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F.

Enigma
1. Being given the key ´KVOTR´, resp., plain-text ´AERAT´, compute the typical Wehrmacht message.

Considering the Buchstabenkenngruppe (i.e., the letter identification group), composed of two randomly
selected letters and one of the four possible trigrams of the Kenngruppen (i.e., the discriminant for the
date), one can easily recognize which key is to be applied (i.e., by looking at the last three letters).
Thus, the trigram helps us to identify, i.e., in Februar’s Sondermachinen Schlüssel (see APPENDIX A),
Enigma machine’s daily setup, i.e., for 2nd day: (i) Walzenlage (i.e., rotor order for the date) - , , ,
Ringstellung (i.e., ring setting for the date) - 18, 17, 13 , resp., Steckerverbindungen (i.e., the plugging
for the date) - , , , , , , , , , . For this exercise, the starting position of the
Enigma rotors (i.e., Spruchschlüssel or message key) will be , , 1.

The encryption process of our first letter, i.e., ˈAˈ, is as follows: (1) signal passes, through the plug board,
towards contact ˈQˈ of the rotor II, hereinafter referred to as R2; (2) since R2 has stepped one position
forward (i.e., the fast rotor switches as soon as a key is pressed, before wiring the any signal throughout
the machine), the contact ˈQˈ finds the entrance ˈFˈ in rotor’s wirings; this is substituted to ˈIˈ which, on its
turn, is mapped to rotor’s output contact ˈTˈ (this one being also the entry of the next - mid speed - rotor,
i.e., III, hereinafter referred to as R3); (3) as R2ˈs turnover is at ˈEˈ, R3 doesn’t flip and contact ˈTˈ finds the
entrance ˈDˈ in rotor’s wirings; this is substituted to ˈHˈ which, on its turn, is mapped to rotor’s output
contact ˈXˈ (which is the eponymous correspondent of the following - low speed - rotor, i.e., I, hereinafter
referred to as R1); (4) similarly, since R3 didn’t produced R1’s flip (i.e., R3’ turnover being between ˈVˈ and
ˈWˈ), contact ˈXˈ finds the entrance ˈGˈ in the rotor; this is substituted to ˈDˈ which, on its turn, is mapped
to rotor’s output contact ˈUˈ (i.e., the input contact ˈUˈ of the reflector); (5) passing through the reflector
the signal is rewired back, towards and throughout the rotors, i.e., starting with contact ˈCˈ of R 1; (6)
contact ˈCˈ finds the entrance ˈLˈ of R1’ wirings, being mapped to rotor’s output contact ˈVˈ; (7) at R3,
contact ˈVˈ finds the entry ˈFˈ in rotor’s wirings, being mapped to output contact ˈSˈ; (8) the contact ˈSˈ is
now wired to entry ˈHˈ of R2’ wirings (i.e., recall that R2 has stepped one position forward) which, on its
turn is mapped to the output contact ˈWˈ; (9) through the plug board, the signal is rewired to output ˈDˈ
and the corresponding bulb lights up for few seconds2.
When the second key is pressed, i.e., ˈEˈ, R2 flips forward one position more and the encryption process
(i.e., wiring of the signal) goes as follows:
 = and
 = → = , = → = , = → = ,
 = , resp.,
 = ← = , = ← = , = ← = and
 = .
For the third key, i.e., ˈRˈ, wiring of the signal goes as follows:
 = and
 = → = , = → = , = → = ,
 = , resp.,
 = ← = , = ← = , = ← = and
 = .

1
Enigma machine’s daily setup, according to the above, is shown in APPENDIX B
2
This result was validated using the Enigma emulators, i.e., http://enigma.louisedade.co.uk/enigma.html, resp.,
http://users.telenet.be/d.rijmenants/EnigmaSim.zip

resp. the encryption process goes as follows:  = and  = → = . = → = . = → = . When the final key is pressed. was created at 11h00. Spruchschlüssel) DXT.For the fourth key.e.e. in these conditions the encryption process goes as follows:  = and  = → = . ˈAˈ. makes R3 to flip forward one position too. and contains 10 characters (Buchstabenkenngruppe included).e.  = ... The Buchstabenkenngruppe KVOTR shows that the key that was used is the one with Kenngruppen OTR. passing from ˈEˈ to ˈFˈ). = ← = . Trigram AAA represents the starting position (i.. R2 flips forward one position more and. resp..e... = → = . Grundstellung) to decipher the encrypted message key (i. of which this is the first. i. ˈTˈ. i. = ← = ..  = ← = . reaching its turnover point (i. = ← = and  = .  = ← = .. .e. = → = . consists of one part (1 teile). = ← = and  = .  = . The Wehrmacht message is constructed as follows: i.e.

Now. i.. Thus. i. . R: CRYPT OGRAP HYISC OOLXX (i.  = = ← = = . resp.e. Spruchschlüssel)3.. Grundstellung) and decode the second trigram to obtain the message key (i..  = = → = = . . the plugging for the date) .  = and  = = → = = .  = .  = = ← = = .  = = → = = ..  = = ← = = and  = . Ringstellung (i. .  = = → = = .e. Steckerverbindungen (i.  = = ← = = and  = . 2. resp.  = = ← = = and  = .  = = ← = = .  = ..  = and  = = → = = .  = = → = = .e. resp.  = = → = = .e.e. ring setting for the date) .. ...  = = ← = = . is shown in APPENDIX C .e.  = = ← = = .  = = ← = = . i. we will use the trigram as the start position to decode the actual message. .. .. . according to the above. according to the first trigram . resp. Decipher the following Wehrmacht message.. CRYPTOGRAPHY IS COOL. .e.  = and  = = → = = . The trigram helps us to identify..e. Next. . . for the 10th day: (i) Walzenlage (i. 13. with a padding of two X letters) 3 Enigma machine’s daily setup. 01 . . Enigma machine’s daily setup..  = = → = = . we should setup the start position (i. .18. .e. in Februar’s Sondermachinen Schlüssel (see APPENDIX A). rotor order for the date) . composed of VGRBD PBEDS KZDWV JASNZ groups.  = .

APPENDIX A .

APPENDIX B A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z R0 Y R U H Q S L D P X N G O K M I E B F Z C W V J A T 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I R1 Z N T O W Y H X U S P A I B R C J E K M F L G D Q V A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 4 6 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J R3 X V Z N Y E I W G A K M U S Q O B D F H J L C P R T A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 7 3 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N R2 M C Q G Z N P Y F V O E A J D K S I R U X B L H W T A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 2 8 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z P Q F H W B C M Z S I O N T A L P D Y X J 1 9 .

APPENDIX C A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z R0 Y R U H Q S L D P X N G O K M I E B F Z C W V J A T 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V R4 C M W B E S O V P Z J A Y Q U I R H X L N F T G K D N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M 4 6 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z R3 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K V Z N Y E I W G A K M U S Q O B D F H J L C P R T X X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W 3 7 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z R5 G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F T Y U P S D N H L X A W M J Q O F E C K V Z B R G I G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F 8 2 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z P K S R L Z J I A D O N X T C B Q Y P U F 9 1 .

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z R0 Y R U H Q S L D P X N G O K M I E B F Z C W V J A T 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V R4 C M W B E S O V P Z J A Y Q U I R H X L N F T G K D N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M 4 6 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z R3 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K V Z N Y E I W G A K M U S Q O B D F H J L C P R T X X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W 7 3 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z R5 H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G Y U P S D N H L X A W M J Q O F E C K V Z B R G I T H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G 2 8 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z P K S R L Z J I A D O N X T C B Q Y P U F 1 9 .

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z R0 Y R U H Q S L D P X N G O K M I E B F Z C W V J A T 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V R4 C M W B E S O V P Z J A Y Q U I R H X L N F T G K D N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M 6 4 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z R3 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K V Z N Y E I W G A K M U S Q O B D F H J L C P R T X X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W 3 7 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z R5 I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H U P S D N H L X A W M J Q O F E C K V Z B R G I T Y I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H 8 2 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z P K S R L Z J I A D O N X T C B Q Y P U F 9 1 .