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FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND LANGUAGES PROGRAM SARJANA MUDA PENGAJARAN ( PENDIDIKAN RENDAH ) (MEI SEMESTER 2010

)

HBMT 1203 MATHEMATICS PRE SCHOOL AND YEAR 1 _______________________________________________________________ ASSIGNMENT TOPIC: TEACHING SUBTRACTION

NAME: SHUKHAIRI BIN ADNAN

IC NO.: 720725-02-5631

TELEPHONE NO: 013-4406865

E-MAIL: shukhairi72@oum.edu.my

TUTOR NAME: EN. RAZALI BIN IBRAHIM

LEARNING CENTRE: IPGM KAMPUS PERLIS

Table of Contents

1. Introduction 2. Evaluation of Three Subtraction Activities Activity 1 Overview Strength Weakness Modification and Justification Activity 2 Overview Strength Weakness Modification and Justification Activity 3 Overview Strength Weakness Modification and Justification 3. Conclusion 4. References 5. Appendices

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2 3 4 4 4 6 6 8 8 9 10 10 12 12 12 13 14 15

INTRODUCTION

Subtraction is the inverse operation of addition. It provides a method for determining the difference between two numbers; put another way, it is the process of taking one number from another to determine the amount that remains. While the basics of this fundamental process are taught at the preschool level, subtraction provides a foundation for many aspects of higher mathematics, as well as a conceptual basis for some cutting-edge methods of developing new technology. In addition, subtraction provides answers to a wide array of practical daily questions in areas ranging from personal finance to athletics to making sure one gets enough sleep to remain healthy.

A subtraction equation consists of three parts. The solution or answer to a subtraction equation is called the difference. While this term is commonly known, the other two elements of a subtraction equation also have labels, albeit far less well-known ones. The starting value in a subtraction equation is called the minuend, while the second term is called the subtrahend. Thus, a subtraction equation is formally labeled: minuend − subtrahend = difference. Simple two-place subtraction problems can be solved by subtracting each column individually, beginning at the right and working progressively left. The equation 49 − 21 is solved by evaluating 9 − 1 for the right value and 4 − 2 for the left value to produce a final answer of 28.

1 EVALUATION OF THREE SUBTRACTION ACTIVITIES

ACTIVITY 1 Title : Preschool Math Ideas Using Table Settings

Contributor

:

Charlotte Johnson, eHow Contributing Writer : kitchen utensils – – – – – – Food – – Vegetables Fruit Spoon Fork Table knife Plate Glass Etc

Resources / aids

Link

:

http://www.ehow.com/list_5777368_preschool-ideas-using-table-

settings.html#ixzz0wMWASZiM

OVERVIEW

2

According to the contributor of this activity, the important basics of math are easily practiced and incorporated into routines such as meal time. Johnson also stresses that preschoolers learn best in everyday activities. Learning math is no different. Most preschoolers love to help in the kitchen as well. Combining the two activities is not difficult at all. Build preschool math skills in a fun way using these three concepts. The concepts that are emphasized in this activity are “Less and More”. The concepts of “less than” and “more than” are very important to building preschool math skills.

Illustrating these concepts is easy to do while preparing food, sitting at the table or even while cleaning up the kitchen. In this activity, the teacher teaches subtraction in the kitchen. While preparing food, the teacher will call attention to the size of measuring cups and spoons. The teacher asks the preschooler which cup holds more and which holds less. The teacher will allow them to hold the cups and do some of the measuring themselves to experiment with the concepts. While eating at the table, preschoolers will usually notice if someone else has more of a favorite food. The teacher will lead a talk about who has less and more on their plate. While cleaning the kitchen, the teacher will ask the students to stack the dishes. They will then compare the stacks to see which has less or more.

STRENGTH This activity is closely related to the student’s background knowledge. This means that students are already familiar with the items such as kitchen utensils and food. This is an example of spontaneous learning and learning through experience. Furthermore, all the materials that are needed can be easily found and cheap.

WEAKNESS

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The students might be tempted to eat the food before the lesson is finished.

MODIFICATION AND JUSTIFICATION OF THE ACTIVITY

This kind of activity can also be used to help the preschoolers to categorize. Categorizing requires a preschooler to notice what is the same in a group of items and what is different. They can categorize everything by color, shape or use. Food can also be added when we want to integrate categorizing with subtraction. For example: ask the preschoolers to eat all the green food first and eat the orange food last. While they are eating, hold discussion with them on the number and the category of food that are left. Teacher can use whatever category that works best for your students.

Clearing the table is a great way to categorize. Clean off everything that you use to pick up food first, then clean off everything that holds food, continue until your table is clear. Preschoolers learn categorizing and self-help skills with this activity. This activity can also be upgraded to object counting. Object counting is a harder concept for preschoolers to master than counting by memory. The students can practice counting objects while setting the table, cooking and while clearing the table. They can be taught to subtract the numbers of object which belongs in the same category. For example; allow your preschooler to count the silverware to set the table. Ask him to take 4 spoons, 4 forks and 4 knives from the silverware drawer. Assist him if necessary. As you set the table, count again as you place the utensil on the table and also ask them to count the number of utensils that have not been placed on the table. Count plates, cups, and napkins, as well. Anything in the kitchen can be counted. When it is time to remove the place settings from the table, try a little visual addition and subtraction with your child. For instance, if you have four plates, place two side by side 4 and the other two side by side. Point to each group as you say, "What is two plus two?" Allow your preschooler to figure out the totals for various groupings. As you remove items from the table, create subtraction sentences. For instance, ask a question like, "If there are five forks, and you take three to the sink, how many forks are left?" Summarize with a subtraction sentence: "Five minus two equals three."

ACTIVITY 2

5

What's This? Title Contributor : : How to Teach Subtraction Using Montessori Golden Beads Carole Vansickle, eHow Contributing Writer : Beads – – – – A cube A square A bar A single bead

Resources / Aids

Number cards Felt-lined tray

Link

:

http://www.ehow.com/how_4516685_teach-subtraction-using-

montessori-golden.html#ixzz0wMXr07oF

OVERVIEW According to the contributor, golden beads come in hierarchies of thousands (a cube), hundreds (a square), tens (a bar) and units (a single bead). http://www.achildsgardenmontessori.org/images/goldenbead.jpg Montessori golden beads are used for a wide variety of math exercises in preschool and elementary school. These beads can be used to help associate numbers with their quantities and to demonstrate basic math principles. Once a student is familiar with addition and multiplication, you should move on to subtraction.

The contributor claims that you can clearly demonstrate how subtraction works using the
6 golden bead set. This lesson can be taught individually or to a small group.

Apart from the beads, the things that you'll need are number cards and felt-lined tray

STEPS The steps in the activity are as follows: Step 1 Use large number cards and the golden beads to create a minuend from which to subtract. This number can be large and use thousands, hundreds, tens and ones. For example, if you want to subtract something from 3,265, you would use the large number cards to build the number and then 3,000 cubes, 200 squares, six 10 bars and five unit beads to assemble a golden bead representation of the number.

Step 2 Use small number cards to build a subtrahend, the number you are subtracting, in the felt-lined tray. For example, if you want to subtract 1,132 from 3,265, you would use the number cards to make 1,132 in the felt-lined tray. Do not include golden beads in the tray. Step 3 Tell the children, "Today we will work subtraction problems." Although you have not yet demonstrated what a subtraction problem is, this will let them know what they are about to learn. Step 4
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Assign the subtrahend to a student. Tell him that he will need to get the beads to build his number from the beads that are part of the minuend. Help him through the process, since it is new. Say, for example, "How many units do you want? Two? Okay, take two of these units," while pointing to the minuend. Continue until the student has built the entire subtrahend in the felt-lined tray. When the work is completed, you can say, "Good, you have subtracted 1,132," and place the small number under the larger minuend at the top of the table. Step 5 Ask a student to count the remaining bead material from the minuend and build the resulting number with small number cards. In this case, you should have 2,133 left. This smaller number should go under the small number card subtrahend that you already placed under the minuend. This number is the difference.

STRENGTH

This activity is very useful in advance classes as it can help the students to master the basic mathematics skills, especially subtraction. The use of beads can make the activity interesting due to the variation of colours and shapes.

WEAKNESS

This activity is unsuitable for the beginner level but it is more appropriate for the intermediate and the advance level. MODIFICATION AND JUSTIFICATION 8

Apart from getting to the answer in step 5, it is important to review the problem orally. The teacher and the students can simply restate the actions as they occurred. In this instance, you would say, "We had 3,265 and then you subtracted 1,132 from it. We now have 2,133 left."

The teacher can also review what just happened using the new math terminology. Tell the children, "Today we did subtraction. Three thousand, two hundred and sixty-five was the amount we started with, our minuend. From that, we subtracted 1,132, our subtrahend. Our answer, 2,133, is called the difference." As you are speaking, points to the appropriate part of the problem. In this case, you should be pointing at 3,265 first, then 1,132 and then 2,133. The teacher needs to ask students to point to the minuend, the subtrahend and the difference. You can repeat this process multiple times with multiple numbers until the students are comfortable with the subtraction process. Do not overdo things, but rather allow the children to move on to another activity if they get bored or frustrated.

ACTIVITY 3 Title :

9

Fun with Fish: A Preschool Math Lesson

Contributor

:

Melissa Elizondo

Resources / Aids

;

Fish shaped crackerss

Link

:

http://www.brighthub.com/education/early-

childhood/articles/39507.aspx#ixzz0wv9yGR36

OVERVIEW

The rational for the design of this activity is that preschool students need a strong math foundation. This activity is designed to introduce addition and subtraction with a snack that most preschoolers love, the Goldfish cracker. The Goldfish play an important role in

this lesson. For these preschool math lessons, you will need a copy of the book Ten Little Fish, by Audrey Wood. You will also need Goldfish crackers.The teacher must make sure to have enough on hand for every student to have at least ten.

The steps Step 1

10

The teacher will pass out ten Goldfish crackers to each student. The teacher will tell the students not to eat them. The teacher may want to put a bowl in the middle for snacking. Have students count the Goldfish you passed out to them. Step 2 The teacher shows the students the cover of Ten Little Fish and asks them how many fish are on the cover. The teacher asks the students about the fish. The teacher can also asks if any of the students have a pet fish and where fish live. Step 3 The teacher will then read Ten Little Fish to the students. It counts down from ten to one. The teacher will have students place their ten Goldfish in front of them. Then, the teacher will have the students act out the story as it happens. The teacher will have them take away a Goldfish as one swims away. Step 4 After they have finished reading the story, the teacher can have the students gather their ten Goldfish. Ask them to pull out one cracker and then ask to put one more with that. Ask them how many is left in the main group. They should be able to easily answer eight. Continue with different subtraction problems, such as seven take away three, five take away one, three take away two, and so on. Step 5 After you have finished adding and subtracting, let your students eat the Goldfish.

11

STRENGTH

This activity is a fun activity because it uses an aid that is familiar to the students. Students can build their excitement through the activity and this will motivate them to learn.

WEAKNESS

The availability of the fish shaped cookies should be taken into accout.

MODIFICATION AND JUSTIFICATION

The teacher can use the traditional ‘fish bahulu’ as the substitute to the fish crackers. In order to extend the lesson, the teacher can assess the students on their understandings. One easy and fun way to asses the students is to have some Goldfish or blocks at your table and have your students come individually and do two or three simple addition and subtraction problems. Give every student the same number of problems. Have a printed class list, and write how many problems you gave at the top of the list. Then, mark how many problems the student got correct beside his or her name.

CONCLUSION

12

Research has shown that children, if given the opportunity will invent several strategies to solve subtraction problems. The first step in teaching subtraction should include manipulatives in whole and small group instruction. This step is sometimes referred to as direct modeling, because the manipulatives directly model the meaning of an operation or story problem. This phase of instruction should be repeated several times, varying the steps and problems. Students should have plenty of opportunities to discuss with the class how they solved problems. This step is an added benefit to the teacher because he/she can listen to students to see if they fully understand the operation of subtraction. After students are able to solve problems using manipulative, a second step should be introduced. Students should then apply their invented strategies to problems and use writing or drawings to support their methods. It is usually helpful if teachers model record keeping techniques while students explain their thinking in whole group situations. In this step, it is also vital that students have the chance to share their thinking processes with one another. As an educator, you want your students to be successful with one or two strategies that make sense to them. It is always useful to come up with new ideas to help the students.

REFERENCES:

13

Burns, Marilyn (April 2004). 10 Big Math Ideas. Instructor Magazine. 16-19.

Counting

Fish

crackers

:

http://www.brighthub.com/education/early-

childhood/articles/39507.aspx#ixzz0wv9yGR36

How

to

Teach

Subtraction

Using

Montessori

Golden

Beads

|

eHow.com

http://www.ehow.com/how_4516685_teach-subtraction-using-montessorigolden.html#ixzz0wMXr07oF

Preschool

Math

Ideas

Using

Table

Settings

|

eHow.com

http://www.ehow.com/list_5777368_preschool-ideas-using-tablesettings.html#ixzz0wMWASZiM

Tomlinson, Carol Ann. (Oct 2003). Deciding to Teach Them All. Educational Leadership. 61 (2) 6-11.

APPENDICES

14

Preschool Math Ideas Using Table Settings
Contributor By Charlotte Johnson, eHow Contributing Writer Article Rating: (0 Ratings)

Learn Preschool Math in the Kitchen
The important basics of math are easily practiced and incorporated into routines such as meal time. Use the time you already spend in the kitchen to improve math skills and prepare your child for kindergarten. Preschoolers learn best in everyday activities. Learning math is no different. Most preschoolers love to help in the kitchen as well. Combining the two activities is not difficult at all. Build preschool math skills in a fun way using these three concepts.

Less and More
The concepts of “less than” and “more than” are very important to building preschool math skills. Illustrating these concepts is easy to do while preparing food, sitting at the table or even while cleaning up the kitchen. While preparing food, call attention to the size of measuring cups and spoons. Ask your preschooler which cup holds more and which holds less. Allow them to hold the cups and do some of the measuring themselves to experiment with the concepts. While eating at the table, preschoolers will usually notice if someone else has more of a favorite food. Talk about who has less and more on their plate. While cleaning the kitchen, stack the dishes. Compare stacks to see which has less or more.

Categorize
Help your preschooler to categorize. Categorizing requires a preschooler to notice what is the same in a group of items and what is different. Categorize everything by color, shape or use. Make a game of categorizing. For example: eat all the green food first, eat the orange food last. Use whatever category works best for your family. Clearing the table is a great way to categorize. Clean off everything that you use to pick up food first, then clean off everything that holds food, continue until your table is clear. Preschoolers learn categorizing and self-help skills with this activity.

Counting

Object counting is a harder concept for preschoolers to master than counting by memory. Practice counting objects while setting the table, cooking and while clearing the table. Allow your preschooler to count the silverware to set the table. Ask him to take 4 spoons, 4 forks and 4 knives from the silverware drawer. Assist him if necessary. As you set the table, count again you place the utensil on the table. Count plates, cups, and napkins, as well. Anything in the kitchen can be counted, so keep counting. Practice makes perfect for your preschooler. Use time spent in meal preparation and clean-up to build math skills. Counting, categorizing and understanding the concepts of less and more are only a few of the skills on which parents and preschoolers can work while in the kitchen. Get creative to strengthen kindergarten math skills.

What's This?

Read more: Preschool Math Ideas Using Table Settings | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_5777368_preschool-ideas-using-tablesettings.html#ixzz0wMWASZiM

How to Teach Subtraction Using Montessori Golden Beads
Contributor By Carole Vansickle, eHow Contributing Writer

Article Rating:
• • • • • •

(0 Ratings)

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I want to do this! What's This?

Golden beads come in hierarchies of thousands (a cube), hundreds (a square), tens (a bar) and units (a single bead).

http://www.achildsgardenmontessori.org/images/goldenbead.jpg Montessori golden beads are used for a wide variety of math exercises in preschool and elementary school. These beads can be used to help associate numbers with their quantities and to demonstrate basic math principles. Once a student is familiar with addition and multiplication, you should move on to subtraction. You can clearly demonstrate how subtraction works using the golden bead set. This lesson can be taught individually or to a small group. Difficulty: Easy

Instructions
Things You'll Need:
• • Number cards Felt-lined tray Use large number cards and the golden beads to create a minuend from which to subtract. This number can be large and use thousands, hundreds, tens and ones. For example, if you want to subtract something from 3,265,

1. Step 1

you would use the large number cards to build the number and then 3,000 cubes, 200 squares, six 10 bars and five unit beads to assemble a golden bead representation of the number. 2. Step 2 Use small number cards to build a subtrahend, the number you are subtracting, in the felt-lined tray. For example, if you want to subtract 1,132 from 3,265, you would use the number cards to make 1,132 in the felt-lined tray. Do not include golden beads in the tray. 3. Step 3 Tell the children, "Today we will work subtraction problems." Although you have not yet demonstrated what a subtraction problem is, this will let them know what they are about to learn. 4. Step 4 Assign the subtrahend to a student. Tell him that he will need to get the beads to build his number from the beads that are part of the minuend. Help him through the process, since it is new. Say, for example, "How many units do you want? Two? Okay, take two of these units," while pointing to the minuend. Continue until the student has built the entire subtrahend in the felt-lined tray. When the work is completed, you can say, "Good, you have subtracted 1,132," and place the small number under the larger minuend at the top of the table. 5. Step 5 Ask a child to count the remaining bead material from the minuend and build the resulting number with small number cards. In this case, you should have 2,133 left. This smaller number should go under the small number card subtrahend that you already placed under the minuend. This number is the difference. 6. Step 6 Review the problem. Simply restate the actions as they occurred. In this instance, you would say, "We had 3,265 and then you subtracted 1,132 from it. We now have 2,133 left." 7. Step 7 Review what just happened using the new math terminology. Tell the children, "Today we did subtraction. Three thousand, two hundred and sixtyfive was the amount we started with, our minuend. From that, we subtracted 1,132, our subtrahend. Our answer, 2,133, is called the difference." As you are speaking, point to the appropriate part of the problem. In this case, you should be pointing at 3,265 first, then 1,132 and then 2,133.

8. Step 8 Review the terminology. Ask students to point to the minuend, the subtrahend and the difference. You can repeat this process multiple times with multiple numbers until the students are comfortable with the subtraction process. Do not overdo things, but rather allow the children to move on to another activity if they get bored or frustrated.

Read more: How to Teach Subtraction Using Montessori Golden Beads | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_4516685_teach-subtraction-usingmontessori-golden.html#ixzz0wMXr07oF

Home > Education > Early Childhood Ed > Articles > Preschool Lesson Plans

Fun with Fish: A Preschool Math Lesson

Article by Melissa Elizondo (4,262 pts ) Edited & published by ElizabethWistrom (11,522 pts ) on Jun 22, 2009 Tell a friend Share Leave a comment Flag this article Goldfish Related Guides: Preschool students need a strong math foundation. This lesson plan will introduce addition and subtraction with a snack that most preschoolers love, the Goldfish cracker. The Goldfish play an important role in this lesson. Read on to find out more. Use these preschool math lessons to teach basic math skills, including counting, addition, and subtraction. This lesson would be a great addition to a unit on fish or ocean life.

Materials
For these preschool math lessons, you will need a copy of the book Ten Little Fish, by Audrey Wood. You will also need Goldfish crackers. Have enough on hand for every student to have at least ten. Be sure to have a few extras, just in case!

Prior Knowledge
Before beginning these little preschool math lessons, sing the song, Five Little Ducks. Have your class count from one to ten together and then count down from ten to one.

Teach
Pass out ten Goldfish crackers to each student. Tell students not to eat them. You may want to put a bowl in the middle for snacking. Have students count the Goldfish you passed out to them. Show students the cover of Ten Little Fish and ask them how many fish are on the cover. Ask students about fish. Ask if any of them have a pet fish and where fish live.

Procedure
Read Ten Little Fish to your students. It counts down from ten to one. Have students place their ten Goldfish in front of them. Then, have your students act out the story as it happens. Have them take away a Goldfish as one swims away.

After you finish reading the story, have your students gather their ten Goldfish. Ask them to pull out one cracker and then ask to put one more with that. Ask them how many they have total. They should be able to easily answer two. Continue with different addition problems, such as two plus three, four plus four, and so on. When you have finished with addition, move on to subtraction. Have your students gather their ten Goldfish again, then have them take four away. Ask them how many are left. Continue with different subtraction problems, such as seven take away three, five take away one, three take away two, and so on. After you have finished adding and subtracting, let your students eat the Goldfish.

Assess
Here is a quick and easy way to assess these preschool math lessons. Have some Goldfish or blocks at your table and have your students come individually and do two or three simple addition and subtraction problems. Give every student the same number of problems. Have a printed class list, and write how many problems you gave at the top of the list. Then, mark how many problems the student got correct beside his or her name.

Extend

Read Ten Little Monkeys and act out the stories using student volunteers. Introduce the addition and subtraction signs and what they mean. Have students make their own fish addition problems.

• •

Read about additional counting books right here at Bright Hub!

Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/education/earlychildhood/articles/39507.aspx#ixzz0wvHcv3J1