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Software metrics is a term that embraces many activities , all of which involve some degree of software measurement  Cost and effort and estimation  Productivity measures and models  Data collection  Quality models and measurement  Reliability models  Performance Evaluation and models  Structural and complexity metrics  Capability-maturity assessment  Management by metrics  Evaluation of methods and tools

Software cost estimation is a continuing activity which starts at the proposal stage and continues throughout the lifetime of a project.down estimation (7) Bottom. they must be able to make estimates of how much a software development is going to cost.up estimation . Projects normally have a budget. Boehm (1981) discusses seven techniques of software cost estimation: (1) Algorithmic cost modeling (2) Expert judgement (3) Estimation by analogy (4) Parkinson's Law (5) Pricing to win (6) Top. and continual cost estimation is necessary to ensure that spending is in line with the budget. Cost and effort and estimation Project Costs Software project managers are responsible for controlling project budgets so. Effort can be measured in staff-hours or staff-months (Used to be known as man-hours or manmonths).

g. and is often formalised through a data collection plan[2] which often contains the following activity.[1] Data collection usually takes place early on in an improvement project. Productivity is the measure on production efficiency. Productivity model must be able to solve the formula Output / Input when there are many different outputs and inputs. to pass information on to others. definitions. Segmented models: provides different quality estimates for different industrial segments. to make decisions about important issues.. commercial software. auxiliary software) Dynamic models: provides quality trend or distribution over time or development phases (e. Productivity model is a measurement method which is used in practice for measuring productivity.g. Collection ² data collection 3. target data. methods 2.  Data collection Data collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing and collecting data. the Putnam model. for instance using the defect density.. safety critical software. Quality models and measurement . Present Findings ² usually involves some form of sorting[3] analysis and/or presentation. Pre collection activity ² agree on goals. Primarily. by providing different defect density estimates according to market segments or products groups (e. data are collected to provide information regarding a specific topic. that generalizes empirical effort and defect profiles over time into a Rayleigh curve). . 1.There are three subcategories of generalized models: Overall models: provides a single estimate of product quality. The purpose of data collection is to obtain information to keep on record. as part of a process improvement or similar project. for example. for instance. 4. Productivity measures and models Productivity in economics is the ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce.