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Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation
Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation
This chapter provides an overview of the Oracle architecture and talks about the various components that make an Oracle Instance. It also talks about the creation of database and various modes of starting and shutting down a database.
1.1Oracle Architecture and its main components 1.1.1System Global Area Overview 1.1.2Program Global Area (PGA) Overview 1.1.3Oracle Processes Overview 1.2Oracle Instance 1.3Managing an Oracle Instance 1.4Start up and shut down 1.4.1Starting up the database 1.4.2Starting up an instance
1.4.3Shutting down a database 1.5Alert Log File 1.6Setup Password File Authentication 1.7Oracle9i Installation Procedure 1.8Configure OMF 1.9 Prerequisites for database creation 1.9.1Planning for database creation 1.9.2Meeting Prerequisites 1.10 Create and manage Initialization parameter files 1.10.1Determine the global database name 1.10.2Specify Control Files 1.10.3Specify database block size 1.10.4Setting Initialization parameters that affect the size of SGA 1.10.5Specifying the Maximum Number of Processes 1.10.6Specifying a method of Undo Space Management 1.10.7Managing Initialization parameter files using a server parameter file 1.11 Creating a database manually 1.12 Create a database using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant 1.12.1Advantages of using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant: 1.12.2Creating a database 1.12.3Global Database name and Parameters 1.12.4Completing Database Creation 1.12.5Deleting a database 1.13Monitor the use of Diagnostic Files
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Exploring Oracle Database Administration
Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation
1.1Oracle Architecture and its main components
An Oracle Database is comprised of physical files, memory areas and processes. The distribution of these components varies depending on the database architecture chosen. The data in the database is stored in physical files (called data files) on a disk. As it is used that data is stored in the memory. Oracle uses memory areas to improve performance and to manage the sharing of data between users. The main memory area in the database is called the System Global Area (SGA). To read and write data between SGA and data files, Oracle uses a set of background processes that are shared by all users. The basic memory structures of Oracle include: System Global Area (SGA), which is shared by all server and background processes and holds the following: • • • • Database buffer cache Redo log buffer Shared pool Large pool (if configured)
Program Global Areas (PGA), which is private to each server and background process; there is one PGA for each process. The PGA holds the following: • • Stack areas Data areas
Fig. 1.1 – Oracle Memory Structure
System Global Area Overview
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Exploring Oracle Database Administration
Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation
A system global area (SGA) is a group of shared memory structures that contain data and control information for one Oracle database instance. If multiple users are concurrently connected to the same instance, then the data in the instance’s SGA is shared among the users. Consequently, the SGA is sometimes called the shared global area. An SGA and Oracle processes constitute an Oracle instance. Oracle automatically allocates memory for an SGA when you start an instance, and the operating system reclaims the memory when you shut down the instance. Each instance has its own SGA. The SGA is read/write. All users connected to a multiple-process database instance can read information contained within the instance’s SGA, and several processes write to the SGA during execution of Oracle. The SGA contains the following data structures: • Database buffer cache • Redo log buffer • Shared pool • Java pool • Large pool (optional) • Data dictionary cache • Other miscellaneous information Dynamic SGA Beginning with Oracle9i, Release 1 (9.0.1), Oracle can change its SGA configuration while the instance is running. With the dynamic SGA infrastructure, the sizes of the buffer cache, the shared pool, and the large pool can be changed without shutting down the instance. Dynamic SGA also allows Oracle to set, at run time, limits on how much virtual memory Oracle will use for the SGA. Oracle can start instances under configured and allow the instance to use more memory by growing the SGA components, up to a maximum of SGA_MAX_SIZE. If SGA_MAX_SIZE specified in INIT.ORA is less than the sum of all components specified or defaulted at initialisation time, then the setting of SGA_MAX_SIZE in INIT.ORA is ignored. The size of the SGA is determined by several initialisation parameters. The parameters that most affect SGA size are: DB_CACHE_SIZE: LOG_BUFFER: SHARED_POOL_SIZE: The size of the cache of standard blocks. The number of bytes allocated for the redo log buffer. The size in bytes of the area devoted to shared SQL and PL/SQL statements.
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Exploring Oracle Database Administration
Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation
The size of the large pool; the default is 0.
220.127.116.11 Data Base Buffer Cache The database buffer cache is the portion of the SGA that holds copies of data blocks read from data files. All user processes concurrently connected to the instance share access to the database buffer cache. The database buffer cache and the shared SQL cache are logically segmented into multiple sets. This organization into multiple sets reduces contention on multiprocessor systems. Size of the Database Buffer Cache Oracle9i, Release 1 (9.0.1), supports multiple block size in a database. This is the default block size—the block size used for the system table space. You specify the standard block size by setting the initialisation parameter DB_BLOCK_SIZE. Legitimate values are from 2K to 32K. To specify the size of the standard block size cache, you set the initialisation parameter DB_CACHE_SIZE. Optionally, you can also set the size for two additional buffer pools, KEEP and RECYCLE, by setting DB_KEEP_CACHE_SIZE and DB_RECYCLE_CACHE_SIZE. These three parameters are independent of one another in Oracle9i, Release 1 (9.0.1). The sizes and numbers of non-standard block size buffers are specified by the following parameters: DB_2K_CACHE_SIZE DB_4K_CACHE_SIZE DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE DB_16K_CACHE_SIZE DB_32K_CACHE_SIZE Each parameter specifies the size of the cache for the corresponding block size. 18.104.22.168 Redo Log Buffer The redo log buffer is a circular buffer in the SGA that holds information about changes made to the database. This information is stored in redo entries. Redo entries contain the information necessary to reconstruct, or redo, changes made to the database by INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, ALTER, or DROP operations. Redo entries are used for database recovery, if necessary.
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Shared SQL Areas A shared SQL area contains the parse tree and execution plan for a given SQL statement. its structures.3 The Shared Pool The shared pool portion of the SGA contains three major areas: library cache. holding values specific to his or her session. anonymous blocks. PL/SQL Program Units and the Shared Pool Oracle processes PL/SQL program units (procedures. and control structures. particularly if transactions are long or numerous. Oracle allocates a private area to hold values specific to the session that executes the program unit. PL/SQL procedures and packages. Dictionary Cache The data dictionary is a collection of database tables and views containing reference information about the database. Oracle saves memory by using one shared SQL area for SQL statements executed multiple times. Library Cache The library cache includes the shared SQL areas. If more than one user executes the same program unit.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation Redo entries are copied by Oracle server processes from the user’s memory space to the redo log buffer in the SGA. 5 . Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). larger values reduce log file I/O. The redo entries take up continuous. buffers for parallel execution messages. and database triggers) much the same way it processes individual SQL statements. packages. Oracle accesses the data © Copyright 2006. sequential space in the buffer. including local. dictionary cache. Oracle allocates a shared area to hold the parsed.1. The default value of this parameter is 8M on 32-bit platforms and 64M on 64-bit platforms. shared area is used by all users. global. In general. The initialisation parameter LOG_BUFFER determines the size (in bytes) of the redo log buffer. and its users.1. The background process LGWR writes the redo log buffer to the active online redo log file (or group of files) on disk. The default setting is four times the maximum data block size for the host operating system. The total size of the shared pool is determined by the initialisation parameter SHARED_POOL_SIZE. and control structures such as locks and library cache handles. which often happens when many users execute the same application. private SQL areas (in the case of a multiple transaction server). Increasing the value of this parameter increases the amount of memory reserved for the shared pool. 1. and package variables (also known as package instantiation) and buffers for executing SQL. while each user maintains a separate copy of his or her private SQL area. compiled form of a program unit. functions. then a single.
1.2 Program Global Area (PGA) Overview A program global area (PGA) is a memory region. The total PGA memory allocated by each server process attached to an Oracle instance is also referred to as the aggregated PGA memory allocated by the instance. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). This access is essential to the continuing operation of Oracle. The large pool is better able to satisfy such large memory requests than the shared pool. which contains data and control information for a server process. these buffers are allocated to the shared pool) By allocating session memory from the large pool for shared server. and for parallel buffers is allocated in buffers of a few hundred kilobytes.4 Large Pool The database administrator can configure an optional memory area called the large pool to provide large memory allocations for: • Session memory for the shared server and the Oracle XA interface (used where transactions interact with more than one database) • I/O server processes • Oracle backup and restore operations • Parallel execution message buffers. the memory for Oracle backup and restore operations.1. The other area in memory to hold dictionary data is the library cache. 1.1. The large pool does not have an LRU list. for I/O server processes. if the initialisation parameter PARALLEL_ AUTOMATIC_TUNING is set to TRUE (otherwise. which uses the same LRU list as other memory allocated from the shared pool.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation dictionary frequently during SQL statement parsing.1. Oracle XA. It is different from reserved space in the shared pool. The data dictionary is accessed so often by Oracle that two special locations in memory are designated to hold dictionary data. Oracle can use the shared pool primarily for caching shared SQL and avoid the performance overhead caused by shrinking the shared SQL cache. In addition. Access to it is exclusive to that server process and is read and written only by Oracle code acting on behalf of it. All Oracle user processes share these two caches for access to data dictionary information. or parallel query buffers. 6 . One area is called the data dictionary cache. also known as the row cache because it holds data as rows instead of buffers (which hold entire blocks of data). Contents of PGA: Private SQL Area © Copyright 2006. It is a nonshared memory created by Oracle when a server process is started.
it is possible to combine the user process and corresponding server process into a single process to reduce system overhead. Server processes (or the server portion of combined user/server processes) created on behalf of each user’s application can perform one or more of the following: • • • Parse and execute SQL statements issued through the application Read necessary data blocks from data files on disk into the shared database buffers of the SGA.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation A private SQL area contains data such as bind information and runtime memory structures. Server Processes Oracle creates server processes to handle the requests of user processes connected to the instance. It also describes the trace files and alert file. Cursors and SQL Areas The application developer of an Oracle precompiler program or OCI program can explicitly open cursors. In some situations when the application and Oracle operate on the same machine. The allocation and deallocation of private SQL areas depends largely on which application tool you are using. a user process always communicates with Oracle through a separate server process. Each session that issues a SQL statement has a private SQL area. if the blocks are not already present in the SGA Return results in such a way that the application can process the information Background Processes To maximize performance and accommodate many users. although the number of private SQL areas that a user process can allocate is always limited by the initialisation parameter OPEN_CURSORS. a multiprocess Oracle system uses some additional Oracle processes called background processes. when the application and Oracle operate on different machines. Recursive cursors that Oracle issues implicitly for some SQL statements also use shared SQL areas. However. Thus. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). Each user that submits the same SQL statement has his/ her own private SQL area that uses a single shared SQL area. many private SQL areas can be associated with the same-shared SQL area. The management of private SQL areas is the responsibility of the user process. © Copyright 2006. 7 . and use them as a named resource throughout the execution of the program. The default value of this parameter is 50.3 Oracle Processes Overview This section describes the two types of processes that execute the Oracle server code (server processes and background processes). 1. or handles to specific private SQL areas. which record database events for the Oracle processes.1.
Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). and the rest of this section describes each process.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation An Oracle instance can have many background processes. background processes are created automatically when an instance is started.2 show how each background process interacts with the different parts of an Oracle database. The background processes in an Oracle instance include the following: • Database Writer (DBW0 or DBWn) • Log Writer (LGWR) • Checkpoint (CKPT) • System Monitor (SMON) • Process Monitor (PMON) • Archiver (ARCn) • Recoverer (RECO) • Lock Manager Server (LMS) . Figure 1. 8 . not all are always present.Real Application Clusters only • Queue Monitor (QMNn) • Dispatcher (Dnnn) • Server (Snnn) On many operating systems. © Copyright 2006.
3. 1.1 Database Writer Process (DBWn) The database writer process (DBWn) writes the contents of buffers to data files. you can configure additional processes (DBW1 through DBW9) to improve write performance if your system modifies data heavily. Although one database writer process (DBW0) is adequate for most systems.3.2 Log Writer Process (LGWR) © Copyright 2006. 9 .Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation Fig 1.2 Showing background process interacting with different parts of oracle database 1. These additional DBWn processes are not useful on uniprocessor systems. The DBWn processes are responsible for writing modified (dirty) buffers in the database buffer cache to disk.1. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).1.
SMON wakes up regularly to check whether it is needed. if necessary. if necessary 1. Other processes can call SMON if they detect a need for SMON to wake up. With Oracle9i Real Application Clusters. The statistic DBWR checkpoints displayed by the System_Statistics monitor in Oracle Enterprise Manager indicates the number of checkpoint requests completed.1.3 Checkpoint Process (CKPT) When a checkpoint occurs. © Copyright 2006. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). When the redo log buffer is one-third full 3. When LGWR writes redo entries from the redo log buffer to a redo log file. 1.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation The log writer process (LGWR) is responsible for redo log buffer management— writing the redo log buffer to a redo log file on disk. SMON is also responsible for cleaning up temporary segments that are no longer in use and for coalescing contiguous free extents within dictionary-managed table spaces. SMON recovers them when the table space or file is brought back online. LGWR writes all redo entries that have been copied into the buffer since the last time it wrote. and removes the process ID from the list of active processes. even when access to the redo log is heavy. the SMON process of one instance can perform instance recovery for a failed CPU or instance.3. at instance startup. 1. Every three seconds 2. If any dead transactions were skipped during crash and instance recovery because of fileread or offline errors. PMON is responsible for cleaning up the database buffer cache and freeing resources that the user process was using.3. LGWR normally writes fast enough to ensure that space is always available in the buffer for new entries. and restarts any that have died (but not any that Oracle has terminated intentionally).1. 10 . The redo log buffer is a circular buffer. LGWR writes: • A commit record when a user process commits a transaction • Redo log buffers 1. For example.1. LGWR writes one contiguous portion of the buffer to disk. DBWn always performs that work. When a DBWn process writes modified buffers to disk. The CKPT process does not write blocks to disk.3. This is done by the CKPT process.5 Process Monitor Process (PMON) The process monitor (PMON) performs process recovery when a user process fails. releases locks. Oracle must update the headers of all data files to record the details of the checkpoint. it resets the status of the active transaction table. server processes can then copy new entries over the entries in the redo log buffer that have been written to disk.4 System Monitor Process (SMON) The system monitor process (SMON) performs crash recovery. PMON periodically checks the status of dispatcher and server processes.
11 . the job queue processes try to execute the job at the next occurrence of the interval. RECO waits an increasing amount of time (growing exponentially) before it attempts another connection. The processes execute one job at a time.6 Recoverer Process (RECO) The recoverer process (RECO) is a background process used with the distributed database configuration that automatically resolves failures involving distributed transactions. They can be viewed as a scheduler service that can be used to schedule jobs as PLSQL statements or procedures on an Oracle instance. If this initialisation parameter is zero. The RECO process is present only if the instance permits distributed transactions and if the DISTRIBUTED_TRANSACTIONS parameter is greater than zero.3.1). job queue processes are managed dynamically. The CJQ0 process dynamically spawns job queue slave processes (J000… J999) to execute the jobs. 1. Here’s what happens: 1. If the RECO process fails to connect with a remote server. 1.1. This allows job queue clients to use more job queue processes when required. The coordinator process. Release 1 (9. RECO automatically tries to connect again after a timed interval. it automatically resolves all in-doubt transactions. PMON wakes up regularly to check whether it is needed and can be called if another process detects the need for it. The job queue processes execute user jobs as they are assigned by the CJQ process. Like SMON. When the RECO process re-establishes a connection between involved database servers. 3.7 Job Queue Processes Job queue processes are used for batch processing. periodically selects jobs that need to be run from the system JOB$ table. Dynamic job queue processes can execute a large number of jobs concurrently at a given interval. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). The RECO process of a node automatically connects to other databases involved in an in-doubt distributed transaction. named CJQ0. The job queue process executes one of the jobs that were selected by the CJ process for execution. RECO is not created during instance startup. The resources used by the new processes are released when they are idle. However. Beginning with Oracle9i.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation PMON also registers information about the instance and dispatcher processes with the network listener.3.0. They execute user jobs. Given a start date and an interval.1. © Copyright 2006. New jobs selected are ordered by time. removing from each database’s pending transaction table any rows that correspond to the resolved in-doubt transactions. 2.
from which it wakes up at periodic intervals and polls for more jobs. clients should not assume that all job queue processes are available for job execution.9 Lock Manager Server Process (LMS) In Oracle9i Real Application Clusters. © Copyright 2006. However. 12 . a Lock Manager Server process (LMS) provides inter-instance resource management.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation 4.3. and automatic archiving is enabled. An Oracle instance can have up to 10 ARCn processes (ARC0 to ARC9). 1. ARCn processes are present only when the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode. it aborts after a preset interval.ora parameter JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES represents the maximum number of job queue processes that can concurrently run on an instance. The ALERT file keeps a record of when LGWR starts a new ARCn process.8 Archiver Processes (ARCn) The archiver process (ARCn) copies online redo log files to a designated storage device after a log switch has occurred. The init. If the process does not find any new jobs. If there are no scheduled jobs for execution. 1. it polls for more jobs. it enters a sleep state. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). The LGWR process starts a new ARCn process whenever the current number of ARCn processes is insufficient to handle the workload.1. After the process finishes execution of a single job.3.1.
1. Oracle associates the instance with the specified database. each accessing its own physical database. which makes it accessible to authorized users. In clustered and massively parallel systems (MPP). © Copyright 2006. Multiple instances can execute concurrently on the same computer. This combination of the SGA and the Oracle processes is called an Oracle instance. The database is then ready to be opened. You can configure up to 10 queue monitor processes.3. These processes are different from other Oracle background processes in that process failure does not cause the instance to fail. The memory and processes of an instance manage the associated database’s data efficiently and serve the one or multiple users of the database. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).3 shows an Oracle Instance The Instance and the Database After starting an instance.10 Queue Monitor Processes (QMNn) The queue monitor process is an optional background process for Oracle Advanced Queuing. Fig 1.2Oracle Instance Introduction to an Oracle Instance Every running Oracle database is associated with an Oracle instance. When a database is started on a database server (regardless of the type of computer). This is called mounting the database. Oracle allocates a memory area called the System Global Area (SGA) and starts one or more Oracle processes. Oracle9i Real Application Clusters enables multiple instances to mount a single database. 13 .Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation 1. which monitors the message queues.1.
the initialisation parameters tell Oracle: • • • • • The name of the database for which to start up an instance How much memory to use for memory structures in the SGA What to do with filled online redo log files The names and locations of the database’s control files The names of private rollback segments or undo table spaces in the database The following is an example of a parameter file DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS = 550 DB_NAME = ORAESD DB_DOMAIN = US. 14 .COM # LICENSE_MAX_USERS = 64 # CONTROL_FILES = filename1. the database administrator can shut down the database so that it is closed. If a database is open. Oracle must read an initialisation parameter file—a file containing a list of configuration parameters for that instance and database. Normal users do not have control over the current status of an Oracle database. Security for database startup and shutdown is controlled through connections to Oracle with administrator privileges. 1. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). users cannot access the information that it contains.ACME. which are called variable parameters Among other things. When a database is closed.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation Only the database administrator can start up an instance and open the database. Set these parameters to particular values to initialise many of the memory and process settings of an Oracle instance.3Managing an Oracle Instance Initialization Parameter Files To start an instance. Most initialisation parameters belong to one of the following groups: • Parameters that name things (such as files) • Parameters that set limits (such as maximums) • Parameters that affect capacity (such as the size of the SGA). filename2 # LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST = C:\DEST LOG_ARCHIVE_START = TRUE LOG_BUFFER = 64512 UNDO_MANAGEMENT = TRUE © Copyright 2006.
1. Oracle must read instance configuration parameters (the initialisation parameters) from either a server parameter file or a traditional text initialisation parameter file. Using SQL*Plus to Start Up a Database You use the STARTUP command to start up a database instance.4. 2. When you issue the STARTUP command with no PFILE clause. Oracle reads the initialisation parameters from a server parameter file (SPFILE) in a platform-specific default location. © Copyright 2006. Note: For UNIX. Oracle locates your initialisation parameter file by examining filenames in the following order: 1.1 Starting up the database These are the preliminary steps to be performed before attempting to start an instance of database using SQL*Plus. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).ora You can direct Oracle to read initialisation parameters from a traditional text initialisation parameter file. Connect to Oracle as SYSDBA: CONNECT username/password AS SYSDBA Now you are connected to Oracle and ready to start up an instance of your database. by using the PFILE clause of the STARTUP command. spfile$ORACLE_SID. 15 . the platform-specific default location (directory) for the server parameter file (or text initialisation parameter file) is: $ORACLE_HOME/dbs For Windows NT and Windows 2000 the location is: $ORACLE_HOME\database In the platform-specific default location.ora init$ORACLE_SID.ora spfile. 3.4Start up and shut down 1. Start SQL*Plus without connecting to the database: SQLPLUS /NOLOG 2.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation 1. To start an instance.
but does not allow general access to the database. This does not allow access to the database and usually would be done only for database creation or the re-creation of control files Start the instance and mount the database. allowing access for database administrators only. 16 . SQL> 235693104 bytes 279600 bytes 167772160 bytes 67108864 bytes 532480 bytes © Copyright 2006.4. This mode allows any valid user to connect to the database and perform typical data access operations. and then mount and open the database by using the STARTUP command by itself. and mount and open the database. 1.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation For example: STARTUP PFILE = /home/oracle/product/9. Start the instance.0. Total System Global Area Fixed Size Variable Size Database Buffers Redo Buffers Database mounted. Database opened.1 Starting an Instance. and Mounting and Opening a Database Normal database operation means that an instance is started and the database is mounted and open. Start an instance. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). read the initialisation parameters from the default server parameter file location. This can be done in unrestricted mode.1/dbs/inittest1.4. allowing access to all users. This state allows for certain activities.2. SQL> STARTUP ORACLE instance started.2 Starting up an instance You can start up an instance in these modes: • • • Start the instance without mounting a database. but leave it closed. or in restricted mode.ora 1.
4. 17 . Total System Global Area Fixed Size Variable Size Database Buffers Redo Buffers Database mounted.2. There are various modes of shutting down a database. you do so only during database creation.2.3 Starting an Instance and Mounting a Database Start an instance and mount the database. Typically. 235693104 bytes 279600 bytes 167772160 bytes 67108864 bytes 532480 bytes 1. but leave it closed by using the STARTUP command with the MOUNT option: SQL> startup mount ORACLE instance started.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation 1. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). you must first connect as SYSOPER or SYSDBA.3 Shutting down a database To shut down a database and instance.4. Use the STARTUP command with the NOMOUNT option: SQL> startup nomount ORACLE instance started. Total System Global Area 235693104 bytes Fixed Size 279600 bytes Variable Size 167772160 bytes Database Buffers 67108864 bytes Redo Buffers 532480 bytes SQL> 1.2 Starting an Instance Without Mounting a Database You can start an instance without mounting a database.4. • • • • Shutting down with Normal option Shutting down with Immediate option Shutting down with transactional option Shutting down with abort option © Copyright 2006.
4.3.4. Oracle waits for all currently connected users to disconnect from the database.2 Shutting Down with the IMMEDIATE Option The immediate database shutdown can be used in the following situations: • • • To initiate an automated and unattended backup When a power shutdown is going to occur soon When the database or one of its applications is functioning irregularly and you cannot contact users to ask them to log off or they are unable to log off To shut down a database immediately. use the SHUTDOWN command with the NORMAL option: SQL> shutdown normal. SQL> Normal database shutdown proceeds with the following conditions: No new connections are allowed after the statement is issued. Database closed.3 Shutting down with Transactional option To perform a planned shutdown of an instance while allowing active transactions to complete first. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). • • 1. Database dismounted.1 Shutting Down with the NORMAL Option To shut down a database in normal situations.3.4. ORACLE instance shut down.3. 1. Oracle implicitly rolls back active transactions and disconnects all connected users. use the SHUTDOWN command with the IMMEDIATE option: SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE Immediate database shutdown proceeds with the following conditions: • • • No new connections are allowed Any uncommitted transactions are rolled back. The next startup of the database will not require any instance recovery procedures. Before the database is shut down. use the SHUTDOWN command with the TRANSACTIONAL option: SHUTDOWN TRANSACTIONAL © Copyright 2006.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation 1. 18 . The next startup of the database will not require any instance recovery procedures.
When a process detects an internal error.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation Transactional database shutdown proceeds with the following conditions: • • • No new connections are allowed After all transactions have completed. or alert log.5Alert Log File Each server and background process can write to an associated trace file. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). any client still connected to the instance is disconnected. • Current client SQL statements being processed by Oracle are immediately terminated.4 Shutting down with ABORT Option When you must do a database shutdown by aborting transactions and user connections. which includes the following: All internal errors (ORA-600). and deadlock errors (ORA-60) that occur • Administrative operations. • Uncommitted transactions are not rolled back. The alert file of a database is a chronological log of messages and errors. 1. Trace file information is also used to tune applications and instances. such as CREATE. Some of the information written to a trace file is intended for the database administrator. • 1.4. block corruption errors (ORA-1578). it dumps information about the error to its trace file. • Oracle does not wait for users currently connected to the database to disconnect. and ARCHIVELOG statements • Several messages and errors relating to the functions of shared server and dispatcher processes • Errors occurring during the automatic refresh of a materialized view • The values of all initialisation parameters at the time the database and instance Start Initialization parameters controlling the location and size of trace files are: • © Copyright 2006. the instance shuts down just as it would when a SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE statement is submitted. and DROP statements and STARTUP. The alert file. 19 . ALTER. The next startup of the database will require instance recovery procedures. is a special trace file.3. Oracle implicitly disconnects all connected users. SHUTDOWN. while other information is for Oracle Support Services. after the statement is issued. issue the SHUTDOWN command with the ABORT option: SHUTDOWN ABORT An aborted database shutdown proceeds with the following conditions: No new connections are allowed. At this point. nor are new transactions allowed to be started.
6. 1. There are no spaces around the equal-to (=) character.maximum number of distinct DBAs and OPERs (opt). entries .1 Specifying the location of Trace and Alert Files All trace files for background processes and the alert file are written to the destination directory specified by the initialisation parameter BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST. password .5. For example.1 Using ORAPWD: Syntax for ORAPWD orapwd Usage: orapwd file=<fname> password=<password> entries=<users> where file . Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).password for SYS (mand). 20 . • • • • Using ORAPWD Setting REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE Adding users to Password file Maintaining a password file 1. but each file usually includes the name of the process writing the file (such as LGWR and RECO).Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation • • • BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST USER_DUMP_DEST MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE 1. The names of trace files are operating system specific.pwd that allows up to 30 privileged users with different passwords: ORAPWD FILE=acct.6Setup Password File Authentication Password file can be created by a utility called ORAPWD.name of password file (mand). the following command creates a password acct.pwd PASSWORD=secret ENTRIES=30 file named © Copyright 2006. All trace files for server processes are written to the destination directory specified by the initialisation parameter USER_DUMP_DEST. This section covers these topics.
both the password stored in the data dictionary and the password stored in the password file are updated. This parameter is mandatory. • © Copyright 2006. Password: This parameter sets the password for user SYS. The contents of this file are encrypted. However. Only an EXCLUSIVE file can contain the names of users other than SYS. The values are the following: None: Setting this parameter to NONE causes Oracle to behave as if the password file does not exist. This number corresponds to the number of distinct users allowed to connect to the database as SYSDBA or SYSOPER. NONE is the default value for this parameter. • Exclusive: An EXCLUSIVE password file can be used with only one database. 21 .2 Setting Remote_Login_PasswordFile Apart from creating the Password file . and the file cannot be read directly. you must also set the initialisation parameter Remote_Login_Passwordfile to an appropriate value. This option is useful if you have a single DBA administering multiple databases. the only user recognized by a SHARED password file is SYS. Using an EXCLUSIVE password file allows you to grant SYSDBA and SYSOPER system privileges to individual users and have them connect as themselves. Entries: This parameter specifies the number of entries that you require the password file to accept. SYS. 1. If you issue the ALTER USER statement to change the password for SYS after connecting to the database.6. • Shared: A SHARED password file can be used by multiple databases.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation Following are the description of parameters in ORAPWD utility: File: This parameter sets the name of the password file being created. You cannot add users to a SHARED password file. This parameter is mandatory. All users needing SYSDBA or SYSOPER system privileges must connect using the same name. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). You must specify the full path name for the file. and password.
Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). its default state is SHARED. 1. 22 . After you remove this file. 5.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation 1.4.4. you can delete the password file and reset the REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE initialisation parameter to NONE.6. Start up the instance and create the database if necessary. Create users as necessary.1 Expanding the number of Password file users: If you receive the file full error (ORA-1996) when you try to grant SYSDBA or SYSOPER system privileges to a user. You can change the state of the password file by setting the initialisation parameter REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE. When you start up an instance. 1.4 Maintaining a Password file: This section describes how to: • • • Expand the number of password file users if the password file becomes full Remove the password file Avoid changing the state of the password file 1. Create a password file using ORAPWD utility following the syntax 2.6. Oracle compares the value of this © Copyright 2006. Set the Remote_Login_Passwordfile parameter to EXCLUSIVE 3. • • • 1. When you mount the database. or mount and open an existing database.3 Adding Users to Password File: 1. When you first create a password file.6.6.3 Changing the state of password file: The password file state is stored in the password file.6. Oracle retrieves the value of this parameter from the parameter file stored on your client machine. only those users who can be authenticated by the operating system can perform database administration operations. Grant SYSDBA or SYSOPER privileges.2 Remove the password file If you determine that you no longer require a password file to authenticate users. To replace a password file: Shutdown the database Delete the existing password file Create a new password file using ORAPWD utility with sufficient ENTRIES parameter which u think might be used.4. Connect with SYSDBA privilege as shown in example Connect sys/password as sysdba 4. you must create a larger password file and regrant the privileges to the users.
Oracle overwrites the value stored in the file. 23 . the Oracle Enterprise Manager framework of management tools. Management Server. Oracle utilities.1 Oracle9i has these components. There are four installation types: Enterprise Edition. It also installs those products most commonly used in data warehousing and transaction processing environments. If the values do not match. networking services. © Copyright 2006. and Intelligent Agent.1. • • • Oracle9i Database Oracle9i Client Oracle9i Management and Integration 1.7Oracle9i Installation Procedure Oracle Universal Installer Overview Oracle Universal Installer is a Java-based graphical user interface (GUI) tool that enables you to install Oracle components from your CD-ROM. Personal Edition.7. Oracle Universal Installer installs a preconfigured seed database.7. database environment tools. licensable Oracle Options. Standard Edition. Oracle Universal Installer provides the following capabilities: • • • • • • • Component and suite installations Web-based installations National language and globalisation support Distributed installation support Unattended "silent" installations using response files Uninstallation of installed components Multiple Oracle homes support Oracle9i products for Installation: 1. Enterprise Edition: If you select this type. including Console. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation parameter to the value stored in the password file. 1. and online documentation.1 Oracle9i database: The Oracle9i Database is an object-oriented relational database management system. which consists of an Oracle database and an Oracle instance. or Custom.
1. networking services. 24 . Oracle Internet Directory. Oracle Universal Installer installs the same software as the Enterprise Edition installation type. Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to select individual components to install from the components available with Administrator and Runtime.3 Oracle9i Management and Integration Oracle Management Server is a central processing and distribution system for management tasks. Runtime: If you select this type. and Personal Edition installations. and Custom. Runtime. including enterprise management tools. Administrator: If you select this type.2 Oracle9i Client The Oracle9i Client is a front-end database application that connects to the database through one or more application servers.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation Standard Edition: If you select this type. Standard Edition.7. Oracle Universal Installer installs networking services and support files. Oracle Universal Installer installs a preconfigured seed database. © Copyright 2006. and Intelligent Agent. Oracle Integration Server.1. Custom: If you select this type. 1. Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to select individual components to install from the components available with Enterprise Edition. and Oracle utilities. 1. Oracle Universal Installer installs the Oracle Enterprise Manager Console. but supports only a single user development and deployment environment that requires full compatibility with Enterprise Edition and Standard Edition. networking services. Management Server. Custom: If you select this type.7. utilities. Oracle Integration Server is a suite of software that provides Internet and intranet tools to integrate applications within and across organizations. Personal Edition is the only Oracle9i Database installation type that is supported on Windows 98. including Console. and basic client software. There are four Management and Integration installation types: Oracle Management Server. Personal Edition: If you select this type. Oracle Enterprise Manager framework of management tools. There are three Client installation types: Administrator. Oracle Internet Directory is an database-based LDAP v3 directory server. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). Note that Oracle Management Server and Intelligent Agent are not supported on Windows 98. It enables distributed control between clients and managed nodes. and Custom.
which processes all system management tasks from the Enterprise Manager console and administers the distribution of these tasks to Intelligent Agents on managed nodes across the enterprise. Also used as the default file system directory for online redo log and control files if DB_ CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_ n is not specified. You can specify up to five multiplexed copies. Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to select individual components to install from the components available with Oracle Management Server. The following initialisation parameters allow the database server to use the Oracle managed files feature: DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST: Defines the location of the default file system directory where Oracle creates data files or tempfiles when no file specification is given in the creation operation.8Configure OMF Oracle managed files simplifies the administration of an Oracle Database. • Oracle Internet Directory: If you select this type. • Custom: If you select this type. Oracle Universal Installer installs XML-enabled components that integrate enterprise applications. Components include Oracle9i JVM. a workflow engine. Oracle Universal Installer installs a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)-enabled Oracle Internet Directory Server. where n specifies a multiplexed copy of the online redo log or control file. 25 . Oracle Universal Installer installs the Oracle Management Server. • 1. • Oracle Integration Server: If you select this type. Oracle Internet Directory. Oracle Universal Installer installs basic client software. and advanced queuing. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). and the Oracle Internet Directory database schema. In addition. Include the DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST initialisation parameter in your initialisation parameter file to identify the default location for the database server to create: • • • • Data files Tempfiles Online redo log files Control files as the default The following example sets /u01/oradata/payroll directory to use when creating Oracle-managed files. DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_n: Defines the location of the default file system directory for online redo log files and control file creation when no file specification is given in the creation operation.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation Oracle Management Server: If you select this type. © Copyright 2006. You can use this initialisation parameter multiple times. and Oracle Integration Server. LDAP-enabled client tools.
Create the global database name by setting both the DB_ NAME and DB_DOMAIN initialisation parameters.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST = '/u01/oradata/payroll' Setting the DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_n initialisation parameter in the initialisation parameter file to identify the default location for the database server to create: • • Online Redo log files Control Files DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_1 = ‘/u02/oradata/payroll’ DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_2 = ‘/u02/oradata/payroll’ 1. Develop a backup and recovery strategy to protect the database from failure. 26 . Select the global database name. Select the data base character set Select the standard database block size.9 Prerequisites for database creation The following topics are to be looked into for database creation • • Planning for data base creation Meeting certain prerequisites Planning for database creation 1. which is the name and location of the database within the network structure. to choose the appropriate backup mode. Proper distribution of files can improve database performance dramatically by distributing the I/O for accessing the files. Plan the layout of the underlying operating system files.9. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). Use an undo table space to manage your undo records. file by multiplexing. Consider using Oracle Managed Files feature to create and manage operating systems files. • • • • • • • © Copyright 2006.1 • Plan the database tables and indexes and estimate the amount of space they will require. This is specified at database creation by the DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialisation parameter and cannot be changed after the database is created. It is important to protect the control. and to manage the online and archived redo logs.
us. 1. This is typically the name of the organization that owns the database. the database does not start.9. 27 .com DB_NAME must be set to a text string of no more than eight characters.acme.com. the name provided for DB_NAME is recorded in the data files. For example. and control file of the database. DB_DOMAIN is a text string that specifies the network domain where the database is created. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).2 • • • The desired Oracle Software has to be installed.10 Create and manage Initialization parameter files The following are the initialisation parameters one has to look into before creating a database: • • • • • • • Determine the global database name Specify control files Specify database block sizes Setting Initialization Parameters that affect the size of SGA Specify the maximum number of processes Specify the method of undo space management Setting License Parameters 1. During database creation. to create a database with a global database name of test.10. edit the parameters of the new parameter file as follows: DB_NAME = test DB_DOMAIN = us.Exploring Oracle Database Administration • Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation Get Familiar with the options of starting and shutting down an instance and mounting and opening a database.1 Determine the global database name DB_DOMAIN parameter indicates the domain (logical location) within a network structure. Meeting Prerequisites 1. 1.acme.2 Specify Control Files © Copyright 2006. If during database instance startup the value of the DB_NAME parameter (in the parameter file) and the database name in the control file are not the same. There should be sufficient memory available to start up the Oracle Instance There should be sufficient disk storage space available on the computer that executes Oracle. redo log files. The combination of the settings for these two parameters must form a database name that is unique within a network.10.
© Copyright 2006.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation CONTROL_FILES initialisation parameter has to be included in your new parameter file and set its value to a list of control filenames to use for the new database. 28 . the control files listed in the CONTROL_ FILES parameter will be created. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). When you execute the CREATE DATABASE statement.
Oracle selects an appropriate default value. Typically DB_BLOCK_SIZE is set to either 4K or 8K The block size cannot be changed after database creation.10. The DB_CACHE_SIZE parameter specifies the size of the cache of standard block size buffers. where DB_ BLOCK_SIZE specifies the standard block size.10.3 Specify database block size The DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialisation parameter specifies the standard block size for the database. if your operating system’s block size is 2K (2048 bytes). the following setting for the DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialisation parameter is valid: DB_BLOCK_SIZE=4096 1. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). DB_ nK_CACHE_SIZE Initialization Parameters The sizes and numbers of non-standard block size buffers are specified by the following initialisation parameters: • • • • DB_2K_CACHE_SIZE DB_4K_CACHE_SIZE DB_8K_CACHE_SIZE DB_16K_CACHE_SIZE Adjusting the Size of the Shared Pool The SHARED_POOL_SIZE initialisation parameter is a dynamic parameter (in previous releases it was not dynamic) that allows you to specify or adjust the size of the shared pool component of the SGA.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation 1.4 Setting Initialization parameters that affect the size of SGA DB_CACHE_SIZE Initialization Parameter The DB_CACHE_SIZE initialisation parameter replaces the DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS initialisation parameter that was used in previous releases. For example. This block size is used in creation of SYSTEM table space and by default in other table spaces. Limiting the size of the SGA: © Copyright 2006. except by re-creating the database. make the database block size a multiple of the operating system’s block size. 29 . Adjusting the Size of the Large Pool The LARGE_POOL_SIZE initialisation parameter is a dynamic parameter (in previous releases it was not dynamic) that allows you to specify or adjust the size of the large pool component of the SGA. If a database’s block size is different from the operating system block size. Oracle selects an appropriate default value.
if you plan to have 50 concurrent users.10. MANUAL enables rollback segment undo mode. For example. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). it selects the first available undo table space in the instance for storing undo. UNDO_TABLESPACE Initialization Parameter When the instance starts up in automatic undo management mode.6 Specifying a method of Undo Space Management Undo Management Initialization parameter determines whether an instance will start up in automatic undo management mode where undo is stored in an undo table space.5 Specifying the Maximum Number of Processes The PROCESSES initialisation parameter determines the maximum number of operating system processes that can be connected to Oracle concurrently. SGA_MAX_SIZE >= DB_CACHE_SIZE + SHARED_POOL_SIZE + LARGE_POOL_SIZE + FIXED SGA + VARIABLE SGA + SIZE OF REDO LOG BUFFERS 1. and large pool. Setting License parameters: To set the maximum number of concurrent sessions for an instance set the initialisation parameter LICENSE_MAX_SESSIONS in the initialisation parameter file that starts the instance: © Copyright 2006. set this parameter to at least 55. You can dynamically alter the initialisation parameters affecting the size of the buffer caches. 30 . The value of this parameter must be 6 or greater (5 for the background processes plus 1 for each user process). shared pool. A default undo table space named SYS_UNDOTBS is automatically created when you execute a CREATE DATABASE statement and the UNDO_MANAGEMENT initialisation parameter is set to AUTO. variable SGA. where undo is stored in rollback segments.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation The SGA_MAX_SIZE initialisation parameter specifies the maximum size of the System Global Area for the lifetime of the instance. A value of AUTO enables automatic undo management mode. but only to the extent that the sum of these sizes and the sizes of the other components of the SGA (fixed SGA.10. 1. and redo log buffers) does not exceed the value specified by SGA_MAX_SIZE. or rollback segment undo mode. This is the undo table space that Oracle will normally select whenever you start up the database.
Step 2: Establish the database administrator authentication method To create a database one should have appropriate system privileges Step 3: Create the initialisation parameter file Have a look at the sample initialisation parameter file and edit it accordingly.10.ora' FROM PFILE='/u01/oracle/dbs/test_init. If a server parameter file of the same name already exists on the server.ora'. Store the initialisation parameter file in the Oracle’s default location.7 Managing Initialization parameter files using a server parameter file Creating a server parameter file: CREATE SPFILE='/u01/oracle/dbs/test_spfile. it is Overwritten with the new information. Exporting the server parameter file: The following example creates a text initialisation parameter file from a server parameter file where the names of the files are specified: CREATE PFILE='/u01/oracle/dbs/test_init.11 Creating a database manually Step 1: Decide on the instance identifier Decide on a unique Oracle System Identifier and set the ORACLE_SID variable accordingly. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).ora'. set the LICENSE_MAX_USERS initialisation parameter in the database’s initialisation parameter file. 31 . % export ORACLE_SID=mynewdb environment The value of DB_NAME initialisation parameter should match the SID setting.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation LICENSE_MAX_SESSIONS = 80 To limit the number of users created in a database. © Copyright 2006.ora' FROM SPFILE='/u01/oracle/dbs/test_spfile. as shown in the following example: LICENSE_MAX_USERS = 200 1. 1.
1/dbs/initmynewdb.server.ora is stored in the following location: /home/oracle/product/9. "/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/control/control02. (PROTOCOL=TCP) © Copyright 2006.1 Default parameter file locations Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation Platform Unix NT Default Name Init$ORACLE_SID. "/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/control/control03.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Table 1.ctl") # Archive LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1='LOCATION=/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/archive' LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT=%t_%s.1: Sample Initialization parameter file #Cache and I/O DB_BLOCK_SIZE =4096 DB_CACHE_SIZE=20971520 # Cursors and Library Cache CURSOR_SHARING=SIMILAR OPEN_CURSORS=300 # Diagnostics and Statistics BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST=/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/ bdump CORE_DUMP_DEST=/home1/oracle9i /mynewdb/cdump TIMED_STATISTICS=TRUE USER_DUMP_DEST=/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/udump # Control File configuration CONTROL_FILES=("/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/control/control01.aurora.aurora.dbf LOG_ARCHIVE_START=TRUE # Shared Server # Uncomment and use first DISPATCHES parameter below when your listener is # configured for SSL # (listener.0.ora) # DISPATCHERS = "(PROTOCOL=TCPS)(SER=MODOSE)".ctl".ora Init$ORACLE_SID.ora Default Location $ORACLE_HOME/dbs $ORACLE_HOME/database The initialisation parameter file initmynewdb.SGiopServer)" DISPATCHERS="(PROTOCOL=TCP)(SER=MODOSE)". Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).server. 32 .SGiopServer)". # "(PROTOCOL=TCPS)(PRE=oracle.ora Step3.ora and sqlnet.ctl". "(PROTOCOL=TCP)(PRE=oracle.
Bitmap Indexes SORT_AREA_SIZE=524288 # System Managed Undo and Rollback Segments UNDO_MANAGEMENT=AUTO UNDO_TABLESPACE=undotbs Step4: Connect to the instance Start SQL*Plus and connect to your Oracle instance AS SYSDBA.com REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE=EXCLUSIVE # Network Registration INSTANCE_NAME=mynewdb # Pools JAVA_POOL_SIZE=31457280 LARGE_POOL_SIZE=1048576 SHARED_POOL_SIZE=52428800 # Processes and Sessions PROCESSES=150 # Redo Log and Recovery FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET=300 # Resource Manager RESOURCE_MANAGER_PLAN=SYSTEM_PLAN # Sort.0.0 . Hash Joins.0 DB_NAME=mynewdb # Distributed.1.0. All rights reserved. Replication and Snapshot DB_DOMAIN=til.Production on Tue Oct 16 16:13:26 2001 (c) Copyright 2001 Oracle Corporation.0. $ SQLPLUS /nolog CONNECT SYS /MANAGER AS SYSDBA [oracle9i@esdlnx dbs]$ sqlplus /nolog SQL*Plus: Release 9. © Copyright 2006. 33 .Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation # Miscellaneous COMPATIBLE=9. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).
dbf' SIZE 200M REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 5120K MAXSIZE UNLIMITED DEFAULT TEMPORARY TABLESPACE tempts1 TEMPFILE '/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/temps1. This is done only during database creation or while performing maintenance operations. This statement does the following: • Creates the data files for the database • Creates the control files for the database • Creates the redo log files for the database and establishes the ARCHIVELOG mode.log') SIZE 100M.log') SIZE 100M. • Creates the SYSTEM table space and the SYSTEM rollback segment • Creates the data dictionary • Sets the character set that stores data in the database • Sets the database time zone • Mounts and opens the database for use The following statement creates database mynewdb: CREATE DATABASE mynewdb MAXINSTANCES 1 MAXLOGHISTORY 1 MAXLOGFILES 5 MAXLOGMEMBERS 5 MAXDATAFILES 100 DATAFILE '/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/system01. GROUP 3 ('/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/redo03. GROUP 2 ('/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/redo02.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation SQL> connect sys/manage as sysdba Connected.dbf' SIZE 50M REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 100K MAXSIZE UNLIMITED CHARACTER SET US7ASCII NATIONAL CHARACTER SET AL16UTF16 LOGFILE GROUP 1 ('/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/redo01. SQL> Step5: Start the Instance Start the instance without mounting the database. only instance is created and there is no database. 34 . Only SGA is created and background processes are started in preparation for the creation of new database. Use the Startup command without NOMOUNT option STARTUP NOMOUNT At this point. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).log') SIZE 100M. Step6: Issue the Create database statement To create new database use CREATE DATABASE statement.dbf' SIZE 325M REUSE UNDO TABLESPACE undotbs DATAFILE '/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/undotbs01. A database is created with the following characteristics: • The database is named mynewdb © Copyright 2006.
As ARCHIVELOG clause is not specified in this CREATE DATABASE statement. The default database time zone is the same as the operating system’s time zone.Exploring Oracle Database Administration • • • • Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation • • • • • • • • Three control files are created as specified by CONTROL_FILES initialisation parameter MAXINSTANCES specified that only one instance can have this database mounted and open. The following sample script creates some additional table spaces: CONNECT SYS/ password AS SYSDBA -. The US7ASCII character set is used to store data in this database. the default database time zone is the operating system time zone. If omitted (as it is in this case). The SYSTEM table space. The UNDO TABLE SPACE clause creates and names an undo table space to be used for undo records for this database.dbf is created as specified by the DATAFILE clause. -. MAXLOGFILES. and MAXLOGMEMBERS define limits for the redo log. NCLOB. The AL16UTF16 character set is specified as the NATIONAL CHARACRTER SET used to store data in columns of specifically defined as NCHAR. MAXDATAFILES specifies the maximum number of data files that can be open in the database. The new database has three online redo log files as specified in the LOGFILE clause. or NVARCHAR2. MAXLOGHISTORY. © Copyright 2006.create a user table space to be assigned as the default table space for users CREATE TABLESPACE users LOGGING DATAFILE '/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/users01. Step7: Create Additional table spaces To make the database functional.dbf' SIZE 25M REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 1280K MAXSIZE UNLIMITED EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL. you need to create additional files and table spaces for users. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). redo log files will not initially be archived.Create a table space for indexes. separate from user table space CREATE TABLESPACE indx LOGGING DATAFILE '/home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/indx01.dbf' SIZE 25M REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 1280K MAXSIZE UNLIMITED EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL. The DEFAULT_TEMPORARY_TABLESPACE clause creates a temporary table space. 35 . consisting of the operating system file /home1/oracle9i/mynewdb/system01. You set the database’s default time zone by specifying the SET TIME_ZONE clause of the CREATE DATABASE statement. If the file already exists. it is overwritten.
@/home/oracle/product/9.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation Step8: Run scripts to create Data Dictionary Views: Run the scripts necessary to build views.0. © Copyright 2006.SQL Runs all scripts required for or used with PL/SQL.1/spfilemynewdb. 36 . SHUTDOWN This time you will start up using the server parameter file CONNECT SYS/ password AS SYSDBA STARTUP Step10: Back up the database Take the back up of the database. EXIT CATALOG. and public synonyms for many of the views.ora' FROM PFILE='/home/oracle/product/9. the dynamic Performance views.1/rdbms/admin/catalog. Step9: Create Server parameter file: CONNECT SYS/ password AS SYSDBA -.sql. synonyms. and PL/SQL packages: CONNECT SYS/ password AS SYSDBA @/home/oracle/product/9.SQL Creates the views of the data dictionary tables.1/rdbms/admin/catproc.0. CATPROC. Grants PUBLIC access to the synonyms.sql.0. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).1/initmynewdb.0.Create the server parameter file CREATE SPFILE=' /home/oracle/product/9.ora'.
12. When you select a template. complex queries that process large volumes of data. • It uses Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA). to simplify the creation of a database. Using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant you can add or delete a database. 37 . Oracle provides templates for the following options: DSS: Users perform numerous. Availability.12 Create a database using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant The Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) is a graphical user interface (GUI) tool that interacts with the Oracle Universal Installer. whereby database files and administrative files. • It builds efficient and effective databases that take advantage of Oracle’s new features. The Oracle Database Configuration Assistant can be used to create single instance databases.12. Response time. 1.1 Advantages of using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant: Its wizards guide you through a selection of options providing an easy means of creating and tailoring your database. or can be used Standalone. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation 1. and availability are key issues. or it can be used to create or add instances in an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment. follow standard naming and placement practices. including initialisation files. OLTP: Many concurrent users performing numerous transactions requiring rapid access to data. you can choose either to include data files or not. speed.2 Creating a database A database can be created from predefined templates provided by Oracle or from templates that you or others have created. concurrence. • 1. and recoverability are key issues. New Database: This template allows you maximum flexibility in defining a database. accuracy. If you select a template with data files. You can run the script later to create a new database. © Copyright 2006. you will be able to save the database creation information as a template or script.
Very experienced database administrators who have specific tuning needs can use it 1.12. You provide a global database name. to control the amount and type of trace information that is produced. 1. Trace files are written on behalf of server processes whenever internal errors occur. Additionally. Optionally. you delete the database instance and its control file(s).12. determine mode (dedicated server of shared server).3 Global Database name and Parameters You are guided thorough a series of pages that allow you to further define your database or to accept default parameter values and file locations as recommended by Oracle. through an initialisation parameter.4 Completing Database Creation After you have completed the specification of the parameters that define your database you can: • • • Create the database Save the description as database template Generate database creation scripts. In the case of the ARCn background process. Typical: This creates a database with minimal user input.12. it is possible.5 Deleting a database The Oracle Database Configuration Assistant enables you to delete a database.13 Monitor the use of Diagnostic Files Trace Files: Background processes always write to a trace file when appropriate. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). instead. When you do so. trace files can be generated for server processes at user request. each session can enable or © Copyright 2006. Custom: Custom allows you to specify initialisation parameter values that affect the size of the System Global Area (SGA). 1. the percentage of physical memory reserved for Oracle. Regardless of the current value of the SQL_TRACE initialisation parameter. you specify the maximum number of concurrent users. and data files. 38 . setting the initialisation parameter SQL_TRACE = TRUE causes the SQL trace facility to generate performance statistics for the processing of all SQL statements for an instance and write them to the USER_DUMP_DEST directory. You do not specify specific initialisation parameter values. redo log files. Multipurpose or Data Warehousing). and a database type (OLTP. The initialisation parameter file is not deleted. and ultimately you can specify initialisation parameter. specify database options to include.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation 1.
This example enables the SQL trace facility for a specific session: ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE TRUE. 39 . The DBMS_SESSION and DBMS_SYSTEM packages can also be used to control SQL tracing for a session. © Copyright 2006. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation disable trace logging on behalf of the associated server process by using the SQL statement ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE.
The parameters which control the location and size of trace files are: © Copyright 2006. The process monitor (PMON) performs process recovery when a user process fails. ARCn processes are present only when the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode. memory and processes. The DBWn processes are responsible for writing modified (dirty) buffers in the database buffer cache to disk The log writer process (LGWR) is responsible for redo log buffer management—writing the redo log buffer to a redo log file on disk. which contains data and control information for a server process. The database buffer cache is the portion of the SGA that holds copies of data blocks read from data files. The total size of the shared pool is determined by the initialisation parameter SHARED_POOL_SIZE. at instance startup. To shutdown the database immediately use SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE command. The database writer process (DBWn) writes the contents of buffers to data files. The recoverer process (RECO) is a background process used with the distributed database configuration that automatically resolves failures involving distributed transactions. Oracle allocates a memory area called the System Global Area (SGA) and starts one or more Oracle processes. The queue monitor process is an optional background process for Oracle Advanced Queuing. The redo log buffer is a circular buffer in the SGA that holds information about changes made to the database. A program global area (PGA) is a memory region. which monitors the message queues. A system global area (SGA) is a group of shared memory structures that contain data and control information for one Oracle database instance. 40 . Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). The archiver process (ARCn) copies online redo log files to a designated storage device after a log switch has occurred.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation SUMMARY An Oracle Data base is comprised of physical files. The command for starting an instance without mounting the database is STARTUP NOMOUNT. This combination of the SGA and the Oracle processes is called an Oracle instance. The command for starting an instance and mounting the database is STARTUP MOUNT. if necessary. and automatic archiving is enabled. The system monitor process (SMON) performs crash recovery. To shut down the database in normal conditions the command used is SHUTDOWN NORMAL. A shared SQL area contains the parse tree and execution plan for a given SQL statement.
Exploring Oracle Database Administration ♦ ♦ ♦ Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST USER_DUMP_DEST MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE Password file can be created by a utility called ORAPWD. Oracle Universal Installer is a Java-based graphical user interface (GUI) tool that enables you to install Oracle components from your CD-ROM. The DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialisation parameter specifies the standard block size for the database. This block size is used in creation of SYSTEM table space and by default in other table spaces. 41 . The PROCESSES initialisation parameter determines the maximum number of operating system processes that can be connected to Oracle concurrently. © Copyright 2006. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).
holds information about changes made to the database. 5. 3. 42 . The init. 2. –REDO LOG BUFFER -. What is SGA and what does it comprise of? What does background process RECO do? What is an Oracle Instance? What are various options of starting and shutting down a database ? What is the role of alert file? Write short notes on ORAPWD? When are Oracle Managed files used? What are the prerequisites for data base creation? © Copyright 2006.and –ORACLE PROCESS-. 2. --SGA------. State whether the following are True/False 1. 6. Log Writer Process writes contents of buffers to data files (T/F).constitute an Oracle Instance. Database writer process writes data in redo log buffer to redo log file (T/F). --SGA-----. –DATA DICTIONARY---. The size of the cache of the data blocks is determined by ---DB_BLOCK_SIZEparameter 4. 4. Answer the following Questions: 1. The recoverer process (RECO) is a background process used with the distributed database configuration that automatically resolves failures involving distributed transactions (T/F).is a collection of database tables and views. 3.ora parameter JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES represents the maximum number of job queue processes that can concurrently run on an instance (T/F). Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS). 4. 7.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation SELF-ASSESSMENT Fill in the blanks: 1. SMON performs process recovery (T/F). 2. 5. 8. PMON process performs Crash Recovery (T/F).contains data and control information of an Oracle Instance. 3. 6. 5.
4. Two redo log file groups each one 150K member named log1a. 2. 5.log' The maximum number of five logs files groups and five log file Members for each group iv.Exploring Oracle Database Administration Oracle Architectural Components and Database Creation LAB EXERCISES 1. Write a script for creation of database with the following configuration: i. Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS).con located in the directory "/home1/oracle9i/testdb/control/control01. A 20M data file named system01. One control file named control01.rdo located in the directory '/home1/oracle9i/testdb/redo01. Where is the existing control file and what is its name Try to start the database without the control file. 3. What happens? © Copyright 2006. The Character set WE8ISO8859P1 viii. A maximum number of 100 archived redo logs for automatic media recovery vii. Database name and Instance name: TESTDB ii.ctl" iii.dbf' directory v. 43 .dbf and located in /home1/oracle9i/testdb/system01. Maximum of 30 data files that can be created for the database vi. The Trace file location should be in the BDUMP and CDUMP directory. Create additional table spaces called users and indx Create the data dictionary views.rdo and log2a.
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