Meaning of Organizational Behavior Importance of OB Historical Development Contributing Disciplines

‡ Why do people behave the way they do? ‡ What causes different people to react differently to the same situation? ‡ Why are some organizations more successful than others, even though they appear to be managed in the same manner? ‡ All of these questions and more- are the substance of what Organizational Behaviour is all about.

Definition of OB
‡ Organizational Behaviour is the systematic study of the actions and attitudes that people exhibit within organizations. It is individual behavior and group dynamics in organizations. Organizational variables that affect human behavior at work are also relevant to the study of organizational behavior. These organizational variables include job content, job design and organizational structure. ‡ Another definition by Stephen P. Robins is more elaborate: It is a field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups and structures on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization s effectiveness.

In this way. we want to know the reason.  Control behaviour. Having a sound knowledge of OB will help the manager to predict certain behavioral responses to change. for example. Prediction seeks to determine what outcome will result from a given action. .  Predict certain behavioral response to change. if the turnover rate in an organization is very high. Managers frequently see the control objective as the most valuable contribution that OB makes toward their effectiveness on the job.Importance (Goals)of OB  Explain individual and group behaviour:  We pursue the explanation objective when we want to know why individuals or groups behave the way they do. The knowledge of OB can be used by managers to control behaviour. so that action can be taken to correct the situation in the future. the manager can anticipate which approaches will generate the least degree of employee resistance and use the information in making decisions.

around the turn of the 20th century. Much of the success of the Egyptian and Roman civilizations can be credited to their astounding managerial accomplishments. operations perspective. Earlier. As a result of the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century large number of individuals were required to work together in manager-subordinate relationships. One of the most efficient organizations in the world for many centuries is the Roman Catholic Church. Andrew Carnegie and John D Rockefeller were primarily concerned with their companies to survive and prosper. Behavioural problems were relatively easy to handle due to regimentation that is unquestioning obedience. Modern History. The scientific Management movement. took a narrower. . many of the large organizations that did exist were military ones in which the authority of the leader was supreme and unquestioned.History of Organization behaviour Ancient History Managers have been in existence for as long as individuals have put others in a position subordinate to them for the purpose of accomplishing predetermined goals. Henry Ford. It is exceedingly efficient even today. Famous industrialists like William C Durant.

He undertook his time and motion study at the Midvale Steel company.) ‡ Fredric W Taylor is the recognized father of scientific management. His argument proved correct and in some instances Taylorism resulted in productivity increases of 400 percent.History of org. He was concerned with inefficiencies in manual labour jobs as he saw different workers doing the same job in different ways. behavior(contd. . he set out to find the one best way to perform the job efficiently. As an industrial engineer.

(intuitive= able to understand or know some thing without conscious reasoning.) .History of org. but his overall contribution to management was significant. Other note worthy contributors to the idea of scientific management were the husband and wife team of Frank Gilbreth and Lillian Moller Gilbreth and Henry L Gantt. Taylor was the first to take the theory and practice of management out of the realm of intuitive judgment into the realm of scientific enquiry and reasoning.) ‡ Many have criticized Taylor s work for dehumanizing the work place and treating workers like machines. standardization of work practices. Taylor s ideas on time study. money as a motivator. goal setting. scientific selection of workers and rest pauses have all proved to be successful techniques of management even today. behavior(contd.

Subsequent phases brought the level of light down to moonlight intensity. Something besides the level of illumination was causing the change in productivity.History of org. Obviously. . A test group and a control group were used. The control group with unchanged illumination increased output by the same amount overall as the test group. The Human Relations Movement. might be classified as human relations. The workers could barely see what they were doing. This something.) The Human Relations Movement  The second major step on the way to current organizational behavior theory was the Human Relations Movement that began in the 1930s and continued in various forms till the 1950s. some variables in the experiment were not being held constant or under control. The practice of management. of course. which places heavy emphasis on employee cooperation and morale. behavior(contd. popularized by Elton Mayo and his famous Hawthorne studies conducted at the Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric Company(Chicago) remained the foundation of much of our management thinking today.The studies attempted to examine the relationship between lighThe test group in an early phase showed no increase or decrease in output in proportion to the increase or decrease in illumination. The results were baffling to the researchers. Now the details:  Illumination experiments. was the complex human variable.  t intensity on the shop floor of manual work sites and employee productivity. but productivity increased.

‡ Relay room studies: The next study was carried out in the relay room of the same plant. rest breaks and method of payment were taken up for investigation. . This accidental discovery provided the impetus for the further study of human behavior at work and it marked the beginning of the field of organizational behavior. productivity increased.) ‡ It is fortunate that the illumination experiments did not end up in the wastebasket. the results of the illumination experiments were a serendipitous discovery. specific variables such as length of workday. Here. In a way. Each test period yielded higher productivity than the previous one. Even when the women were subjected to the original conditions of the experiment. Those responsible for the Hawthorne studies had enough foresight and spirit to accept the challenge of looking beneath the surface of the apparent failure of the experiments. behavior(contd.History of org. The results were basically the same as those of the illumination studies.

anthropology. These internal components also interact with components in the organization s task environment. The sciences of psychology. engineering. political science. ‡ Organizations are systems of interacting components which are people.Contributing Disciplines ‡ Organizational Behavior is a blended discipline that has grown out of contributions from numerous earlier fields of study. tasks. management and medicine are the primary fields of study out of which organizational behavior has grown. technology and structure. sociology. .

2. PERSONALITY  What is Personality?  Determinants of Personality  Five theories of personality  Personality characteristics and their influence on behaviors in organizations .

both inner and outer. The most meaningful approach would be to include both the person and the role as Floyd L Ruch has done. iii. In short. External appearance and behavior or social stimulus value. Inner awareness of self as a permanent organizing force. personality is a very diverse and complex psychological Concept. . ii. He states that: The human personality includes: i. The particular pattern or organization of measurable traits.What is personality? ‡ There is no unanimous definition coined by psychologists and social-scientists.

Heredity Brain Biofeedback Physical features .Determinants of Personality ‡ What determines personality? The question may be the most difficult. i. iii. iv. The determinants of personality can be grouped in five broad categories a. Biological:. People are enormously complex.Consists of four sub factors viz. ii.

muscle composition and reflexes. energy level and biological rhythms are inherited from one s parents. temperament. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual s personality is the molecular structure of the genes. Electrical Stimulation of the brain(ESB) and split-brain psychology hold promises of contribution in the near future.Determinants of Personality(contd. ii)Brain: The second approach is to concentrate on the role that the brain plays in personality.) i)Heredity: Heredity refers to those factors determined at conception. located in the chromosomes. . Physical stature. sex. Psychologists are unable to prove empirically the contribution of the human brain in influencing personality. facial attractiveness.

) iii) Biofeedback(BFT): Until recently.Determinants of Personality(contd. physiologists and psychologists felt that certain biological functions such as brainwave patterns. the individual learns the internal rhythms of the body process through electronic signals that are fed back from the equipment that is wired to the body. gastric and hormonal secretions. From this biofeedback. and fluctuations in blood pressure and skin temperature were beyond conscious control. Now some scientists believe that these involuntary functions can be consciously controlled through biofeedback techniques . In BFT. the person can learn to control the body process in question. .

black or white will influence the person s effect on others and this in turn. an individual s external appearance. is biologically determined. will affect the self concept.Determinants of Personality(contd. fat or skinny.) iv) Physical features: A vital ingredient of the personality. The fact that a person is tall or short. .

early conditioning. friends and social groups and other miscellaneous experiences that impact us.) b) Cultural Factors: Among the factors that influence personality formation is the culture in which we are raised. norms prevailing within the family. .Determinants of Personality(contd. c) Family Factors: The family probably has the most significant impact on early personality development.

brothers. After infancy other members of the immediate family. school friends and members of the work group-play influential roles. Socialization starts with the initial contact of the infant with the mother. which generally influence an individual s personality. then the social group-peers.Determinants of Personality(contd.father. sisters and close relatives and friends. from the enormously wide range of behavioral potentialities that are open to him or her. This is commonly called the socialization process. those that are synthesized and absorbed. groups and especially organizations. .) d) Social Factors: There is increasing recognition given to the role of other relevant persons. Socialization involves the process by which a person acquires.

It exercises constraints and may provide push. Knowledge. . An individual s personality.Determinants of Personality(contd. skill and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications in behavior.) e) Situational Factors: Situation exerts an important press on the individual. does change in different situations. The effect of environment is quite strong. while generally stable and consistent.

Theories of Personality      Intrapsychic Theory(Psychoanalytic Theory) Type Theories Trait Theories Self-Theory Social Learning Theory .

which accounts for our aggressive and destructive impulses. . fantasize and demand. it can only wish. one that contains three systems. and the superego.the id.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ Sigmund Freud proposed a new conception of personality. image. ‡ Id: The id is the only part of the personality that is present at birth. inaccessible and completely unconscious. Yet the id cannot act on its own. It is inherited. primitive. the ego. The id contains the life instincts which are sexual instincts and the biological urges such as hunger and thirst and the death instinct.

of the organism is the nervous system.) ‡ A part -. Triebe. This translation from need to wish is called the primary process. Freud also called them wishes. that nervous system is little more than that of any other animal. which has as one of its characteristics a sensitivity to the organism's needs. . an "it" or id. in German. At birth.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory(contd.a very important part -. as id. translates the organism's needs into motivational forces called. which has been translated as instincts or drives. The nervous system.

or nearly pure id. which can be understood as a demand to take care of needs immediately. such as the image of a juicy steak. might be enough to satisfy the id. And the id is nothing if not the psychic representative of biology. The infant. it just knows that it wants it and it wants it now. until there comes a point where you can't think of anything else. ‡ Unfortunately.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory(contd. although a wish for food. screaming itself blue. It doesn't "know" what it wants in any adult sense. . The need only gets stronger. it isn't enough to satisfy the organism. This is the wish or drive breaking into consciousness. it begins to demand more and more of your attention.) ‡ The id works in keeping with the pleasure principle. such as the need for food. Just picture the hungry infant. You may have noticed that. in the Freudian view. when you haven't satisfied some need. and the wishes just keep coming. is pure.

.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ Luckily for the organism. Around this little bit of consciousness. This problem-solving activity is called the secondary process." some of the id becomes ego. there is that small portion of the mind we discussed before. and it searches for objects to satisfy the wishes that id creates to represent the organisms needs. the conscious. The ego relates the organism to reality by means of its consciousness. during the first year of a child's life. that is hooked up to the world through the senses. some of the "it" becomes "I.

unlike the id. which says "take care of a need as soon as an appropriate object is found. . reason.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ The ego. functions according to the reality principle. to a considerable extent." It represents reality and.

it never is completed. . And it keeps a record of these obstacles and aides. In some people. as the ego struggles to keep the id (and. and dad.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory  However. it keeps track of the rewards and punishments meted out by two of the most influential objects in the world of the child -. It occasionally meets with objects that actually assist it in attaining its goals. This record of things to avoid and strategies to take becomes the superego. In particular. the organism) happy. It is not completed until about seven years of age. it meets with obstacles in the world.

in childhood. and guilt. The other is called the ego ideal. shame. the superego represents society. You see. The conscience and ego ideal communicate their requirements to the ego with feelings like pride. Unfortunately. ‡ It is as if we acquired.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ There are two aspects to the superego: One is the conscience. It derives from rewards and positive models presented to the child. this time of social rather than biological origins. these new wishes can easily conflict with the ones from the id. which is an internalization of punishments and warnings. and society often wants nothing better than to have you never satisfy your needs at all! . a new set of needs and accompanying wishes.

Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ Life instincts and the death instinct ‡ Freud saw all human behavior as motivated by the drives or instincts. from the Latin word for "I desire." . the "oomph" that powers our psyches. These instincts perpetuate (a) the life of the individual. The motivational energy of these life instincts. by motivating him or her to seek food and water. which in turn are the neurological representations of physical needs. he referred to them as the life instincts. At first. he called libido. and (b) the life of the species. by motivating him or her to have sex.

Freud began to believe that the life instincts didn't tell the whole story. The goal of life. to have no more needs. the pleasure principle keeps us in perpetual motion. you might say. to be satisfied. He began to believe that every person has an unconscious wish to die. to be at peace. . Libido is a lively thing.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ Later in his life. And yet the goal of all this motion is to be still. is death! Freud began to believe that "under" and "beside" the life instincts there was a death instinct.

. often translated as heaven. but I think it has some basis in experience: Life can be a painful and exhausting process. It refers to non-existence. the void. ‡ Freud referred to a nirvana principle. nothingness. more pain than pleasure in life -.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ This seems like a strange idea at first. and it was rejected by many of his students.something we are extremely reluctant to admit! Death promises release from the struggle." as in the blowing out of a candle. but actually meaning "blowing out. Nirvana is a Buddhist idea. There is easily. for the great majority of people in the world. which is the goal of all life in Buddhist philosophy.

Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ The day-to-day evidence of the death instinct and its nirvana principle is in our desire for peace. and destructiveness. sometimes we direct it out away from ourselves. Freud theorized. . for escape from stimulation. And. such as losing ourselves in books or movies. our penchant for escapist activity. our attraction to alcohol and narcotics. our craving for rest and sleep. Sometimes it presents itself openly as suicide and suicidal wishes. in the form of aggression. murder. cruelty.

biology. it is understandable if it -. When these make conflicting demands upon the poor ego. and it serves as a signal to the ego that its survival. society. as represented by the superego. as represented by the id.feel threatened. This feeling is called anxiety.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ Anxiety ‡ Freud once said "life is not easy!" ‡ The ego -. and with it the survival of the whole organism. is in jeopardy. feel overwhelmed. feel as if it were about to collapse under the weight of it all.if you -.the "I" -. .sits at the center of some pretty powerful forces: reality.

but from the internalized social world of the superego. ‡ The second is moral anxiety. Actually Freud did. if I throw you into a pit of poisonous snakes. physical world. But his translators thought "fear" too mundane! Nevertheless. This is what we feel when the threat comes not from the outer. . in fact. in German. you might experience realistic anxiety. which you and I would call fear. just another word for feelings like shame and guilt and the fear of punishment. too.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ Freud mentions three different kind of anxieties: The first is realistic anxiety. It is.

. This is the fear of being overwhelmed by impulses from the id. you have felt neurotic anxiety.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ The last is neurotic anxiety. your temper. Neurotic is actually the Latin word for nervous. your rationality. If you have ever felt like you were about to "lose it. so this is nervous anxiety. or even your mind. It is this kind of anxiety that intrigued Freud most. plain and simple." lose control. and we usually just call it anxiety.

the ego must defend itself. and other disciples have discovered quite a few. his daughter Anna. the id. and the superego as best as it can. It does so by unconsciously blocking the impulses or distorting them into a more acceptable. The techniques are called the ego defense mechanisms.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ The defense mechanisms ‡ The ego deals with the demands of reality. . less threatening form. But when the anxiety becomes overwhelming. and Freud.

If some situation is just too much to handle. As you might imagine. when a commercial came on . this is a primitive and dangerous defense -.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ Denial involves blocking external events from awareness. I think). She one disregards reality and gets away with it for long! I was once reading while my five year old daughter was watching a cartoon (The Smurfs. the person just refuses to experience it. quite close to the television. as was her habit.

with the blood and the mask and the screaming. . I said to her "Boy....Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ This was a commercial for a horror movie. wasn't it?" She said "Huh?" I said "That commercial. Now I wasn't able to save my child from this horror. and screams of terror. that was a scary sure was scary wasn't it?" She said "What commercial?" I said "The commercial that was just on. complete with bloody knife.!" She had apparently shut out the whole thing. hockey mask. so I did what any good psychologist father would do: I talked about it..

a counselor helped me to get over it (with a technique called systematic desensitization).long-legged spiders. a particularly clear one. that involved getting locked up by my cousin in a shed behind my grandparents' house when I was very young." is just that: not being able to recall a threatening situation. but I still had no idea where it came from. or event. and is a part of most other defenses.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ Repression. Years later. too. is dangerous. I developed a rather strong fear of guessed it! -. ‡ As an adolescent. dark. I had a dream. This. but it was starting to get rather embarrassing by the time I entered college. person. especially long-legged ones. and had a dirt floor covered with -. I didn't know where it came from. . The shed was small. At college. which Anna Freud also called "motivated forgetting.

Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ The Freudian understanding of this phobia is pretty simple: I repressed a traumatic event -. ‡ Asceticism. may unconsciously try to protect themselves by denying. or the renunciation of needs. but it has become relevant again today with the emergence of the disorder called anorexia. Preadolescents.the shed incident -. not only their sexual desires. when they feel threatened by their emerging sexual desires. but all desires. They get involved in some kind of ascetic (monk-like) lifestyle wherein they renounce their interest in what other people enjoy. .but seeing spiders aroused the anxiety of the event without arousing the memory. is one most people haven't heard of.

what most societies consider a normal figure for a mature woman is in ours considered 20 pounds overweight! . they may actually help you. their denial of their need for food is actually a cover for their denial of their sexual development. Fortunately. Unfortunately. In Freudian theory. there is a great deal of interest in the selfdiscipline of the martial arts. Our society conspires with them: After all. girls in our society often develop a great deal of interest in attaining an excessively and artificially thin standard of beauty.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ In boys nowadays. the martial arts not only don't hurt you (much).

. many people find themselves completely calm and collected until the emergency is over. at which point they fall to pieces. It is common to find someone totally immersed in the social obligations surrounding the death of a loved one. you can't afford to fall apart. In emergency situations.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ Isolation (sometimes called intellectualization) involves stripping the emotion from a difficult memory or threatening impulse. during the emergency. Something tells you that.

wounds. temporarily. needles. the desire. is okay with you.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ Doctors and nurses must learn to separate their natural reactions to blood. If the impulse. perhaps to come to grips with their own fears. you can displace to someone or something that can serve as a symbolic substitute. ‡ Displacement is the redirection of an impulse onto a substitute target. wonderful human being with friends and family. and treat the patient. and scalpels. Adolescents often go through a stage where they are obsessed with horror movies. Nothing demonstrates isolation more clearly than a theater full of people laughing hysterically while someone is shown being dismembered. but the person you direct that desire towards is too threatening. as something less than a warm. .

telling her she was clumsy and had to learn to be more careful and how often hadn't I told her and.well. anger. It is normally used in reference to hatred. ‡ Once upon a time. five years old. Freudians and non-Freudians alike. you know. rather than more positive impulses. beat up a family member.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ Someone who is frustrated by his or her superiors may go home and kick the dog. ‡ Turning against the self is a very special form of displacement. The idea that depression is often the result of the anger we refuse to acknowledge is accepted by many people. guilt. my daughter. I lashed out at her verbally. and it is the Freudian explanation for many of our feelings of inferiority. . spilled an entire glass of chocolate milk in the living room.. where the person becomes his own substitute target. at a time when I was not feeling my best.. and aggression. and depression.

do you? Needless to say. I've felt guilty ever since.Intra psychic Theory/Psycho Analytic Theory ‡ She stood there stiffly with a sort of smoldering look in her eyes. of all things. you just don't do that. pounded herself on her own head several times! Obviously. . well. and. but. she would rather have pounded my head.

Type Theories ‡ Two categories: ‡ a)Sheldon s physiognomy theory ‡ Represents a link between certain anatomical features and psychological traits-determining a relationship between features of the face or body. eats too much. he leads the league in the intelligent department. Sheldon identifies three body types: ‡ i) Endomorph: Bulky and beloved. . affectionate and liked by all. long and poorly developed physically . the person seeks comfort. ‡ Iii) Ectomorph: These people are thin. and personality. and self-assertive. Though physically weak. loves fine food. athletic and tough. ‡ Ii) Mesomorph: He is basically strong. Tends to be highly aggressive.

Type Theories(contd. withdrawn and absorbed in inner life. introverts are more inward-directed people. ii) Introverts: By contrast. They are less sociable.) b)Carl Jung s Extrovert-introvert Theory: i)Extroverts: They are optimistic. They tend to be guided by their own ideas and philosophy. gregarious and sociable. Extroverts are basically objective. outgoing. reality oriented individuals who are more doers than thinkers. .

‡ Common traits are those we have or hold in common with most others in our culture.Trait Theories ‡ A trait is a personal characteristic that is used to describe and explain personality. . ‡ Individual traits are three: Cardinal traits. Traits are of two typesCommon traits and Individual traits. Central traits and Secondary traits. It is a list of relatively stable and consistent characteristics.

Examples of secondary traits are food and music preferences. ‡ Central traits: are those that we would mention in writing a careful letter of recommendation.) ‡ i) Cardinal Traits: It is so strong a part of a person s personality that he may become identified with or known for that trait.Trait Theories(contd. less consistent and not as critical in defining our personality. . ‡ Secondary Traits: are less obvious.

generous etc. intelligence is a source trait. helpful.Trait Theories(contd. . and every person has a certain amount of it but. kind. For example.qualities like honest.) ‡ Raymond Cattell considered personality to be a pattern of traits providing the key to understanding and predicting a person s behavior. ‡ b)Source traits-Make up the most basic personality structure and actually cause behavior. obviously not exactly the same amount or the same kind. He identified two types: ‡ a) Surface traits.

as well as direct experiences. much of what we have learned comes from watching models. So. peers. Some behavior patterns are learned or acquired through direct experience.Social Learning Theory ‡ Social Learning Theory: The main focus of social learning approach is on the patterns of behavior the individuals learn in coping with environment. teachers. etc. . Responses can also be acquired or learned without direct reinforcement.parents.that we can learn through both observation and direct experience. This view. Individuals can also learn by observing what happens to other people and just by being told about something. for example.has been called social learning theory. bosses.

In other words. We need such things as warmth. which he called the phenomenological field. Rogers viewed human nature as basically good. The self. a part of the phenomenological field becomes differentiated as the self. .for us. the way we see is the way it is. sympathy and respect from the people who are significant in our lives. According to Rogers. If left to develop naturally. we each live in our own subjective reality. he thought.concept emerges as a result of experiences involving such terms as I me and myself .Self-Theory ‡ Carl Rogers developed his theory of personality through insights gained from his patients in therapy sessions. acceptance. But there are usually strings attached to positive regard from others. people would be happy and psychologically healthy. Gradually. It is in this personal. With the emerging self comes the need for positive regard. subjective field that we act and think and feel. love.

3. MOTIVATION Basic Concepts Motivation Theories Problems in Motivation .

the first to address worker motivation was Fredric Taylor. one might explain behavior as a combination of motives-needs or desires that energize and direct behavior toward a goal. In organizations. Motivation is the underlying process that initiates. is sustained. is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism. They presented hedonism as an explanation of human motivation. The study of motivation can be traced back to the writings of ancient Greek Philosophers. is energized. is directed. At any given time. . directs and sustains behavior in order to satisfy physiological and psychological needs. The concept of hedonism says that a person seeks out comfort and pleasure and avoids discomfort and pain.Motivation Basic concepts ‡ What is motivation? Motivation is how behavior gets started.

Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance (deprived of food. ‡ Needs.Motivation ‡ Definition: Motivation is the act of stimulating some one to take a desired course action. water or friends) ‡ Drives-or motives are set up to alleviate needs( hunger and thirst drives) and the need for friends becomes a drive for affiliation . Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or push the right button to get a desired reaction.

M= Motivation ‡ Skill alone does not guarantee that the individual will put forth his best effort. M) where P= Performance. Eating food. drinking water. and obtaining friends will tend to restore the balance and reduce the corresponding drives. P= f(S.Any thing that will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. motivation which finally determines the effort which can be expected from the employee. S= Skill. Thus attaining an incentive will restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut of the drive. ‡ Ie.Motivation ‡ Incentives. . There is another variable viz. ‡ A man s performance on a specific task is a function of his skill and motivation.

ERG (Existence. 1. Macleland s theory of needs. Growth) needs theory. Goal setting theory-Edwin A Locke and Gary P Latham Reinforcement theory-B. 3. F. 5. Relatedness. Skinner Equity theory-Adam Expectancy theory-Victor H Vroom . 6.MOTIVATION THEORIES Early Theories of Motivation: 1) Hierarchy Of Needs theory-Abraham Maslow 2) The Motivation-Hygiene theory-Fredric Herzberg 3) Theory X and Theory y-Douglas McGregor Contemporary Theories of Motivation. 4. 2.

Maslow s Need Hierarchy Theory ‡ Abraham Maslow propounded a theory of human nature that everyone is motivated to satisfy a series of instinctual needs. Everyone s needs. were arranged in a hierarchy. Maslow believed. .


Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory ‡ Two Factor Theory (also known as Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory) was developed by Frederick Herzberg. . while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction. a psychologist who found that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction acted independently of each other. Two Factor Theory states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction.

Equity Theory ‡ Propounded by J. These are subjectively perceived by a person as input variables. Four terms are to be understood: 1. ‡ When employees work for an organization. skills. social status. education. sex. how hard the person works. . experience etc. Stacy Adam. This theory is also known as Inequity Theory or Social Comparison Theory. Inputs: Characteristics which individuals bring with them to the job.age. 2.Person: The person for whom an equity or an inequity exists. 3. organizational position. Comparison other: Any group or individual used by a person as a reference regarding inputs and outcomes. they exchange their services for pay and other benefits.

promotions. Equity Theory is schematically represented as follows:person s outcomes < Other s outcomes (negative inequity) person s input other s input Person s outcomes >other s outcomes (positive inequity) Person s input other s input .Outcomes: pay. fringe benefits.) 4. status and intrinsic interest in the job. The theory proposes that the motivation to act develops after the person compares his inputs/outcomes with the identical ratio of the comparison other.Equity Theory(contd.

Negative inequity: change inputs .Equity Theory(contd. People who feel underpaid(outcome) or overworked(input) in relation to others in the work place are motivated to restore equity which may prove dysfunctional from an organizational stand point. asking for bigger office Other¶s outcomes (equity) others inputs ‡ ‡ ‡ .) Person¶s outcomes ‡ Person¶s inputs The ratio is based upon the person s perception of what the person is giving (inputs) and receiving(outcomes) versus the ratio of what the relevant other is giving and receiving. Negative inequity: change outcomes-Requesting salary increase. Inequity comes about when the person feels cheated. productivity or quality of work.person reduces his efforts.

We will take up this issue when we discuss each theory in detail.Problems in Motivation ‡ There are various shortcomings in the theories of motivation. .

4. GROUP DYNAMICS  Types of groups  Group Norms and Cohesiveness  Group Roles .

o Formal Groups o A formal group is set up by the organization to carry out work in support of the organization s goals. o Command Group. Formal groups may be Command groups and Task groups.g. e. Accounts Department.Types of Groups Groups can be either formal or informal. . and a product development team. It is according to the hierarchy in the organization chart. an executive committee. Command group consists of a manager and the employees who report to him or her.

Types of Groups(contd. reference groups and membership groups. o Informal Groups: o An organization s informal groups are groups that evolve to meet social or affiliation needs. There can be friendship groups.) ‡ Task Group ‡ A task group is made up of employees who work together to complete a particular task or project. . interest groups. These are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. A task group s boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior. It can cross command relationships.

‡ Characteristics of Mature Groups: The purpose and mission may be assigned to a group. Group cohesion. However for temporary groups. Status Structure. there is an adjourning stage. performing is the last stage in their development. Behavioral norms.Group Norms and Cohesiveness(contd. In this stage. is the set of authority a group s members. and task relations among . It enables a group to exercise effective control over its members in relationship to its behavioral norms and standards .) ‡ Adjourning: For permanent work groups. or it may emerge from within the group. are well-understood standards of behavior within a group. the group prepares for its disbandment. which evolve over a period of time.

Group Norms and Cohesiveness ‡ Stages of group development. The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. its members cannot accomplish much until they agree on what their purpose is.  Norming: In this stage. . but resist the constraints the group imposes on individuality group demonstrates cohesiveness. Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand. Storming: The storming stage is one of inter-group conflict. Members accept the existence of the group. close relationships develop and the  Performing : The fourth stage is performing. how they will work together and so on.  Forming: When the group is initially formed.



‡ Definition of Organizational Culture: Organizational Culture consists of the norms, values
and unwritten rules of conduct of an organization as well as management styles, priorities, beliefs and interpersonal behavior that prevail. Together they create a climate that influences how well people communicate, Plan and make decisions.

‡ Basic Elements of Culture: These are-Artifacts,
Espoused Values and Basic Assumptions. ‡ Artifacts- are the first level of organizational culture. They include products, services, and even behavior patterns of the organization. Schein has defined artifacts as things that one sees, hears and feels when one encounters a new group with an unfamiliar culture.

‡ Organizational culture is related to Organizational success. Organizational culture is a framework that guides day- to day behavior and decision making for employees and directs their actions toward completion of organizational goals. Culture must be aligned with the other parts of organizational actions, such as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling; indeed, if culture is not aligned with these tasks, then the organization is in for difficult times. Culture based on adaptability, involvement, a clear mission and consistency can help companies achieve higher sales growth, return on assets, profits, quality and employee satisfaction. ‡ How employees learn culture? Culture is transmitted to employees in a number of ways. The most significant are stories, rituals, symbols, and language.

Values are answers to the why questions.) ‡ Espoused Values: are the second level of organizational culture. Culture prescribes the right way to do things at an organization. profitability. ‡ Basic Assumptions: The third level of organizational culture are the beliefs that organization members take for granted. For example. Likewise corporations have values. why do you need more money? To fulfill my wife s desire to own a farm house. . such as size. or making a quality product.ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE(contd. Most organizational cultures can trace their espoused values back to the founders of the organization. often through unspoken assumptions.

CHANGING AND STRENTHENING CULTURE. ‡ Corporate cultures are very difficult to change. Changing organizational culture takes patience, vigilance, and a focus on changing the parts of an organizational culture that managers can control. One way of changing corporate culture is to use behavioral addition or behavioral substitution. ‡ Behavioral addition: Behavioral addition is the process of having managers and employees perform new behaviors that are central to and symbolic of the new organizational culture that a company wants to create.

‡ Behavioral substitution: is the process of having managers and employees performing new behaviors central to the new organizational culture in place of behaviors that used to be central to the old organizational culture. Another way is to change corporate culture is to change visible artifacts of their old culture. Visible artifacts are visible signs of an organization s culture, such as office design and layout, company dress codes, and company benefits and perks like stock options, personal parking spaces, etc. Since corporate cultures are difficult to change, there is no guarantee that behavior-substitution, behavioral-addition or changing visible artifacts will change a company s organizational culture. Top management commitment and support for the new values and beliefs is critically important to enable employees to change.

Define Learning  Theories of Learning  Role of Learning in Behavior modification  Performance Management and Feedback

This means that after learning . either better or worse as compared to our behavior prior to this learning experience. There are two primary elements in this definition. .DEFINITION OF LEARNING Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior as a result of direct or indirect experience. For example. you learn to drive a car or learned how to use a computer.  The change must be relatively permanent. our behavior must be different.

it is a natural biological phenomenon. a child does learn to walk. . For example. ‡ A short definition by Stephen Robinson: Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. We do not learn to eat or drink.DEFINITION OF LEARNING(contd.) ‡ The change must occur due to some kind of experience or practice. This learning is not caused by biological maturation.

Theories of Learning ‡ The purpose of learning theory is to better explain how learning occurs. . How do we learn? Four theories have been offered to explain the process by which we acquire patterns of behavior: ‡ Classical conditioning theory ‡ Operant conditioning theory ‡ Cognitive learning theory and ‡ Social learning theory.

to salivate at the sound of the bell. he noticed a great deal of salivation(conditioned response). After a while. even if no meat was presented. ‡ . In effect.) ‡ Classical conditioning theory: It has a powerful effect on our attitudes. But . Now the dog began to salivate as soon as the bell rang. Afterwards. Russia . Petersburg. the dog had learned to respond ie. he merely rang the bell without presenting the meat.Theories of Learning(contd. Ivan Pavlov s research on the conditioned reflexes in dogs revealed much of what we know about the principles of classical conditioning. When Pavlov presented meat(unconditioned stimulus) to the dog. He did this several times. no salivation was noticed in the dog. when merely bell was rung. likes and dislikes. since it was conditioned to link the sound of the bell with the offering of meat. the dog would salivate merely at the sound of the bell. He developed classical conditioning theory based on his experiments to teach a dog to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. Ivan Pavlov(1849-1936) organized and directed research in physiology at the institute of Experimental Medicine in St. and emotional responses. What Pavlov did next was to link the meat and the ringing of the bell.

if they were paid a higher salary. o Based upon such consequences. e.. reinforcement.g. Workers would be motivated to work harder and faster.F. or shape behavior through three strategies. the Harvard psychologist is the author of this theory. .) ‡ Operant conditioning theory: Operant Conditioning argues that behavior is a function of its consequences. The consequences of behavior are used to influence. punishment and extinction. Responses are conditioned more effectively when reinforcement is immediate. The relationship is built around two principles: o The behavior that results in positive rewards tends to be repeated and behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated. People learn to behave to get something they want or avoid something they don t want. B. the behavior can be predicted and controlled. Skinner.Theories of Learning(contd.

They choose to broaden the study of learning to include such cognitive processes as thinking. Parents. Social learning integrates the cognitive and operant approaches to learning. movie stars and sports personalities are often powerful models. sometimes called modelling results when we observe the behaviors of others and note the consequences of that behavior. ‡ Social learning theory: Albert Bandura contends that many behaviors or responses are acquired through observational learning. remembering and forming mental representations.) ‡ Cognitive learning theory: Nowadays a growing number of psychologists stress the role of mental processes. problem solving.Theories of Learning(contd. . knowing.

Role of Learning in Behavior modification ‡ Learning is considered vital for understanding human behavior at work in organizations. habitual latecoming etc.  Developing training programmes.Learning also helps managers develop effective training programmes.  Substituting wellpay for sickpay  Improving employee discipline. Managers usually respond with oral reprimands. Let us now understand how learning helps managers change human behavior in different organizational situations: ‡ Reducing absenteeism through learningLearning can help managers evolve programmes to reduce absenteeism. and even suspension.Managers have to deal with employee s undesirable behavior such as drinking at the work place . One such programme may be rewarding employees for their satisfactory attendance. insubordination. stealing company property. . written warnings.

Performance Management and Feedback ‡ Goal setting is designed to improve work performance. an important organizational behavior directly related to the production of goods or the delivery of service . Performance appraisal is the evaluation of a person s performance. The major functions of performance appraisals are: ‡ To give employees feedback on performance ‡ To identify the employee s developmental needs ‡ To make promotion and reward decisions ‡ To make demotion and termination decisions and ‡ To develop information about the organization s selection and placement decisions. Accurate appraisals help supervisors fulfill their dual roles as evaluators and coaches. .

7. EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP AND AND CAREER DYNAMICS  Conflict process  Organizational career  Power and politics in organization .

. since ignoring it will almost guarantee that work and interpersonal relations will deteriorate. It results from incompatible influence attempts between and within individuals. Functional conflicts are conflicts that support the goals of the group and improve its performance. or struggle between two or more individuals or groups.Conflict process ‡ A variety of conflicts occur in organizations. Failure to be concerned about conflict is very costly. ‡ Outcomes of conflict-Not all conflicts are bad. Conflict can be a very serious problem in any organization. opposition. Some types of conflict encourage new solutions to problems and enhance the creativity in the organizations. groups or organizations. ‡ Definition of conflict: Conflict refers to a disagreement.

Therefore.Conflict process(contd. promotes organizational vitality. motivates change. . The consequences of conflict can be positive or negative.) ‡ There are also conflicts that hinder group performance. This is the key to conflict management. These are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict. breaks down group cohesion. ‡ Positive consequences: Leads to new ideas. managers should stimulate functional conflict and prevent or resolve dysfunctional conflict. stimulates creativity. Helps individuals and groups establish identities and serves as a safety valve to indicate problems. threatens psychological well-being. wastes resources. ‡ Negative consequences: Diverts energy from work. creates a negative climate. can increase hostility and aggressive behaviors.

The conflict between the organization and the individual centres around the individual s failure to fulfill the organization s expectations regarding productivity or compliance with rules. Faced with the growing dependence on staff. line managers must adjust to a reduction in organizational power and prestige. 2) Organization-individual disagreements.Conflict process(contd. the conflict is often seen as resulting from excessive organizational demands. . Conflict in most organizations persists between line and staff. creative. From another.) ‡ Sources of conflict: 1) Line and staff competition-The growth of highly specialized. well-educated staff poses unique problems for line managers.

such as accounting and manufacturing is common place. One person reaches out to assume more responsibility.Organizations constantly change in response to personnel turnover. it is impossible to establish job responsibilities once and for all. Thus the stage is set for conflict.) c) Overlapping responsibilities. . As a result. another retrenches.Conflict process(contd. and still another tentatively assumes responsibility for certain functions without knowing definitely who should be performing them. d) Functional independence: conflicts between an organization s functional units. the adoption of new policies. expansion or contraction. changes in external environment. and so forth.

and others for effective performance. f) Disagreement over goals: Conflict among managers is often caused by the fact that there is poor agreement over goals.Conflict process(contd. shipping.) e) Personality clashes: Individual differences in such personal qualities as values. Any bottleneck at any point can prevent the line supervisors from being effective and is quite naturally an occasion for interpersonal conflict. . Perhaps an even more common source of conflict is the clash of the personal goals of managers and employees with the goals of the organization g)Bottlenecks in the flow of work: Line supervisors in manufacturing must meet production deadlines. attitudes. warehousing. but they are dependent upon production schedules. abilities and personality traits are often the cause of conflict.

‡ Negotiation: Negotiation is the process through which the parties to a conflict define what they are willing to give and accept in an exchange.Conflict process(contd. competing. Compromising and collaborating. ‡ . Accommodating.) ‡ Conflict management strategies: Avoiding.

It comprises a series of work related activities that provide continuity. but a continuous process of developing human resources for achieving optimum results. be noted that individual and organizational careers are not separate and distinct. It must . A person s career is shaped by many complex factors viz. if he has a choice. A person who is not able to translate his career plan into action within the organization may probably quit the job. order and meaning to a person s life. attitudes and motivation that occur as a person grows older. therefore. caste links and a certain amount of luck. however. A career consists of the changes in values. For them luck occurs when opportunity meets preparation. Organizational career . Career planning is not an event or end in itself. In both the perceptions.‡ The concept of career: A career is a sequence of positions held by a person during the course of his lifetime. education. Organizations should . There is also a subjective element in the concept of career. plan and then take action. influential parents. Successful people identify their career goals. help employees in career planning so that both can satisfy each other s needs. the primary focus is on the individual. This is an objective view of a person s career. experience. performance.

Power and politics in organization  Power  Politics .

and other non-managerial workers can influence the actions an organization takes to reach its goals.Power and politics in organization ‡ Power. task forces. as well as informal groups can similarly exercise power. clients. power occurs in transactions between an agent and a target. and the target is the recipient of the attempt to use power. the general public and directors of the organization may exert power that affects the organization. As an exchange relationship. competitors. support staff. Nonemployees may also try to influence the behavior of an organization and its members. Including top and middle management. Owners. management councils. Formal groups of employees. work teams. technical analysts and specialists. Different individuals and groups within and outside the organization can exert power. such as various departments. or employee unions.refers to the potential or actual ability to influence others in a desired direction. Individual employees. . suppliers. The agent is the person using the power. employee unions.

Power and politics in organization ‡ SOURCES OF POWERReward power Coercive power Legitimate power Referent power(charisma or attractiveness) Expert power .

Power is rightly linked to the concept of politics: Activities aimed at acquiring power and using it to advance interests. the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. and to advance their careers. Political behavior in organizations involves those activities that are not required as part of one s formal role in the organization. People want to carve out a niche from which to exert influence.When people get together in groups. Many organizational conditions encourage political activity: Among them are. . power will be exerted. which may be personal or organizational.Power and politics in organization ‡ Politics. or attempt to influence. but the influence. to earn awards. ‡ Unclear goals ‡ Autocratic decision making ‡ Ambiguous lines of authority ‡ Scarce resources and uncertainty.

‡ Essentially. interpreted. then. perceived. . the cognitive perspective of personality is the idea that people are who they are because of the way they think. People tend to have habitual thinking patterns which are characterized as personality. including how information is attended to. Your personality. encoded and retrieved. analyzed.COGNITIVE THEORY OF PERSONALITY ‡ The cognitive perspective. interestingly. has evolved hand in hand in the development of computers ever since the mid1950's and according to many in psychology has become the most significant paradigm in psychology. would be your characteristic cognitive patterns.

integrate and organize all the information the world throws at you. We are HOMEOSTATIC psychobiological creatures who try to self-regulate in order to progress towards GOALS. In order to cope with all the information you receive from the world. From this point of view. including sensory information.COGNITIVE THEORY OF PERSONALITY(contd. perceiving. interpreting. you are: ‡ What you THINK ‡ The way you PROCESS INFORMATION (including attending to. encoding and retrieving of information). .) ‡ The cognitive perspective is that personality is a person's mental organization. ‡ The way you SELF-REGULATE via cognitive monitoring and adjusting thoughts and behaviors. you need to cope with. ‡ HOMEOSTATIC= Maintaining a stable equilibrium.

perceiving. with the computer serving as a convenient metaphor. and decision-making and problem-solving. In cognitive psychology.COGNITIVE THEORY OF PERSONALITY(contd. encoding. retrieving.) ‡ The cognitive perspective is also often known as the information-processing model. representing. these "programs" include methods for attending. Basically. . the computer's program is equivalent to the ways a human processes information.

Unlike Freud s theory of psychosexual stages.Psychological development theory ‡ What is Psychosocial Development? ‡ Erik Erikson s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Erikson s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. . Much like Sigmund Freud.

the person will feel a sense of mastery. In addition to ego identity.Psychological development theory One of the main elements of Erikson s psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity. Erikson also believed that a sense of competence also motivates behaviors and actions. If the stage is handled well. the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy .1 Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. Each stage in Erikson s theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life. our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experience and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others. According to Erikson.2 If the stage is managed poorly. which he sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality.

During these times. these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. but so is the potential for failure. the potential for personal growth is high.Psychological development theory ‡ n each stage. Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. In Erikson s view. .

the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child s caregivers.2 ‡ Because an infant is utterly dependent. . Mistrust ‡ The first stage of Erikson s theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.Trust vs.Psychological development theory ‡ Psychosocial Stage 1 .

or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. emotionally unavailable. Shame and Doubt ‡ The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control.Psychological development theory ‡ If a child successfully develops trust.Autonomy vs. Caregivers who are inconsistent.2 . Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. ‡ psychosocial Stage 2 .

while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt. Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident. Erikson believed that learning to control one s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence. . Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. Erikson's reasoning was quite different than that of Freud's. Other important events include gaining more control over food choices.Psychological development theory ‡ Like Freud. and clothing selection. toy preferences. However.

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