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CLAUSES

A clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a verb. Clauses include adverb clauses (with
subordinating conjunctions), noun clauses (with wh-words, if, whether, that), relative clauses (with relative
pronouns).
1. Adverbial Clause: Because humans are not monkeys, we must be careful about extrapolating from
animal studies to human behavior.

2. Noun Clause: For example, we may think that others see us as witty or dull.

3. Adjective Clause: The language of Canton, which differs in sound from Mandarin roughly the way
French does from Spanish, is the second most common Chinese dialect.

Taken and adapted from http://www2.gsu.edu/~eslhpb/grammar/lecture_10/complex.html

NOUN CLAUSES
A noun clause is a type of subordinate clause which does the work of a noun. A noun clause is a dependent
clause that begins with a WH-question word (what, when, where, why, who, how), that, whether, and if. A noun
clause is generally introduced by that. Sometimes, however, that can be omitted: I know (that) you did it. Since a
noun clause does the work of a noun in a complex sentence, it can be:

• The subject of a verb: How he could assist me was his concern.


• The object of a verb: Please tell me why you did this.
• The object of a preposition: There is no meaning in what you said.
• In apposition to a noun or pronoun: Your statement that you didn’t take the money is not believed.
• The complement of a verb of incomplete predication: This is where I live.
• After an intransitive verb construction: The sick man was sure that he would recover someday.

Exercise
Underline the noun clause in the following sentences and say which type each one is.

1. The news that he is alive made us happy. 11. I cannot tell what has become of him.

2. Whether we can start next week seems 12. I asked the man how old he was.
uncertain.
13. My belief is that she will not come.
3. We can ask if he is at office.
14. When he will return is uncertain.
4. Pay attention to what I am now going to say.
15. His great fear is that he may not succeed.
5. Her confession that you found the money in the
street will not be believed. 16. Life is what we make it.

6. My wish is that I may please you. 17. I listened to what he said.

7. The boy was afraid that he would fall down. 18. His belief that some day he would succeed made
him determined.
8. What I said was true.
19. Tell me where you like to live.
9. He says that he won’t leave.
20. His belief that someday he would succeed
10. Tom didn’t know whether to answer the phone cheered him through his failures.
or not.
21. I don’t know whether he will come or not.
Taken and adapted from http://www.grammarlearner.com/noun-clauses-advanced/

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ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
Adjectives clauses have a subject and a verb (or predicate). They will start with a relative pronoun like that, who,
whom, whose, or which, or a relative adverb, like why, where, or when. Adjective clauses function as an adjective
and modify nouns and pronouns. They are also called relative clauses.

Just as the other dependent clauses, the adjective clause does not express a complete thought. It does not need
commas separating it from the rest of the sentence if it has essential information in it; that is if you need the
information it provides (defining relative clause). If it gives additional information, then you use commas (non-
defining relative clause). Here are some examples of adjective clauses.

Chocolate, which many of us adore, is fattening.


People who are smart follow the rules.
I can remember the time when there were no computers.
Charlie has a friend whose daughter lives in China.
Wine that is produced in Tuscany is not cheap.
Taken from http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/parts-of-speech/adjectives/adjective-clause.html

Exercise
Read the sentences and underline the adjective clauses.

1. Pizza, which most people love, is not very healthy.

2. The people whose names are on the list will go to camp.

3. Grandpa remembers the old days when there was no television.

4. Fruit that is grown organically is expensive.

5. Students who are intelligent get good grades.

6. Eco-friendly cars that run on electricity save gas.

7. I know someone whose father served in World War II.

8. The kids who were called first will have the best chance of getting a seat.

9. I enjoy telling people about Janet Evanovich, whose latest book was fantastic.

10. The people waiting all night outside the Apple store are trying to purchase a new iPhone.

11. "He who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe is as good as dead." - Albert Einstein

12. “Those who do not complain are never pitied.” - Jane Austen

13. “People demand freedom of speech to make up for the freedom of thought which they avoid.” - Søren
Kierkegaard

14. “Never go to a doctor whose office plants have died.” - Erma Bombeck
Taken and adapted from http://examples.yourdictionary.com/example-adjective-clauses.html#ReRkjW9GTirWUowe.99

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ADVERB CLAUSES
An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that uses a subordinating conjunction like when, as, unless, since, until,
where, if, though, unless, whether, whereas etc.

We got little rain this year. The crops have dried up. As we got little rain this year, the crops have dried up.

He has expressed his regret. We will forget about it. Since he has expressed his regret, we will forget about it.

Exercise
Combine the pairs of sentences given below using a subordinating conjunction.

1. You finish dressing. I will wait here.


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2. There is heavy rainfall there. Grapes will not grow at such a place.
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3. It may rain. Then the match will be cancelled.


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4. You like it or not. You have to be there now.


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5. He is not educated. He has practical knowledge.


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6. I sank into the water. I felt great confusion of thought.


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7. You pay your bills. You will have a good credit score.
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8. You run fast. You will miss the bus.


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9. They saw the car coming. The birds flew away from the street.
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10. She has a business degree. She is working as a retail clerk.


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11. You must keep practicing the etude. You get it right.
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12. We go on vacation. We must make reservations.


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13. Others saw the glass half empty. Barry saw it half full.
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14. He loved her. He didn’t believe she had an affair.


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Taken and adapted from https://www.englishgrammar.org/forming-complex-sentence-adverb-clause/


http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-adverb-clauses.html

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