Sand Casting: Introduction

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Sand Casting: Intr
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Aluminum Sand Casting
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Introduction
Sand casting is used to make large parts (typically Iron, but also Bronze, B Aluminum). Molten metal is poured into a mold cavity formed out of sand (n synthetic). The processes of sand casting are discussed in this section, includ patterns, sprues and runners, design considerations, and casting allowance.

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Patterns

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The cavity in the sand is formed by using a pattern (an approximate duplicat real part), which are typically made out of wood, sometimes metal. The cavi contained in an aggregate housed in a box called the flask. Core is a sand sh inserted into the mold to produce the internal features of the part such as ho internal passages. Cores are placed in the cavity to form holes of the desired Core print is the region added to the pattern, core, or mold that is used to lo support the core within the mold. A riser is an extra void created in the mold excessive molten material. The purpose of this is feed the molten metal to th cavity as the molten metal solidifies and shrinks, and thereby prevents voids main casting.

Copyright © 2005 eFunda

Typical Components of a Two-part Sand Casting Mold.

http://www.efunda.com/processes/metal_processing/sand_casting_intro.cfm

3/24/2005

060 in). and core is called cope and the lower half is called parting line or the parting surface is line or surface that separates the cope a The drag is first filled partially with sand. because the exact allowance is determined the shape and size casting.com/processes/metal_processing/sand_casting_intro.5 mm (0. In addition. the cores. includin half of the pattern. CGI. The object is to remove pattern without breaking the mold cavity. which is typical of sand castings. Tool USA Bridge to China Aluminum Die Casting 412-967-9181 Ads by Goooooogle About Us Suggestion Privacy Disclaimer Con http://www. and t system are placed near the parting line. the upper half. A machining (finish) allowance is made for this type of de casting allowance table for the finish allowance. To ac shrinking.cfm 3/24/2005 . Ductile. This is facilitated by designing a d slight angular offset from the vertical to the vertical surfaces of the pattern. Sprues and Runners The molten material is poured in the pouring cup. The ro surface of the pattern. and the horizontal portion the runners and finally to the multiple points where it is introduced to the m called the gates. covering the pattern. Low Alloy. Short Run Castings Iron: Gray. different parts of the casting might require a different s allowance. the pattern must be made oversize by these factors.Sand Casting: Introduction Page 2 of 2 In a two-part mold. The cope is then assembled to the d the sand is poured on the cope half. whichever is greater. The vertical part of the system connected to the pouring cup is the sprue. Meehanite Steel: Stainless. These shrinkage allowance are approximate. This is achieved by making the pattern oversize. See the casting allowance table for the approximate shrinkage al expressed as the Pattern Oversize Factor. on the avera are linear factors and apply in each direction. which is part of the gating that supplies the molten material to the mold cavity. Additionally there are extensions to the gating system calle that provide the path for the built up gases and the displaced air to vent to t atmosphere. core and the gatin The sand is compacted by vibration and mechanical means. The cavity is usually made oversize to allow for the metal contraction as it co to room temperature. the cope i from the drag. the more the draft to be provided.efunda. and the core print. Sand castings generally have a rough surface sometimes with surface impur surface variations. flask. usually a minimum of 1° or 1. Next. and the pattern is carefully removed.

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