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A keyboard is the most common input device designed for the input of text and characters, and also to control the operation of the computer. The keyboard is designed to resemble a regular typewriter with a few additional keys. It contains rectangular or near-rectangular buttons, or "keys". The number of keys on a typical keyboard varies from 82 keys to 108 keys. The layout of a keyboard comes in various styles. QWERTY is the most common layout in English language computer keyboard. It takes its name from the first six letters shown on the keyboard’s top row of letters. Similarly, French language keyboards use A and Z in place of Q and W. These are known as AZERTY keyboards. The keyboard contains a microprocessor to which all the switches are connected. When a key is pressed, a signal is sent to the microprocessor. Depending upon which key’s circuit carries a signal to the microprocessor; the processor generates the associative code, known as scan code, of the key and sends it to the operating system. A copy of this code is also stored in the keyboard’s memory. When the operating system reads the scan code, it informs the same to the keyboard and the scan code stored in the keyboard’s memory is then erased.
Mouse is a small hand-held pointing device, which is rectangular-shaped with a rubber ball embedded at its lower side and buttons on the top. Usually a mouse contains two or three buttons, which can be used to input commands or information. The mouse may be classified as a mechanical or an optical mouse, based on the technology it uses. A mechanical mouse uses a rubber ball at the bottom surface, which rotates as the mouse is moved along a flat surface, to move the cursor. Mechanical mouse is the most common and least expensive pointing device. An optical mouse uses a light beam instead of a rotating ball to detect movement across a specially patterned mouse pad. As the user rolls the mouse across the flat surface, the cursor on the screen also moves. Being costlier, modern optical mouse is accurate and often does not need a mouse pad. A mouse allows us to create graphic elements on the screen, such as lines, curves, and freehand shapes. It is easier and convenient to work with a mouse as compared to a keyboard. The mouse cannot easily be used with laptop, notebook or palmtop computers. These types of computers need a track ball or a touch sensitive pad called a touch pad.
At its most basic level, a scanner is just another input device, much like a keyboard or mouse, except that it takes its input in graphical form (images). These images could be photographs for retouching, correction or use in DTP (Desk Top Publishing). They could be hand-drawn logos required for document letterheads. They could even be pages of text which suitable software could read and save as an editable text file. Scanners use a light beam to scan the input data.
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which are placed over the material to be scanned. There are usually one to three buttons next to the ball.Input Output Devices Scanners are divided into two types: 1. and so on. book ISBNs. amusement parks. It also requires less space than a mouse for operation. shipping labels. Compiled by Srinivasa Rao A ( computers. It takes information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that a computer can understand. Hand-held scanner: This scanner consists of light emitting diodes (LEDs). The panel generally has an electrical current going through it and touching the screen causes a voltage change. and in most of the Automated Teller Machines (ATMs). The controller connects the touch sensor and the computer. which is used to determine the location of the touch to the screen. However. These devices read the data on the price tags. which is placed on the computer monitor in order to allow the direct selection or activation of the computer when somebody touches the screen. and it can be operated on any type of surface.com ) . In general the trackball is used by graphic designers and the game players. It consists of a box containing a glass plate on its top and a lid that covers the glass plate. they produce high quality images due to their scanning technology. These scanners can scan black and white as well as color images. The principal advantages of trackballs over mice is that since it is stationary. Basically. The cursor is moved about the screen by a user rolling the ball with their thumb. including the user's lap. fingers. airlines and railway reservation counters. Touch Screen A touch screen is a special kind of display screen device. The touch sensor is a clear glass panel with a touch responsive surface. or the palm of their hand. The flat-bed scanners are larger in size and more expensive that the hand-held scanners. Trackball A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes . Normally. which are in the same way as mouse buttons. The driver is a software component that allows the touch screen and computer work together.odc@gmail. the touch screen is not suitable for input of large amount of data. However. 2. The scanner has to be dragged very steadily and carefully over the document and it should move at a uniform speed without stopping or jerking in order to obtain the best results. a controller. The light beam placed below the glass plate moves from top to bottom to scan line by line. It tells the operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent from the controller. This glass plate is used for placing the document to be scanned. and a software driver. with its light on. it registers the input when a finger or object is touched to the screen. and they were widely used on laptop PCs before the advent of the touchpad. inventory part number. Touch screen is normally used when information has to be accessed with minimum effort. it requires less space to use. they are used in information-providing systems like the hospitals. A basic touch screen has three main components: a touch sensor. These attributes make a trackball particularly suitable for use with portable computers. This scanner performs the scanning of the document very slowly form the top to bottom. Flat-bed scanner: This scanner looks similar to a photocopier machine.like a mouse lying on its back.
The more dots per inch better the quality of image. The quality of a printer is determined by how detailed a print it can produce. It is a hard copy output device. They can print any shape of character specified by a user. Soft Copy: The electronic version of an output. Print quality is determined by the number of pins (the mechanisms that print Compiled by Srinivasa Rao A ( computers. This allows the printer to print many special character. Daisy wheel. is known as soft copy. The two forms of output are: 1. It is transient and is usually displayed on the screen. 2. soft copy is not a permanent form of output. textual or graphical information displayed on a computer monitor is also a soft copy form of output. which usually resides in computer memory and/or on disk. For printers. which is generated using a computer. Some printers produce only textual information. it refers to the recorded information copied from a computer onto paper or some other durable surface. The output can be displayed on a monitor. In general. Printers A printer prints information and data from the computer onto a paper. Projectors and Audio devices are soft copy output devices.Input Output Devices Output DevIces Output is data that has been processed into useful information. Hard Copy: The physical form of output is known as hard copy. This kind of output is intangible. or listened through speakers or headset. 2. In general.com ) . Dot matrix. Based on the hardcopy and softcopy outputs. Paper is one of the most widely used hard copy output media. Dot matrix printers produce characters and illustrations by striking pins against an ink ribbon to print closely spaced dots in the appropriate shape. specified in characters per second (cps). there are two basic categories of output: the output. Ink-jet and Laser printers are the examples of non-impact printers. which can be readily. In addition.odc@gmail. the output devices are classified into: hard copy output devices and soft copy output devices. it cannot be touched. Monitors. and which is stored on secondary storage devices so that the data can be used as input for further processing. vary from about 50 to over 500cps. such as microfilm. Impact printers: The impact printers work by physically striking a head or needle against an ink ribbon to make a mark on the paper. understood and used by the humans. charts and graphs. Higher the resolution better is the image. and Drum printers are examples of impact printers. Hard copy output is permanent and a relatively stable form of output. Print speeds. Resolution is used to describe the sharpness and clarity of an image. The examples are printouts from printers which contains text or graphics. whereas others can produce graphics as well. the resolution is measured in dpi (dots per inch). Non-impact printers: The non-impact printers use techniques (a nozzle to spray ink or a laser to form characters) without striking the page to transfer ink onto the page. Soft copy output includes audio and visual form of output. that is. that is. printed on a paper. Unlike hard copy. Printers and Plotters are hard copy output devices. its resolution. Dot Matrix Printer Dot matrix printer is the oldest printing technology and it prints one character at a time. Most dot-matrix printers offer different speeds depending on the quality of print desired. Printers are divided into two basic categories: 1.
that is. magenta. and black. These printers may not be able to print graphic objects (images) adequately but can handle applications such as accounting. Using different combinations of these four colors. This beam discharges areas of the positively charged drum.com ) . it moves into the laser toner. The toner then sticks to the paper. it uses a series of nozzles to spray drops of ink directly onto the paper. providing resolutions from 300 to 1200 dpi. which operates on the same principle as that of a photocopy (Xerox) machine. The best dot-matrix printers (24 pins) are capable of near letter-quality type. When it comes to comparing the cost per page. yellow. colored laser printers have four colors-cyan. crisp images of both text and graphics. Many dot matrix printers are bi-directional. Cartridges need to be changed more frequently and the special coated paper required to produce high-quality output is very expensive. inkjets work out about ten times more expensive than laser printers. The drum then rolls over a sheet of paper. personnel. The toner is positively charged. Dot matrix printers are inexpensive and have low operating costs. This is a small rotating drum that has a coating on it. able to print 4-32 text-only pages per minute for individual microcomputers and up to 200 pages per minute for mainframes. and payroll very well. The areas that the beam discharges are made to resemble the characters and letters that are to be printed. Being costlier than dot matrix printers. left or right. The nozzles accommodate the colors cyan. Ink-Jet Printers The most common type of printer found in homes today is the ink-jet printer. and black. This coating allows it to hold either a positive or a negative electrostatic charge.Input Output Devices the dots). and thus the image to be printed is transferred onto a sheet of paper. a laser beam is shined on the photoreceptor as it revolves. they are more expensive to maintain. They are also affordable. all the colors in a color spectrum can be created. An ink-jet printer is a printer that places extremely small droplets of ink onto paper to create an image. as the drum continues to rotate. which appeals to small businesses and home offices. it does not touch the paper while creating an image. They produce sharp. Like inkjet printers. Most laser printers are specifically designed to print in only black ink. which is a fine black powder. It is a very fast printer. With a complex system of mirrors and lenses. The core component of laser printing system is the photoreceptor. However. there are some laser printers that can print in color. Being a non-impact printer. they can print the characters from directions. Instead. It gets this positive charge by a special electrically charged wire called the charge corona wire. These printers can print about 6 pages per a minute. this varies from between 9 to 24. the photoreceptor is given a positive charge. The down side is that although ink-jets are generally cheaper to buy than lasers. Then. Typically.odc@gmail. Initially. they produce quality output. It allows for printing images of different colors with nearly the same quality as a photograph. These are limited to situations where carbon copies are needed and the quality is not too important. and thus is attracted to the portions of the photoreceptor that have been discharged by the laser. Laser Printers A laser printer provides the highest quality text and images for personal computers. yellow. magenta. Compiled by Srinivasa Rao A ( computers. They are also known as page printers because they process and store the entire page before they actually print it. They are quiet and fast. The major limitation of dot matrix printer is that it prints only in black and white.
Aspect ratio Screen size Based on the technology used. screen size is normally measured diagonally (in inches). Available monitor screen sizes are 14. Like televisions. Generally. the distance from one corner to the opposite corner. it lights up phosphor dots on the inside of the glass tube. most of the computer monitors are based on CRT technology. The CRT technology used in most televisions and computer display screens. thereby illuminating the active portions of the screen. Aspect ratio is the ratio of the width of the display screen to its height. A CRT works by moving an electron beam back and forth across the back of the screen. The size of the display is described based on two parameters: aspect ratio and screen size. computer displays have an aspect ratio of 4:3. and 21 inches. the monitors are classified into two categories: Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitors. 17. 15.odc@gmail.Input Output Devices Monitor The monitor is the most frequently used soft copy output device. 19. Compiled by Srinivasa Rao A ( computers. By drawing many such lines from the top to the bottom of the screen. CRT Monitors Nowadays.com ) . A computer monitor is a TV like display attached to the computer on which the output can be viewed. it creates an entire screenful of images. Each time the beam makes a pass across the screen. The computer monitor can either be a monochrome (only one colour) or a colour display.
Marco Polo Compiled by Srinivasa Rao A ( computers. circuit diagrams.com ) . but LCD is the best viewed ‘head on’. The LCD technology is used in digital watches and many portable computers. graphs. and other line-based diagrams. the LCD has made a big impact on computer screen market. Size: LCD is lightweight and compact. They are mainly used for Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) applications such as printing out plans for houses and vehicle parts. …. The lines drawn by these devices are continuous and very accurate. is like a shutter. and surely your habits will change your future. but they draw lines using a pen. Each crystal. They are still much more costly than a CRT. yellow. magenta. 5. Multicolor plotters use four pens (cyan. You cannot change your future. LCD displays utilize two sheets of polarizing material with a liquid crystal solution between them. Viewing Angle: CRT can be viewed at almost any angle. plotter is considered a very slow output device because it requires excessive mechanical movement to plot. Plotters A Plotter is a pen-based output device that is attached to a computer for producing images created by a series of many straight lines. but you can change your habits. As a result. narrow viewing angles can appear to have inconsistent color and brightness. Differences between LCD and CRT 1. Plotters are relatively expensive than printers. Power Consumption: LCD consumes significantly less power than CRT and has a low emission risk. a LCD consumes approximately half of the power of a typical CRT. they can produce continuous lines. blueprints. therefore. It is used to draw high-resolution charts. 2. and black) to different colors and need no human intervention to change them. whereas printers can simulate lines by printing a closely spaced series of dots. it is unable to produce solid fills and shading. Even when viewing a LCD head on. Furthermore. Typically. An electric current passed through the liquid causes the crystals to align so that light cannot pass through them. maps. which saves desktop space as compared to a CRT. Plotters are similar to printers. The plotter tends to draw much crisper lines and graphics.Input Output Devices LCD Monitors With the widespread use of smaller computers like PDAs and laptops. Brightness: The illuminated phosphor of a CRT is not clearly as bright as what the LCD can produce with its florescent backlight.odc@gmail. 3. However. Cost: Prices for LCD screens are quite high. but they are coming down. either allowing light to pass through or blocking the light. 4.
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