where is the Graffiti?

object

Step 1. Establish tentative correspondence

Establish tentative correspondences between object model image and target

image by nearest neighbour matching on SIFT vectors

space

Need to solve some variant of the nearest neighbor problem for all feature

vectors, , in the query image:

Problem with matching on local descriptors alone

each region can affine deform independently (by different amounts)

Locally appearance can be ambiguous

Example I: Two images -Where is the Graffiti?

Initial matches

Nearest-neighbor

search based on

appearance descriptors

alone.

After spatial

verification

Step 2: Spatial verification (now)

a. Semi-local constraints

Constraints on spatially close-by matches

Require a consistent global relationship between all

matches

Semi-local constraints: Example I. neighbourhood consensus

Semi-local constraints:

Example I.

neighbourhood

consensus

Original images

Tentative matches

[Schaffalitzky &

Zisserman, CIVR

2004]

After neighbourhood consensus

Semi-local constraints: Example II.

Model image

Matched image

Geometric verification with global constraints

relation / transformation.

relation / transformation and (ii) the set of consistent

matches

transformation

Epipolar geometry (not considered here)

constraint.

C C /

epipole

baseline

The corresponding point lies on this line.

Slide credit: A. Zisserman

Epipolar geometry (not considered here)

Epipolar geometry is a consequence of the coplanarity of the camera

centres and scene point

x x/

C C/

in a single plane, known as the epipolar plane

Epipolar geometry (not considered here)

x x/

C C/

where

x, x are homogeneous coordinates (3-vectors) of

corresponding image points.

freedom, called the fundamental matrix.

Slide credit: A. Zisserman

3D constraint: example (not considered here)

Matches must be consistent with a 3D model

used to build the 3D

model

Recovered 3D model

unseen pose

[Lazebnik, Rothganger, Schmid, Ponce, CVPR03]

3D constraint: example (not considered here)

With a given 3D model (set of known Xs) and a set of

measured image points x, the goal is to find find camera

matrix P and a set of geometrically consistent

correspondences x X.

X

P

C

2D transformation models

Similarity

(translation,

scale, rotation)

Affine

Projective

(homography)

Example: estimating 2D affine transformation

Simple fitting procedure (linear least squares)

Approximates viewpoint changes for roughly planar

objects and roughly orthographic cameras

Can be used to initialize fitting for more complex models

Example: estimating 2D affine transformation

Simple fitting procedure (linear least squares)

Approximates viewpoint changes for roughly planar

objects and roughly orthographic cameras

Can be used to initialize fitting for more complex models

Fitting an affine transformation

transformation?

Fitting an affine transformation

m1

m2

x i yi 0 0 1 0m3 x i

=

0 0 xi yi 0 1m4 y i

t1

t2

Each match gives us two linearly independent

equations: need at least three to solve for the

transformation parameters

Dealing with outliers

(e.g. 90%) of outliers

of all possible matches?

Possible strategies:

RANSAC

Hough transform

Strategy 1: RANSAC

RANSAC loop (Fischler & Bolles, 1981):

least-squares estimate of transformation on all of the

inliers

inliers

Example: Robust line estimation - RANSAC

1. a line fit which minimizes perpendicular distance

2. a classification into inliers (valid points) and outliers

Solution: use robust statistical estimation algorithm RANSAC

(RANdom Sample Consensus) [Fishler & Bolles, 1981]

Slide credit: A. Zisserman

RANSAC robust line estimation

Repeat

1. Select random sample of 2 points

2. Compute the line through these points

3. Measure support (number of points within threshold

distance of the line)

Choose the line with the largest number of inliers

Compute least squares fit of line to inliers (regression)

Slide credit: O. Chum

Slide credit: O. Chum

Slide credit: O. Chum

Slide credit: O. Chum

Slide credit: O. Chum

Slide credit: O. Chum

Slide credit: O. Chum

Slide credit: O. Chum

Slide credit: O. Chum

Algorithm summary RANSAC robust estimation of

2D affine transformation

Repeat

1. Select 3 point to point correspondences

2. Compute H (2x2 matrix) + t (2x1) vector for translation

3. Measure support (number of inliers within threshold

distance, i.e. d2transfer < t)

(Re-estimate (H,t) from all inliers)

How many samples?

Number of samples N

Choose N so that, with probability p, at least one random

sample is free from outliers

e.g.:

> p=0.99

> outlier ratio: e

point is an inlier

sample (of size s) are inliers

Source: M. Pollefeys

How many samples?

Number of samples N

Choose N so that, with probability p, at least one random

sample is free from outliers

e.g.:

> p=0.99

> outlier ratio: e

size s) are corrupted (contain an

outlier) proportion of outliers e

s 5% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 90%

1 2 2 3 4 5 6 43

2 2 3 5 7 11 17 458

3 3 4 7 11 19 35 4603

4 3 5 9 17 34 72 4.6e4

Probability of at least one point 5 4 6 12 26 57 146 4.6e5

in a sample (of size s) is an 6 4 7 16 37 97 293 4.6e6

outlier

7 4 8 20 54 163 588 4.6e7

8 5 9 26 78 272 1177 4.6e8

Source: M. Pollefeys

Example: line fitting

p = 0.99

s=?

e=?

N=?

Source: M. Pollefeys

Example: line fitting

p = 0.99

s=2

e = 2/10 = 0.2

N=5

proportion of outliers e

s 5% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 90%

Compare with 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 43

exhaustively trying 2 2 3 5 7 11 17 458

3 3 4 7 11 19 35 4603

all point pairs: 4 3 5 9 17 34 72 4.6e4

5 4 6 12 26 57 146 4.6e5

10 6 4 7 16 37 97 293 4.6e6

= 10*9 / 2 = 45 7 4 8 20 54 163 588 4.6e7

2 8 5 9 26 78 272 1177 4.6e8

Source: M. Pollefeys

How to reduce the number of samples needed?

2. Reduce the sample size

use simpler model (e.g. similarity instead of affine tnf.)

use local information (e.g. a region to region

correspondence is equivalent to (up to) 3 point to point

correspondences).

Number of samples N

proportion of outliers e

s 5% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 90%

1 2 2 3 4 5 6 43

2 2 3 5 7 11 17 458

3 3 4 7 11 19 35 4603

4 3 5 9 17 34 72 4.6e4

5 4 6 12 26 57 146 4.6e5

Region to region 6 4 7 16 37 97 293 4.6e6

correspondence

7 4 8 20 54 163 588 4.6e7

8 5 9 26 78 272 1177 4.6e8

RANSAC (references)

M. Fischler and R. Bolles, Random Sample Consensus: A Paradigm for Model Fitting

with Applications to Image Analysis and Automated Cartography, Comm. ACM, 1981

R. Hartley and A. Zisserman, Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision, 2nd ed., 2004.

Extensions:

B. Tordoff and D. Murray, Guided Sampling and Consensus for Motion Estimation,

ECCV03

D. Nister, Preemptive RANSAC for Live Structure and Motion Estimation, ICCV03

Chum, O.; Matas, J. and Obdrzalek, S.: Enhancing RANSAC by Generalized Model

Optimization, ACCV04

Chum, O.; and Matas, J.: Matching with PROSAC - Progressive Sample Consensus ,

CVPR 2005

Philbin, J., Chum, O., Isard, M., Sivic, J. and Zisserman, A.: Object retrieval with large

vocabularies and fast spatial matching, CVPR07

Chum, O. and Matas. J.: Optimal Randomized RANSAC, PAMI08

Strategy 2: Hough Transform

Can be generalized to arbitrary shapes

Can extract feature groupings from cluttered images in

linear time.

Illustrate on extracting sets of local features consistent

with a similarity transformation.

Hough transform for object recognition

Suppose our features are scale- and rotation-covariant

Then a single feature match provides an alignment hypothesis

(translation, scale, orientation)

Target image

model

invariant keypoints, IJCV 60 (2), pp. 91-110, 2004.

Hough transform for object recognition

Suppose our features are scale- and rotation-covariant

Then a single feature match provides an alignment hypothesis

(translation, scale, orientation)

Of course, a hypothesis obtained from a single match is unreliable

Solution: Coarsely quantize the transformation space. Let each

match vote for its hypothesis in the quantized space.

model

invariant keypoints, IJCV 60 (2), pp. 91-110, 2004.

Basic algorithm outline H: 4D-accumulator array

1. Initialize accumulator H (only 2-d shown here)

to all zeros

2. For each tentative match

compute transformation tx

hypothesis: tx, ty, s,

H(tx,ty,s,) = H(tx,ty,s,) + 1

end

end ty

3. Find all bins (tx,ty,s,) where H(tx,ty,s,) has at least

three votes

transformation while mismatches will spread votes.

Cost: Linear scan through the matches (step 2),

followed by a linear scan through the accumulator

(step 3).

Hough transform details (D. Lowes system)

location, scale, and orientation of model (relative to

normalized feature frame)

Test phase: Let each match between a test and a model

feature vote in a 4D Hough space

Use broad bin sizes of 30 degrees for orientation, a factor

of 2 for scale, and 0.25 times image size for location

Vote for two closest bins in each dimension

Find all bins with at least three votes and perform

geometric verification

Estimate least squares affine transformation

Use stricter thresholds on transformation residual

Search for additional features that agree with the

alignment

Hough transform in object recognition (references)

P.V.C. Hough, Machine Analysis of Bubble Chamber Pictures, Proc. Int. Conf. High

Energy Accelerators and Instrumentation, 1959

D. Lowe, Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints, IJCV 60 (2), 2004.

H. Jegou, M. Douze, C. Schmid, Hamming embedding and weak geometric consistency

for large scale image search, ECCV2008

B. Leibe, A. Leonardis, and B. Schiele., Combined Object Categorization and

Segmentation with an Implicit Shape Model, in ECCV'04 Workshop on Statistical

Learning in Computer Vision, Prague, May 2004.

S. Maji and J. Malik, Object Detection Using a Max-Margin Hough Tranform, CVPR2009

A. Lehmann, B. Leibe, L. Van Gool. Fast PRISM: Branch and Bound Hough Transform

for Object Class Detection, IJCV (to appear), 2010.

O. Barinova, V. Lempitsky, P. Kohli, On the Detection of Multiple Object Instances using

Hough Transforms, CVPR, 2010

Comparison

Advantages Advantages

Can handle high percentage of General method suited to large range

outliers (>95%) of problems

Extracts groupings from clutter in Easy to implement

linear time Independent of number of dimensions

Disadvantages Disadvantages

Quantization issues Basic version only handles moderate

Only practical for small number of number of outliers (<50%)

dimensions (up to 4)

Probabilistic Extensions PROSAC: Progressive RANSAC

[Chum05]

Continuous Voting Space

Preemptive RANSAC [Nister05]

[Leibe08]

Can be generalized to arbitrary

shapes and objects

Beyond affine transformations

surface?

cameras that share the same center?

Beyond affine transformations

(transformation taking a quad to another arbitrary quad)

Case II: Cameras rotating about their centre

image plane 2

image plane 1

P = K [ I | 0 ] P = K [ R | 0 ]

H = K R K^(-1)

H depends only on the relation between the image

planes and camera centre, C, not on the 3D structure

Fitting a homography

image coordinates image coordinates

Fitting a homography

image coordinates image coordinates

x h11 h12 h13 x

y = h21 h22 h23 y

1 h31 h32 h33 1

Fitting a homography

x i h11 h12 h13 x i h1T

T

i y i = h21 h22 h23 y i i x i = H x i = h2 x i

1 h31 h32 h33 1 hT3

(scale is arbitrary)

x i H x i = 0

independent

Direct linear transform

arbitrary)

One match gives us two linearly independent equations

Four matches needed for a minimal solution (null space

of 8x9 matrix)

More than four: homogeneous least squares

Application: Panorama stitching

Recognizing panoramas

Given contents of a camera memory card, automatically figure out

which pictures go together and stitch them together into panoramas

1. Estimate homography (RANSAC)

1. Estimate homography (RANSAC)

1. Estimate homography (RANSAC)

2. Find connected sets of images

2. Find connected sets of images

2. Find connected sets of images

3. Stitch and blend the panoramas

Results

M. Brown, D. Lowe, B. Hearn, J. Beis

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