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Telecommunication Networks (07BEC112) UNIT-4


Network Layer Design Issues (Service Provided to Transport Layer); Routing; Congestion; Internetworking; Routing Algorithms; Congestion Control Algorithm Internetworking; Congestion control; Design issues; Buffer management; Synchronization; Session and Presentation layer synchronization issues, Fragmentation; Data compression; Data Security.

Routing Table
A host or router has a routing table with an entry for each destination, or a combination of destinations, to route IP packets (1) Static Routing Table: contains information entered manually (2) Dynamic Routing Table: updated periodically using one of the dynamic routing protocols (such as RIP, OSPF, or BGP etc.)

Format of Routing Table

Flags: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) U (up) G (Gateway) H (Host) D (Added by redirection) M (Modified by redirection)

Common fields in a routing table


A routing table can be either static or dynamic
A static routing table is one with manual entries

A dynamic routing table is one that is updated automatically when there is a change somewhere in the Internet
A routing protocol is a combination of rules and procedures that lets routers in the Internet inform each other of changes Routing protocols have been created in response to the demand for dynamic routing tables

A router is usually connected to several networks When a router receives a packet, to which network should it pass the packet? The decision is based on optimization: which of the available pathway is the optimum pathway? One approach for selecting the optimum pathway is to assign a cost or metric (e.g. delay, bandwidth, throughput etc.) for passing through a network

Intra- and Inter-domain Routing

Autonomous Systems

Popular Routing Protocols

Distance Vector Routing

In Distance Vector Routing, the least-cost route between any two nodes is the route with minimum distance (1) Initialization; (2) Sharing; (3) Updating;

(4) When to Share: (i) Periodic Update (ii) Triggered Update

Distance Vector Routing Tables

Initialization of Tables in Distance Vector Routing


In distance vector routing, each node shares its routing table with its immediate neighbors periodically and when there is a change.

Updating in Distance Vector Routing

Two-Node Instability (Count to Infinity Problem)

Defining Infinity Split Horizon Split Horizon & Poison Reverse

Count-to-infinity Problem with Five Nodes

Initially, there are connections between all nodes as shown in fig.1 (a) Fig.1 (b) shows the situation when the link between node A & node B is down and updating of routing table done step by step and reaches infinity after many exchanges (updates)

Fig. 1 (a) Routing Table Updating (b) Routing Table updating when the link between A & B is broken

Three-Node Instability

Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

RIP is a very simple intra-domain routing protocol based on distance vector routing

Fig. Example of a Domain using RIP

Link State Routing

In Link State Routing, if each node in the domain has entire topology of the domain (e.g. the list of nodes & links, how they are connected including the type, metric, & condition of the links: up or down), then node can use Dijkstras Algorithm to build the routing table

Fig. Concept of Link State Routing

Link State Routing (-contd.)

Fig. Link State Knowledge

Link State Routing (-contd.)


Building Routing Tables

1. Creation of LSP : carries information about :the node identity, list of links( needed to make topology), sequence no(facilitates flooding and distinguishes new lsps from old ones)and age(prevents old LSPs from remaining in domain for longer time). 2. Flooding of LSPs: The creating node sends a copy of the LSP out of each interface. Receiving node compares new LSP with old LSP. 3. Formation of shortest path tree: Dijkstra Agorithm:

Formation of Shortest Path Tree: Dijkstra Algorithm

Fig. Dijkstra Algorithm

Formation of Shortest Path Tree (-contd.)

Fig. Example of Formation of Shortest Path Tree

Calculation of Routing Table from Shortest Path Tree

Table 22.2 Routing Table for Node-A

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol

OSPF Protocol is an intra-domain routing protocol based on link state routing Areas


Fig. Areas in an Autonomous System

Types of Links

Fig. Point-to-Point Link

Types of Links (-contd.)

Fig. Transient Link

Fig. Stub Link

Graphical Representation of Autonomous System (AS) in OSPF

Fig. Example of an AS and its Graphical Representation in OSPF

Direct and indirect delivery

Redirection Concept

Building Link State Packets

(a) A subnet

(b) The link state packets for this subnet