The treasure is split into two piles.

One is yours for the taking—just follow the Style Guide and
apply the rich detailing of traditional typography to your work.
The other requires a small outlay, but what a return! The
Expert Font Guide shows how to use expert fonts to access the ac-
cumulated wealth of typographic culture.
The typesetting trade has all but vanished. For five centuries
its technology and tradespeople evolved within a clearly defined
niche, with the result that any example of the craft, pre-1970, ex-
hibits qualities of subtlety and sophistication, conforming to a
shared canon of high aesthetic standards.
Let’s pick up the torch, it sheds a lot of light.
The traditional standards of typography are not remnants of a
bygone era—they are no more obsolete than the letter A. Such
standards represent the core discipline of graphic design, so de-
pendent upon the visible word. Just as the pattern drafter’s skill is
the basis of the fashion industry, making clothes that are comfort-
able to wear and that fit without ugly wrinkles, so the traditional
standards of typography produce words that are comfortable to
read, and type that smoothly fits ideas.
These standards represent a communal value, an aesthetic for
the ages. They tap into a timeless quality of living tradition which
brings a richness and beauty to the simplest of designs. That’s the
partnership that best transmits the full power and nuance of
meaning in the written word: simple design plus quality finish.
Of course, there are no standards, per se. It’s accepted that,
like writing, there are various authorities on style. In the era of
The buried treasures
of typography
by Nick Shinn
trade typesetting each type shop had a house style, much of which
was common practice. Now it’s the responsibility of the designer
or art director.
Good typography is 90% attitude and 10% know-how.
The attitude is stated clearly in item 1.1.1 of the definitive mod-
ern work on the subject, The Elements of Typographic Style, by
Vancouver’s Robert Bringhurst:
“Typography exists to honour content.”
In other words, read the frigging copy. And care about it.
But don’t stop there. Make sure someone else proofreads it af-
ter typesetting. It’s that second set of eyes that has the objectivity
to spot mistakes and suggest improvements. After all, the best writ-
ers employ the services of editors and proofreaders to check their
prose before and after it’s typeset. Many firms don’t have literary
specialists on staff. But the same care and attention that goes into
making sure you don’t screw up the client’s 1-800 number in an
ad, misspell the product name, or offer it to the public for $13 in-
stead of $18, should be applied to the niceties of typography.
Why bother? Isn’t the trend—spearheaded by the roughshod
text of e-mail—going in the other direction?
In some contexts, yes. But manners, grooming, and profession-
alism still count for something, and it’s not called a typeface for
nothing. Typography is the surface of your client’s textual mes-
sage, and you want to make them look as good as possible. If that’s
not reason enough, bear this in mind: quality is insidious.
Nick Shinn, rgd, is an art director and type designer: www.shinntype.com.
Diggin’
it?!
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1
9
2
8
1 6 G r a p h i c E x c h a n g e
G r a p h i c E x c h a n g e 1 7
This is intended as a guide to typographic styling.
Many typographers have their own guidelines that may differ
slightly. Note: Don’t think you can shirk your responsibility to
the noble art because you’re ‘only’ doing Web design!
Compiled by the Style Guide Committee of the Type Club of
Toronto, with examples and comments by Nick Shinn.
To - and fro To—and fro
space, hyphen, space: wrong em dash: right
To – and fro
space, en dash, space: right em dash: wrong
right wrong
The bugbear of the age, the faux pas sans pareil, the dillerooney, THE boner. If you
want to erect a flashing beacon that says “Warning, inept typographer at work”—
use the single prime (hash mark) instead of the apostrophe, and the double prime
(inch/hash marks) instead of quotation marks (curly quotes). The primes are abbre-
viations for feet, inches, and arcs of degree, nothing else. In 99% of fonts, their crude,
abrupt shape is at odds with the way curved and straight strokes are used to construct
the letterforms, and upsets the smooth flow of characters.
because
“Ill” "Ill" 1'=12"
right wrong because
Do not use to pluralize abbreviations or numerals (mps, 1970s) except
where ambiguity is likely to arise: e. g. the a’s in a font. (If using small
caps a thin space may be inserted before the s). Use as: ’89, not ‘89.
Never use (') as an apostrophe.
APOSTROPHES
CAPITALS
Words in full capitals should not appear within text settings, small caps
are preferred. Full capitals may be used in headings or display. Words
in capitals should always be visually letterspaced.
STUPOMATRON 2 is here! New, warmer, friendlier
and more responsive STUPOMATRON 2! Discover the
incredible value of STUPOMATRON 2 with free match-
ing STUPOMATRON vinyl cover! extremely dubious
Brand managers love to see their product name in ALL CAPS, but it’s sooo tacky.
Sure, it’s effective, but how will you feel the morning after? Go ahead, if you want to
imbue your work with the sleazy cachet of a down-market retail promotion.
right wrong
Most typefaces these days have built-in kerning that produces nice letterspacing in
all-cap settings. However, you can never afford to drop your guard. Georgia, for
instance, is a lovely face designed for the Web, but it has no kerning (above right).
If you decide to use it in a bitmapped or print setting, manual kerning will be nec-
essary to even out the spacing between capitals (above left).
COPY INTERPRETATION
Underlined words or passages in the copy will be set in italics unless
specified otherwise. Underlined words or passages within italic settings
will be set in roman. Words with double underlines will be set in small
caps, if available. Italic or semibold may be used for emphasis, but only
where really necessary.
DASHES
Always use the em dash or the en dash, not a hyphen.
It’s It's 60'=1˚
The width of the dashes varies from face to face; furthermore, some have built-in
space on either side, others don’t. The Electra em dash (above right) is preferable
to its en dash – it’s not too wide, and doesn’t need spacing. But the Futura em dash
is a dangerous beast. So a good rule of thumb is to play it safe and always use the
en dash with spaces either side.
Style Guide
DIMENSION
In serifed faces, use a multiply sign (Symbol font: Option y) not x, and,
if you like, the Symbol inch mark (Option ,) 9″ × 12″ not 9" x 12".
DROP CAPS AND ELEVATED CAPS
Drop caps and elevated caps should have the following text nicely
fitted. Traditionally, the first word or phrase after the drop cap is set in
caps or small caps, to provide a transition zone that eases the reader
into the text.
The top of the drop cap should line up with the top of the following text.
Tip #2: Do a “two character” drop cap, with the first character as a space, then use
negative kerning to move the capital to the left.
Tuis riix-ioxc to important so is
that diversification the maintain you help can and
process selection the simplifies success.
A
ioxc investment “stop-one” effective, simple
a you give portfolios the, policies these by
provided protection benefit death the with
decision to important so is that.
W
HEN level comfort your and goals your
for assets of mix right the determining
is investment any selecting to step first
the questions fundamental answer to aked be.
L
ivii ro srii iiisr the questions fundamental
answer to aked be you’ll. Your horizon time
investment and risk for tolerance your gauge
to you allow and, are you investor of type.
Drop caps are a great opportunity for typographers to practise their craft. It’s
fun to experiment with letters such as T, V, W, and Y, hanging the left arm into
the margin – and this can give an edge to an otherwise rigid page layout.
Fitted drop caps are especially important when the first letter is A or I, because the
reader may otherwise wonder whether the initial letter is itself a word.
Tip #1: Use the tab command, and soft return (Shift-Return) to position text next to
the drop cap.
The initial cap can be set in a different typeface from the text, or the same – but if it
is a serifed typeface, a display version should be used, not just the text font at a larg-
er size. Above: Castellar with Adobe Garamond. Below: the Adobe Garamond Titling
font has been used for the drop cap.
1 8 G r a p h i c E x c h a n g e
right wrong
FOOTNOTES
References in the text to footnotes should be made using superior
figures. Use full figures, not superior figures, for numbering of the foot-
notes themselves. Footnotes should normally be set one or two points
smaller than the text depending on the typeface.
1. For only a few footnotes, use *, **, † (Dagger: Option T), ‡ (Double Dagger:
Option-Shift 7), in that order.
2. The same applies for ©, ®, and ™. Use the trademark character (Option 2) in the
text, but type out TM in the footnote if the symbol gets too tiny.
3. Legal footnotes may be set even smaller.
HYPHENATION AND JUSTIFICATION
A hyphen is used to indicate that part of a word at the end of a line will
be carried over to the next line. Leave at least two characters behind
and take at least three forward. Avoid using more than three hyphen-
ated lines in a row.
A word should not be broken at the bottom of a page or at the end
of a column or the last full line of a paragraph.
Do not divide names of persons or companies and, if possible, do not
separate first names or initials from last names.
Break words so that the part left at the end of the line suggests the
whole word: e. g. starva-tion, not star-vation. Avoid divisions that may
confuse or alter the meaning: e. g. exact-ing, not ex-acting.
Do not hyphenate numerals or one-syllable words.
Avoid hyphenation in headlines or display settings.
INDENTS
The first line of the first paragraph, or of any paragraph following a
heading, subheading or line space should not be indented. All follow-
ing paragraphs should be indented at least one em of the text type size.
If indents are used to indicate new paragraphs do not use extra leading
between paragraphs.
FIAT FLORA
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet con-
sectitur, fiat voluntasua sicut in
caelos et in terra.
Pater noster qui est in caelos
nter voluptate velit esse
molestaie son consequet magna
aliquamigue at veros eos et
accusam minimum blandit.
Pro videre consequat com-
modo et anim question diaum tu
vos nostrum si veneratum.
FIAT FLORA
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet
consectitur, fiat voluntasua sicut
in caelos et in terra.
Pater noster qui est in caelos
nter voluptate velit esse
molestaie son consequet magna
aliquamigue at veros eos et
accusam minimum blandit.
Pro videre consequat commo-
do et anim question diaum tu vos
nostrum si veneratum.
ITALIC
Used for references to book titles, magazines and periodicals, plays,
operas, ballets, films, radio and television programs, works of art, and
the names of ships. The definite or indefinite article: e. g. The, should
be italicized if part of the title.
FRACTIONS
Fractions should be set with figures smaller than those used for inte-
gers, using the solidus (fraction bar), not the virgule (slash).
right wrong
A few typefaces have alternate fonts containing superior/inferior figures and/or
composite fractions. But generally, you can construct fractions by customizing the
QuarkXPress character preference values for the superscript and subscript com-
mands, and use these in combination with the fraction bar (Option-Shift 1).
The appropriate values vary from face to face, so some experimentation is required.
This is a rock solid technique that survives copy and design edits such as font and
size changes.
Create correct fractions using the superscript and subscript commands
Style Guide
Now is the time … to … party.
ELLIPSIS
A character consisting of three dots (…) a mark of omission preceded
and followed by a word space. Keystroke: (Option ;).
FIGURES
Use old style, i.e. lowercase figures (123) in text settings and with small
caps. Use lining, i.e. capital (123) figures in headlines and with full
capitals.
In text, descriptive numbers of one hundred and under should be
spelled out, except when they refer to specific sequences or references:
e. g. The book had eighty pages and on page 65…
A hundred or a thousand should be spelled out. If a sentence begins
with a number it should be spelled out.
Dates should be printed as: May 12, 1946. (exceptions may be made
in descriptive matter, display settings, invitations or legal documents).
Times should be set without punctuation: 10:30 am, not 10:30 a.m.
Use the fewest possible figures, 1977–78. Where the word from pre-
cedes the first figure do not use a hyphen but spell out: e. g. from 1929
to 1932, not from 1929–1932.
Percent should be spelled out where it occurs singly in text matter.
In all other cases % should be used.
When figures are preceded by a dollar sign and there are no cents,
the decimal point and zeros may be omitted.
SINCE 1961 SINCE 1961
right wrong
Since 1961 Since 1961
right wrong
Since 1961 Since 1961
right wrong
Typefaces with large families, such as Scala Sans, often include fonts with lowercase
and cap figures. Notice how the capital figures are full cap height, and monowidth,
for use in tables; and the lowercase figures are proportional width.
Fonts designed for display use, such as Brown, usually have proportional width
figures that are also kerned, providing a really even colour.
The standard typefaces, such as Century Schoolbook and Helvetica, usually have
only one set of figures. The figures are short of the cap height and monowidth, and
never look comfortable in all-cap settings.
SINCE 1961
G r a p h i c E x c h a n g e 1 9
WORD SPACING
All text compositionshould be as closely word-spaced as possible. Letter
combinations that create unsightly gaps in words should be kerned to
get a better fit. Text settings of roman and italic lowercase should not
be letter-spaced or tracked open.
On ragged-right settings it is often better to break words than have
overly uneven line endings. The space between words should never be
greater than the space between lines.
PARENTHESES AND BRACKETS
Parentheses () are used to indicate author’s explanations, insertions and
references. Square brackets [ ] should be used for references to other
works, source material or editorial comments. If parentheses occur
within parentheses, the inner pair should be square brackets and the
outer pair should be curved.
PERIODS
Never use double spaces after the period or other punctuation, except
when using mono-spaced fonts. Minimize the use of the period after
the following abbreviations and contractions, Ave Co Dr Inc Messrs
Mr Mrs No St 8vo am pm.
Visually equalize spacing around initials in names, if time permits.
Canada’s proximity to the U.S. and its British heritage pull in different directions.
The Yank style is to put periods after all abbreviations, whereas the Brits omit them.
However, the world’s foremost authority on matters typographic, Vancouver’s
Robert Bringhurst, favours Blighty, arguing against “text full of birdshot and worm-
holes.”
Dr Jekyll Mr. Hyde
right wrong
PULL-OUT (BLOCK) QUOTATIONS AND EXTRACTS
If possible, extracts should be given the standard paragraph indent. Do
not add further indention for the first line of the opening paragraph.
Spacing between the text and pull-out material should be either a full
line space or a half line space. Pull-outs and extracts usually do not
require quote marks. As Bringhurst notes,
Block quotations can be distinguished from the main text in many ways, for
instance: by a change of face (usually from roman to italic); by a change in
size (as from 11 pt down to 10 pt or 9 pt); or by indention.
QUOTATIONS
Use double quotes outside and single quotes inside for quotations with-
in quotations. Where long extracts are indented, or set in a smaller
point size, quote marks are not used.
Punctuation marks used at the end of a quoted passage must be
inside the quotation marks if they belong to the quotation, otherwise
outside. When isolated words or an incomplete sentence are quoted,
the punctuation mark is placed outside the quotes, with the exception
of the question mark and the exclamation point, which are placed
inside the quotes if they belong to the quotation.
Never use the primes, aka hash marks, (' ") as quotation marks.
Lynn Lee, md, frcs(c)
right
Lynn Lee, M.D., F.R.C.S.(C)
wrong
Toronto, on m5r 2r6
right
Toronto, ON M5R 2R6
wrong
To keep stationery neat and tidy, choose typefaces that have small caps and old style
figures fonts. These days, there is an ample selection, even for sans serif typefaces.
Tip: Look for a small cap font that has old style figures, it will reduce the amount of
fiddly work you have to do.
SMALL CAPITALS
Small capitals are used to give more emphasis to a word or sentence
than may be conveyed by using italics. They can also be used for chap-
ter headings and running heads. Use small capitals, without periods, in
text setting for degrees (ba lld ma phd), abbreviations (bna cbc rcmp
usa), and for roman numerals, George v, Chapter x, Richard iii. Small
caps should be letterspaced.
If available, use small caps and old style figures for Canadian and
British postal codes: e. g. m2n 1k8, not M2N 1K8.
TABLES
Treat tables as text to be read. Do not use unnecessary horizontal rules
and avoid using vertical rules all together. All text should be set hori-
zontally, avoid setting column heads vertically.
Use the correct tab settings. Align on the decimal if the figures are
decimal, otherwise figures should align on the right.
ok better
The trademark, copyright, and registered symbols are legalese of absolutely no
interest to the reader. Therefore, they should be as small as possible. Use the
Superscript or Superior command (the little ‘2’s on the measurement palette) for
this. In headlines, apply both, and baseline shift, to get the desired result.
Abba.
*
Abba.
*
ok better
When a superscript character follows a comma or period, it can end up closer to the
next word than the one it refers to. Kerning solves the problem.
Style Guide
SUPERSCRIPTS
The soft return (Shift Return) can be used to move words or syllables down to the
next line. But beware: if further editing is done, or copy reflowed into reconfigured
text boxes, or re-used in other documents, you’ll get boo-boos. For instance, short
lines, or unwarranted hyphen-ations in the middle of lines.
Segregated funds are worth a
look. Just keep in mind that
there is a cost associated with
the benefits seg funds offer.
Before you invest, you should
decide if the cost is
appropriate for you.
before
Segregated funds are worth
a look. Just keep in mind that
there is a cost associated with
the benefits seg funds offer.
Before you invest, you should
decide if the cost is appropri-
ate for you.
after
2 0 G r a p h i c E x c h a n g e
A A a fi
 A a fi
 A a fi
A : «
display
roman
italic
alternate
small
cap cap
lower
case
liga-
tures
How typeface families
are organized
here are two principles at work here:
style and proportion.
Figure 1, the style series, shows the dif-
ferent styles in which a character can be
typeset.
Figure 2, the proportional series, shows
how a single character can be set with
varying degrees of weight and horizontal
scaling.
The big difference between the two
series is qualitative: each style is quite
distinct from any other, whereas the pro-
portional series is smoothly incremental.
Any style can have its proportions var-
ied; similarly, any instance of the propor-
tional series can be set in any of the styles
(theoretically, at least).
The different meanings of the word
style can be confusing. In the Style Guide
it means the way type is set, which is all
about the typographer’s know-how and
personality. Here, style is a rather dull
noun referring to the specific category of
letterform in which a character exists.
What’s in a font
A font is comprised of alphabets in one,
two or three styles from a horizontal row
in the style series; also figures, punctua-
tion, accents, and a few ligatures (æ,œ, ß,
fi, fl, &)—up to 256 characters. All in one
instance of the proportional series.
Expert fonts contain styles from
around the square in the middle of the
style series.
Figure 1. The Style Series: Expert styles
are around the outside of the square.
Figure 3: Disposition of styles in a large
family, by font package. (Adobe)
Figure 2.
The Proportional Series
from The Modification of Letterforms
by Stanley Hess © 1981 Art Direction Book Company
base package
Roman
abc…ABC…123…æœÆŒ&ßfifl
abc…ABC…123…æœÆŒ&ßfifl
abc…ABC…123…æœÆŒ&ßfifl
Italic
abc…ABC…123…æœÆŒ&ßfifl
abc…ABC…123…æœÆŒ&ßfifl
abc…ABC…123…æœÆŒ&ßfifl
expert package
Small caps, old style figures, additional ligatures, fractions,
superior letters, superior and inferior figures
anc…::+…ioffffiffl…ªºº¼½¹`'₁₂₃
……ffffiffl…¼½¹²³₁₂₃
…ffffiffl…¼½¾₁₂₃¹²³
Italic versions of above, without small caps
…ffffiffl…¼½¹²³₁₂₃
…ffffiffl…¼½¹²³₁₂₃
Swash (alternate)
·´(…:J«:
Titling (display caps)
ABC…123…ÆŒ&ß
Small caps, old-style figures, ligatures, alternates and display—
the expert styles take typography beyond the basics,
enhancing the subtlety and meaning of both text and design.
Compiled by Nick Shinn.
T
Expert Font Guide
Fonts are grouped in packages
The four styles in the centre of figure 1—
upper and lowercase roman and italic—are
the basic styles for the majority of typefaces;
the two shaded instances in figure 2—regu-
lar and bold weight, with no horizontal
scaling—are their usual proportions. Hence
the members of a typical base font package,
Palatino:
Roman, Italic
Bold, Bold Italic
The size of this family can be increased in
two ways. Either by adding instances from
the proportional series, with the Palatino 2
package:
Light, Light Italic, Medium, Medium Italic
Black, Black Italic
or with the expert package containing addi-
tional styles, Palatino Small Caps/Old-style
Figures:
Small Caps OSF, Italic OSF
Bold OSF, Bold Italic OSF
There are as yet no expert styles for Palatino
2, and no fractions or swash characters
in the expert package. However, a little
research reveals that Zapf Renaissance is
remarkably similar to Palatino, and would
round out the family as a display face.
Some typeface families offer more vari-
ety in the proportional series, especially
sans serifs; others focus on styles. Truly
comprehensive families (see figure 3) con-
tain several expert fonts at a number of
weights.
G r a p h i c E x c h a n g e 2 1
Ligatures
The ‘f ’ ligatures are designed for discretion, to replace
ungainly couplings with smooth, composite characters.
Conversely, there are ligatures which add noticeable
affectation to text.
Another class of ligatures is for tight layouts—providing
flexibility with letter combinations of alternate width, or
minimizing the white space between characters.
The fi (Option-Shift 5) and fl (Option-Shift 6) are included
on the majority of fonts (Mac, not PC), but the location of
extra ligatures varies, being either:

on the base fonts (replacing obscure math symbols)

on an expert font

nowhere; many faces have but one expert font—small
caps/old-style figures, with no extra ligatures.
perpetua bold
fi fi fl fl
ff ffi ffl
Check your face
Some faces really
needf ligatures.
The persistence of merit
When type was metal, letters couldn’t over-
lap. Now f and i can be designed to fudge
together nicely. Or f-i can be set with a
dotless “ı” (Option-Shift b). Nonetheless,
a special ligature is still, well, special.
Gadzooks
Stylish archaïsm
in roman text?
This ligature is it. Set to fit
Herb Lubalin’s name-
plate (1967) for the
radical magazine
Avant Garde is an
icon of its era, all
supertight typography
shoehorned into a
rigid geometric lay-
out. It was spun off
into a typeface with
plenty of custom liga-
tures to nail the look.
The f ’s terminal
and the i’s dot
are apt to bump
awkwardly.
The single-
character
solution has
design integrity.
The f- l pairing
is too heavy up
top, too empty
inside.
Its ligature is
attractive in
its own right.
The extra f ligatures have a shortened first f to mitigate visual “stutter”.
ffi ffı ffi
straight dotless “i” expert ligature
oneleigh
avant garde
FIVE TRUFFLES OFFER
SUFFICIENT FLAVOUR
five truffles offer
sufficient flavour
¹ive ´ruffles Offer
Sufficient ¹lavour
FIVE
TRUFFLES
oiiii
suiiiciixr
FLAVOUR
FiV
i
T
i
U
i
F
L
i
S
O
Fi
i
R
S
U
F
iI
C
I
i
xT
F
i
A
V
o
u
R
¹ive TRUFFLES offer
Suiiiciixr flavour
Expert ligatures enhance lowercase settings.
Italic with swash capitals creates an ornate look.
Titling capitals add refinement to display size cap settings.
Mix and match settings come alive with expert characters.
Titling, regular, and small caps can be combined
to produce distinctive size-sensitive effects.
xpert fonts increase the play of harmony and counter-
point within typeface families.
Family likeness provides harmony, and counterpoint exists
between the different styles. The larger the family, the more
options you have. Expert fonts are neat—without changing face,
size or weight, there are umpteen ways to set even a brief amount
of text.
You can really pump up the contrast, without sacrificing har-
mony. For instance, caps with true (expert) small caps achieves
contrast of size and proportion while maintaining harmony of
scale and weight; this is lost in fake styling.
Fivi Tiuiiiis Oiiii
Suiiiciixr Fiavoui
True small caps outclass the fake.
E
c
Expert Font Guide
2 2 G r a p h i c E x c h a n g e
Phatt
castellar with garamond
Fake it good
No doubt it’s ironic when two characters in a
supposed scrawl are absolutely identical, but it’s
also illogical and lazy. To get a suitably irregular
effect, use a typeface with alternate character
font(s), e.g. Kosmik. Also consider doing your
own artwork, or hiring a lettering artist.
A sharper impression
What works well in text will
often lack subtlety at display
size. For extreme finesse,
consider Arepo, Artefact,
HTF Didot, Eldorado, Nofret,
Throhand, and in a less
classic vein, Screen Matrix.
Congenial mavericks
Adapted to their specialized role, many titling
faces don’t look like any particular family, but
will complement a variety of text faces. Often
available only in caps, frequently as “hand-
tooled”, “open” or “inline” designs, use for
titles or as initials that won’t overpower text.
All in
the family
A few serif
typefaces
have several
versions of
the same
weight, for
use at different
sizes, such as
ITC Bodoni,
HTF Requiem,
Eldorado,
Village, and
Walburn.
Also of note:
Multiple
Master fonts
with an optical-
size axis, e.g.
Adobe Jenson.
You are
soo
o
busted!
Threshold effects
Ultra Light faces that are dysfunctional at
text size come into their own writ large,
as do certain Ultra Heavy faces, e.g. Giza.
When the moon comes out, the
sea covers the earth, and the heart
feels like an island in the infinite.
perpetua titling perpetua
gia
kosmik
walburn
Expert Font Guide
Display
A cure for clunkiness
Before desktop publishing, text and display type were ideally
set on different equipment.
Often, the same master artwork would be good for both
typositor and text setting machines. However, serif types with
sharp features required separate artwork—with the emphasis
on finely drawn details for reproduction at display sizes.
This distinction is also present in the PostScript
environment. Look for:
• Typeface families with expert titling fonts
• One-of-a-kind titling fonts
• Multiple Master fonts with an “optical size” axis
• Display or headline faces
• Typefaces containing size-specific fonts
The real thing
While Bauer Bodoni (left) makes
a passable display face, due to its
exceptionally thin hairlines and
serifs, it still lacks the refinement
of itc Bodoni 72 (below), which
has:
• Alternate swash characters
• Micro-details
• Tight fit with extra kern pairs
Playtime
Industria has two kinds of alternate font:
one with alternate letterforms; and
another, Inline, that can be used with the
solid font to create a two-colour effect.
Phatt
industria
G r a p h i c E x c h a n g e 2 3
FAKE Setting
True Setting
Wh WH Who Wants To Know?
Pale imitation
The Small Cap command (“k”) in the QuarkXPress style menu scales down all non-
uppercase characters by 75% (default). Unlike the italic (“I”) and bold (“B”) commands,
it never changes fonts. Fake small caps are too narrow, too light in weight, improperly
kerned, and the wrong height.
Fake small caps take their kerning from the lower case. True small caps have their own,
which makes a huge improvement in colour.
small cap font
regular font
            
standard font, “styled”
            
small cap font
                            
Sss Sss
Sss Sss
How big is a small cap?
Some faces have small caps
the same height as the lower-
case x-height. The norm is
slightly taller.
electra oneleigh
cartier book scala sans
left to right: cap, small cap, lower case
Small caps, period
A few faces are designed solely
as cap with small cap faces.
copperplate
gothic
¡:o. Cixanui. Madonna Enthroned. c. ::ïc–,c.
Panel, ::′¬½″ × ¬′¡″. Uffizi Gallery, Florence.
. Cimabue. Madonna Enthroned. c. ::ïc–,c.
Panel, ::′¬½″ × ¬′¡″. Uffizi Gallery, Florence.
C O N T E N T S
The Mystical City. . . . . . . . 2–17
The Gates of Dawn . . . . . . . . . . . 2
STRANGE RITUAL David Byrne (Chronicle
Books, $24.95) At a time when musicians from
John Lennon to Bob Dylan are being unwisely
repackaged as visual artists by their publish-
Pas de deux from
Flower Festival in Genzano
Music E. Helsted
Choreography August Bournonville
Arranged by Erik Bruhn
Alovely example of the Bournonville style,
and the last remaining fragment of a ballet
created more than a century ago by the
Danish master.
170 ml (6 fl oz) olive oil
4 tablespoons wine vinegar
1 teaspoon French mustard
1 clove garlic, crushed
1 teaspoon clear honey
salt and pepper
Put all ingredients in a screw-topped
jar, adding salt and pepper to taste.
Shake well to blend before serving.
mustard dressing: Add 2 table-
spoons Meaux mustard.
garlic dressing: Crush 4 cloves
garlic and add to the ingredients.
Beaten by bold?
Since its introduction in the 19th century, the bold weight has taken over
many of the functions previously performed by small caps, in particular
sub-headings. Generally, the brashness of bold is more in keeping with
modern sensibilities. But in the post-modern era…
Virgin soil
Before PostScript, there were no bold sans serif
small caps. Now there are new options to explore.
Set piece
The classic small cap use: following a drop cap.
Special treatment
For important occasions, avoid lowercase roman.
Categorical imperative
When many classes of information have to be made
distinct, small caps are invaluable.
Side order of small caps
Side headings, where bold would be too strong and italic too weak.
The golden rule is that there are no golden rules.
george bernard shaw
Quotable
Upper and lower case italic with all small caps.
adobe garamond
cartier book
electra
palatino
scala sans
itc bodoni
oneleigh
T
hey are freely used ... not so much for
the purpose of display as for the making
of a change in the monotony of a text of all
large capitals or all lower case.
—De Vinne, Correct Composition (1901)
FRENCH DRESSI NG
Expert Font Guide
Seasoning the mix
True small caps are not merely scaled down
versions of full caps. They differ in weight, fit,
and proportion, being designed to match the
colour (tone) of the lower case.
Putting passages of text in small caps is
pointless: no matter how artful the setting
people will not be bothered to read it.
The real value of small caps lies in their
ability to add a dash of variety to complex
settings, while maintaining the aesthetic
convenience of a single typeface family.
And of course, be sure to use small caps
for very small cap settings, such as the small-
est type on this page.
Small caps

1970s) except where ambiguity is likely to arise: e. inept typographer at work”— use the single prime (hash mark) instead of the apostrophe. or the same – but if it is a serifed typeface. In 99% of fonts. some have built-in space on either side. if you want to imbue your work with the sleazy cachet of a down-market retail promotion. warmer. Use as: ’89. It’s fun to experiment with letters such as T.) 9″ × 12″ not 9" x 12". Words in capitals should always be visually letterspaced. not just the text font at a larger size. the Symbol inch mark (Option . abrupt shape is at odds with the way curved and straight strokes are used to construct the letterforms. V. Sure. inches. not ‘89. if you like. Underlined words or passages within italic settings will be set in roman. you can never afford to drop your guard. but it has no kerning (above right). Your horizon time investment and risk for tolerance your gauge to you allow and. and the double prime (inch/hash marks) instead of quotation marks (curly quotes).decision to important so is that. THE boner. Many typographers have their own guidelines that may differ slightly. If you decide to use it in a bitmapped or print setting. and. Above: Castellar with Adobe Garamond. but how will you feel the morning after? Go ahead. simple a you give portfolios the. T CAPITALS Words in full capitals should not appear within text settings. Traditionally. The initial cap can be set in a different typeface from the text. policies these by STUPOMATRON 2 is here! New. Never use (') as an apostrophe. en dash. The primes are abbreviations for feet. Fitted drop caps are especially important when the first letter is A or I. Words with double underlines will be set in small caps. The top of the drop cap should line up with the top of the following text. and soft return (Shift-Return) to position text next to the drop cap. but it’s sooo tacky.  - to important so is that diversification the maintain you help can and process selection the simplifies success. If you want to erect a flashing beacon that says “Warning. space: right em dash: wrong The width of the dashes varies from face to face. if available. space: wrong em dash: right space. is a lovely face designed for the Web. hanging the left arm into the margin – and this can give an edge to an otherwise rigid page layout. the dillerooney. not a hyphen. Drop caps are a great opportunity for typographers to practise their craft. small caps are preferred. then use negative kerning to move the capital to the left. with examples and comments by Nick Shinn. the faux pas sans pareil. and upsets the smooth flow of characters. others don’t.and fro To—and fro To – and fro space. nothing else. Full capitals may be used in headings or display. DASHES Always use the em dash or the en dash. because the reader may otherwise wonder whether the initial letter is itself a word. Georgia. To . and doesn’t need spacing. g. A ing STUPOMATRON vinyl cover! extremely dubious Brand managers love to see their product name in ALL CAPS. the first word or phrase after the drop cap is set in caps or small caps. Italic or semibold may be used for emphasis. DIMENSION In serifed faces. manual kerning will be necessary to even out the spacing between capitals (above left). are you investor of type. Below: the Adobe Garamond Titling font has been used for the drop cap.Style Guide This is intended as a guide to typographic styling. Graphic Exchange 17 . (If using small caps a thin space may be inserted before the s). for instance. hyphen. DROP CAPS AND ELEVATED CAPS Drop caps and elevated caps should have the following text nicely fitted. However. W HEN level comfort your and goals your for assets of mix right the determining is investment any selecting to step first the questions fundamental answer to aked be. furthermore. with the first character as a space.  investment “stop-one” effective. and arcs of degree. the a’s in a font. L     the questions fundamental answer to aked be you’ll. COPY INTERPRETATION Underlined words or passages in the copy will be set in italics unless specified otherwise. But the Futura em dash is a dangerous beast. It’s It's 60'= 1˚ “Ill” "Ill" 1'=12" right wrong because right wrong because The bugbear of the age. use a multiply sign (Symbol font: Option y) not x. it’s effective. but only where really necessary. a display version should be used. Tip #2: Do a “two character” drop cap. W. So a good rule of thumb is to play it safe and always use the en dash with spaces either side. right wrong Most typefaces these days have built-in kerning that produces nice letterspacing in all-cap settings. to provide a transition zone that eases the reader into the text. friendlier provided protection benefit death the with and more responsive STUPOMATRON 2! Discover the incredible value of STUPOMATRON 2 with free match. and Y. Tip #1: Use the tab command. The Electra em dash (above right) is preferable to its en dash – it’s not too wide. APOSTROPHES Do not use to pluralize abbreviations or numerals (mps. Note: Don’t think you can shirk your responsibility to the noble art because you’re ‘only’ doing Web design! Compiled by the Style Guide Committee of the Type Club of Toronto. their crude.

radio and television programs. Percent should be spelled out where it occurs singly in text matter. invitations or legal documents). 3.Style Guide ELLIPSIS A character consisting of three dots (…) a mark of omission preceded and followed by a word space. using the solidus (fraction bar). Pater noster qui est in caelos nter voluptate velit esse molestaie son consequet magna aliquamigue at veros eos et accusam minimum blandit. and the names of ships. Use full figures. Keystroke: (Option . SINCE 1961 right Since 1961 right Since 1961 right SINCE 1961 wrong Since 1961 wrong Since 1961 wrong Typefaces with large families. But generally. Avoid using more than three hyphenated lines in a row. SINCE 1961 The standard typefaces. from 1929 to 1932. The definite or indefinite article: e. The. In all other cases % should be used. For only a few footnotes. not superior figures. g. not the virgule (slash). The figures are short of the cap height and monowidth. In text. (exceptions may be made in descriptive matter. if possible. exact-ing. Times should be set without punctuation: 10:30 am. ballets. subheading or line space should not be indented. display settings. capital (123) figures in headlines and with full capitals. not 10:30 a. 2. except when they refer to specific sequences or references: e. such as Scala Sans. and the lowercase figures are proportional width. fiat voluntasua sicut in caelos et in terra. **. for numbering of the footnotes themselves. 1977–78. Where the word from precedes the first figure do not use a hyphen but spell out: e. and monowidth. usually have proportional width figures that are also kerned. This is a rock solid technique that survives copy and design edits such as font and size changes. and never look comfortable in all-cap settings. g. ‡ (Double Dagger: Option-Shift 7). Pater noster qui est in caelos nter voluptate velit esse molestaie son consequet magna aliquamigue at veros eos et accusam minimum blandit. FRACTIONS Fractions should be set with figures smaller than those used for integers. such as Century Schoolbook and Helvetica. Avoid divisions that may confuse or alter the meaning: e. starva-tion. g. FIGURES Use old style. operas. The appropriate values vary from face to face. g. Use lining. should be italicized if part of the title. Notice how the capital figures are full cap height. Avoid hyphenation in headlines or display settings. † (Dagger: Option T). Break words so that the part left at the end of the line suggests the whole word: e. If a sentence begins with a number it should be spelled out. lowercase figures (123) in text settings and with small caps. FIAT FLORA Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectitur. plays. fiat voluntasua sicut in caelos et in terra. A word should not be broken at the bottom of a page or at the end of a column or the last full line of a paragraph. and use these in combination with the fraction bar (Option-Shift 1). ®. Create correct fractions using the superscript and subscript commands HYPHENATION AND JUSTIFICATION A hyphen is used to indicate that part of a word at the end of a line will be carried over to the next line. When figures are preceded by a dollar sign and there are no cents. Footnotes should normally be set one or two points smaller than the text depending on the typeface. or of any paragraph following a heading. not star-vation. not from 1929–1932. and ™. for use in tables. usually have only one set of figures. 1946. right wrong ITALIC Used for references to book titles. such as Brown. magazines and periodicals. often include fonts with lowercase and cap figures. Pro videre consequat commodo et anim question diaum tu vos nostrum si veneratum. films. The same applies for ©. i. not ex-acting. 18 Graphic Exchange . in that order. use *. i. The book had eighty pages and on page 65 … A hundred or a thousand should be spelled out. Leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward. do not separate first names or initials from last names. All following paragraphs should be indented at least one em of the text type size. Use the trademark character (Option 2) in the text. FOOTNOTES References in the text to footnotes should be made using superior figures. descriptive numbers of one hundred and under should be spelled out. but type out TM in the footnote if the symbol gets too tiny. so some experimentation is required. g. 1. INDENTS The first line of the first paragraph. FIAT FLORA Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectitur. Dates should be printed as: May 12. works of art. Fonts designed for display use. Use the fewest possible figures. the decimal point and zeros may be omitted. Do not hyphenate numerals or one-syllable words. Do not divide names of persons or companies and. Legal footnotes may be set even smaller. providing a really even colour.e. If indents are used to indicate new paragraphs do not use extra leading between paragraphs.m.e. you can construct fractions by customizing the QuarkXPress character preference values for the superscript and subscript commands. Pro videre consequat commodo et anim question diaum tu vos nostrum si veneratum.). right wrong A few typefaces have alternate fonts containing superior/inferior figures and/or composite fractions. Now is the time … to … party.

(C) wrong Toronto. and its British heritage pull in different directions. The Yank style is to put periods after all abbreviations. insertions and references. Hyde right wrong Canada’s proximity to the U. with the exception of the question mark and the exclamation point. favours Blighty.* better When a superscript character follows a comma or period. and for roman numerals. Do not use unnecessary horizontal rules and avoid using vertical rules all together. Align on the decimal if the figures are decimal. without periods. and baseline shift. If available.R.S. aka hash marks. if time permits. to get the desired result. on m5r 2r6 right Toronto. arguing against “text full of birdshot and wormholes. Small caps should be letterspaced. Chapter x. whereas the Brits omit them. If parentheses occur within parentheses. before Segregated funds are worth a look. Dr Jekyll Mr. the punctuation mark is placed outside the quotes. Abba. otherwise figures should align on the right. apply both. md. PULL-OUT (BLOCK) QUOTATIONS AND EXTRACTS If possible. use small caps and old style figures for Canadian and British postal codes: e. not M2N 1K8. for instance: by a change of face (usually from roman to italic). For instance. TABLES Treat tables as text to be read.” SUPERSCRIPTS ok better The trademark. Before you invest. Text settings of roman and italic lowercase should not be letter-spaced or tracked open. and registered symbols are legalese of absolutely no interest to the reader. Letter combinations that create unsightly gaps in words should be kerned to get a better fit. or re-used in other documents. which are placed inside the quotes if they belong to the quotation. or copy reflowed into reconfigured text boxes. in text setting for degrees (ba lld ma phd). or unwarranted hyphen-ations in the middle of lines. it can end up closer to the next word than the one it refers to. short lines. they should be as small as possible. Never use the primes. But beware: if further editing is done. m2n 1k8. abbreviations (bna cbc rcmp usa). source material or editorial comments. PERIODS Never use double spaces after the period or other punctuation. or set in a smaller point size.D. by a change in size (as from 11 pt down to 10 pt or 9 pt).* ok Abba. Minimize the use of the period after the following abbreviations and contractions. the world’s foremost authority on matters typographic. Spacing between the text and pull-out material should be either a full line space or a half line space. However. after QUOTATIONS Use double quotes outside and single quotes inside for quotations within quotations. or by indention. avoid setting column heads vertically. frcs(c) right Lynn Lee. They can also be used for chapter headings and running heads. Richard iii. otherwise outside. WORD SPACING All text composition should be as closely word-spaced as possible. When isolated words or an incomplete sentence are quoted. you should decide if the cost is appropriate for you. Ave Co Dr Inc Messrs Mr Mrs No St 8vo am pm. Kerning solves the problem. George v. Just keep in mind that there is a cost associated with the benefits seg funds offer. except when using mono-spaced fonts.S. The soft return (Shift Return) can be used to move words or syllables down to the next line. Segregated funds are worth a look. Graphic Exchange 19 . it will reduce the amount of fiddly work you have to do. Use the correct tab settings. quote marks are not used. Do not add further indention for the first line of the opening paragraph.C. Before you invest. M. even for sans serif typefaces. As Bringhurst notes. Just keep in mind that there is a cost associated with the benefits seg funds offer.Style Guide PARENTHESES AND BRACKETS Parentheses () are used to indicate author’s explanations. In headlines. Block quotations can be distinguished from the main text in many ways. (' ") as quotation marks. g. The space between words should never be greater than the space between lines. copyright. ON M5R 2R6 wrong To keep stationery neat and tidy. Lynn Lee. On ragged-right settings it is often better to break words than have overly uneven line endings. These days. Punctuation marks used at the end of a quoted passage must be inside the quotation marks if they belong to the quotation. SMALL CAPITALS Small capitals are used to give more emphasis to a word or sentence than may be conveyed by using italics. there is an ample selection. Use small capitals. Therefore. choose typefaces that have small caps and old style figures fonts. you should decide if the cost is appropriate for you. F. extracts should be given the standard paragraph indent. Square brackets [ ] should be used for references to other works. Tip: Look for a small cap font that has old style figures. you’ll get boo-boos. Where long extracts are indented. Visually equalize spacing around initials in names. Pull-outs and extracts usually do not require quote marks. Vancouver’s Robert Bringhurst.. All text should be set horizontally. Use the Superscript or Superior command (the little ‘2’s on the measurement palette) for this. the inner pair should be square brackets and the outer pair should be curved.

Any style can have its proportions varied.œ. with the Palatino 2 package: Light. In the Style Guide it means the way type is set. However. ß. by font package. old-style figures. Expert fonts contain styles from around the square in the middle of the style series. shows the different styles in which a character can be typeset. at least). Medium Italic Black. Bold Italic Figure 2. The different meanings of the word style can be confusing. The Proportional Series from The Modification of Letterforms by Stanley Hess © 1981 Art Direction Book Company The size of this family can be increased in two ways. the proportional series. shows how a single character can be set with varying degrees of weight and horizontal scaling. a little research reveals that Zapf Renaissance is remarkably similar to Palatino. Palatino: Roman. alternates and display— the expert styles take typography beyond the basics. ligatures. (Adobe) 20 Graphic Exchange . The Style Series: Expert styles are around the outside of the square. punctuation. Medium. and would round out the family as a display face. Hence the members of a typical base font package. small cap cap lower ligacase tures display roman How typeface families are organized italic alternate A a fi  A a fi  A a fi A A Figure 1. superior letters. whereas the proportional series is smoothly incremental. style is a rather dull noun referring to the specific category of letterform in which a character exists. Black Italic base package Roman or with the expert package containing additional styles.Expert Font Guide Small caps. the two shaded instances in figure 2—regular and bold weight. superior and inferior figures There are as yet no expert styles for Palatino 2. fl. enhancing the subtlety and meaning of both text and design. also figures. What’s in a font A font is comprised of alphabets in one. with no horizontal scaling—are their usual proportions. any instance of the proportional series can be set in any of the styles (theoretically. Compiled by Nick Shinn. others focus on styles. especially sans serifs. similarly. Bold Italic OSF abc…ABC…123…æœÆŒ&ßfifl abc…ABC…123…æœÆŒ&ßfifl abc…ABC…123…æœÆŒ&ßfifl Italic abc…ABC…123…æœÆŒ&ßfifl abc…ABC…123…æœÆŒ&ßfifl abc…ABC…123…æœÆŒ&ßfifl expert package Small caps. The big difference between the two series is qualitative: each style is quite distinct from any other. additional ligatures. Truly comprehensive families (see figure 3) contain several expert fonts at a number of weights. All in one instance of the proportional series. and no fractions or swash characters in the expert package. Palatino Small Caps/Old-style Figures: Small Caps OSF. Figure 2. Light Italic. Italic Bold. &)—up to 256 characters. Figure 1. and a few ligatures (æ. Some typeface families offer more variety in the proportional series. without small caps …ffffiffl…¼½¹²³₁₂₃ …ffffiffl…¼½¹²³₁₂₃ Swash (alternate) … Titling (display caps) ABC…123…ÆŒ&ß Figure 3: Disposition of styles in a large family. Fonts are grouped in packages The four styles in the centre of figure 1— upper and lowercase roman and italic—are the basic styles for the majority of typefaces. fi. Italic OSF Bold OSF. two or three styles from a horizontal row in the style series. T here are two principles at work here: style and proportion. fractions. old style figures. which is all about the typographer’s know-how and personality. the style series. Here. accents. ……ffffiffl…¼½¹²³₁₂₃ ……ffffiffl…¼½¹²³₁₂₃ …ffffiffl…¼½¾₁₂₃¹²³ Italic versions of above. Either by adding instances from the proportional series.

and counterpoint exists between the different styles. The f. five truffles offer sufficient flavour Expert ligatures enhance lowercase settings. not PC). there are umpteen ways to set even a brief amount of text. Now f and i can be designed to fudge together nicely. this is lost in fake styling.Expert Font Guide E Ligatures The ‘f’ ligatures are designed for discretion. For instance. The larger the family. too empty inside. The persistence of merit When type was metal. Family likeness provides harmony. well. regular. Set to fit Herb Lubalin’s nameplate (1967) for the radical magazine Avant Garde is an icon of its era. without sacrificing harmony. ive ruffles Offer Sufficient lavour Italic with swash capitals creates an ornate look. The fi (Option-Shift 5) and fl (Option-Shift 6) are included on the majority of fonts (Mac. F T O S F True small caps outclass the fake. Another class of ligatures is for tight layouts—providing flexibility with letter combinations of alternate width. Graphic Exchange 21 . composite characters. to replace ungainly couplings with smooth. letters couldn’t overlap. a special ligature is still. being either: • on the base fonts (replacing obscure math symbols) • on an expert font • nowhere. fi fi fl fl ffffiffl The f ’s terminal and the i’s dot are apt to bump awkwardly. The extra f ligatures have a shortened first f to mitigate visual “stutter”. caps with true (expert) small caps achieves contrast of size and proportion while maintaining harmony of scale and weight. but the location of extra ligatures varies. You can really pump up the contrast. with no extra ligatures. size or weight. avant garde FIVE ffi ffı ffi straight dotless “i” expert ligature Titling. It was spun off into a typeface with plenty of custom ligatures to nail the look. or minimizing the white space between characters. all supertight typography shoehorned into a rigid geometric layout. and small caps can be combined to produce distinctive size-sensitive effects. xpert fonts increase the play of harmony and counterpoint within typeface families.l pairing is too heavy up top. Conversely. The singlecharacter solution has design integrity. Gadzooks Stylish archaïsm in roman text? This ligature is it. Or f-i can be set with a dotless “ı” (Option-Shift b). Expert fonts are neat—without changing face. perpetua bold Its ligature is attractive in its own right. special. Nonetheless. FIVE TRUFFLES OFFER SUFFICIENT FLAVOUR Titling capitals add refinement to display size cap settings. there are ligatures which add noticeable affectation to text. the more options you have. ive TRUFFLES offer S flavour Mix and match settings come alive with expert characters. c oneleigh FV  TRUFFLES TUFL S OFR   SUFICI T AVR FLAVOUR F Check your face Some faces really need f ligatures. many faces have but one expert font—small caps/old-style figures.

Throhand. To get a suitably irregular effect.Expert Font Guide Display A cure for clunkiness Before desktop publishing. or hiring a lettering artist. Inline. serif types with sharp features required separate artwork—with the emphasis on finely drawn details for reproduction at display sizes. e. due to its exceptionally thin hairlines and serifs. HTF Didot. Also of note: Multiple Master fonts with an opticalsize axis. that can be used with the solid font to create a two-colour effect. use a typeface with alternate character font(s). Eldorado. Screen Matrix. and another. Artefact. walburn All in the family A few serif typefaces have several versions of the same weight. Fake it good No doubt it’s ironic when two characters in a supposed scrawl are absolutely identical. frequently as “handtooled”. Giza.g. 22 Graphic Exchange . but it’s also illogical and lazy. Look for: • Typeface families with expert titling fonts • One-of-a-kind titling fonts • Multiple Master fonts with an “optical size” axis • Display or headline faces • Typefaces containing size-specific fonts perpetua titling perpetua A sharper impression What works well in text will often lack subtlety at display size. Also consider doing your own artwork. castellar with garamond You are sooo busted! kosmik gia Threshold effects Ultra Light faces that are dysfunctional at text size come into their own writ large. Nofret. as do certain Ultra Heavy faces. W hen the moon comes out. The real thing While Bauer Bodoni (left) makes a passable display face. and Walburn. text and display type were ideally set on different equipment. e. it still lacks the refinement of itc Bodoni 72 (below). but will complement a variety of text faces. Congenial mavericks Adapted to their specialized role. the same master artwork would be good for both typositor and text setting machines. However. Village. Adobe Jenson. for use at different sizes. “open” or “inline” designs. the sea covers the earth. many titling faces don’t look like any particular family. For extreme finesse. Kosmik.g. and in a less classic vein. which has: • Alternate swash characters • Micro-details • Tight fit with extra kern pairs Phatt i ndustria Playtime Industria has two kinds of alternate font: one with alternate letterforms. Often. use for titles or as initials that won’t overpower text. HTF Requiem.g. and the heart feels like an island in the infinite. This distinction is also present in the PostScript environment. Often available only in caps. consider Arepo. Eldorado. e. such as ITC Bodoni.

. But in the post-modern era… Graphic Exchange 23 . where bold would be too strong and italic too weak. avoid lowercase roman.. . hey are freely used . Madonna Enthroned. ′½″ × ′″. –. Madonna Enthroned. . . the bold weight has taken over many of the functions previously performed by small caps. Side order of small caps Side headings. adobe garamond Put all ingredients in a screw-topped jar. . and the wrong height. Uffizi Gallery. Panel. Generally. Small caps. “styled”              small cap font Pas de deux from Flower Festival in Genzano Music E. which makes a huge improvement in colour. it never changes fonts. Fake small caps are too narrow. Uffizi Gallery. C. 2–17 The Gates of Dawn . adding salt and pepper to taste. . crushed 1 teaspoon clear honey salt and pepper itc bodoni . . george bernard shaw electra Quotable Upper and lower case italic with all small caps..95) At a time when musicians from John Lennon to Bob Dylan are being unwisely repackaged as visual artists by their publishVirgin soil Before PostScript. The norm is slightly taller. They differ in weight. And of course. there were no bold sans serif small caps. small cap. . such as the smallest type on this page. $24. . Now there are new options to explore. mustard dressing: Add 2 tablespoons Meaux mustard. c. too light in weight. How big is a small cap? Some faces have small caps the same height as the lowercase x-height. fit. . and the last remaining fragment of a ballet created more than a century ago by the Danish master. . improperly kerned. the brashness of bold is more in keeping with modern sensibilities. while maintaining the aesthetic convenience of a single typeface family. garlic dressing: Crush 4 cloves garlic and add to the ingredients. lower case The golden rule is that there are no golden rules. being designed to match the colour (tone) of the lower case. F R E NC H D R E S S I NG 170 ml (6 fl oz) olive oil 4 tablespoons wine vinegar 1 teaspoon French mustard 1 clove garlic. . Wh WH Who Wants To Know?                              small cap font regular font Fake small caps take their kerning from the lower case. Florence. palatino Categorical imperative When many classes of information have to be made distinct. Beaten by bold? Since its introduction in the 19th century. T Sss Sss Sss Sss electra oneleigh cartier book scala sans left to right: cap. be sure to use small caps for very small cap settings. c. 2 oneleigh copperplate gothic Special treatment For important occasions. –. period A few faces are designed solely as cap with small cap faces. small caps are invaluable. ′½″ × ′″. Helsted Choreography August Bournonville Arranged by Erik Bruhn A lovely example of the Bournonville style. not so much for the purpose of display as for the making of a change in the monotony of a text of all large capitals or all lower case. —De Vinne. Florence. Cimabue. Panel. Shake well to blend before serving.Expert Font Guide Small caps Seasoning the mix True small caps are not merely scaled down versions of full caps. . . scala sans CONTENTS The Mystical City. . FAKE Setting True Setting Pale imitation The Small Cap command (“k”) in the QuarkXPress style menu scales down all nonuppercase characters by 75% (default). . and proportion. Correct Composition (1901) cartier book Set piece The classic small cap use: following a drop cap. The real value of small caps lies in their ability to add a dash of variety to complex settings.              standard font. Putting passages of text in small caps is pointless: no matter how artful the setting people will not be bothered to read it. in particular sub-headings. Unlike the italic (“I”) and bold (“B”) commands. . STRANGE RITUAL David Byrne (Chronicle Books. True small caps have their own. .

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