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Leadership &Trust

OBJECTIVES
LEARNING

Besides chapt.11 and 12 concepts,


you should also be able to :
1.

Contrast leadership and management.

2.

Understand traditional leadership theories.

3.

Understand transactional, transitional and visionary leadership.

4.

Describe contingency model.

5.

Understand E.I. theory.

6.

Understand managerial grid.

7.

Learn about charismatic leaders

8.

Learn how to become a transformational leader.

Leadership
The ability to positively influence people and systems to have a
meaningful impact and achieve results

What Is Leadership?

management
Use of authority inherent in
designated formal rank to
obtain compliance from
organizational members

Trust and Leadership

Leadership
Leadership

TRUST
TRUST
and
and
INTEGRITY
INTEGRITY

Traditional leadership theories


a) The trait approach--Involves discerning how to be a leader
by examining the characteristics and methods of
recognized leaders.

b) The behavioral approach--Attempts to determine the types


of leadership behaviors that lead to successful task
performance and employee satisfaction.
c) The contingency approach--Holds that there is no
universal approach to leadership. Rather, effective
leadership behavior depends on situational factors (i.e.
who is leading, who is led, and what is the situation) that
may change over time.

d) The role approach--Suggests that leaders perform certain


roles depending on the situation.

Characteristics of Successful
Leaders
Trait or Characteristic

Description

Drive

Desire for achievement; ambition; high energy;


tenacity; initiative

Honesty and integrity

Trustworthy; reliable; open

Leadership motivation

Desire to exercise influence over others to reach


shared goals

Self-confidence

Trust in own abilities

Cognitive ability

Intelligence; ability to integrate and interpret large


amounts of information

Knowledge of the business

Knowledge of industry, relevant technical matters

Creativity

Originality

Flexibility

Ability to adapt to needs of followers and


requirements of situation
-1

Charismatic Leadership
Key
KeyCharacteristics:
Characteristics:
1.1. Vision
Visionand
and
articulation
articulation
2.2. Personal
Personalrisk
risk
3.3. Environmental
Environmental
sensitivity
sensitivity
4.4. Sensitivity
Sensitivityto
to
follower
needs
follower needs
5.5. Unconventional
Unconventional
behavior
behavior

Path-Goal Theory

Leaders style
(instrumental,
supportive,
participative,
achievementoriented)

Contingency factors
(characteristics
of subordinates,
work environments)

Perception that
the leader is
being helpful
(e.g., eliminating
obstacles)

Motivation and
job satisfaction
are enhanced

Situational Leadership Theory: Its


Basic Dimensions

Relationship Behavior
(amount of support required)

High
(unwilling
to do job)

Participating works best


(followers are able to
do the job but require
emotional support)

Selling works best


(followers are neither
willing nor able to do
the job)

Delegating works best


(followers)are willing to
do the job, and know
how to go about it)

Telling works best


(followers are willing
to do the job, but dont
know how to do it)

Low
(willing
to do job)
Low
(able to do job)

Task Behavior (amount of guidance required)


High
(unable to do job)
.

Hersey and Blanchards Situational


Leadership Theory

s:
s
ne
i
d
a
re
r
e
w
llo
o
F

nd
a
y
li it
ab

ss
e
gn
n
lli
i
w

Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision

The Managerial Grid


High
9,9 pattern
Team managementthe ideal style

1,9 pattern
Country club
management
Concern for People

1,1 pattern
Impoverished
management

7
6
5,5 pattern
Middle-of-the-road
management

5
4
3
2

9,1 pattern
Task management

1
Low

1
Low

3
4
5
6
7
8
Concern for Production

9
High
Fig. 8-1

Transactional and Transformational


Leadership

Contingent Reward

Charisma

Management by
Exception (active)

Inspiration

Management by
Exception (passive)
Laissez-Faire

Intellectual Stimulation
Individual
Consideration

Emotional Intelligence and


Leadership Effectiveness
Elements
Elementsof
ofEmotional
Emotional
Intelligence
Intelligence: :
Self-awareness
Self-awareness
Self-management
Self-management
Self-motivation
Self-motivation
Empathy
Empathy
Social
Socialskills
skills

Guidelines for Becoming a


Transformational Leader (contd)
Suggestion

Explanation

Build confidence by recognizing small


accomplishments toward the goal.

If a group experiences early success, it will


be motivated to continue working hard.

Celebrate successes and


accomplishments.

Formal or informal ceremonies are useful for


celebrating success, thereby building
optimism and commitment.

Take dramatic action to symbolize key


organizational values.

Visions are reinforced by things leaders do


to symbolize them. For example, one leader
demonstrated concern for quality by
destroying work that was not up to
standards.

Set an example; actions speak louder


than words.

Leaders serve as role models. If they want


followers to make sacrifices, for example,
they should do so themselves.

Guidelines for Becoming a


Transformational Leader
Explanation

Suggestion

A clear vision will guide followers toward


Develop a vision that is both
clear and highly appealing to followers. achieving organizational goals and make them
feel good about doing so.
Articulate a strategy for bringing that
vision to life.

Dont present an elaborate plan; rather, state


the best path toward achieving the mission.

State your vision clearly and promote


it to others.

Visions must not only be clear but made


compelling, such as by using anecdotes.

Show confidence and optimism about


your vision.

If a leader lacks confidence about success,


followers will not try very hard to achieve that
vision

Express confidence in followers


capacity to carry out the strategy.

Followers must believe that they are capable


of implementing a leaders vision. Leaders
should build followers self-confidence.

Finding and Creating Effective


Leaders
Selection

Review specific requirements for the job.


Use tests that identify personal traits associated with leadership,
measure self-monitoring, and assess emotional intelligence.
Conduct personal interviews to determine candidates fit with
the job.

Training

Recognize the all people are not equally trainable.


Teach skills that are necessary for employees to become
effective leaders.
Provide behavioral training to increase the development
potential of nascent charismatic employees.

LPC Contingency Theory

Leader Effectiveness
(group performance)

High

High LPC
leaders
are highly
effective
under
moderate
situational
control

Low LPC
leaders
are highly
effective
under low
situational
control

Low LPC
leaders
are highly
effective
under
high
situational
control
Low LPC
(concern for
people)
High LPC
(concern for
production)

Low
Low

Moderate
Situational Control
.

High