Diffusion through a Membrane Lab The purpose of this lab was to help students to understand diffusion better.

Diffusion was used throughout this lab (definition used in “What I learned”) to help us with the cell unit we are doing now. Another purpose of this lab was to show what we might be undertaking on the regents. It also helps us with responsibilities and helps us realize how important some of these labs will be now and in the future. Some more purposes for this lab include microscope review, how to add solutions to slides review and to be able to describe the permeability of a model membrane for starch, Starch Indicator Solution, and glucose. The purpose for this lab was to help students to understand diffusion better, to show what we might be preforming on the regents, and to review multiple things. The initial thing that we did was go over what diffusion through a membrane was by reading and then breaking off into groups and stations. Next we went through the objectives and go through materials and safety. Materials for the first part included a dialysis tubing, two pieces of strong, Benedicts solution, test tube rack, concentrated glucose solution, a funnel, distilled water, 7 test tubes, iodine, paper towels or tissues, pipettes, safety goggles Starch Indicator Solution, a 250 mL beaker, a hot water bath to share and a test tube holder. Some safety precautions embrace the importance of safety goggles, washing your hands, and avoiding lab chemicals. Next we had to make our “cell.” We had to start by taking one side of the dialysis tubing and fold it over on one side. While I held it, my partner tied a not around it so no fluids would come in. Then we had to rub it under warm water to get it open. Afterwards my partner got the glucose solution and starch solution while I put the iodine in the plastic beaker so that it looked amber in water. When my partner was done getting the solutions we tied of the other end to make it leak proof. After that we put in the beaker with the iodine so it was just covered. (I

For the starch Indicator Solution with a pipette we put 10 drops of the substance in a clean test tube and added the Starch Indicator Solution and then mixed it a little. First we looked at it through the lower power until we found a purplish/reddish color cell then we put it on a higher power. Then we filled out a different diagram using letters. distilled water. Some materials needed for this part involved red onion. glass microscope slides. water. and review how to prepare a wet mount and staining techniques. Once we did that we put it in the hot water bath for two minutes. For the Glucose Indicator Solution we took 10 more drops of the substance and put them in three new test tubes and this time we added the Glucose Indicator Solution. Then we drew a diagram. colored it and labeled it. In this part some objectives were to predict and see what would happen if cells are placed in solutions having different concentrations. (Results below) Then once we had our data for the final state of the “cell” we answered questions. colored pencils. Then we simply recorded any changes. Then we ran out of time. and some on diffusion. but using inferences we . For the second part of this lab we had to use a microscope and use diffusion of water across a membrane. First we had to get the onion skin so. (Osmosis) First we read the paragraph about osmosis which was review from the other lab. Then we added a salt solution to the cell and examined it again and observed it. colored and labeled it once more. Then position the skin in the middle of the slide and put a small drop of water on top of it and put the cover slip on top of that. some based on the chemical testing parts.had to drain some out) Then we filled out the initial state diagram and waited 20 minutes to fill out the final state. and salt solution. chemical testing. pipettes. (Results below) During the 20 minutes my partner and I started the next section in part 1. we broke the onion (not all the way through) and take some skin off. Next we observed any changes and recorded them. cover slips.

and glucose was added and on the picture on the right was what happened after 20 minutes. and some of the glucose were on the inside. iodine. The chart below represents the chemical tested results: Indicator Solution Used Blue-Colored Glucose Indicator Solution Amber-Colored Starch Indicator Solution Material Tested Distilled Water Blue Starch Blue Glucose Orange Red/ Dark Orange/ Brown Dark Blue/ Purple Red/ Dark Orange/ Brown . while the glucose and iodine were on the outside. because the iodine and starch mixed. starch. Then on the final state the glucose.figured that if you took the salt out and replaced it with water that it would get absorbed and the cell would grow back to its original shape. The last thing we had to do was to clean up. The results we got for the first part were these: In the picture on the left it is before the starch. Changes included that the cell color changed. labeling where everything was on the initial state with the “g” and “s” on the inside of the cell and the “i” on the outside. In the next set of pictures you can notice it is the same results without the colors.

You can also notice there are slight color variations. the cell membrane is the colored part. Results for the second part of this lab include: When you first look through the microscope and have a pure view you will be able to see something like the picture on the left. The second picture or the picture on the right represents what would happen when you added salt solution. The cell wall is the black part surrounding each cell. the cell wall is the black part surrounding each cell. which basically means that . We presumed that when we put the distilled water back in the cell it would end up looking like the first picture. The 1st thing I learned was the definition to diffusion which was the process by which the collisions between molecules causing them to spread apart. The circles still represent nucleuses. and the cytoplasm is the white stuff in the cell. and that none of the starch would have gotten out of the cell or the water would have turned blue also. You can see more cells because the salt absorbs the water in the cell making it shrink. and the cytoplasm is the white stuff in the cell. the dots are chloroplasts. the cell membrane is the colored part. The nucleus is the two circles and the dots are chloroplasts.As you can see in the Glucose Indicator Solution the only color that was different was the glucose and in the Starch Indicator Solution the only thing that changed color was the starch. Other results in the first section of this lab was that the glucose was on the outside and inside.

For example if the Starch Indicator Solution was mixed with the starch it would become another color than other chemicals tested. The third thing that I learned was that if the solution is the same thing as the chemical tested the chemical will become another color. the remaining 5% is solute. Sources of error are maybe drop sizes and quantities of the drops. Another source of error could be mot adding enough solution or adding too much. but we aren’t positive that it’s what it looks like. The second thing I learned was that if the cytoplasm of a cell is 95% water. for instance my partner and I guessed what the cell would look like with distilled water. The fourth thing I learned was that if the liquid in the outside the cell has less solute than the cytoplasm water will diffuse into the cell. and finally I learned is that I should work a little faster to get more things done. .if two cells bumped into each other they would look for an open space.

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