error analysis

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

4 views

error analysis

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Sig Fig
- Significant Figures
- Statistics I
- Errors of Measurement [Compatibility Mode]
- Linear Regression Analysis and Least Square Methods
- homework 3 solutions for rehab
- Formal Report Talk
- Project Gabienu
- Sample Report
- understanding earnings quality - a review of their proxies and determinant and their consequencies (2010).pdf
- Factors of Production Cost in Pakistan Paper Industry
- A Study Into the Application of the Arduino Mirco-Computer for Use as a Navigation System.
- Physics Project
- Fundamental Topics in Science Software Guide for TI-83 Plus
- bridging the gap
- regressionexamples.doc
- 1
- Tutorial 2
- st652lect15
- Homework Format

You are on page 1of 19

The accuracy and precision of an experiment is subject to the Apparatus used Skill of the experimenter Basic physics involved and the experimental method involved

Error Analysis

Typical errors one encounters in the lab

Systematic errors Random errors: Single /multiple measurment Significant figures Propagation of errors Linear fit to a set of data points

Systematic Error

Result from mis-calibrated device.

They are reproducible inaccuracies that are consistently in the same direction. Systematic errors are difficult to assess, because often we dont really understand their source . One way to estimate the systematic error is to try a different method for the same measurement

Errors in measurements of temperature due to poor thermal contact between the thermometer and the substance whose temperature is to be found The cloth tape measure that you use to measure the length of an object had been stretched out from years of use.

The volmeter scale you use reads 0.05 V too high for all your measurements.

Random errors

Random errors in experimental measurements are caused by unknown and unpredictable changes in the experiment. These changes may occur in the measuring instruments or in the environmental conditions.

Examples of causes of random errors are: electronic noise in the circuit of an electrical instrument,

irregular changes in the heat loss rate from a solar collector due to changes in the wind.

Simple pendulum, variation in T

Least count is the smallest division that is marked on the instrument

For single slit a~D/x and the error is a/a = | D/D | + | / |+ |x/x| Here for D and x Use Least count of the instrument.

Take more data. Random errors can be evaluated through statistical analysis and can be reduced by averaging over a large number of observations. Most random errors have a Gaussian distribution ( also called normal distribution)

Fig. 1. The Gaussian normal distribution. = mean of measurements. = standard deviation of measurements. 68% of the measurements lie in the interval - < x < + ; 95% lie within - 2 < x < + 2; and 99.7% lie within - 3 < x < + 3.

Standard Deviation

Accuracy of a measurement is how close the measurement is to the true value of the quantity being measured. The precision of a measurement is how close a number of measurements of the same quantity agree with each other. Eg. If g value is 9.80 0.01, and g=9.789 0.001, the first one is the more accurate value as it is closer to the accepted value of g. And the second is more precise.

Propagation of Errors

When measurements are used to calculate a result, the accuracy of the result is limited by the propagation of errors through the calculation. These errors arise from: errors in the original measurements, round-off errors in the calculation.

Error Propagation

The error in a sum is the sum of the absolute errors | d(x + y) | = | dx | + | dy | The error when Multiplied by an exact number a is absolute error multiplied by the number | d(ax) | = a| dx |

The error in a product / quotient is the sum of absolute relative error | d(x.y)/(x.y) | = | dx/x | + | dy/y |, | d(x/y)/(x/y) | = | dx/x | + | dy/y |

Error Propagation

1.Radius of a sphere is r=2.00.1m, what will be the volume of the sphere? V= 4/3 r3 = 4/3**23 = 33.510 m3 dV= 4/3 * *3r2 dr = 4**22*0.1= 5.0265 m3 Result V= 345 m3

2. For single slit a~D/x and the error is a/a = | D/D | + | / |+ |x/x| Here for D and x Use Least count of the instrument.

The accuracy of a numerical value may be indicated by the number of digits in the value given. Eg. We say that 15.6 has three significant digits. In multiplications and divisions, the number of significant digits in the final result should be the same as the number of significant digits in the least accurate factor.

(36.4792.6)/14.85 = 6.3868956 = approximately 6.4. Although extra digits are kept in the intermediate steps of the calculation, the final result has only two significant digits, because the original factor 2.6 has only two significant digits.

17.524 + 2.4 - 3.56 = 16.364 = approximately 16.4. The final result has only one digit after the decimal point because the original term 2.4 has only one digit after the decimal point.

A set of experimental data (x1,x2) ..(x1,x2) have a linear relationship of the form y=mx+c , m and c are the unknown parameters to be found by the experiment are errors No errors in the experiment the points will fall on a straight line. (Not possible) Measurement having errors you have to use a method called least square fit to find m and c

where

Plot the graph Highlight your column of x-values, then holding down <Ctrl>, highlight your column of y-values, then select the Insert tab, then choose the Scatter icon, then select the scatter graph without connecting lines. Select the Layout tab and then add a chart title, labels for the x and y axes, and any other formatting you desire by clicking the appropriate icons. Right click on the graph, then choose Select Data, then highlight the series you want to check, then click Edit to make sure the x and y data values are the correct ones.

To get the best fit line through your data:

You have to give Excel the data given by by xrange and yrange: Highlight a 2x2 block of cells, type (do not click on a cell just start typing): =linest(yrange,xrange,1,1), then hit <Ctrl-Shift-Enter> yrange,xrange is the range of cells which contains the y- and x-values for the data you want evaluated with the linest command (typically it is the data on your graph), e.g. b3:b7. NOTE: The Chart Wizard asks for your data x axis first, while the linest command asks for your data y-axis first, be careful! y = mx + b is the best fit straight line for the set of data, and sem, seb are the respective standard errors and appear in your 2x2 table as:

m sem b seb

- Sig FigUploaded byAnonymous 5lZJ470
- Significant FiguresUploaded byసురేంద్ర కారంపూడి
- Statistics IUploaded byJannethBlue
- Errors of Measurement [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byGaurav Arora
- Linear Regression Analysis and Least Square MethodsUploaded bylovekeshthakur
- homework 3 solutions for rehabUploaded bysaadiqbal007
- Formal Report TalkUploaded bytoaniltiwari
- Project GabienuUploaded byGodfred Abledu
- Sample ReportUploaded byRuchir Chalpe
- understanding earnings quality - a review of their proxies and determinant and their consequencies (2010).pdfUploaded byFlorentina Widita
- Factors of Production Cost in Pakistan Paper IndustryUploaded byyasir khan
- A Study Into the Application of the Arduino Mirco-Computer for Use as a Navigation System.Uploaded byoconnorr81
- Physics ProjectUploaded byrajsciencecircle5823
- Fundamental Topics in Science Software Guide for TI-83 PlusUploaded bybamboobuck
- bridging the gapUploaded byIan Cesar Balacuit
- regressionexamples.docUploaded byvijaya bhanu
- 1Uploaded byJuana Perez
- Tutorial 2Uploaded byGerrald Ramoutar
- st652lect15Uploaded byCalvin Sullivan
- Homework FormatUploaded bySamuelFordham
- CIES Football ObservatoryUploaded byByron Gallegos
- COURSE OUTLINE IN MASTERPIECES OF WORLD LITERATURE.docxUploaded byPrince Joseph Hortilano
- Outpuk Laprak Metode Statistika Analisis Regresi SederhanaUploaded byGustiyan IZ
- Assignment 2 Statistics-Nakul Vashishth 18May2019Uploaded byPritam Kharar
- Correlations.docxUploaded byAnonymous Jn5MmPO
- College No.5Uploaded byPalash
- AssignmentUploaded byKomal Gupta
- QT1_Tutorial_1-4_student_version.docUploaded bySammie Ping
- Output Marketing RevUploaded byAfauji
- Rank Spearman AnalisisUploaded byTabah48 Albiruni

- BigHospitality Online Trends Survey 2012Uploaded bycooljsean
- 2015 05 RMI TheEconomicsOfLoadDefection FullReportUploaded bycooljsean
- RMI GridDefection 4pager 2014 06Uploaded byBernie C. Magtalas
- Migrating to Cloud Business Value for Oil and Gas 1755Uploaded bycooljsean
- Polity CSATUploaded bycooljsean
- Lazards Levelized Cost of Storage Analysis PagesUploaded bycooljsean
- Ey Ctrm Systems Overview 2016Uploaded byVishuddhanand
- Petex REVEAL Product-Info Sep2015Uploaded byAlexander Hernandez
- SUN_10kUploaded bycooljsean
- History & Culture CSATUploaded bycooljsean
- APC (Anadarko Petroleum Corporation) (10-Q) 2016-10-31Uploaded bycooljsean
- Assignment 2 - SQL-finalUploaded bycooljsean
- data_basicsUploaded byWalter Mazibuko
- Lipsey Ppt Ch01Uploaded bycooljsean
- Analog electronicsUploaded bycooljsean
- Lecture3 analogUploaded bycooljsean
- Analog1 Introduction 14012014Uploaded bycooljsean
- The Long Gestation ISI WaterburyUploaded byAnisur Rahman Faroque
- ADVD HandoutUploaded bycooljsean
- 1213evidenceofvaccinationagainstbacterialmeningitisUploaded bycooljsean
- Data Collection & ScrapingUploaded bycooljsean
- Exp03 GyroUploaded bycooljsean
- exp_FAUploaded bycooljsean
- exp00_EAUploaded bycooljsean
- dcnUploaded bycooljsean
- dcn 9Uploaded bycooljsean
- dcn 4Uploaded bycooljsean

- 8. 2009 Hypothesis Testing-Normal SUploaded byfabremil7472
- Chapter 9Uploaded byZeeshan Abdullah
- Lecture 01 s11 431 Stochastic InventoryUploaded byboywonder1990
- Chapter7AConciseGuidetoMarketResearch_book.pdfUploaded byAbhishek Kansal
- Testing of HypothesisUploaded bySiddharth Bahri
- JMAPAII_REGENTS_BOOK_BY_PI_TOPIC.pdfUploaded byMackaingar Walker
- Day 6Uploaded byAditya Shukla
- Normal Distribution Practice 1Uploaded byseadiaba
- lfstat3e_ppt_08Uploaded byS.Waqquas
- The Mean, Median, And ModeUploaded byJanet Tal-udan
- Chapter 11 Quantitative DataUploaded byFadli
- Statistic Matlab ExampleUploaded byAdang Prianto
- Quick RUploaded byBocah Ilang
- Simetar Users Manual 2008 CompleteUploaded bycobrac46
- Chapter 7Uploaded byalimpungatan
- Chapter 2 SolutionsUploaded byokayigiveup
- 2 Interval EstimationUploaded byDeepika Padukone
- SQCUploaded byJeevan Kumar
- Thesis on LeanUploaded byIdris Ali
- parametric and non parametric testUploaded byAnkita Jaiswal
- Pricing and Study on AutocallablesUploaded bykannansi
- Project Management - Determining Path ProbabilitiesUploaded bygego2
- 44.3 the Poisson Distribution Qp Ial-cie-maths-s2Uploaded byBalkis
- Chapter 6 Continuous DistributionsUploaded bykimiskyper
- Kertas 2 Pep Percubaan SPM SBP 2007_soalanUploaded byosweeweng
- BusinessStatsCourse BaltimoreUploaded bybelcourt
- mml-book.pdfUploaded byYash Saxena
- Solutions StatisticsUploaded byDavid Toro
- 2018 Md Lingual ReliefUploaded byJames Lin
- testing the model for mispecification and robustness and robust statistical options when assumptions are violatedUploaded byapi-264407928